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EMPLOYEE RESOURCING

PREPARED BY:
CHRIS M. KATHOKA, Msc. HRM (JKUAT), BSc. IT (JKUAT)

MUCHELLE/EMPLOYEE RESOURCING

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Table Of Contents...............................................................................2
Employee Resourcing: An Introduction..............................................4
Topic 1: Labour Economics.................................................................5
Factors Influencing The Labour Market In Kenya............................5
Productivity Of Labour..................................................................10
Education And Manpower.............................................................11
Wages And Employment Growth..................................................12
Factors Determining The Level Of Productivity.............................12
Increasing Labour Productivity......................................................13
Methods Of Controlling Labour Costs............................................13
Topic 2: Job Analysis An Introduction...............................................16
Job Analysis Methods....................................................................20
Job Analysis Method 1: Interviewing.............................................21
Job Analysis Method Ii: Observation.............................................23
Job Analysis: Method 3: Questionnaire..........................................24
Job Analysis Method 4: Checklists And Inventories.......................25
Job Analysis Method 5: Materials Of Work.....................................25
Job Analysis Method 6: Previous Studies.......................................26
Job Analysis Method 7: Critical Incidents......................................26
Job Analysis Method 8: Do-It-Yourself............................................26
Job Analysis Method 9: Work Diaries & Logs.................................26
Job Analysis Method 10: Hierarchical Tasks Analysis....................27
Job Analysis 11: Self Description................................................27
The Writing-Up Process.................................................................27
Preparation Of A Job Description And Specification......................29
Job Descriptions............................................................................29
Job Specification...........................................................................30
Potential Problems With Job Analysis............................................30
Topic 3: Human Resources Planning (HRP).......................................32
Introduction & Definition...............................................................32
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The Labour Market........................................................................33


Determination Of HR Requirements..............................................34
Human Resource Demand Forecasting.........................................34
Long Range Factors.......................................................................34
Short Range Factors......................................................................35
How To Forecast Personnel Needs.................................................36
Methods Of Labour Demand Forecasting......................................36
Tools And Techniques For Demand Forecasting............................37
Advantages Of HRP.......................................................................40
Hr Labour Supply Forecasting And The HR Actions.......................41
Analyzing Existing Human Resources...........................................42
Labour Turnover............................................................................44
Reconciling Supply And Demand For Labour And The HR Actions 48
Human Resource Actions..............................................................48
HRP Limiting Factors.....................................................................54
Tools And Techniques Of Human Resource Planning.....................55
Topic 4: Recruitment And Selection..................................................59
Methods Of Internal And External Recruitment.............................65
Employee Selection:.....................................................................71
Introduction..................................................................................71
Selection Methods........................................................................73
Types Of Interviews.......................................................................79
Placement And Orientation Or Induction......................................92
Topic 5: Legislation Governing Employment In Kenya......................96

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EMPLOYEE RESOURCING: AN INTRODUCTION


Introduction
This course is intended to cover the techniques of manpower
planning, recruitment, selection and placement in order to meet the
present and future needs of the organization.
General Objectives
At the end of this unit, the trainee should be able to:

Understand the dynamics of the labour market in


Kenya and how they affect selection and hiring processes
Understand
the
relationship
between
organizational structure and the HR requirements for the
organization
Appreciate the need for HR planning
Draw up a short term and long term HR plan for
the organization
Appreciate the need for job analysis in the
procurement processes
Develop competence in the area of employee
procurement

Topic to Be Covered

Labour Economics

Job Analysis

Human Resource Planning

Recruitment And Selection

Legislation Governing Employment In Kenya

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TOPIC 1: LABOUR ECONOMICS


Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to:

Identify factors influencing labour market in Kenya


Analyse ways of increasing productivity of labour
Identify methods of controlling labour costs
Evaluate impact of education and training on the
employment opportunity

Introduction
Employee resourcing is concerned with ensuring that the
organisation obtains and retains the people it needs and employs
them productively. It is also about those aspects of employment
practice that are concerned with welcoming people to the
organisation, and if there is no alternative release them.
Labour is a factor of production. It is a different factor of production
since its not a substitute for land in overpopulated countries labour
is abundant while land is scarce.
One needs to make a distinction between physical or unskilled
labour and skilled labour. Some countries have an abundant supply
of unskilled labour but an acute shortage of skilled labour of all
types a major hindrance to economic growth.
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE LABOUR MARKET IN KENYA
Supply and Demand for Labour
Demand for a factor is known as derived demand, i.e. it s derived
from the demand for the product it can produce. E.g. if demand for
sugar increases, the demand for sugar cane increases, the demand
for workers in the sugar cane estates will increase. It therefore
follows that labour is in abundant supply where derived demand is
high.

Derived
demand

Demand for Labour

Supply of labour can be seen from the entire economy point of view
the size of the national workforce. Determinants affecting the size of
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the economically active population or national workforce include;


the size of the population itself, the age structure, ratio of men to
women, the average working day and efficiency of quality of the
labour effort. A developing nation is characterized by unlimited
supply of labour form the rural areas consisting of underemployed
workers. The supply curve of labour to an industry or economy
slopes up form left to right. If the price of labour (wage rate) goes
up, the amount of labour supplied will increase.

Wage
rate

Supply of labour
However in developing countries, the supply curve of labour is
backward sloping the supply curve of labour is backward
sloping. The supply curve slopes down form left to right, so that an
increase in wage results in a decrease in the amount. People prefer
leisure to money to an extent that an increase in money earnings is
more likely to lead to a decrease in the amount of work done.

Wage
rate

Backward
bending
supply curve
Hours worked
Income and Substitution Effects
With any form of labour anywhere, there must be some point at
which the amount of labour supplied by an individual ceases to
increase or decrease, as the wage rate increases. This is because
money income is not desired for its own sake, but for the goods it
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can buy. And the enjoyment of these goods will be impossible


without at least a minimum amount of leisure; as one sets better off
he is likely at some point to take at least part of the increased
standard of living n the form of more leisure and thus work fewer
hours. The increase in real income is therefore an incentive to work
less hard, to consume more leisure. This is known as the income
effect (rise in income leading to more leisure) and the substitution
effect caused by the change in the price of the leisure (less income
taken).

Hours
worke
d daily

Leisure
Hours
Daily

Incom

The Downward Sloping Demand Curve


Firms need workers to produce goods and services. The demand
curve for labour shows how many workers will be hired at any given
wage rate over a particular time period. Economic theory suggests
that the higher the price of labour, the less labour firms will hire.
The higher the wage rate, the more likely it s that firms will
substitute machines for workers and hence the lower the demand
for labour.

Labour
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Capital

In the third world, where labour is cheap relative to capital, firms


tend to choose labour intensive methods of production. In the first
world, labour is relatively expensive and hence more capitalintensive techniques of production are chosen.
The Supply Curve of Labour
A rise in real wage rates may or may not increase the supply of
labour by individual workers in the industry. However, it is likely to
attract new workers in the industry. The supply curve of labour is
likely to be upward sloping. The higher the wages the more workers
will want to enter the particular industry.
Key Terms

Activity or participation rates the percentage or


proportion of any given population in the labour force.

Economically active the number of workers in


the workforce who are in a job or are unemployed.

Net migration immigration minus emigration.

Workforce/labour force those economically active


and therefore in work or seeking work.

Workforce jobs the number of workers in


employment. It excludes the unemployed.
1. The Supply of Labour
Supply may be taken to mean the total number of people of working
age. It may also mean the supply of labour service available. The
total supply of labour in an economy depends upon: Size of the population. Size of population: - this sets an obvious limit
to the total supply of labour.
The proportion of the population which works/available for
employment. This is determined chiefly by age distribution, social
institutions, customs, participation rate of married women and the
wages offered.
The amount of work offered by each individual labourer. Number of
hours worked by each person per year. Higher rates of pay usually
induce a person to work overtime, the increased reward
encouraging
him tothe
substitute
workin for
leisure.
But this is not
Factors influencing
labour market
Kenya:
A summary
always
so.
o
Supply and demand for labour
o
Production techniques/technology
o
Quality of labour/education levels
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o
Cost of labour/wage rates
o
Population dynamics migration, age etc
o
Government legislation EEO, wage guidance, age
requirements, entertainment, culture
o
Socio cultural factors
o
Environment and climate

2.
Production Techniques and Technology
In the developing world where technology is not extensively applied
the demand for labour is high. This s as compared to the developed
world where machines are used to replace people. Our production
techniques are labour intensive and as such demand for labour is
high.
3.
Quality of labour
There is an important difference between low wages and cheap
labour. Despite low wages in labour abundant countries, labour is
not nearly as cheap as it appears since low wages are to a great
extent offset by low productivity. This is attributed to the poor
education levels among the labour force. The higher the levels of
education, the scarcer the unskilled labourers become.
4.
Wage rates
High relative wages outside Kenya have attracted highly skilled
professional in such countries as Botswana and South Africa. High
labour costs may also make a company resort to technology. High
wage rates are also known to attract and hold labour in most
unattractive areas of the country. Unpleasant but unskilled jobs are
often poorly paid because anyone can do them. Shifts in earnings
may create substantial inflows of workers into an expanding
occupation, industry or area and an outflow of workers from a
depressed occupation, industry or area.

5.
Population Dynamics
The number of people searching for work in a developing country
depend primarily on the size and age composition of the population.
The age structure of the population also affects the labour market.
An aging population has fewer workforces and therefore few people
are available for work.
The rapid reductions in death rates experienced by most developing
economies have expanded the size of their present labour force
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while continuous high birth-rates create high dependency ratios and


rapidly expanding future labour force.
6.
Government Legislation
Governments may affect the labour market through various
legislations such as; equal employment opportunity, age limit for
employment and retirement and minimum wage limits. The trade
union movement activities may also have an impact on the labour
market.
PRODUCTIVITY OF LABOUR
There are two main factors, which reduce the supply of labour the
longer period of education and the shorter workweek. Efficiency of
labour is the ability to achieve a greater output in a shorter time
without any falling off in the quality of the work increased
productivity per man employed. The efficacy of the labour force
depends on a number of influences: Climate this can be an important influence on
the willingness to work, for extremes of temperature or humidity
are not conducive to concentration on tasks.

Health of the worker workers must be


adequately fed, clothed and housed. Attention to the employees
physical welfare reduces time lost from sickness and improves
general efficiency. The cost of a health service might be offset to
some extent by increased production

Peace of mind anxiety is detrimental to


efficacy. A social security scheme relives people from worry about
the future by providing form them in times of sickness,
unemployment and old age

Working conditions the general conditions


under which people work can affect their output. Workplace
health and safety is an important consideration here. Heating,
lighting, ventilation, noise, provision of rest pauses and tea
breaks help reduce fatigue and increase output. Provision of
recreation facilities and canteens has the same objective

Education and training this factor has 3


aspects general education, technical education, and training with
industry. General education is a foundation upon which more
specialized vocational training can be based. Training within
industry is offered by each firm that opts to train its own
employees, in the correct manner that it desires work to be done.

