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TWO HINGED ARCHES

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PARABOLIC ARCH

HORIZONTAL THRUST

We know,
Strain energy

()=24_^((^2)/2) ()

Here,

Strain energy

()=24_^[(" " )^2/2] ()

Since supports are hinged, horizontal displacement is zero


So from earlier concept,

/=0

from (ii) ()=24_^[(" " )^2/2] ()

/=_^[()()" " /2] =0


_^[()()/2] =0
_^[/] +24_^[(^2)/]=0
=(_^ )/(_^^2 )()

Integration

cos=/
=/cos
=sec
Subtituting in (iii)

=(_^ )/(_^^2 )()

=(_^ sec)/(_^^2 sec )

=(_^ )/(_^^2 )

STANDARD CASES
The vertical reactions VA and VB may be determined by taking moments about other supports

UDL (uniform dead load)

_=_=/2
=(^2)/8
Whereas,
w
L
r

=
=
=

Point Load

_=_=/2
Subtituting the values of

=/2
and

=[4/^2 ]()
Equation in (ii)
"H" can be calculated

UDL
span length
radius

All About Two Hinged Arches


More practical
No of unknowns
4
No of equilibrium equations
3
Horizontal thrust at one end is taken as redundant force
But, the condition of equilbrium are insufficient to find the
horizontal thrust of this arch
Horizontal thrust is redundant and it has to be determined
Strain energy concepts may be used here to find horizontal
thrust
Castigliano's Second Theorem states that
Displacement of due
a force
()=
/
Here, force (F) is horizontal thrust
Horizontal displacement
_=/
Here, both supports are hinged, so that horizontal displacement is
zero

_=0

And hence,

/=0

g moments about other supports

EXAMPLE

A parabolic arch hinged at the ends, has a aspan of 60 m and a rise of 12 m. A concentrated load of 8
kN acts at 15 m from the left hinge. The second moment of area varies at the secant of the inclination
of the area axis. Calculate the horizontal thrust and the reaction at the hinge. Also calculate the
horizontal thrust and the reaction at the hinge. Also, calculate the net bending moment at the section.

Given Data
1 Span
2 Rise
3 Load
4

L
r
W
at
The second moment

60
12
8
15
of area

m
m
kN
m
from A
varies as the secant of the inclination of the arch axis

To Find
1 Horizontal thrust (H)
2 Reactions at hinge (RA & RB)
3 Net bending moment at the section (Mx)

SOLUTION
First Step
Vertical Reaction
Moment ahead A

_=0

(_60)+(815)=0
60_+120=0
_=120/60=2 kN

Total Load = 8 kN

_+_=8 kN
_+2=8
_=82

_=6 kN
Second Step
Horizontal Thrust (H)
from earlier equation, we found

=(_^ )/(_^^2 )

moment due to vertical load

One Load Point


divide or split into 0 to 15 and 15 to 60
New equation

_1 +_15^60 _2 )/(_0^60^2 )=(_ (1)+_ (2))/


=_^^2
=4/^2 ()
=_^[4/^2 ()]^2
=_0^60[4/^2 ()]^2
=_0^60[(412)/ 60 ^2 (60)]^2
=_0^60[((412)/ 60 ^2 )^2 ((60))^2 ]

=_0^60 (48/3600)^2 ((60))^2

=_0^60 2304/12960000 ((60))^2


=_0^60 1/5625 ((60))^2
=1/5625 _0^60(60^2 )^2
=1/5625 _0^60[(60)^2+(^2 )^22(60)(^2 )]
=1/5625 _0^60(3600^2+^4120^3 )

=1/5625 _0^60(3600^2+^4120^3 )
=1/5625 [3600/3 ^3+1/5 ^5120/4 ^4 ]_0^60
=1/5625 [1200^3+1/5 ^530^4 ]_0^60
=1/5625 [1200( 60 ^30^3 )+1/5 ( 60 ^50^5 )30( 60 ^40^4 )]
=1/5625 [259200000+155520000388800000]
=4608
Calculate y(1)

_ (1)=24_0^15 _1
_1=_
_1=6
_ (1)=24_0^15 6
=24_0^15 6[4/^2 ()]

=24_0^15 6[(412)/ 60 ^2 (60)]


=24_0^15 [(288/3600 ^2 )(60)]
=2/25 24_0^15 ^2 (60)
=1/12,5 24_0^15 ^2 (60)
=1/12,5 24_0^15 60 ^2^3
=1/12,5 [60/3 ^31/4 ^4 ]_0^15
=1/12,5 [20^31/4 ^4 ]_0^15
=1/12,5 [20( 15 ^30^3 )1/4 ( 15 ^40^4 )]_0^15

=1/12,5 [20( 15 ^30^3 )1/4 ( 15 ^40^4 )]_0^15


=1/12,5 [6750012656,25]_0^15
=4387,5
Numerical y(2)

_ (2)=24_15^60 _2
_2=_8(15)
=68+120
=1202
_ (2)=24_15^60(1202" " )[4/^2 ()]
=24_15^60 (1202" " )[(412)/ 60 ^2 (60)]
=24_15^60 (1202" " )[48/3600 (60)]
=24_15^60 (1202" " )[1/75 (60)]
=1/75 24_15^60 ((1202" " )(60^2 ))
=1/75 24_15^60 (7200120^2120^2+2^3 )
=1/75 24_15^60 (7200240^2+2^3 )
=1/75 [7200/2 ^2240/3 ^3+2/4 ^4 ]_15^60
=1/75 [3600^280^3+1/2 ^4 ]_15^60

=1/75 [3600( 60 ^2 15 ^2 )80( 60 ^3 15 ^2 )+1/2 ( 60 ^4 15 ^4 )]


=1/75 (1215000017010000+6454687,5)
=21262,5

Back to

=(_ (1)+_ (2))/


=(4387,5+21262,5)/4608
=5 145/2565,56640625 kN
Jadi,

HA

HB

5.5664

kN

Third Step
Reactions at A and B

_=( _ ^2+^2 )=(6^2+ 5,56640625 ^2 )=8,18442903 kN


_=( _ ^2+^2 )=(2^2+ 5,56640625 ^2 )=5,914801648 kN

Fourth Step
Maximum Bending Moment at Point Load
x
15
m

=_
=(615)(5,56640625)
=905,56640625()
=4/^2 ()
=(412)/ 60 ^2 (15)(6015)
=48/3600 (15)(45)
=9 m
Subtitute the value of y to equation iv

=905,56640625
=90(5,566406259" " )
=39,90234375 kNm

oncentrated load of 8
cant of the inclination
so calculate the
moment at the section.