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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

LOAD TEST ON
3- INDUCTION MOTOR

LOAD TEST ON 3- INDUCTION MOTOR


Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Aim:
To conduct load test on the given 3- induction motor and to plot its
performance characteristics.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

3- Variac

2
3
4

Ammeter
Voltmeter
Wattmeter

Tachometer

Connecting Wires

Range

Typ
e

Quantity

415V/(0470)V
(0-10)A
(0-600)V
600V/10A
(09999)rpm

MI
MI
UPF
Digit
al

1
1
2

1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

Precautions:
1. 3- Variac should be in minimum position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions close the TPST Switch and switch ON 440V A.C
supply.
3. Apply the rated voltage to the stator windings of 3- Induction Motor with the
help of 3- Auto-transformer.
4. Note down the readings of wattmeter, ammeter and voltmeter on no-load.
5. Load the Induction Motor in steps using the brake-drum arrangement. At each
step note down the readings of all meters, speed and spring balance readings
till full load current.
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2

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


6. Stop the motor by gradually releasing the load.
7. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.
Tabular Column:
Wattmete
Spring
r
VL
Pow
Balance
IL
N
Readings
S.
(
%Sli
er
Reading
(A
(rp
(W)
No. V
p
Fact
)
m)
)
or
W1
W2
S1 S2 S1~S2
(W) (W)
1
2
3
4

Torq
ue
(Nm)

Outp
ut
(W)

(%
)

Formulae:
Torque, Tsh = 9.81 (S1 ~ S2) R
N-m
Input Power, Winp = W1 + W2
W
Output Power, Wout = (2 NTsh)/60
W
%Slip = Ns N X 100
Ns
cos =
Wout
3 VL IL
Efficiency = % = (Output/Input) X 100
Model Graph:

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

O.C & S.C TESTS ON 1-


TRANSFORMER

O.C & S.C TESTS ON 1- TRANSFORMER


Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Aim:
a) To determine the efficiency and regulation of 1- transformer by conducting
no-load and S.C Test.
b) To draw the equivalent circuit of 1- transformer referred to L.V side as well
as H.V side.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

1- Variac

1- Transformer

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Wattmeter

Connecting Wires

Range

Typ
e

Quantity

230V/(0-230)V,
10A
115V/230V,
2kVA
(0-10)A
(0-2)A
(0-150)V
(0-30)V
150V/2A
75V/10A

Cor
e
MI
MI
MI
MI
LPF
UPF

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:
O.C Test:

Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


S.C Test:

Precautions:
1. Connections should be made tight.
2. 1- Variac should be in minimum position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram for O.C test.
2. Observing the precautions switch ON 1- A.C supply and by using the 1-
variac apply the rated voltage of the primary of the transformer.
3. Note down all the meter readings. Here wattmeter reading gives iron loss.
4. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.
5. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram for S.C test.
6. Observing the precautions switch ON 1- A.C supply and by using the 1-
variac apply the rated current to the transformer. (Rated power of the
transformer/Voltage of primary of transformer)
7. Note down all the meter readings, here wattmeter reading gives full-load
copper loss.
8. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.
Tabular Columns:
O.C Test:
Vo
Io
Wo = W X
(V)
(A)
M.F (W)

S.C Test:
VSC
ISC
(V)
(A)

WSC = W X
M.F (W)

Efficiencies at different loads and power factor:


cos = 0.6
cos = 0.8
Cu
Outp Inp Efficienc
Cu
Outp Inp
Loss
ut
ut
y
Loss
ut
ut
Dept of E.E.E

Efficie
ncy
6

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


(W)

(W)

(W)

Lagging Power Factor


Power
Factor

%
Regulation

(%)

(W)

(W)

(W)

(%)

