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Class IX-B,C & F


Topics covered ( Lysosomes, Ribosomes,Mitochondria, Plastids& Vacuole)

NATURE Living, membrane bound simple tiny spherical sac like structure filled with
powerful enzymes made by the RER. Capable of digesting or breaking down all organic
materials hence called digestive bags. They are kind of waste disposal system of the
OCCURRENCE AND LOCATION It is evenly distributed in the cytoplasm of the
animal cells.
FUNCTION i) Helps to keep the cell clean by digesting any foreign material like
bacteria, virus, food etc. as well as removes worn out and poorly working cell organelles
so that the cell can replace these with the new cell organelles.

(Diagram only for reference)

ii) During the disturbance in cellular metabolism like when the cell is damaged the
lysosomes may burst and the enzymes digest or eat up their own cell therefore known
as suicidal bags.
RIBOSOMES - Protein Construction Teams
NATURE- Ribosomes are dense, spherical and granular particles.Chemically the major
constituents of ribosomes are RNA and protein. Ribosomes are not bounded by a
OCCURRENCE AND LOCATION Occur floating in the cytoplasm (cytosol) or are
found on the endoplasmic reticulum. They are present both in prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cells (except mammalian RBC)

FUNCTION.. Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell

(Diagram only for reference)
STRUCTURE Living rod shaped organelles

LOCATION Present both in plant and animal cell

1) It bounded by a double membrane. The outer membrane is soft, smooth and very
porous while the inner membrane is deeply folded into finger like Cristae for
increasing the surface area of inner membrane for ATP generating chemical

2) The matrix of mitochondria possess single circular DNA molecule and Ribosomes.
They can synthesis some of their own proteins and hence are regarded as semi
autonomous organelles of the cell.

FUNCTION1) Mitochondria contain enzymes for cellular respiration. They are the sites of aerobic
respiration (Krebs cycle). They produce cellular energy in the form of ATP. Hence
called the power house / storage battery/ ATP mills of the cells
2) The body uses the energy stored in ATP for synthesis of new compounds and their
transport and for mechanical work in the cell body
NOTE ATP stands for Adenosine Triphosphate. Generally known as energy carriers
or energy currency of the cell

OCCURRENCE - Exclusively found in plant cells
1) They are living cell organelles surrounded by two membranes. These membranes
are embedded in the ground substance called stroma or matrix
2) They are semi autonomous organelles of the cell as they contain their own DNA and
ribosomes so can synthesis some of their own proteins.
3) Types There are two types of plastids
i) Chromoplast
ii) Leucoplast
a) Most important are the chloroplast which contains the chlorophyll which traps the
sunlight and carry photosynthesis to produce starch found in leaves.

(diagram only for reference)

b) Apart from chloroplast, chromoplast have red, orange, yellow pigment they are
non-photosynthetic and give colour to fruits and flowers.

(diagram only for reference)

2) LEUCOPLAST- Colourless plastid, non photosynthetic, abundant in storage organs
like seeds in which materials like starch, oil, protein granules etc are stored.

(diagram only for reference)

1) In mature plant cells a large prominent central vacuole occupies up to 90% of the
volume of the cell. In animal cells they are much smaller and less prominent and in
some cases may be completely absent
NATURE They are fluid filled spaces in the cytoplasm. The watery fluid of the vacuole
is called the cell sap. The cell sap is surrounded by a single membrane called tonoplast

(diagram only for reference)

1) It helps to provide turgidity and rigidity to the plant cell
2) They act as storage houses for various substance called cell inclusions (Proteins,
amino acid, sugar, organic acids) needed by the cell.
3) In plant cell vacuole contains dissolved food materials: Mineral, waste material and
pigments where as in animal cell the vacuole contains engulfed solid or liquid.
4) In some unicellular organisms like Amoeba specialized vacuole called contractile
vacuole plays an important role in expelling excess water and some waste from the cell.

Qs.1 Solve the cross word puzzle.