Efficiency of the factors the productivity of


labour will be increased if the quality of the other factors of
production is high. Fertile land, sufficient capital and division of
labour all increase the efficiency of labour.
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Education and Manpower


Governments have expanded educational budgets in part because
they have seen education as an investment in human capital and
the training of manpower needed for development.
Education may have important labour market effects, accelerating
rural urban migration and increasing the amount of labour force
and even wastage of manpower.
Education may through its effects on the wage and salary structure
effect income distribution and equality of opportunity to jobs.
The type of education offered could influence attitudes, attitudes to
manual or agricultural work, interest in business and risk taking.
Due to the importance of education to manpower, governments are
now formulating HRD programmes, which make explicit the role of
education in labour force development. This can be seen in provision
of formal or informal education, and in manpower planning.
Formally educated manpower is always in abundance in the
developing world, taking up the rates of unemployment and labour
wastage.
A different approach towards planning educational investment is the
method of manpower planning. The approach here is to make a
demand projection or forecast of the economys requirements of
different categories of labour in future time periods, and a supply
projection for the same categories and periods, comparing them and
determining which categories of manpower will be short supply.
Training programmes can then be adjusted to alleviate the
shortages.
The key to mobility among occupations is education. Many skills are
learned rather than inherited. This is the stock of personal capital
acquired by each worker. Since investment in labour skills is similar
to investment in physical capital, acquired skills are called HUMAN
CAPITAL. The supply of some particular skill increases when more
people find it worthwhile to acquire the necessary human capital
and decreases when fewer do so. Because acquiring human capital
is costly, the more highly skilled the job, the more it must pay if
enough people are to be attracted to train for it.
ASSIGNMENT:

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costs

Identify the methods used to control labour

WAGES AND EMPLOYMENT GROWTH


There is a relatively slow growth of employment in the developing
countries due to low wage levels. However, on the other hand
increases in real wages re a significant factor restraining growth in
employment. Rapid increases in real wages retard paid employment
opportunities.
FACTORS DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF PRODUCTIVITY.

The stock of capital available; money, machinery


and other capital equipment used in the organisation.

The nature of the human resources available in


the organisation; skilled and experienced manpower.

Conducive working environment; encouraging


workers through motivation, team work etc.

Level of technology; on the machines and tools


used at the places of work e.g. latest technology would
contribute to higher productivity.

Effective organisational procedures, policies, rules


and regulations.

Motivational
measures
adopted
by
the
organisation. It includes job enlargement and enrichment.

Strength of the management team. A strong


management team will improve employee morale leading to high
work performance and productivity.
INCREASING LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY.
i)
Providing training and development programmes
to employees to improve their skills and level of performance,
hence a high level of productivity.
ii)
Improving working facilities and equipment e.g.
installation of modern equipment, machinery and computers.
iii)
Effective
organisational
structures
e.g.
departmentation, delegation of authority etc.
iv)
Effective job design i.e. the level of job
enlargement or job enrichment in the organisation.
v)
Improve working conditions; fair and appropriate
rules and regulations; democratic leadership approaches to
management.
vi)
Conducive
working
environment
and
god
organisational climate; level of cleanliness, sanitary conditions of
the organisation; friendly working environment; employee health
and safety measures.
vii)
Motivation or incentive measures provided by the
organisation; attractive employment packages, wages and
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salaries, medical, housing etc; opportunity for promotions


through internal recruitment.
viii)
Provision of social amenities to staff; sports, club
membership. These enable workers to reduce stress and strain
of the workplace.
ix)
Provision of rest breaks at places of work; tea
break, lunch break etc.
x)
Provision of leave; annual, sick off etc.
xi)
Friendly work environment; team spirit, knowing
employees in great detail, concept of shared fate (that the
company belongs to everyone and if it goes down all will suffer;
and if it succeeds all will benefit)
xii)
Client/service chain concept; all employees must
understand that all their activities are meant to serve the
customer the person who uses the product of their work.
METHODS OF CONTROLLING LABOUR COSTS.
The total cost of production TC= Fixed cost (FC) + Variable costs
(VC)
Where
TC
FC
VC

=
=
=

the total cost of production


Fixed cost (FC) {Machinery, plant, salaries, taxes, rent}
Variable costs (VC) {wages, materials, transport)

The term labour costs refer to additions to the total cost of


production contributed by or associated with units of labour
(employees). Methods of controlling labour costs are concerned
with measures to reduce the cost of labour and improve efficiency.
The following measures should be undertaken to control the labour
costs:
i)

Effective recruitment and selection processes.


Scientific recruitment and selection should be conducted to hire
the right persons for the right jobs; placement should be carried
out to ensure that individuals are matched with jobs in line with
their experience and qualifications.

ii)

Training and Development. The management


should provide their employees with adequate training and
development programmes to improve their efficiency.
This
should reduce poor performance, resulting in a reduction in
labour costs.

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iii)

Retrenchment/Downsizing. Most organisations


are trying to restructure by cutting down the size of their labour
force in order to reduce the cost of labour and improve their
profit margin. This is due to the recognition that labour cost
contributes the greatest amount to the cost structures of
organisations. Layoffs or redundancies may therefore be carried
out due to poor business performance. Layoffs of employees
may be temporary or permanent.

iv)

Discharge or dismissal. This action may be taken


to stop employment of less productive workers by discharging or
dismissing them. As a result, the labour costs will reduce.

v)

Improving work equipment and tools. Outmoded


equipment and tools may contribute to labour inefficiencies and
therefore high cost of production. Improvement on equipment
and tools at the workplace may therefore reduce inefficiencies
associated with working using such equipment. An organisation
may also install new technology in order to reduce the labour
cost.

vi)

Training on effective use of time. Labour costs


resulting from poor time management may be reduced by
training employees on effective use of time.
For instance
reporting to work, reporting for meetings, monitoring production
activities etc requires effective time management.

vii)
Improving organisational structures, Job design
and job description. Efficient organisational structures, job design
and job description may reduce labour costs associated with
inefficiency of such structures. Poor organisational design may
affect coordination and control.
viii)
Improving physical work environments and wellbeing of employees. This will reduce the stress in the work
environment and lead to improvement in productivity and
reduction in the labour costs.

TOPIC 2: JOB ANALYSIS AN INTRODUCTION.


At the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to:

Definition
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Explain the meaning and purpose for job analysis


Discuss the procedure for carrying out job analysis
Carry out a job analysis

A job is a collection of tasks assigned to a position in an


organization. Job analysis is the term used to describe a process of
examining jobs in order to identify their main features, in particular
the duties they fulfil, the results they expect to achieve, the major
tasks undertaken and the jobs relationships with other jobs in the
organizational hierarchy.
Job analysis is the process by which a description of a job is
compiled.
Job analysis is the process of determining and reporting pertinent
information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the
determination of the tasks which comprise the job and of the skills,
knowledge, abilities and responsibilities required of the holder for
successful job performance.
Job analysis is the process of collecting, analysing and setting out
information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis
for a job description and data for recruitment, training, job
evaluation and performance management.
Job analysis
concentrates on what holders are expected to do.
Job analysis is the cornerstone of all human resource functions.
Data obtained from job analysis produces the following information
about a job:

Overall purpose why the job exists, and in essence, what


the jobholder is expected to contribute.

Content the nature and scope of the jobs in terms of the


tasks and operations to be performed and duties to be carried
out i.e. the processes of converting inputs (knowledge, skills
and abilities) into outputs (results).

Accountabilities the results or outputs for which the


jobholder is accountable.

Performance criteria the criteria, measures or indicators


that enable an assessment to be carried out to ascertain the
degree to which the job is being performed satisfactorily.

Responsibilities the level of responsibility the job holder


has to exercise by reference to the scope and input of the job;
the amount of discretion allowed to make decisions; the
difficulty; scale, variety and complexity of the problems to be
solved.

Organizational factors the reporting relationships of the


jobholder, the people reporting directly or indirectly to the

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jobholder and the extent to which the jobholder is involved in


team.

Motivation factors the particular features of the job that


are likely to motivate or demotivate jobholders.

Development factors promotion and career prospects,


and the opportunity to acquire new skills or expertise.

Environmental factors working conditions, health & safety


considerations, unsocial hours, mobility and ergonomic factors
relating to the design and use of equipment & workstations.

What Aspects of a Job are analysed.


Job analysis should collect information on the following areas; i.e.
content and context of the job

Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the


performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be
collected about these items may include; frequency, duration,
effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards etc.

Environment - This may have a significant impact on the


physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work
offensive odours and temperature extremes. There may be
definite risks to the jobholder such as noxious fumes,
radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people and
dangerous explosives.

Tools and Equipmentsome duties and tasks are


performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment
may include protective clothing. These items need to be
specified in a job analysis.

Relationships - Supervision given and received relationships


with internal or external people.

Requirements - The knowledges, skills and abilities (KSAs)


required performing the job. While and incumbent may have
higher KSAs than those required for the job, a job analysis
typically only states the minimum requirements to perform
the job.

Basic Terminology
The simplest unit of work is the micromotion. A micromotion
involves a very elementary movement such as reaching, grasping,
positioning or releasing an object. An aggregation of two or more
micromotions forms an element. An element is a complete entity
such as picking up, transporting and positioning an item. A group of
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working elements makes up a work task. Related tasks comprise


the duties of a job. Duties when combined with responsibilities
(obligations to be performed) define a position. A group of positions
that are identical with respect to their major tasks and
responsibilities form a job.
A job may be held by more than one person whereas a position
cannot.
Products of Job Analysis
Job analysis involves not only analysing job content but also
reporting the results of the analysis. These results are normally
presented in the form of a job description and a job specification.
A job description concentrates on describing the job as it is
currently being performed. It explains, in written form, what the job
is called, what is to be done, where it is to be done and how it is to
be done. Most job descriptions contain sections that include; the job
name, a brief summary description of the job a listing of job duties
and responsibilities and an explanation of organizational
relationships pertinent to the job.
A job specification concentrates on the characteristics needed to
perform the job. It describes the competency, educational and
experience qualifications the incumbent must possess to perform
the job.
Uses of Job Analysis Information
As earlier indicated job analysis information is used in the
formulation of job description and specifications. The information is
the basis for a number of HR activities. These activities include:i.

ii.
iii.

Job definition: A job analysis results in a


description of the duties and responsibilities of the job. Such a
description is useful to the current jobholders and their
supervisors, as well as to prospective employees. The jobholders
can get a clear idea of their main responsibilities from a job
description.
Job Redesign: A job analysis often indicates
when a job needs to be redesigned.
Recruitment: Job analysis clarifies posts for
which new recruits are sought. A job analysis not only identifies
the job requirements but also outlines the skills needed to
perform the job. This information helps to identify the type of
people to be recruited.

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iv.