Leading Power Factor


Power
Factor

%
Regulation

Model Calculations:
Let the transformer be the step-down transformer (O.C Test)
Primary is H.V side and secondary is L.V side
Ro=V1/Iw () where Iw=Iocoso
Xo=V1/I () where Iw=Iocoso
Ro1=WSC/ISC2 ()
ZO1=VSC/ISC
Xo1=( ZO12 - Ro12)
Ro2=K2 Ro1
Xo2=K2 Xo1
where,
K=V2/V1=Transformation Ratio
Calculations to find efficiency:
For example, at 1/4th full load,
Copper Losses=WSC x (1/4)2 (w)
where, WSC=Full Load Copper Losses
Constant Losses=Wo
(W)
Output=(1/4) X VA X cos
(cos may be assumed)
Input=Output + Copper Loss + Constant Loss
Efficiency (%) = (Output/Input) X 100
Efficiency at different loads and power factor can be calculated.
Model Graph:

Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Result:

NO-LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR


TESTS ON 3- INDUCTION
MOTOR

Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

NO-LOAD & BLOCKED ROTOR TESTS ON 3- INDUCTION


MOTOR
Aim:
To draw the equivalent circuit of a 3- Induction Motor and construct the
circle diagram by conducting No-Load & Blocked Rotor Tests.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

3- Variac

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Wattmeter

5
6

Range

Typ
e

Quantity

Rheostat

415V/(0470)V
(0-10)A
(0-5)A
(0-600)V
(0-150)V
(0-30)V
600V/10A
300V/10A
100/5A

MI
MC
MI
MI
MC
LPF
UPF
WW

Connecting Wires

1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:
No-Load Test:

Blocked Rotor Test:

Dept of E.E.E

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

To find stator resistance per phase:

Precautions:
1. 3- Variac should be in minimum position.
Procedure:
No-Load Test:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions close the TPST Switch and switch ON 440V A.C
Supply.
3. Apply the rated voltage to the stator windings of 3- Induction Motor with
the help of 3- Auto-Transformer.
4. Note down the no-load readings of wattmeter, ammeter and voltmeter.
5. Bring back the auto-transformer to its minimum position and switch OFF the
supply.
Blocked Rotor Test:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions close the TPST Switch and switch ON 440V A.C
Supply.
3. By varying the variac, apply small voltage until the full load current flows in
the stator windings with the rotor unmoved.
4. Note down the readings and switch OFF the supply after bringing back the
auto-transformer output to minimum position.
Measurement of Stator Resistance:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keeping rheostat in maximum resistance position switch ON 220V D.C supply.
Dept of E.E.E
10

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


3. Using Volt-Ammeter method measure the resistance of the stator winding.
4. After finding the stator resistance Rdc must be multiplied with 1.6 so as to
account for skin effect i.e., Rac = 1.6Rdc
Tabular Column:
Blocked Rotor Test:
Current,
ISC (A)

Voltage,
VSC (V)

W1
(W)

W2
(W)

No-Load Test:
Rated Voltage=
Io
(A)
Stator Resistance per phase =
Formulae:
G o = Wo
;
Y o = Io
;
3V2
V
Z01 = VSC
;
R01 = WSC
;
2
ISC
3I SC
For Circle Diagram:
cos o = Wo
3 Vo Io
cos SC = WSC
3 VSC ISC
ISN = ISC [Vo / Vsc]

V
(V)

W1
(W)

W2
(W)

Bo = (Yo2 Go2)
X01 = (Z012 R012)

Model Graph:

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11

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

12

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

PARALLEL OPERATION OF
1- TRANSFORMER

PARALLEL OPERATION OF 1- TRANSFORMER


Aim:
To connect two 1- transformers of equal ratings in parallel and to supply
study how they share a common load.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

(0-300)V
(0-150)V
115V/230V,
2kVA
(0-20)A
(0-10)A

MI
MI

1
1

Core

MI
MI
Wire
Wound
Knife

1
2

Voltmeter

1- Transformer

Ammeter

Resistive Load

1-, 5kW

SPST Switch

5
Dept of E.E.E

1
1
13

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


6

DPST Switch

Wattmeters

Connecting Wires

300V/10A
150V/20A

Knife
UPF
UPF

1
2
1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

Precautions:
1. Load should be in OFF position.
2. SPST Switch is in open position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions switch ON the supply.
3. Two readings of the voltmeter connected across switch K is observed. If it
reads zero which means that the two secondary emfs are opposing each
other, then switch K is closed. If it reads twice the secondary rated voltage
the secondary terminals of any of the transformer are interchanged and then
the switch K is closed to make it read zero reading.
4. The load switch is closed and total load on the transformer is increased in
steps. At each step, the readings of the various meters are noted down. The
total load is increased till the current supplied reaches the maximum load
current of both the transformers when connected parallely.
5. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.
Tabular Columns:
From S.C Test:
From O.C Test:
S.N
ISC
Vsc
WSC
Core Loss, Wo (W) =
o.
(A)
(V)
(W)
1
2
3
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

S.N
o.

