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MECHANICAL

CONSIDERATIONS
IN
LINE
PERFORMANCE

Introduction

Electric power can be transmitted or distributed either by means of


underground cables or overhead lines

The underground system is much more expensive than overhead


system. Therefore, it has limited use for distribution purposes in
congested areas where safety and good appearances are the main
considerations

In overhead lines bare conductors are used and air acts as the
insulation. The necessary insulation between the conductor can be
provided by adjusting the spacing between them.

Electric power has to be transmitted at high voltages for economic


reasons so its difficult to provide proper insulation

Factors to be considered

The successful operation of an overhead line greatly depends on


the mechanical design of the line so, the overhead line should
have good mechanical strength against worst probable weather
conditions

The overhead line is subjected not only to uncertain weather


conditions but also to other external interferences

Mechanical Components of Overhead


lines

Conductors

Supports

Insulators

Cross arms

Miscellaneous items

Conductor

High electrical conductivity, High tensile strength in order to withstand


mechanical stresses, Low cost ,Low specific gravity so that weight per
unit volume is small

In standard conductors there is one central wire and round this


,successive layers of wires containing 6,12,18 wires , thus total number
of individual wires is 3n(n+1)+1

Types AAC,AAAC,ACSR,ACAR

AAC has a minimum conductivity of 61.2% IACS. It has limited use in


transmission lines and distribution side for long distances but
extensively seen in urban areas where spans are short

The excellent corrosion resistance of aluminum has made AAC a


conductor of choice in coastal areas.

ACSR-Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced, a standard of the


electrical utility industry since the early 1900's, consists of a solid or
stranded steel core surrounded by one or more layers of strands of
1350 aluminium

ACSR is available in a wide range of steel content - from 7% by weight


for the 36/1 stranding to 40% for the 30/7 stranding. Early designs of
ACSR such as 6/1, 30/7, 30/19, 54/19 and 54/7 strandings featured high
steel content, 26% to 40%, with emphasis on strength perhaps due to
fears of vibration fatigue problems.

Today, the most used strandings are 18/1, 45/7, 72/7, and 84/19,
comprising a range of steel content from 11% to 18%. For the
moderately higher strength 54/19, 54/7, and 26/7 strandings, the steel
content is 26%, 26% and 31%

6201 "AAAC"- A high strength Aluminium-Magnesium-Silicon Alloy


Cable was developed to replace the high strength 6/1 ACSR conductors.

Originally called AAAC, this alloy conductor offers excellent electrical


characteristics with a conductivity of 52.5% IACS, excellent sag-tension
characteristics and superior corrosion resistance to that of ACSR

ACAR combines 1350 and 6201 aluminium alloy strands to provide a


transmission conductor with an excellent balance of electrical and
mechanical properties. This conductor consists of one or more layers of
1350-H19 aluminium strands helically wrapped over one or more 6201T81 aluminium alloy wires.

6201 Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel Reinforced) - Is an ACSR with the


1350 aluminium wires replaced by 6201-T81 aluminium alloy wire

AACSR conductors have approximately 40% to 60% more strength than


comparable standard ACSR conductors of equivalent stranding, with
only an 8-10% decrease in conductivity

Conductors and its dimensions


(i) For 132 KV
lines

: 'Panther' ACSR having 7-strands of steel of dia 3.00 mm and 30Strands of Aluminium of dia 3.00 mm

(ii) for 220 KV


lines

: 'Zebra' ACSR having 7-strand of steel of dia 3.18 mm and 54Strands of Aluminium of dia 3.18 mm.

(iii) for 400 KV


lines

: Twin 'Moose' ACSR having 7-Strands of steel of dia 3.53 mm and


54-Strands of Aluminium of dia 3.53 mm.

Line Supports

Insulators
Pin

Type insulator

Suspension
Strain

Type insulator

Type insulator

Shackle

Insulator

Pin Type insulator

Pin Insulator is earliest developed overhead insulator, but still


popularly used in power network up to 33KV system

As the leakage path of insulator is through its surface,


it is desirable to increase vertical length of the insulator
surface area for lengthening leakage path

These rain sheds or petticoats are so designed, that during


raining the outer surface of the rain shed becomes wet but
the inner surface remains dry and non-conductive. So there
will
be discontinuations of conducting path through the wet
pin insulator surface

Suspension Type insulator

In higher voltage, beyond 33KV, it becomes uneconomical


because size, weight of the insulator

to use pin insulator

In suspension insulator numbers of insulators are connected


in series to
form a string and the line conductor is carried by
the bottom most insulator.
Each insulator of a suspension
string is called disc insulator because of
their disc like shape

Each suspension disc is designed for normal voltage rating 11KV(Higher voltage rating
15KV), so by using different numbers of discs, a suspension string can be made suitable
for any voltage level

As the current carrying conductors are suspended from supporting structure by


suspension string, the height of the conductor position is always less than the total
height of the supporting structure. Therefore, the conductors may be safe from lightening

Strain Type Insulator

When suspension string is used to sustain extraordinary tensile load of conductor it is


referred as string insulator

When there is a dead end or there is a sharp corner in transmission line, the line has to
sustain a great tensile load of conductor or strain.

A strain insulator must have considerable mechanical strength as well as the necessary
electrical insulating properties.