Selection and Placement: Selection seeks to


match an individual with a job. For this to succeed the job and its
requirements must be clearly and precisely known. Job analysis
produces job descriptions, which can provide essential evidence
for selection interviewers.
Orientation: Effective job orientation cannot be
accomplished without a clear understanding of the job
requirements. The duties and responsibilities of a job must be
clearly defined before a new employee can be taught how to
perform the job.
Training: Whether or not a current or potential
jobholder needs additional training can be decided only after
specific requirements of the job have been determined through a
job analysis. Also, the establishment of training objectives is
dependent on a job analysis. Another training-related use of job
analysis is to help determine whether a problem is occurring
because of a training need or because of some other reason.
Career Counselling: managers and HR
specialists are in a much better position to counsel employees
about their careers when they have a complete understanding of
the different jobs in the organization. Employees can better
appreciate their career options when they understand the exact
requirements of other jobs.
Employee Safety: A thorough job analysis often
uncovers unsafe practices and/or environmental conditions
associated with a job. Focusing precisely on how a job is done
usually uncovers any unsafe procedures.
Performance Appraisal: The objective of
performance appraisal is to evaluate an individual employees
performance on a job.
A prerequisite is a thorough
understanding of exactly what the employee is supposed to do.
Job analysis provides the basic material on which performance
assessment can be made.
Compensation: A proper job analysis helps to
ensure that employees receive fair compensation for their jobs.
Job analyses help establish the worth of a job relative to other
jobs and enables the employer determine an equitable wage.

v.

vi.

vii.

viii.

ix.

x.

The benefits just described are directed at management, and


especially towards line management. There are also benefits to
individuals from job analysis:

They can be given a clear idea of their main responsibilities


They are provided with a basic for arguing for changes or
improvements in their job (e.g. job redesign)

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They are provided relevant information in respect of any


appraisal they may have.

They have an opportunity to participate in setting their own


short-term targets or objectives

When performing a job analysis, the job and its requirements (as
opposed to the characteristics of the person currently holding the
job) are studied.

JOB ANALYSIS METHODS


Several methods are available for conducting a job analysis.
Choice of Method
In the selection of a method of job analysis, the criteria for choice
are the purpose for which it will be used, its effectiveness in
obtaining the data required, the degree of expertise required to
conduct the analysis and the resources and amount of time
available for the analysis programme. The following are the most
important methods, which may be used in job analysis; four of the
most frequent used methods first.

Observation
Interviews
Questionnaires
Functional job analysis
Materials of work
Previous studies
Do-it-yourself
Work diaries/worklogs
Review of job classification systems
Expert panels
Checklist
Task inventories
Hierarchical task analysis

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Self-description

In your own opinion what are the likely repercussions to an organisation that does
not conduct job analysis?

JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 1: INTERVIEWING


The interview method requires that the person conducting the job
analysis meets with and interviews the jobholder, manager or
supervisor. To obtain the full flavour of a job, it is necessary to
interview jobholders and check the findings with their managers or
team leaders. Interviews can be held on the job site, and may be
either structured or unstructured.
Unstructured interviews have no definite or pre-planned format; the
format develops as the interview unfolds. A structured interview
follows a predesigned format.
Structured interviews have the
advantage of ensuring that all pertinent aspects of the job are
covered. Also they make it easier to compare information obtained
from different people holding the same job.
A major drawback to the interview method is it can be time
consuming planning and conducting the interview. Also inaccurate
information may be collected due to bias.
If the purpose of
interview is not clear, the worker may provide information to protect
his won interest.
The interview method is flexible and can provide in depth
information and is easy to organize and prepare. A disadvantage
may be seen in unstructured interviews where the information
collected is not easy to analyse.
Interview with the Job-Holder
This is always necessary but difficulties always do occur, largely
because the worker may be suspicious of the job analysis. He may
exaggerate the importance of the job or occasionally try to make it
seem unimportant. The main problems with such interviews are: -

The workers attitude may influence his account of the job.


The employee may, even if co-operative, forget some
details of the job only remember the most recent events
The employee may not be able to express himself clearly
The employee may, even if co-operative, forget some
details of the job & only remember the most recent events

The employee may not be able to express himself clearly

Interview with the supervisor


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This is quite inevitable, but its values vary due to the following:-

Supervisor may be out of touch with details of the job


Some have never performed the job themselves
Some allow their description of the job to be influenced by
their opinion towards the jobholder.

They may exaggerate the duties& responsibilities of the job


in order to increase their own performance.

Interview Questions
These may cover such aspects as:-

Amount of supervision received and discretion allowed in


making decisions

Typical problems to be solved and guidance available to


solve the problems

Relative difficulty of the tasks performed


Qualifications and skills required to carry out the work

Conducting the Interview

Have questions arranged in a logical sequence to help


interviewees to order their thoughts about the job.

Probe as necessary to establish what people do

Ensure jobholders are not allowed to get away with vague of


inflated descriptions of their work

Ensure answers contain only relevant data

Obtain a clear statement from the jobholder about the amount


& level of decision-making allowed for the job.

Avoid asking leading questions that make the expected


answers obvious

Allow the jobholder ample time & opportunity to talk by


creating an atmosphere of trust.
Checking Information
It is always advisable to check the information provided by
jobholders with the managers or team leaders. To get systematic
information from several jobholders, a checklist is necessary. The
aim is to structure the job analysis interview in line with
predetermined headings.
In interviewing several jobholders for the same job, information from
different interviews, can be:
i.
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Hard to bring together

ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Have a potential for interviewer bias


Certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up
An interview may stress one area & neglect others
There may be problems in interpretation and analysis
with the possibility of distorted impressions
Consider subjectivity of the data captured
Interviewers need skills in communication & must be
trained

vi.
vii.

Advantage: Allows the incumbent to describe tasks and duties that


are not observable
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD II: OBSERVATION
Direct observation of incumbents performing their jobs enables the
trained job analyst to obtain first hand knowledge and information
about the job being analysed. Observation method is suited for jobs
in which the workers behaviours are:

Observable involving some degree of movement on the part of


the jobholder.
Job tasks are short in duration allowing for many observations
to be made in a short period of time or a significant part of the
job analyst can learn information about the job through
observation.

Jobs

in which the observation method is successful include: Machine operator/adjuster


Construction worker
Police officer/patrol officer
Flight attendant
Bus driver
House keeper/janitor
Skilled crafts worker

The observation method is derived from the techniques of workstudy. The method is appropriate for situations where a relatively
small number of key jobs need to be analysed in depth.
Time and Motion study are the most frequently used observation
methods. Motion or methods study involves determining the most
efficient way to do a task or job. It involves studying the motions
and movements necessary for performing a task or job and then
designing the most efficient methods for putting those motions and
movements together.

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Time study is the analysis of a job or task to determine the


elements of work required performing it, the order in which these
elements occur and the times required to perform them effectively.
Work sampling is a type of observation method based on taking
statistical samples of job actions throughout the workday. By taking
an adequate number of samples, inferences can be drawn about the
requirements and demands of the job.
Observation is used to analyse jobs that are relatively simple and
straightforward. It can be used independently or in conjunction with
other methods of analysis. Information includes; what was done,
how it was done, how long it took, what the job environment was
like, and what equipment was used.
Advantages
Simple to use
Can be used effectively for manual repetitive tasks
Disadvantages
A skilled worker can make a job look easy
An experienced worker can make a job look difficult
Mental processes are not revealed
Some manual work is too fast or intricate to be observed
accurately
Not suitable for highly skilled annual work where the actions
are too speedy to observe accurately
Observer must be well trained to know what to look for &
record
JOB ANALYSIS: METHOD 3: QUESTIONNAIRE
This method involves developing structured or semi-structured
questionnaires on different aspects of job-related tasks and
behaviour such as coordinating, negotiating, manual and mental
processes. They are usually completed by jobholders and approved
by the jobholders manager or team leader.
The method can be used to obtain information from a large number
of employees in a relatively short time period. Questionnaires are
used when a large input is needed and time and cost are limiting
factors.
Questionnaire design is a difficult and time-consuming task.
Questions need to be correct and unambiguous; otherwise the
quality of information obtained will fall short of expectation. To get
quality answers, all the questionnaires must be pre-test.
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The accuracy of the results depends on the willingness and ability of


jobholders to complete questionnaires. Many people find t difficult
to express themselves in writing.
Some jobholders may be
suspicious of the questionnaire, not understand the questions and
feel restricted by it. Designing a questionnaire is expensive, since it
needs skilled persons to do it.
Examples of Questionnaires
Some of the standard questionnaires used include: -

Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Programmes


(CODAP)

Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)


Functional Job Analysis (FJA)
Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ)
Supervisory Task Description Questionnaire (STDQ)

The questionnaire method inhibits direct rapport between analyst


and respondent and the respondents cooperation and motivation
are not guaranteed due to impersonal approach.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 4: CHECKLISTS AND INVENTORIES
A checklist for completion by jobholders is similar to a questionnaire
but response requires fewer subjective judgments and tends to be of
the YES and NO variety.
Checklists to be thoroughly prepared and a field study is essential to
ensure the responses sought are adequate and make sense.
Checklists can be used only where a large number of jobholders
exist.
Rating scales or inventories are an improvement of the checklist.
They present a jobholder with a list of activities and require him to
rate them accordingly to time spent on them and importance.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 5: MATERIALS OF WORK
A study of the tools, working materials, machines, documents,
communication, media etc frequently provides a useful check on
information obtained in other ways, and may suggest questions to
be asked.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 6: PREVIOUS STUDIES
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Work study records, training manuals and accident reports are


sometimes available and can be brought up to date or added to
other information. His approach utilizes existing documentation as
a rich source of information about jobs in the structure. Typical
documents studies include; organization charts, budget statements,
letters of appointment and statement of objectives for units. This
particular approach is more likely in an organization planning or job
redesigned exercise.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 7: CRITICAL INCIDENTS
This method seeks to distinguish between effective or ineffective
behaviours of the workers in the job. Job holders are requested to
describe several incidents based on their past experience on a given
job. The incidents collected are analysed and categorized. The end
result draws a fairly clear picture of actual job requirements.
The method is time consuming and requires high level of skill, from
the analyst.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 8: DO-IT-YOURSELF
In some jobs it is feasible for the analyst to spend some time
actually performing the work personally. The analyst should then be
careful not to form too subjective an impression.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 9: WORK DIARIES & LOGS
This approach requires jobholders to analyse their own jobs by
keeping diaries or logs of their activities.
These can be used by the analyst as the basic material for a job
description. The jobholders need guidance on how to keep the
diaries and logs.
Diaries and logs are best used for managerial jobs, which are
complex and where jobholders have the analytical skills required.
The diaries and logs kept are analysed to obtain a list of duties and
their frequency.
Diaries and log are most useful for managerial jobs but they make
great demands on jobholders and can be difficult to analyse. At
times, the jobholder forgets to complete the diary of log on time and
recollection of a days work may not be reliable.
JOB ANALYSIS METHOD 10: HIERARCHICAL TASKS ANALYSIS
This breaks down jobs or areas of work into a hierarchical set of
tasks, sub-tasks and plans. Tasks are defined in terms of objectives
or end products and the plan needed to achieve the objective is also
analysed. The process starts with an analysis of the overall task.
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This is then subjected to further analysis in order to develop a


hierarchy of sub-plans needed to achieve them.
The method
involves: -

Using verbs to describe what has been done.