IA IB IL
(A (A (A
)
)
)

VL
(
V
)

(
W
)

(
W
)

1
2
3
Formulae:
IA| = IL X ZB
ZA+ZB
W A| = W L X Z B
ZA+ZB
WSC = Isc2R
;
ZSC = ZA = ZB = VSC / ISC
%Reg = VNL VFL X 100
VFL
VNL = No Load Voltage
VFL = Load Voltage at different loads
Output, Wout = VL IL
;
Efficiency, % = Wout X 100
Win
Model Graph:

WL
(
W
)

WA
IA| IB|
|
(A (A
(W
)
)
)

WB
|

(W
)

(
%
)

%
Reg

I B| = IL X ZA
ZA+ZB
;
W B| = W L X Z A
ZA+ZB
= I2R (Since I=IA|+IB|)
;

W Cu

Input,Win = Wout + WCu + Wo

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

15

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

SEPARATION OF CORE LOSSES


OF 1- TRANSFORMER

SEPARATION OF CORE LOSSES OF 1- TRANSFORMER


Aim:
To separate the core losses of a 1- transformer.
Apparatus:
S.
No.
1

Name of the
Equipment
Voltmeter

1- Transformer

3
4

Ammeter
DPST Switch

Dept of E.E.E

Range
(0-150)V
115V/230V,
2kVA
(0-2)A
-

Typ
e
MI

Quantity
1

Core

MC
Knife

1
1
16

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


5

Wattmeter

300V/2A
400/1.7A
100/5A

Rheostats

Tachometer

(0-9999)rpm

Connecting Wires

LPF
WW
WW
Digit
al
-

1
1
1
1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

Precautions:
1. Field rheostat of the motor must be in minimum position.
2. Armature rheostat of the motor must be in maximum position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Before starting the experiment, decide at which frequency you conduct NoLoad test and calculate the speed and corresponding voltage to maintain the
V/f ratio constant.
3. Observing the precautions switch ON the supply.
4. Run the prime-mover (D.C Motor) at the required speed and adjust the level
of excitation of alternator so as to develop rated transformer primary voltage
and then note down the wattmeter reading after exciting the transformer.
5. In a gradual manner, simultaneously adjust the excitation of the alternator
and its speed so as to maintain a constant V/f ratio.
6. Repeat the same procedure for different frequencies.
7. After completing the experiment, observing the precautions switch OFF the
supply.
Tabular Columns:
Tabular Column-I:
S.N
o.
Dept of E.E.E

Spee
d
N(rp
m)

Freque
ncy
f(Hz)

Volta
ge
V(V)

V/
f

W
i

Wi /
f
17

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


1
2
Tabular Column-II:
S.N
o.

Freque
ncy
f(Hz)

Hysteresis
Losses,
Wi = Af (W)

Eddy Current
Losses,
We = Bf2 (W)

Total Iron
Losses,
Wi = Wh +
We (W)

1
2
Formulae:
P = 120f
;
N1 = 120f1
N
P
K = V = Rated Voltage
f
Rated frequency
where, f = rated frequency
f1 = selected frequency
N = rated speed
N1 = speed corresponding to f1
Let, Wh = Af
We = Bf2
Wi = Wh + We = Af + Bf2
Wi = A + Bf
f
A oa from graph
B dy = y
dx x
Model Graph:

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

18

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

SCOTT CONNECTION OF
TRANSFORMERS

SCOTT CONNECTION OF TRANSFORMERS


Aim:
To convert the given 3- supply into 2- supply using scott connection.
Apparatus:
S.
Dept of E.E.E

Name of the

Range

Type

Quantity
19

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


No.