Shackle Insulator

The shackle insulator or spool insulator is usually used in


low voltage distribution network. It can be used both in
horizontal and vertical position

The use of such insulator has decreased


recently after increasing
the using of underground
for distribution
purpose

cable

Effects on vibrations

As the number of sub-conductors used in bundle increases, these


vibrations ,countermeasures and spacing's of sub-conductors will also
affect the electrical design

Thus a mechanical designer has to consider the tower dimensions,


phase spacing's, conductor height, sub-conductor spacing's, etc. from
which the electrical designer has to commence his calculations of
resistance, inductance, capacitance, electrostatic field, corona effects,
and all other performance characteristics.

The sub-conductors in a bundle are separated by spacers of suitable


type, which bring their own problems such as fatigue to themselves and
to the outer strands of the conductor during vibrations

Aeolian vibrations and galloping are present for both single-and multiconductor bundles, while the wake-induced oscillation is confined to a
bundle only

Standard forms of bundle conductors have sub-conductors ranging from


2.54 to 5cm diameters with bundle spacing of 40 to 50 cm between
adjacent conductors

For E.H.V Transmission, the number ranges from 2 to 8 sub-conductors


for transmission voltages from 400 kv to 1200 kv, and up to 12 or even
18 for higher voltages which are not yet commercially in operation.

The charges on the sub-conductors are of the same polarity, there exists
electrostatic repulsion among them. on the other hand, since they carry
currents in the same direction, there is electromagnetic attraction

Factors for Vibrations ?

Conductor Tensions

Span Length

Conductor Size

Type of Conductor

Terrain of line

Direction of prevailing winds

Types of Supporting clamp of conductors-insulator assemblies from the


tower

Tower type

Height of tower type of spacers and dampers

The vegetation in the vicinity of the line

Types of vibrations and


oscillations
1)AEOLIAN VIBRATION
2)GALLOPING
3) WAKE-INDUCED OSCILLATIONS

Aeolian Vibration
WHEN A SMOOTH STREAM OF AIR PASSES ACROSS
A CYLINDRICAL SHAPE, SUCH AS A CONDUCTOR OR
OHSW, VORTICES (EDDIES) ARE FORMED ON THE
LEEWARD SIDE (BACK SIDE). THESE VORTICES
ALTERNATE FROM THE TOP AND BOTTOM SURFACES,
AND CREATE ALTERNATING PRESSURES THAT TEND TO
PRODUCE MOVEMENT AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE
DIRECTION OF THE AIR FLOW. THIS IS THE MECHANISM
THAT CAUSES AEOLIAN VIBRATION

Aeolian Vibration

When a conductor is under tension and a comparatively steady wind blows


across it small vortices are formed on the leeward side called Karman
Vortices

The frequency of the forces is given by the accepted formula


F = 2.065 v/d, Hz

Where v = component of wind velocity normal to the conductor in KMPH, d


= diameter of the conductor in cm.

The frequency of detachment of the Karman vortices might correspond to


one of the natural mechanical frequencies of the span, which if not damped
properly, can build up and destroy individual strands of the conductor

They also give rise to wave effects in which the vibration travels along
the conductor suffering reflection at points of different mechanical
characteristics

Thus dampers are designed to provide negative reflections to reduce


the wave amplitudes

Aeolian vibrations are not observed at wind velocities in excess of 25


km/hour.

Flexible spacers are generally provided which may or may not be


designed to offer damping.

In cases where they are purposely designed to damp the sub-span


oscillations, they are known as spacer-dampers

The Aeolian vibrations depend upon the power imparted by the wind of
the conductor. the frequency of vibration is usually limited to 20 Hz and
the amplitudes less than 2.5 cm

Galloping

Galloping of a conductor is a very high amplitude, low-frequency type of conductor motion and
occurs mainly in areas of relatively flat terrain under freezing rain and icing of conductors

When the wind blows across such a surface, there is an aerodynamic lift as well as a drag force
due to the direct pressure of the wind. the two forces give rise to torsional modes of oscillation
and they combine to oscillate the conductor with very large amplitudes sufficient to cause
contact of two adjacent phases, which may be 10 to 15 metres apart in the rest position.

Galloping is induced by winds ranging from 15 to 50 km/hour, which may normally be higher
than that required for Aeolian vibrations but there could be an overlap.

Galloping is controlled by using detuning pendulums which take the form of weights applied at
different locations on the span.

Galloping may not be a problem in a hot country like India where temperatures are normally
above freezing in winter

Wake-Induced Oscillation

The wake-induced oscillation is peculiar to a bundle conductor, and


similar to Aeolian vibration and galloping occurring principally in flat
terrain with winds of steady velocity and low turbulence

The frequency of the oscillation does not exceed 3 Hz but may be of


sufficient amplitude to cause clashing of adjacent sub-conductors, which
are separated by about 50 cm

Wind speeds for causing wake-induced oscillation must be normally in the


range 25 to 65 km/hour.

Wake-induced oscillation, also called "flutter instability", is caused when


one conductor on the windward side aerodynamically shields the leeward
conductor

The oscillation occurs when the bundle tilts 5 to 15 with respect to a


flat ground surface

The conductor spacing to diameter ratio in the bundle is also critical

If the spacing b is less than 15d, d being the conductor diameter, a


tendency to oscillate is created while for b/d > 15 the bundle is found to
be more stable

Dampers and Spacers

Twin Spacers

Stockbridge Damper

Spacer Configuration

REFERENCES
1)ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS BY C.L.WADHWA
2)EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING BY RAKOSH DAS BEGAMUDRE