Defining performance
performance

standards-

desired

level

of

Listing the conditions associated with task performance

This method is used for process or manufacturing jobs.


JOB ANALYSIS 11: SELF DESCRIPTION
Jobholders can be asked to analyse their own jobs and prepare job
descriptions. This saves time for the analysts. But jobholders do
not always find it easy to describe their jobs objectively.
The
method is helpful to produce a model job description to illustrate the
format required.
It is the quickest and most economic form of job analysis. But it
relies on the often-limited ability of people to describe their own
jobs. It is therefore necessary to offer guidance in the form of
questionnaires and checklists.
THE WRITING-UP PROCESS
Clearly job analysis is a sensitive issue. Certain steps need to be
taken to ensure it is conducted effectively.

Decide aims and objectives of the analysis e.g. job


evaluation, organization planning etc
Submit outline plan to senior management
Gain support of senior management
Discuss plan with line managers and specialists and modify
if necessary.

Seek co-operation of employee representatives


Draw up detailed plan with time table
Select and train job analysts, if applicable.
Notify all staff
Implement plot stage

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Review results, discuss any problems

Proceed with final plan


Review results

Once the initial information has been collected, the person


responsible for producing a realistic and readable job description
now has his work cut out. The steps towards the production of a job
description are as shown in the following sequence.

Assemble the key facts about he job, excluding irrelevant


or unclear pieces of information

Sort the key facts into clusters of related issues or


responsibility areas

Commence writing up the initial sections of the job


description (Title, relationships etc)

Write up the main responsibilities as they appear to the


analyst

Then draft out a statement of the overall purpose of the job


Complete rest of description, focusing on the need for
accuracy, clarity and conciseness

Review the first draft to see if it has completeness about it


that it sounds true.

Said a draft to the job-holder, and/or his senior manager for


perusal and comment

Make alterations only if they are judged to be fair to the


facts.

Draw up a final version and submit to the senior person


concerned in the exercise.

TASK
1 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of structured and
unstructured interviews in job analysis.
2 What are some of the disadvantages of the work dairies and logs?

PREPARATION OF A JOB DESCRIPTION AND SPECIFICATION


JOB DESCRIPTIONS
These are derived from job analysis. They provide basic information
about the job under the headings of the job title, reporting
relationships, overall purpose and principle accountabilities or main
tasks or duties. A job description is a broad statement of the
purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
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It is customary for a job description to be written up son as to cover


the following features of the job:

Job title
Immediate supervisor
Relationship with other jobs
Overall purpose of job
Main duties/ responsibilities (key tasks)
Authority granted
Resources available to job holder
Principle qualifications required for the job
Location
Date of analysis
Numbers supervised

Job description can be used: For


organizational,
management purpose.
Here it can be used to: -

recruitment

and

performance

Define the place of the job in the organisation and to clarify


for job holder and others

Provide the information required to produce person


specifications for recruitment and to inform applicants about
the job

Be the basis for the contact of employment


Provide the framework
performance management.

for

setting

objectives

for

Be the basis for job evaluation and grading jobs


Job description for job evaluation purposes. Such a JD should
contain the information included in an organizational description as
well as factor analysis of the job. Factor analysis describes the
incidence of reach job evaluation factor knowledge and skills,
responsibility, decisions, complexity and contacts.

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Job description for training purposes. Such should be based on


the format for an organizational job description. This should include
an analysis of the attributes and competences used in the job.
JOB SPECIFICATION
A job specification is a detailed statement of the physical and
mental activities involved in the job and hen relevant, of social and
physical environmental matters. The specification is usually
expressed in terms of behaviour.
A job specification concentrates on the characteristics needed to
perform the job. It describes the competency, educational and
experience qualifications the incumbent must possess to perform
the job.
Uses of job specifications

For personnel functions a detailed account of the


job is necessary. The most important of these are for:
Selection

Promotion

Appraisal

Setting performance standards

Job evaluation

Training
There is no standard layout or a set of headings for a job
specification; it s found that variations are necessary according to
the type of work e.g. manual or non-manual, and to the
organisation. In general, a job description must emphasize activities
and behaviour.
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH JOB ANALYSIS
In analysis jobs, certain problems can occur. Some of the problems
stem from natural human behaviour, others, from the natural of the
job analysis process.
Some problems encountered include: i.

ii.

Top management support missing. To management


should make it clear to all employees that their full and honest
participation is needed. Such a message is at times not
communicated.
Only a single means and source are used for gathering
data. All too often an analysis process depends on only one of the
many available methods, when a combination of methods might
provide better data.
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iii.

iv.

v.

vi.
vii.

The supervisor and the jobholder do not participate in


the design of job analysis. Too many analyses are a one-man
show. The job holder and his supervisor should be involved early
in the planning of the project
No training or motivation exists for jobholders.
Jobholders are the most important sources of information for
analysis yet they are seldom trained or prepared to generate
quality data. Some are rarely made aware of the importance of
the data and almost never rewarded for providing good
information.
Employees are not allowed sufficient time to complete
the analysis. Usually companies conduct analysis as if it was a
crash programme and employees are not given sufficient time to
do a thorough job analysis.
Activities may be distorted. Without proper training and
supervision, employees may submit distorted data. Those being
watched may speed up if they are made aware.
There is a failure to critique the job. Many analyses just
report what the jobholder currently does. Yet, the job should be
critiqued to determine whether it is being done correctly or
whether improvements can be made.

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TOPIC 3: HUMAN RESOURCES PLANNING (HRP)


Specific Objectives
At the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to:

Discuss the factors to consider in determining


human resources requirements.
Apply the results of human resource planning
Carry out accounting and auditing of human
resources

INTRODUCTION & DEFINITION


Human resource planning (HRP) is an attempt to forecast how many
and what kind of employees will be required in the future, and to
what extent this demand is likely to be met. It involves the
comparison of an organizations current human resources with likely
future needs and consequently the establishment of programmes
for hiring, training, redeploying and possible discarding employees.
Effective HRP should result in the right people doing the right things
in the right place at precisely the right time.
HRP is seen as a strategy for the acquisition, utilization
improvement and retention of an enterprises human resources.
HRP is therefore a strategic process.
HRP is the process for ensuring that the HR requirements of an
organization are identified and plans are made for satisfying those
requirements.
It addresses HR needs in both qualitative and
quantitative terms i.e., how many people and what sort of people.
HRP is also known as workforce planning or personnel planning.
HRP is the process of matching the supply of people internally
(existing employees) and externally (those to be hired or searched
for) with the openings the organization expects to have over a
given period time frame.
The context of HRP is dominated by:
The state of demand for the organizations goods
or services

The supply of people in the labour market

The time-scale involved.


THE LABOUR MARKET
This is basically seen as either, the external labour market or the
internal labour market. The external labour market consists of the

local, regional, national and international labour markets. The


internal labour market is the market for labour within firms the
stocks available and the flow of people within the firm from entry,
through various stages of their career, until they leave.
The internal labour market can be the main source of labour through
policies of:

Development
Training
Promotion
Career planning
Management succession

Purpose of HRP

HRP can help management in making decisions in


the following areas:

Recruitment

Avoidance of redundancies

Training-numbers and categories

Management development

Estimates of labour costs

Productivity bargaining

Accommodation requirements
Importance of HRP
o
To avoid organizations carry out their activities
o
To replace personnel, who are no longer use or are old.
o
To fill vacancies arising from labour turnover.
o
To meet the needs of the expansion programmes which
may include the increase in demand for goods and services of
the organization.
o
To meet the challenges f new and changing technologies
o
To identify areas of surplus personnel or areas in which
there is shortage of personnel.
o
Plan for labour costs as a basis for drawing up HR
budgets.
DETERMINATION OF HR REQUIREMENTS
A critical decision facing organizations before procurement is done is
the determination of the number and type of personnel that should
be provided to the organization. HRP seeks to ensure that a certain
desired number of people with the correct skills will be available at
some specified time in future.
The determination of HR requirements therefore involves: -

i.
ii.
iii.

HR Demand forecasting
HR supply forecasting
HR actions

HUMAN RESOURCE DEMAND FORECASTING


Demand forecasting is the process of estimating the future numbers
of people required and the likely skills and competence they will
need. Demand forecasting may be determined by taking into
consideration:
o Long range factors
o Short range factors
LONG RANGE FACTORS
Though specific numbers are difficult to develop in forecasts,
encompassing 2-5 years or more, those responsible for HRP, must
consider the following: o
o
o
o
o

The firms long range business plans


Demographic trends
Economic factors
Technological trends
Social trends

1. The firms Long Range Business Plans


Such plans may be to expand the firms operations by moving into
new product lines. This would require estimates of the needed
number of employees and skills of the anticipated growth.
If plans call for more efforts in the international market in future,
then decisions must be made regarding the utilization of the host
countrys nationals. Long-range plans may also call for reduction in
labour due to elimination or product LINES OR PLANTS. Relocation
of a company may also have HRP implications.
2. Demographic trends
Demographic trends in a country can determine future demand
patterns of labour by organizations. Fluctuations in population
affect the labour supply available in various categories education,
size, age characteristics, gender characteristics, diseases, birth &
death rates.
3. Economic Trends
Movement from prosperity to recession and back to prosperity poses
considerable problems for HR Managers. During prosperity demand

for jobs by firms is likely to increase. The reverse happens during a


recession.
4. Technological Trends
Advances in technology have definite effect on the nature and
mixture of jobs available. For instance, advances in I.T, resulted in a
decrease in the number of bookkeepers and an increase in demand
for computer programmers. It has been noted that the current level
of technology for building robots will enable the replacement of 2/3
of the factory workforce.
5. Social Trends
Changes in custom and civil rights would influence labour
projections. Mobility of personnel due to family commitments also
affects demand for labour.
SHORT RANGE FACTORS
The short factors to be considered in demand forecasting include:o
o
o

Production schedules/budgets.
Affirmative action plans.
Relocation/plant closings.