Equipment

Voltmeter

3- Variac

Ammeter

(0-600)V
(0-300)V
415V/(0470)V
(0-10)A

Resistive Load

1-, 5kW

Wattmeters

Connecting Wires

MI
MI

2
2

1
3

600V/10A

MI
Wire
Wound
UPF

2
2
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

Dept of E.E.E

20

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

Precautions:
1. 3- Variac should be in minimum position.
2. Load must be in OFF position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure 1.
2. Observing the precautions close the TPST Switch and switch ON 440V A.C
supply.
3. Apply the rated voltage to the primary of the main teaser transformer with
the help of 3- Auto-transformer.
4. Note down the readings of all meters for different load settings till rated full
load current of the transformer.
5. Connect the secondaries of the two transformers as shown in figure 2 to
verify the phase relationship of the two phase voltages.
6. Calculate the efficiency of conversion.
7. Observing the precautions switch OFF 440V A.C supply.
Tabular Columns:
For Figure 1:
W1 W2
I1 I2 I3
(
(
(A (A (A
W W
)
)
)
)
)

Dept of E.E.E

V1
(
V
)

V2
(
V
)

V3
(
V
)

Outp
ut
(W)

Inp
ut
(W)

(
%
)

V
(
V
)

For Figure 2:
V1
I
V2
(
(A
(V
V
)
)
)

21

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Formulae:
Output = V2I2 + V3I3
(W)
Input = W1 + W2
(W)
Efficiency, % = Output X100
Input
Model Graph:

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

22

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A
1- INDUCTION MOTOR

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF A 1- INDUCTION MOTOR


Dept of E.E.E

23

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Aim:
To determine the equivalent circuit parameters of a 1- induction motor by
conducting
No-Load, Blocked Rotor and Stator Resistance Measurement Tests.
Apparatus:
S.
Name of the
Typ
Range
Quantity
No.
Equipment
e
230V/(0-230)V,
1
1- Variac
1
20A
(0-300)V
MI
1
2
Voltmeter
(0-150)V
MI
1
(0-30)V
MC
1
(0-10)A
MI
1
3
Ammeter
(0-20)A
MI
1
(0-5)A
MC
1
300V/10A
LPF
1
4
Wattmeter
75V/20A
UPF
1
5
Rheostat
100/5A
WW
1
Required
6
Connecting Wires
Some
Circuit Diagram:
No-load Test:

Blocked Rotor Test:

Dept of E.E.E

24

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

To find stator resistance:

Precautions:
1. Initially variac must be at zero position.
2. No Loose connections are allowed.
3. Readings should be taken without any parallax errors.
4. Rheostat should be in maximum resistance position.
Procedure:
For No-Load Test:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions close the DPST Switch and switch ON 1- A.C
supply.
3. Apply the rated voltage by increasing the variac output gradually (No Load is
connected to the motor).
4. Note down the readings of all the meters.
5. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.
For Blocked Rotor Test:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. For performing the blocked rotor test, block the rotor (i.e., not allowed to
rotate) by applying belt-brake arrangement and increase the voltage slowly
till rated current flows and note down all the meter readings.
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


3. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.
To find Stator Resistance:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions close the DPST switch and switch ON 220V D.C
Supply.
3. By adjusting the rheostat note down all the meter readings.
4. Observing the precautions switch OFF the supply.

Tabular Columns:
No-Load Test
Vo
(V)

Io
(A)

Wo
(W)

Blocked Rotor
Test
VSC
ISC
WSC
(V)
(A)
(W)

To find Stator Resistance:


S.N
o.
1
2

I
(A)

V
(V)

Rs
()

Formulae:
Wo
cos o
Vo I o

Vo
I o sin o
V
Z s SC
I SC
Xo

XS

Z S2 R S2 X eq

RS
2
X
x1 x 2 S
2
Vo
Ro
I o cos o
N N
slip S
NS

r1 r2

R S Req

WSC
2
I SC

Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Result:

LOAD TEST ON
1- TRANSFORMER

Dept of E.E.E

27

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

LOAD TEST ON 1- TRANSFORMER


Aim:
To determine the efficiency and regulation of a 1- transformer by conducting load
test.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