1. Gives plant cells firm regular shape.
2. This is combined in a special way to form glucose
3. Bodies which pinch off vesicles at end.
4. Site of protein manufacture.
5. Keep cell contents separate from external environment.
6. Strong substances that make up cell walls.
7. Spaces between cell are called-----cellular spaces.
8. Net work of membranes attached to nucleus.
9. That which is outside the cell.
10. Complex mix of proteins, water and other substances which house the cell
11. Substances produced by ribosomes.
12. Power house of cell.
13. Vesicles containing enzymes.
14. Large fluid filled spaces found in plant cell.
15. Structure in cells with particular function.
16. Composed of DNA& Protein (found in nucleus).
17. Structure responsible for cell transport.
18. ER without ribosomes look----- under the microscope.
19. ER with ribosomes look----- under the microscope.
20. Abbreviation for rough endoplasmic reticulum.
21. Nucleic acid found in nucleolus.
22. Organelle found in animal cell which plays a role in cell division.
23. Nucleic acid found in chromosome.
24. Organelle found in animal cell which plays a role in division
Qs.2 Which organelle is known as the power house of the cell and why?
Ans Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of cells because respiratory enzymes
present help in oxidation of food to energy required for various chemical activities
needed for life in the form of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) molecules.
Qs.3 Why are lysosomes known as suicidal bags?
Ans During cellular disturbance when the cell is damaged the lysosomes may burst ant
the enzymes released are diffused into the cytoplasm. These enzymes can digest or eat
up the components of the cell and are therefore called the suicidal bags.

Qs.4 If the organization of a cell is destroyed due to some chemical and physical
influence, what will happen?
Ans If the organisation of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence
then cell will not be able to perform the basic functions like respiration, nutrition,
excretion etc. This may stop all the life activities and may result in its death .
Qs.5 What would happen to the life of a cell if there was no golgi apparatus?
Ans Golgi apparatus has the function of storage modification and packaging of the
products. If there is no Golgi apparatus then the packaging and transporting of materials
synthesized by cell will not happen.
Qs.6 Name two cell organelles that contain their own genetic material.
Ans Mitochondria and plastids
Qs.7. What would happen if the plasma membrane ruptures or breaks down?
If the plasma membrane ruptures or breakdown then the cell will not be able to
exchange material from its surrounding by diffusion or osmosis. Thereafter the
protoplasmic material will be disappeared and the cell will die.
Qs.8. Where do the lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane get synthesized?
Lipids are synthesized in Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and the proteins are
synthesized in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).
Qs.9. Carry out the following osmosis experiment:
Take four peeled potato halves and scoop each one out to make potato cups. One of
these potato cups should be made from a boiled potato. Put each potato cup in a trough
containing water. Now,
(a) Keep cup A empty
(b) Put one teaspoon sugar in cup B
(c) Put one teaspoon salt in cup C
(d) Put one teaspoon sugar in the boiled potato cup D.
Keep these for two hours. Then observe the four potato cups and answer the following:
(i) Explain why water gathers in the hollowed portion of B and C.
(ii) Why is potato A necessary for this experiment?

(iii) Explain why water does not gather in the hollowed out portions of A and D.
(i) Water gathers in the hollowed portions of set-up B and C because water enters the
potato as a result of osmosis. Since the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water
concentration than the cell, the water moves inside by osmosis. Hence, water gathers in
the hollowed portions of the potato cup.
(ii) Potato A in the experiment acts as a control set-up. No water gathers in the hollowed
portions of potato A.
(iii) Water does not gather in the hollowed portions of potato A because potato cup A is
empty. It is a control set-up in the experiment.

Water is not able to enter potato D because the potato used here is boiled. Boiling
denatures the proteins present in the cell membrane and thus, disrupts the cell
membrane. For osmosis, a semi-permeable membrane is required, which is disrupted in
this case. Therefore, osmosis will not occur. Hence, water does not enter the boiled
potato cup.
Qs.10 Differentiate between

Plant cell and Animal cell

Leucoplast and Chromoplast
Chloroplast and Chromoplast
Mitochondria and Chloroplast

Animal cell
The do not have cell wall.


They do not have plastids

They have centrosome.
Vacuoles are smaller in size.

Prominent Golgi bodies are present.

Reserved food occurs in the form of


Plant cell
They have a rigid cell wall made up
of cellulose.
They contain plastids.
They do not have centrosome.
Vacuoles are larger in size.Usually a
large vacuole which lies in the
Subunits of Golgi bodies known as
dictyosomes are present.
Food is stored in the form of

They are colourless
Store food in the form of starch, oil,
proteins etc

They are coloured
Give characteristic colour to flowers
and fruits.

They are green plastids

They are site of photosynthesis

They occur in the cells of aerobic
organisms except mammalian RBCs
Release energy


Oxidation of food occurs

O2 is taken and CO2 is given out

They are non green coloured
Give characteristic colour to flowers
and fruits
Occur in cells of leaves of green
Green in colour
Trap solar energy and convert it into
solar energy
Synthesis of food takes place
CO2 is taken and O2 is given out