1. Production Schedules/Budgets
Specific sales forecasts for the coming year must be translated into
a work programme for the various sections of an enterprise. Some
plans must be made concerning the amount of work that each
segment of the organization is expected to accomplish during some
coming period.
2. Affirmative Action Planning
An organization may be forced to hire certain categories of
employees minority tribes or females. This must be reflected in the
HRP.
3. Relocation/Plant Closings
Recession in the economy may lead to temporary closures or
relocations. This may lead to reduction in the labour force. Poor
company development and expansion strategy also may lead to
relocations and closures.
HOW TO FORECAST PERSONNEL NEEDS
There are several things to consider when forecasting personnel
needs.
The expected demand for your product or service is
paramount. These sales are generally estimated first. Then the

staff required to achieve this volume of output is estimated. Other


things to consider are;

Projected turnover resignations/terminations


Quality and skills of your employees in relation
to the changing needs of the organization
Decisions to upgrade the quality of products or
services that enter into the market.
Technological and other changes resulting in
increased productivity.
The
financial resources
available
to the
department

Whichever method one uses, managerial judgment will play a big


role. Judgment is thus needed to modify the forecast based on
factors such as projected turnover, or a desire to enter new
markets.
METHODS OF LABOUR DEMAND FORECASTING
In a particular situation the following factors in addition to other
factors may affect future labour demand:

Organizational goals and plans


Changes in productivity
Changes in organizational structure or job design

The above factors are known as Leading Indicators.


forecasting labour demand is;

The task in

First to obtain direction in which the leading indicators are moving


and
Second, to assess the likely effects of these events on the number
and type of employees that will be needed by the organization.
The methods of demand forecasting involve the following 4 steps: i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Select from among the leading indictors, those most


likely to be relevant in the particular situation at hand.
Establish the nature of historical relationships between
the leading indicators selected and the labour demand
Obtain forecasts or projections of the leading indicators
Forecast demand (make estimates using data from steps
(ii) & (iii). This helps identify the gap between the current and
needed workforce.

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR DEMAND FORECASTING

The following are the basic demand forecasting methods for


estimating the numbers of people required: i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)

Managerial judgment
Ratio-trend analysis
Work-study techniques
Modelling
Delphi technique
Time series analysis
Scatter plot

1. MANAGERIAL JUDGEMENT
Under the managerial estimates method, managers make estimates
of future staff needs based primarily on past experience. These
estimates can be made by top-level managers and passed on to
other managers. The managers simply, sit, think about their future
workloads, and decide how many people they need. It may be a
top-down or bottom-up process. The forecasts made one man
reviewed and agreed with departmental managers.
TASK
Discuss the factors on the basis of which managers can be able to make judgment
about personnel needs.

The best way to managerial estimates is by se of both top-down and


bottom-up processes. The two forecasts are reviewed by a HR
planning committee and approved. This is known as the right-angle
method.
2. RATIO-TREND ANALYSIS
This is carried out by studying past ratios between the number of
direct workers and indirect workers (support) in a manufacturing
plant and forecasting future ratios. The number of direct workers
needed can be used to determine the number of indirect workers
needed.
This means making forecast based on the ratio between (i) Same
causal factor (e.g. sales volume) and ii) number of employees
required. Ratio analysis assumes that productivity remains about
the same.
3. WORK STUDY TECHNIQUES

These can be used when it is possible to apply work measurement


to calculate how long operations should take and the number of
people required. This starts from a companys production budget.
Work-study techniques for direct workers can be combined with
ratio-trend analysis to calculate the number of indirect workers
needed.
4. MODELLING
Mathematical modelling techniques using computers and
spreadsheets can help in the preparation of demand and supply
forecasts.
Employers also use computer programs to forecast personnel
requirements. Typically data needed include direct labour hours
needed to produce one unit of the product and three sales
projections minimum, maximum and probable. Based on such
data a typical programme generates figures on average staff levels
required to meet production demands, as well as separate
computerized forecasts for direct labour and indirect staff, plus the
exempt staff. Method also known as modelling.

TASK
Describe the process of demand forecasting using the work study technique.

Examples of statistical modelling techniques.


5. TIME SERIES & ANALYSIS
Past staffing levels (instead of workload indicators) are sued to
project future HR requirements. Past staffing levels are examined to
isolate seasonal and cyclical variations, long-term trends and
random movements. Long-term trends are then extrapolated or
projected.
Here one studies a companys employment level over the last 5
years or so to predict future needs. Trend analysis is valuable as an
initial estimate, but employment levels rarely depend solely on the
passage of time.
6. PRODUCTIVITY RATIOS
Historical data are used to examine past levels of a productivity
index.
P

Workload

Number of people
Where constant, or systematic, relationships are found human
resource requirements could be computed by dividing predicted
workloads by P.
7. REGRESSION ANALYSIS
Past levels of various workload indicators, such as sales, production
levels and value added are examined for statistical relationships
with staffing levels. Where sufficiently strong relationships are
found, a regression model is derived. Forecasted levels of the
related indicator are entered into the resulting model and used to
calculate the associated level of HR requirements.
8. DELPHI TECHNIQUE
With this method, each member of a panel of experts makes an
independent estimate of what the future demand will be, along with
any underlying assumptions. An intermediary then presents each
experts forecast and assumptions to the others and allows the
experts to revise their positions if they desire. This continues until
some consensus is reached.
THE SCATTER PLOT.
This can be used to determine whether two factors a measure of
business activity and the staff levels are related. If they are, then
one can forecast the measure of business activity he should be able
to get and also estimate the HR requirements.

TASKS
What is the role of the HR Personnel in the HR planning process?
List the common pitfalls in HR planning.

ADVANTAGES OF HRP

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)

Equips the organization to cope with the HR


consequences of changed circumstances.
May enable a firm to discover new and improved ways
of managing human resources.
Helps create and develop employee training and
management succession programmes.
Labour shortfalls and surpluses may be avoided.
May enable a company foresee some of the
consequences amid needs of managing change.
Compels management to examine the strengths and
weaknesses of its labour force and personnel policies.
Duplication of effort among employees may be avoided.
Improves co-ordination and integration of workers
efforts.
Assists in career management and management
development programmes.

HR LABOUR SUPPLY FORECASTING AND THE HR ACTIONS


Reminder

HRP entails the following five areas of activity: 1


2
3
4
5

Demand forecasting
Supply forecasting
Determining the HR requirements
Action planning
Monitoring and Control

In assessing the supply of labour available to the organization there


are tow major areas to be reviewed.
i)
ii)

The existing workforce (the internal labour market)


The supply of potential employees (the external labour
market)

Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be


available from within and from outside the organization, having
allowed for absenteeism, internal movements and promotions,
wastage and changes in hours and other conditions of work.
The supply analysis covers:

Existing human resources


Potential losses to existing resources through
employee wastage
Potential changes to existing resources through
internal promotions
Effect of changing conditions of work and
absenteeism
Sources of supply from within the organization
Sources of supply from outside the organization
national and local labour markets

A typical analysis of supply will focus on the following:


Existing staff:
Numbers, categories, skills, performance, flexibility, promotability

Potential staff:
Location, categories, skills, trainability, attitudes and competition

Less Leavers:
Retirement, wastage rates, redundancies and dismissals

Manpower Flows in an Organization


Promotions out

Transfers

Transfers in

Retirement
Voluntary
retirement
Resignations
Recruits in

Redundancy

Promotions in

ANALYZING
EXISTING HUMAN
RESOURCES
The basic analysis should classify employees by function or
department, occupation, level of skill and status. The aim is to
identify resource centres consisting of broadly homogeneous
groups from which forecasts of supply need t be made.
A detailed analysis is needed to provide inventories of skills and
potential, and knowledge of the number of promotable people
available. An analysis of employees by age helps to identify
problems arising from a sudden rush of retirements, a block in
promotion prospects or a preponderance of older employees.
Length of service analysis will provide survival rates, which are a
necessary tool for use by planners in predicting future resources.
The analysis of current resources should look at the existing ratios
between different categories of employees mangers and tam
leaders, skilled to semi-skilled, direct to indirect, office staff to
production. Recent movements in these ratios should be studies to
provide guidance on trends and to highlight areas where raid
changes may result in supply problems.
1.
Labour Turnover or Wastage
A common index of labour performance is labour turnover. It
provides information about the ratio of leavers to the average
numbers employed during the course of a year. It is usually
examined as: Number of Employees leaving during the year x 100
Average numbers employed during the year

A turnover rate of 25% would be considered satisfactory, while a


turnover rate of 100% is considered a major problem.
The above index however has some disadvantages; it does not
indicate in which areas of the organization the rate of leavers is
high; it does not identify the length of service of the leavers; it does
not indicate any sudden changes in the numbers employed from
one year to the next.
Some organizations, in addition to the labour index, make use of a
labour stability index which links the leaving rate with length of
service.
Number of leavers with more than one years service
Number employed one year ago

x 100

The result of the measure of performance is to identify the extent to


which new recruits leave, rather than longer serving employees.
Employee turnover should be analysed in order to forecast future
losses and to identify the reasons for people leaving the
organization.
The stability index provides an indication of the tendency for longerservice employees to remain with the company the degree to
which there is continuity of employment. The index will however
not show the vastly different situations that exist in a company or
department with a high proportion of long-serving employees in
comparison with one where the majority of employees are short
service.
The shortcomings of the stability index may be partly overcome if
an analysis is also made of the average length of service of people
who leave - length of service analysis.

Period 1 Jan 31 Dec


Category
Unskilled
Skilled
Clerical
Supervision
Management

Less than 6 6 to 12
months
Months

1 to 2
Years

3 to 5
Years

6 to 10
Years

* Leavers by length of service


If required such an analysis could be further refined to show leavers
by department or unit as well as by length of service.
Another method of analysing turnover is the survival rate. This is
the proportion of employees who are engaged within a certain
period who remain with the organization after so many months or
years of service. Thus, an analysis of trainees who have completed
training might show that after 2 years, 10 of the original cohort of
20 were still with the company - a survival rate of 50%. HR planners
must allow for half the recruits in any one-year to be lost over the
next couple of years, unless they take care of the factors causing
the wastage.
A simpler concept derived from survival rate analysis is that the
half life index - time taken for a group or cohort of starters to
reduce to half its original size through the wastage process.
LABOUR TURNOVER
Labour turnover is the movement of people into and out of firm.
The term separation is used to denote an employee who leaves for
any reason. Staff turnover has a number of advantages and
disadvantages.
Advantages

It provides an incentive to recruit fresh staff

It enables organizations to shed staff more easily


when redundancies are planned (i.e. through natural wastage)

It opens up promotion channels for longer


serving staff.

It introduces an element of self-selection among


new employees, which may save dismissals at a later date.

Disadvantages

Additional cost of replacement recruitment

Disruptions to production of gods or services


caused by leavers.

Additional training costs, especially induction and


initial job training

Wasted investment in people

May lead to difficulties in attracting new staff


Separations and their consequent replacements can be expensive.
The cost of labour turnover increases when employees are more

specialized, more difficult to find and require more training. The


cost of labour turnover is made up of some or all of the following
components.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)

Lower production during the learning period


Lost production while the employee is being replaced
Payment to other employees at overtime rates while
waiting for a replacement
Possible diversion of efforts of more highly skilled
employees while waiting for a replacement
Cost of recruitment, selection and medical examination
Training costs
Administrative cost of removing from and adding to
payroll.