Range

Type

Quantity

Core

1
2
1
1
1

1- Variac

1- Transformer

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Wattmeter

230V/(0-230)V,
10A
115V/230V,
2kVA
(0-10)A
(0-150)V
(0-300)V
300V/10A

Resistive Load

1-, 5kW

DPST Switch

MI
MI
MI
UPF
Wire
Wound
Knife

Connecting Wires

1
1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

Dept of E.E.E

28

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

Precautions:
1. Connections should be made tight.
2. 1- Variac should be in minimum position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Observing the precautions switch ON 1- A.C supply.
3. Apply rated primary voltage of the transformer by properly adjusting the
variac.
4. Note down the readings of all the meters on No-Load.
5. Switch ON the load by closing the DPST Switch and increase the load in steps
and note down the corresponding reading of all meters.
6. Decrease the load on the transformer secondary and then switch OFF the
supply.
Tabular Column:
Input
Input
Voltage Current
(V)
(A)

Input
Power(
W1)

Output
Voltage(
V2)

Output
Current
(I2)

Output
Power(
W2)

Efficie
ncy
(%)

%Regula
tion
(%)

Formulae:
Efficiency, % = Output X100
Input
%Regulation = V02 V2 X 100
V2
Model Graph:

Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

30

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

SUMPNERS TEST

SUMPNERS TEST
Aim:
i.
ii.

To conduct Sumpners Test on two identical 1- transformers.


To find out the iron loss, copper loss and the efficiency of each
transformer.

Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

1- Variac

1- Transformer

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Wattmeter

Dept of E.E.E

Range
230V/(0-230)V,
10A
115V/230V,
2kVA
(0-5)A
(0-20)A
(0-300)V
(0-75)V
300V/5A
75V/20A

Typ
e

Quant
ity

Cor
e
MI
MI
MI
MI
LPF
UPF

2
1
1
2
1
1
1
31

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Circuit Diagram:

Precautions:
1. The range of voltmeter should be doubled the induced e.m.f of secondary
winding.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Connect the primaries of both transformers in parallel after ascertaining the
polarities.
3. Connect the secondaries in series and connect a switch as shown in the
circuit diagram.
4. Initially keep the switch in open circuit.
5. Give supply as per the primary rating of transformers.
6. Note down the readings of all the meters.
7. Close the SPST Switch when voltage Vab = 0 (see circuit diagram).
8. Increase the load till the full load rated current of the transformer flows by
varying the auto-transformer supplying secondaries.
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


9. Note down the all the meter readings.
Tabular Columns:

Load

V1
(
V
)

Vab = 0 ; Actual = Measured X F.S.D


F.S.D = Full Scale Division
Wattmeters
Wattmeters
V2
I1
I2
(W)
(W)
(
(A
(A
Measur Actu V
Measur Actu
)
)
)
ed
al
ed
al

NoLoad
FullLoad
For Unity Power Factor:
W1 (W)
Lo
Iron
ad
Losses

W2 (W)
Copper
Losses

Total
Losses

Outp
ut
(W)

Inp
ut
(W)

Efficie
ncy
(%)

For 0.6 Power Factor:


W1 (W)
Lo
Iron
ad
Losses

W2 (W)
Copper
Losses

Total
Losses

Outp
ut
(W)

Inp
ut
(W)

Efficie
ncy
(%)

Formulae:
Losses in each transformer =
combined =

Wi Wc
2

VI 1
X 100
VI 1 Wi Wc

VI 1
Efficiency of each Transformer = (%) =
W W X 100
VI 1 i c
2
2
Model Graph:

Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

REGULATION OF 3-
ALTERNATOR BY
SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDANCE
METHOD

REGULATION OF 3- ALTERNATOR BY SYNCHRONOUS


IMPEDANCE METHOD
Aim:
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


To predetermine the regulation of a given 3-Alternator by conducting O.C
and S.C tests by Synchronous Impedance Method (E.M.F Method) and MMF Method.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

Rheostats

Ammeter

Voltmeter

Tachometer

Connecting Wires

Range

Typ
e
WW

Quantity

100/5A
400/1.7
A
(0-10)A
(0-2)A
(0-5)A
(0-300)V
(0-30)V
(09999)rpm

WW

MI
MC
MC
MI
MC
Digit
al

1
1
1
1
1

1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

To find Armature Resistance:

Precautions:
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


1. Field rheostat must be kept in minimum resistance position.
2. Armature rheostat must be kept in maximum resistance position.
3. Initially Rectifier should be in zero voltage position.
Procedure:
O.C Test:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. With the Rectifier in the zero voltage position, TPST Switch open and the
rheostats in their proper positions, the D.C Supply to the motor is switched
ON.
3. The D.C Motor is brought to its rated speed and thus the alternator by
properly varying the armature and/or field rheostat of the motor.
4. Now, the alternator field is excited by applying the D.C voltage through the
Rectifier in steps. At each step the field current and the corresponding
generated voltage are noted. This procedure is repeated till the voltage
generated is much beyond rated voltage of the alternator.
5. Reduce the alternator field excitation to zero level.
S.C Test:
1. With the rectifier in the minimum voltage position, the TPST Switch is closed.
2. Increase field excitation gradually till the Short Circuit Current of the
alternator reaches the rated current of the alternator.
3. Note down the field current required to circulate the rated short circuit
current. Tabulate the readings taken during the O.C Test and S.C Tests.
Tabular Columns:
O.C Test
Field
Phase
Current
Voltage
If (A)
(V)

S.C Test
If(
A)

ISC
(A)

To find Armature Resistance:


I
(A)

V
(V)

R
()

E.M.F Method
P.F
cos

Ia
(A
)

Eo (V)
Laggi
ng

Leadi
ng

%
Regulation
Laggi Leadi
ng
ng

P.
F

M.M.F Method
Field
If (A)
Current
If1
If2
Laggi Leadi
(A)
(A)
ng
ng

Formulae:
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


ZS

VOC
I SC

for the same If and speed

X S Z S2 Ra2

[Ra = (1.3 to 1.6) Rdc ]

Generated E.M.F of alternator on No-Load is given by


E o (V cos I a R a ) 2 (V sin I a X S ) 2

+ for Lagging Power Factor


- for Leading Power Factor
Percentage regulation of alternator for a given power factor is given by

% Re g

Eo V
X 100 (%)
V

where,
Eo = Generated E.M.F of alternator
(or excitation voltage per phase)
V = Full Load rated terminal voltage per phase.
Model Graph:

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II

DETERMINATION OF Xd & Xq OF
SALIENT POLE SYNCHRONOUS
MACHINE

DETERMINATION OF Xd & Xq OF SALIENT POLE


SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE
Dept of E.E.E

39

ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


Aim:
To determine the value of direct axis reactance (X d) and quadrature axis
reactance (Xq) of the given synchronous machine by conducting slip test.
Apparatus:
S.
No.

Name of the
Equipment

3- Variac

2
3
4

Rheostat
Ammeter
Voltmeter

Tachometer

Connecting Wires

Range

Typ
e

Quantity

415V/(0470)V
400/1.7A
(0-5)A
(0-150)V
(09999)rpm

WW
MI
MI
Digit
al

1
1
1

1
Required
Some

Circuit Diagram:

Precautions:
1. Connections must be made tight.
2. Field rheostat must be kept in minimum resistance position.
3. Starter must be in OFF position.
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Start the D.C Motor with the help of starter.
3. Adjust the field rheostat of the D.C Motor so that it runs slightly below the
synchronous speed of synchronous machine.
4. Give A.C Supply to the Alternator with the help of variac so that rated current
flows in the synchronous machine.
Dept of E.E.E

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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB-II


5. The speed of D.C motor is adjusted such that the points of the meters
oscillate between maximum and minimum values.
6. Note down the maximum and minimum values of ammeter and voltmeter
and tabulate them.
Tabular Columns:
Vm

Vmi

ax

in

(V)

(V)

Ima

Imi

(A
)

(A
)

Xd
(

Xq
(
)

Formulae:

Vmax
()
I min
V min
()
Quadrature Axis Synchronous Reactance = Xq =
I max
Direct Axis Synchronous Reactance = Xd =

Result:

Dept of E.E.E

41