Reducing Labour Turnover


If an employing firm wishes to reduce its labour turnover, because it
considers it excessive, it may take the following action:

Recalculate: the separation rate for various


categories of the firms employees departments, are groups,
occupations to see I turnover in any of these categories is
particularly high; and if so be investigated.
Ensure: that selection procedures are adequate;
suitable employees are more likely to stay than the unsuitable.
Ensure: that the immediate supervisor, by being
involved in selection, feels some responsibility towards a new
employee.
Check: that employees are being fully utilized
some may be leaving because of boredom or job dissatisfaction.
Overhaul: the pay structure perhaps using job
evaluation.
Introduce: or improve an induction course.
Give new employees appropriate training
Show that prospects in the company are good by
promoting from within wherever possible.
Ensure that physical working conditions are
adequate.

ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF PROMOTIONS & TRANSFERS


The supply forecast should indicate the number of vacancies that
will have to be filled to meet the demand forecast. In a large
organization, persistent patterns or of promotion or transfer may
develop and it may be possible to predict the proportions of
employees in particular categories who are likely to be promoted or

moved in the future by starting with a forecast of the chain reaction


factor, to give a broad indication of the number of displacements
that may occur.
Assessing changes in conditions of work and absenteeism
This assessment should cover factors operating within the firm such
as changes in all the following; normal weekly hours of work,
overtime policies, the length and time of holidays, retirement policy,
the policy for employing part-timers and shift systems. The effect of
absenteeism on the future supply of employees should also be
allowed, and trends in absenteeism should be analysed to trace
causes and identify possible remedial actions.
ANALYSING SOURCES OF SUPPLY
Internal labour market sources include the output from established
schemes or management development programmes and the
reservoirs of skill and potential that already exists within the
organization. But the availability pf people from the local and
national labour markets is also a vital factor when preparing plans.
It is necessary to identify at an early stage any categories of
employees where there might be difficulties in recruiting the
numbers required so that action can be taken in good time to
prepare a recruiting campaign, or to develop training or re-training
programmes to convert available staff to meet the companys
needs.
The factors that can have an important bearing on the
supply of manpower are: 1. Local Labour Market

Population densities within reach of the company

Current and future competition for employees


from other employers

Local unemployment levels

Traditional pattern of employment locally, and the


availability of people with the required qualifications and skills

The output from the local educational system and


training establishments.

The attractiveness of the area as a place to live

The attractiveness of the company as a place to


work

The availability of part-time employees

Local housing, shopping and transport facilities.


2. National Labour Supply

Demographic trends in the number of schoolleavers and the size of the working population.
National demands for special categories of
employees graduates, professional staff, technologists,
technicians, and skilled workers.
The output of the universities, professional
institutions and other educational and training establishments
The effect f changing educational patterns
The impact of national training initiatives
Impact of government employment regulations

Nature of the
competition on for

Level of economic
activity

labour

Government
policies

Organizations ability to make full


use of the
market
Newlabour
Technology

Wage/Salary levels

Trade Union
attitudes

Population
changes

Figure: Factors Affecting Nature of External labour Market

TASK
Discuss the specific government activities that have an impact on
the national labour supply.

Education/training
opportunities

RECONCILING SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR LABOUR AND THE HR


ACTIONS
Upon completion of forecasts of labour and demand and supply the
results must be reconciled before HR actions can be determined and
taken.
Example of reconciliation table

Job category
interpretation

labour demand

labour supply

gap

140

137

-3

200

251

+51

300

282

-18

375

282

-93

shortage
2
surplus
3
shortage
4
shortage
HUMAN RESOURCE ACTIONS
Action plans are derived from the broad resourcing strategies and
the more detailed analysis of demand and supply factors. Action
pans should be made in the following areas: i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)

An overall plan as required to deal with shortages


arising if there are demographic pressures
A human resource development plan
A recruitment plan
A retention plan
A plan to achieve greater flexibility
A productivity plan
A downsizing plan

1) OVERALL PLAN
Demographic pressures are likely to be experienced even during a
recession as there are still areas where skill shortage exists and
these may multiply in the future. It is, as such, advisable to be
prepared to take a selection of the following steps as part of an
overall HR plan.

Improve methods of identifying the sort of young


people the organisation wants to recruit
Establishing links with schools and colleges to gain
their interest in the organisation

Develop
career
programmes
and
training
packages to attract young people
Widening the recruitment net to include, for
example, more women re-entering the labour market
Finding ways of tapping alternative pools of
suitable workers e.g. part time employees
Adapting working hours and arrangements to the
needs of new employees and those with domestic responsibilities
Providing more attractive benefit packages e.g.
child care facilities
Developing the talents and making better use of
existing employees
Providing retraining for existing and new
employees to develop different skills
Making every effort to retain new recruits and
existing staff.

2) THE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN


The HR development plan will show:

Number of trainees required and the programme


for recruiting and training them
Number of existing staff who need training,
retraining and the training programmes required
The need learning programmes to be developed or
the changes to be made existing programmes and courses
How the required flow of promotable managers
can be maintained

3) THE RECRUITMENT PLAN


This will take account of the flow of trainees or retraining staff and
set out:

Numbers and types of employees required to take


care of the deficit
Likely sources of recruits
Methods of attracting good candidates training
and development programmes, attractive pay and benefits
packages, golden hellos (money paid up front to recruits), flexible
working arrangements, generous relocation payments, child care
facilities and so on.

4) THE RETENTION PLAN


This should be based on why people want to leave. Exit interviews
may provide some information but they can be unreliable people
rarely give the full reasons why they are leaving. A better method is

to have attitude surveys on a regular basis. A retention plan should


address each of the areas in which lack of commitment and
dissatisfaction can arise. Such areas include: a)
PAY
Problems arise because of uncompetitive, in equitable or unfair pay
systems. Remedial action may include: Review of pay levels
Job evaluation to provide equitable grading

decisions

Ensure people understand the link between


performance and reward
Review performance related pay schemes
ensure they are fair.
Adapt payment by results systems to ensure
that employees are not penalized when they are engaged only on
short runs
Tailor benefits to individual requirements and
preferences
Involve employees in developing and operating
job evaluation and PRP schemes

b)
JOBS
Dissatisfaction arises if jobs are unrewarding in themselves. Job
design should maximize skill variety, task significance, autonomy
and feedback and provide opportunities for learning and growth
c)
PERFORMANCE
Unclear responsibilities and performance standards may cause
demotivation. The following actions can be taken. The following
actions can be taken.

Express performance requirements as had but


attainable goals
Get employees and managers to agree on
performance goals and what should be done to achieve them
Encourage managers to praise employees for
good performance, give regular performance feedback and
discuss performance problems.

d)
Train managers in performance review techniques e.g.
counselling; brief employees on how the performance management
system works and obtain feedback from the workers
e)

TRAINING

Lack of proper training may increase resignation s and turnover.


Learning programmes and training schemes should be developed
and introduced which:

Give employees the competence and confidence


to achieve set performance standards
Enhance existing skills and competence
Help people to acquire new skills and competence
make use of their abilities, take greater responsibility, variety of
tasks and earn more under skill and competence based pay
schemes.
TASKS
- What are the four basic steps in the HRP process?
- What is the role of HR personnel in the HRP process?
- List and explain eight common pitfalls in HRP

f)
CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Dissatisfaction with career prospects is a major cause of turnover.
Companies should plan to provide career opportunities by:
Providing employees with wider experience

Introducing more systematic procedures for


identifying potential such as assessment or development centres

Encourage promotion procedures

Provide advice and guidance on career paths.


g)
COMMITMENT
This can be increased by:
Explaining organisations mission, value and
strategies

Commitment to all employees on time

Provide opportunities for employees to contribute


their ides on improving work systems
h)
LACK OF GROUP COHESION
Employees feel isolated and unhappy if they are not part of a
cohesive team.
This can be tackled through: Teamwork, setting up self managed
or autonomous work groups, Team building
i)
DISSATISFACTION AND CONFLICT WITH MANAGERS AND
SUPERVISORS
A common reason for resignations is the feeling that management
and supervisors are not providing leadership, are treating people
unfairly or bullying their staff. This can be solved by: -

Selecting
managers/supervisors
with
welldeveloped qualities
Training in leadership skills, conflict resolution and
dealing with grievances
Have better grievance handling procedures

j)
RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND PROMOTION
Turnover may result from poor selection or promotion decisions.
Selection and promotion procedures must match the capacities of
individuals and demands of the work they have to do.
k)
OVER MARKETING
Creating expectations about career development opportunities,
training programs and interesting work and not matching this with
reality may lead directly to dissatisfaction and early resignation.
Take care not to oversell, the firms employee development policies.
5. THE FLEXIBILITY PLAN
Such a plan should aim to:
Provide for greater operational flexibility

Improve the utilization of employees skills


and capacities

Help to achieve downsizing smoothly,


avoiding compulsory redundancies

Increase productivity
A flexibility plan should consider:
New arrangements for flexible hours

Alternatives to full-time permanent staff

New overtime arrangements

New shift working arrangements

Flexible hour arrangements


Alternative to full-time permanent staff includes us of temporary
workers, job sharing, home working and teleworking, subcontracting
and so on.
TASK
What are the advantages of using part time workers, and what are
the disadvantages
6. THE PRODUCTIVITY PLAN
This sets out programmes for improving productivity or reducing
employment costs in such areas as: -

Improving or streamlining methods, procedures


and systems mechanization, automation or computerization
Use of financial and non-financial incentives

7. THE DOWNSIZING PLAN


Such a plan should be based on the timing of reductions and
forecasts of the extent to which these can be achieved by natural
wastage or voluntary redundancy. The plan should set out:

Number of people who have to go, when and from


which departments
Arrangements
for
communicating
to
the
employees and union
The redundancy terms
Financial inducements
Arrangements for retraining counselling sessions

The HRP should include budgets; targets and standards clarify


responsibilities for implementation and control and establish
reporting procedures
TASKS:
Identify and discuss some of the alternative activities to retrenchment that a
company may undertake

Reducing the total number of employees, downsizing, can be


undertaken in four basic ways: - layoffs, terminations, early
retirement inducements and voluntary resignation inducements.
A layoff as opposed to a termination, assumes it is likely that the
employee will be recalled at some later date.
Approaches that do not result in employees leaving the organisation
include; reclassification (either a demotion of an employee,
downgrading of job responsibilities or a combination of the two),
transfer and work sharing.
COMMON PITFALLS IN HRP
Unfortunately HRP is not always successful. The following are some
of the common pitfalls

The identify crisis HR planners work in an


environment characterized by ambiguous regulations, company
politics and diverse management style. HR planners spend so
much time looking for something meaningful to do while the
organisation questions the reason for their existence

Sponsorship of top Management for HRP to work,


it must have the support of at least one influential senior
executive. If this is missing the process may fail
Size of the initial effort many HRP programmes
fail because of an overcomplicated initial effort. A good
programme should start slow and gradually expand. An accurate
skills inventory and replacement chart is a good place to start.
Coordination with the Management and HR
functions HRP must be coordinated with the other management
and HR functions. Unfortunately, HRP tends to become absorbed
in their own function and fail to interact with others
Integration with organizational plans HRP must
be derived from organisation plans. If this does not happen, the
process is doomed to fail
Quantitative Vs Qualitative approaches a strictly
quantitative approach HRP is numbers game in, out, up, down
and across, while a strictly qualitative approach focuses on
concerns for promotability and for career development. A
balanced approach is one that may yield better results
Non involvement of operating managers HRP is
strictly not a HR department function. Successful HRP requires a
coordinated effort on the parts of operating managers and the HR
personnel
The technique trap there is sometimes a
tendency to adopt one or more of the HRP methods not for what
they can do, but rather because every one is using them. Pre
occupation with the in thing can be a major shortage.

HRP LIMITING FACTORS


HR planning can be difficult and often in accurate. The chief reasons
are:
1.
Type of industry some depend on new product development
in an extremely competitive environment; others may depend on
political decisions which are impossible to forecast, while others
work on a tendering basis
2.
Opposition or scepticism among members of management; all
must be convinced of the value of HRP if it is to be a success
3.
Resistance to the changes expressed in the plan. Forecasts of
labour structure, with their effects on skills and status, may be
regarded as a threat
4.
The difficulty of forecasting social and economic changes
accurately, especially in an era of high unemployment
5.
The need to have very complete and accurate employee
records, to be used to detect trends in employee movement.
Such may be unreliable in times of high unemployment
6.
Rapid growth of new technologies

7.

The plan may indicate recruitment and training, which


although desirable, may not be possible due to cash flow
constraints

TASKS:
o
o
o
o

The physical relocation of a businesss premises creates a number of HRM problems. Which ones are
these?
Discuss examples of outplacement procedures that may be undertaken by an organisation
Define outplacement and explain how it operates
State some ways in which labour turnover may be reduced

TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING.


The following tools are available to assist in the HRP process
1.
2.
3.
4.

Skills inventory
Succession planning/organisation replacement chart
Commitment manpower planning
Ratio planning

SKILLS INVENTORY
This consolidates information about the organisation human
resources. It provides basic information on all employees, including
in its simplest form a list of names, certain characterizes and skills
of employees.
Because the information from a skills inventory is used as input into
promotion and transfer decisions, it should contain information
about each employees portfolio of skills and not just those relevant
to the employees current job. The following broad categories of
information should be included in a skills inventory

Personal data, age, sex, marital status


Skills; education, job experience, training
Special qualifications: membership in professional
groups, special achievements
Salary and job history: present and past salary,
dates of raises, various jobs held
Company data; benefit plan data, retirement
information, seniority
Capacity of individual; test scores on psychological
and other tests, health information
Special preferences of individual; geographical
location type of job

The primary advantage of a skills inventory is that it finishes a


means to quickly and accurately evaluate the skills available within
the organisation. In addition to helping determine promotion and
transfer decisions, this information is necessary for making other
decisions, such as whether to bid on a new contract or introduce a
new product.
A skills inventory also aids in planning future employee training and
management development programmes and in recruiting and
selecting new employees

HR Accounting and Auditing


As used with reference to HRM, these terminologies involve accounting for
the total potential HR of the organisation; i.e. identifying an recording the
total number of employees, their skills (academic and professional
qualifications), work experiences, etc and auditing i.e. counterchecking the
accuracy of HR accounting to determine the right total quantity and quality
of current organisations manpower.
Through HR accounting and auditing, staffing schedules and manning table
and skills inventories can be prepared to be used for HRP purposes

SUCCESSION PLANNING
This identifies specific people to fill key positions throughout the
organisations. It almost always involves use of a replacement chart.
Succession planning is basically a plan for identifying who is
currently in post and who is available and qualified to take over in
the event of retirement, voluntary leaving, dismissal or sickness.
A typical succession chart is as shown below: - (such information is
contained in an organisation replacement chart, which shows both
incumbents and potential replacements for given positions.

SKILL INVENTORY PROFORMA


PERSONAL FACTORS
Name -----------------------------------------Age ----------------------------------------Gender -------------------------------------------------Marital status ----------------------

Place

of

Present

birth
address

Tel

No

EDUCATION AND TRAINING


School/college/university
attended
-----------------------------------Diploma/degree
obtained
(with
-------------------------------------Details
of
training
-------------------------------------------------------------

with

years
distinctions)
completed

EXPERIENCE AND SKILLS


Job
areas/
field
of
specialization
-------------------------------------------------------Special
skills
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Title / title of job / jobs held / with period / duration
----------------------------ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Pay/salary ----------------------------------Grade
---------------------Performance /evaluation ratings -------------------Absenteeism
period
--------------------------------------------------------------------Disciplinary
records
-------------------------------------------------------------------Career
plans
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Departmen
t
Present

Manager

Date

Management

Jobholders

Post

Jobholder

Age

Performanc
e

Possible
successors
First choice:
Second
choice

Ready

A Management succession chart


To be effective replacement charts must be periodically updated to
reflect changes in scenarios and potential requirements. Under an
optimal succession planning system, individuals are initially
identified as candidates to move up after being nominated by
management. Then performance appraisal data are reviewed,
potential is assessed, developmental programmes are formulated
and career paths are mapped out.
A potential problem with many succession plans is the crowned
prince syndrome which occurs when management considers for
advancement only those who have managed to become visible to
senior management. Another problem with succession planning is
that so much information must be tracked that it is very difficult to
do it manually.
COMMITMENT MANPOWER PLANNING (CMP)
This is a relatively recent approach, to HR planning designed to get
managers and their employees thinking about and involved in HRP.
In addition to encouraging managers and employees to think about
HRP, CMP provides a systematic approach to HRP.
CMP generates three reports that supply the following information;

The supply of employees and the promotability


and placement status of each
The organizations demand, arising from new
positions and turnover and projected vacancies for each job title
and
The balance or status of supply versus demand,
including the name, job and location of all those suitable for
promotions

RATIO ANALYSIS
Two basic premises apply here.
First, that an organisation is vital in terms of its human resources
to the extent that it has people with high potential who are
promotable, either now or in future and backups have been
identified to replace the incumbents.

Second, is that an organisation is stagnant to the extent that


employees are not promotable and no backups have been identified
to replace the incumbents. The end product ratio analysis is an
overall organizational vitality index (OVI). This is calculated based
on the number of promotable personnel and the number of existing
backups in the organisation.

Do you think better HRP could have prevented much of the downsizing that
has gone on in many large companies?

TOPIC 4: RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION


At the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to:

Explain the meaning of recruitment and selection


Explain the basis for determining when to recruit
Identify sources of recruitment
Apply the procedure for recruitment
Determine appropriate organizations policy on
disadvantaged groups
Definitions
Recruitment involves seeking and attracting a pool
of people from which qualified candidates for job vacancies can
be chosen.

There is a minor distinction between recruitment and selection.


Recruitment involves the attraction of suitable candidates to vacant
positions, both internally and externally to the organisation.
Selection involves the choosing of suitable candidates attracted via
the recruitment process.
It is seen as the process of seeking out and attempting to attract
individuals in external labour markets who are capable of and
interested in filling available job vacancies. It is concerned with
developing or generating a pool of job candidates in line with the HR
plan.
Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees
and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an
organization. Since it involves the process of searching for
prospective employees, it is concerned with the range of sources of
supply of labour and the techniques involved in getting the
employees into an organisation.
It is an intermediate activity whose primary function is to serve as a
link between HRP and selection. The purpose of recruitment is to
provide a large pool of job candidates so that the organisation will
be able to select qualified candidates it needs.
Recruitment therefore has no direct effect on the quality of
employees taken into an organisation; rather selection is relied upon
to pick candidates who have the ability and motivation to become
productive employees of the organisation
Significance of the Recruitment Process

Recruitment enables organisations to receive a large pool of job


applicants from where short listing and selection of the right
candidates can be done. Recruitment is an activity used by
organisations to fill job vacancies with qualified individuals and
hence the attainment of organizational goals.
Failure to generate adequate numbers of reasonably qualified job
candidates can be costly to an organisation in the following ways:

It may greatly complicate the selection process

The jobindescription
and personnel
specifications
e.g. by leading
extreme cases,
to the lowering
of the set hiring

standards. Lower qualities hires mean an extra expenditure on


employee
development
and supervision
to attain
satisfactory
A job description
is an authoritative
document
on the
job to
be carried
out by the post holder.
levels
of performance.
It is therefore essential
job descriptions
When that
recruitment
fails are:
to meet organizational

Accurate.
They
should
contain
information,
which
needs for talent, a typical response is to rise they pay
levelisbut
relevant
and
factual.
Any
unnecessary
information
should
this may however distort traditional wage and salary
not be included.
relationships
in the organisation. A rise in pay level will be

Succinct.
The
information
be simple,
concise
and to
needed
to attract
highly
skilled should
manpower
that will
be stimulated
the point. It should be understood by those who will have
and encouraged to apply for an organisation vacant position.
access to it post holder, line manager, HR department etc.
Lack of qualified candidates may lead to added
Clarified. In terms of the main tasks, duties and
costs through
re-advertisement
responsibilities
and the reporting relationships.

Drafted. Using action verbs.

These include; drawing,

BASIS FOR
DETERMINING
writing,
repairing etc. WHEN TO RECRUIT
One of the first steps in planning for recruitment of employees into
an Once
organisation
is to
establish
polices
and procedures.
the JD has
been
written, adequate
the personnel
specification
is next. A
recruitment
policy
represents
the
organizations
code
of
conduct
This is a profile of the ideal candidate the company wishes in
recruit.
It is the psychological blueprint of the person
thisto
area
of activity.
skills, knowledge, experience etc.

Before recruitment is undertaken, the need for recruitment must be


The personnel
specification is
as; manonspecification,
determined.
A determination
byalso
the known
organisation,
when to recruit
job
specification,
person
specification
and
employee
involves conducting HR planning and analysing the HRP
results. If
specification.
the projected labour demand is more than projected supply, the
organisation
fill the gap
through
recruitment.
There are should
two scientific
methods,
which
are used Recruitment
to draft
willpersonnel
thus be sourced
from
internal
and
external
sources.
specifications;
Vacancies
must be Plan
determined for various positions in various
Seven-Point
departments.
Most
organisations
Five Fold
Graded
System use a Personnel Requisition Form
to officially request the HR manager to take action to fill a particular
position.
The Form describes
the
for the
need
hire a
new
The Seven-Point
Plan uses
thereason
following
criteria
to to
define
the
person
personnel
and the
specifications;
requirements for the job. It is a good idea to attach a
1 Physicaland
make-up
Job Description
personnel specifications to the Requisition Form.
2
3
4
5
6
7

Attainments
General intelligence
Special aptitudes
Interests
Disposition
Circumstances

The Five Point Grading is another way of defining personnel


specifications. The five aspects of the individual are:
1
2

Impact on others.
Acquired knowledge or qualifications

Factors Influencing the Need for Recruitment


1. Expansion and growth of organisations
2. Separations; voluntary quits, death, retirement, retrenchment
3. Mergers and take over this may call for a need for critical
skills absent in the organisation especially the top position
4. Setting up a new enterprise
5. Changes in technology and methods of operation new
computers machines etc
6. Restructuring or reengineering
7. Introduction of new products or services
SOURCES OF QUALIFIED PERSONNEL
An organisation may fill a particular job either with someone already
deployed by the organisation (Internal sources) or with someone
from outside (External sources). Each source has advantages and
also disadvantages
Internal Sources of Recruitment
This includes personnel already on the payroll of an organisation
its workforce. It is the best place to source someone to fill a vacancy
but only for organisations that have been effective in recruiting and
selecting employees in the past.
Recruitment is a costly business. If the position can be filled in any
other way other than direct recruitment, then it will be worthwhile
for the organisation to pursue such possibilities.
Instead of spending lots of money recruiting a candidate externally,
a company can fill a vacancy in a number of ways:

Job Sharing: The job can be arranged so that the


tasks are shared out among two or maybe three people. This is
done on a part-time/job sharing basis. This pattern is suitable for
mothers who have returned to work after having a family and
who want to combine looking after their families with a career.
Overtime: This is a method used to resource peaks
in production or demand. Employees work a set amount of hours
over their usual contractual hours and usually get paid a higher
premium than their normal hourly rate sometimes time and a
half or double time
Secondment: This operates by staff being
temporarily transferred to work in another section or department.
This can be on both a full time or part time basis.
Sub-contract: By sub-contracting certain jobs and
duties, employers avoid on-costs like national insurance
contributions, tax and sick pay. Many large employers use sub62

contracting on a regular basis. Sub-contracting is also known as


outsourcing.
Use of a recruitment agency: This is an option,
which many companies use to fill temporary or permanent
positions. It is also used by companies to cover maternity or
long-term sick leave.

Whenever a vacancy occurs, someone from within the organisation


is upgrade, transferred, promoted or sometimes even demoted.
Advantages
1.
Better motivation of employees because their capabilities are
considered and opportunities offered for promotion.
2.
Better utilization of employees because the company can
often make better use of their abilities in a different job
3.
The employer is in a better position to evaluate those
presently employed than the outside candidates
4.
It is more reliable because a present employee is known more
thoroughly than an external candidate
5.
It promotes loyalty among employees for it gives them a
sense of job security and opportunities for advancement
6.
A present employee is more likely to stay with the company
than an external candidate
7.
It is quicker and cheaper than external sources
8.
Since those employed are fully aware of and well acquainted
with the organisations polices and operating procedures, they
require little training and even induction
9.
More accurate data and available concerning current
employees thus reducing the chances of making a wrong
decision
10. Full utilization of the abilities of the organisations employees
improves the organizations return on its investment this takes
into consideration that organisations have a sizable investment in
their workforce
Disadvantages
i)
Leads to inbreeding and discourages new blood, from
joining an organization
ii)
Infighting for promotions can become overly intense
and have a negative effect on the morale and performance of
people who are not promoted
iii)
There are possibilities that internal sources may dry
up and it may be difficult to find the required person from within
an organisation
iv)
As promotion is mostly based on seniority, the
danger is that really capable people may not be chosen for
63

v)
vi)

vii)

promotion the likes and dislikes of the management may also


play an important role in selection of personnel
It seldom contributes new ideas or innovations that
may be very important for progress in a competitive economy
Internal sources should only be used if the vacancy to
be filled is within the capacity of present employees and if
adequate employee records have been maintained and an
opportunity is provided in advance for employees to prepare
themselves for promotion.
If an organisation promotions from within, it needs a
strong employee and management development programme to
ensure its people can handle larger responsibilities.

External Sources of Recruitment


External recruiting is needed in organisations that are growing
rapidly or have a large demand for technical skilled or managerial
employees.
External sources of personnel include:

New entrants to the labour market e.g. fresh


college graduates, school leavers
The unemployed already in the labour market with
a wide range of skills and abilities
Retired experienced persons
Employed persons from other organisations

Advantages

The pool of talent is much larger than that


available from internal sources. The best selection can be made

External sources provide personnel having skills


and training and education as required by the hiring organisation

Employees hired from outside can bring new


insights and perspectives to the organisation

It is cheaper to hire technical, skilled or


managerial people from outside rather than training and
developing them internally in case of immediate demand for
the talent.
Disadvantages

Attracting, contacting and evaluating potential


employees is more difficult

Employees hired from outside need a longer


adjustment or orientation period

64

Recruiting externally may cause morale problems


among employees within the organisation and who feel qualified
to do the job
Method may be expensive and time consuming
There is uncertainty due to changes in demand
and supply of labour in the labour market

Summary of a recruitment and selection process

Determine the vacancy

Job analysis

Job descriptions

Personnel specifications

Drafting the advert

Sources of recruitment

Arrival of applicants

Pre-selection
of
candidates
CVs/Resumes/Application forms

The interview

The job offer

The induction process

using

TASKS.
In what ways can the organisation ensure that employees are aware of
vacancies that are available internally in the organisation?
As a human resource manager, explain how you will ensure that there is
fairness to all employees during internal recruitment processes.

METHODS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT.


1. JOB POSTING AND BIDDING:
This is an internal method of recruitment in which notices of
available jobs are posted in central locations throughout the
organization and employees are given a specified length of time to
apply for the available jobs. Other methods used in publicizing jobs
include memos to supervisors and listings in employee publications.
Normally the job notice specifies the job title, rates of pay and
necessary qualifications. A successful job posting and bidding
programme requires the development of specific implementation
policies.
Some suggestions include the following

Both promotions and transfers should be posted


65

Openings should be posted for a specified time period before


internal recruitment begins
Eligibility rules for the job posting system need to be
developed and communicated e.g. that no employee can apply
for a posted position unless he/she has been in his/her present
position for a period of not less than 6 months
Specific standards for selection should be included in the
notice
Job bidders should be required to list their qualifications and
reasons requesting a transfer or promotion.

In unionised organizations, job posting and bidding procedures are


usually spelled out in collective Bargaining Agreement.
METHODS OF EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT.
External recruiting is needed in organizations that are growing
rapidly or have a large demand for technical, skilled or managerial
employees. The pool of talent in the external sources is much larger
than anywhere else.
The following are
recruitment.

some of the methods

used for external

i)

Recommendations by present employees, also


termed, employee referrals are used especially to fill low cadre
vacancies-the semi skilled and unskilled jobs.

ii)

Unsolicited Applications-These are job applications


received from candidates without a vacancy existing in the
company. The candidates may send their details to the company
as a general enquiry.

iii)

Direct Link-Happens where an organization has an


established relationship with a training school or university. The
institutions liase with the recruiting organization and provide
details of suitable candidates. The organization may be involved
with the institution through provision of education material or
even scholarships.

iv)

Campus Recruiting: Such activities are co-coordinated by


the university placement centre. Organizations send some
recruiters to the campus and the most promising recruits are
then invited to visit the office or plant before a final employment
decision is made. A related method of tapping the products of
institution of higher learning is through Co-operating work
programmes.
66

v)

Co-operative Work Programmes: Through these


programmes, students may work part-time and go to school parttime, or they may go to school and work at different times of the
year. Such programmes are attractive as they offer opportunities
for both a formal education and work experience.

vi)

Internet. This newest recruitment source offers an


inexpensive way to advertise available positions to a national and
global audience. The Internet has various advantages, including
a vast pool of potential candidates, extensive search capabilities,
reduced paperwork, and the ability to update information as
often as necessary.

vii)

Retiree job Banks. Company retires who are already


familiar with the companys culture are a great resource for filling
short-term and part-time positions

viii)

Professional Recruiting Firms: These are Human


Resource consultants who provide employee recruitment
services. They include Manpower Services, Hawkins and
Associates and so on.

ix)

Temporary Help Agencies & Employee Leasing


Companies: One of the fastest growing areas of recruitment is
temporary help hired through employment agencies. The agency
pays the salary and benefits of the temporary help; the
organization pays the employment agency an agreed-upon figure
for the services of the temporary help.
What are the advantages and disadvantages, to an organization, of using temporary
help?

Unlike temporary help agencies, which place people on short-term


jobs at various companies, employee-leasing companies provide
permanent staff to client companys issue the workers pay checks
and provide various employment benefits. This borders on the
outsourcing by the client company.
x)
xi)

Government Employment Agencies: These recruit on


behalf of the government and include the TSC and the Public
Service Commission.
Employment Agencies: These are brokers who bring
employers and employees together. They specialize in specific
e.g. accountants, technicians etc. Professional bodies may also
67

xii)

be found here offering placement services for its members e.g.


ICPAK, IPM etc
Executive
Search
Firms/Head
Hunters:
These
employment agencies seek candidates for high salaried positions
e.g. CEOs. They believe that the best candidates are not those
who respond to adverts or look for new jobs in other ways but
those who are successful in their present jobs and are not
thinking of moving elsewhere.

The term head-hunter apparently comes with the concept of hiring a


replacement head of an organization. Customers of such agencies
seek to fill high-level vacancies.
Headhunting specifics.
Advantages
Saves administrative and advertising costs
Ability to reach the best in the market
Confidentiality
Gets best fitting candidate for the job
Preserves anonymity of recruiting firm
Disadvantages
Disruptive to companies that lose their managers
Head-hunters may be bribed to recommend someone
It may mislead potential candidates
May not be lawful
xiii)

Hiring at the Gate: This is suitable when employing


casual labourers who present themselves at the firms gates
waiting for an employment opportunity.

xiv)

Advertising: This is one of the most widely used


methods of recruitment. Person specification and job
descriptions form the basis of every job advert. Advertising is
a crucial part of the recruitment process.

Advertising is intended to reach out into the labour market with an


attractive offer for employment aimed at producing an adequate
response in terms of:

Enquiries/requests for details


Numbers of suitable applications submitted.

The main sources of job advertising outside the organization are;


local newspapers, national newspapers, technical/professional
68

journals, via the Internet, via job centres, via other agencies, posters
at the factory gates.
The effectiveness of an advertisement for a job vacancy can be
judged by: Number of inquiries it stimulates
Number of applications submitted
Suitability of the applicants.

An effective job advertisement is one which: Identifies the organization/industry with a few

preferences

Provides brief details about the features of the job


Summarizes all the essential personal features
required of the job holder
Refers briefly to any desirable personal features
States the main conditions of employment,
including salary, of the job.
States how and to whom the enquiry or
application is made
Presents all the above points in a clear and
attractive manner
Conforms to legal requirements
Attracts sufficient numbers of suitable applicants.

A well written advert should contain: the job title, benefits and
incentives, training, company name, to whom they should apply,
telephone numbers, closing date for applications. Its should have a
catchy headline and design that will attract candidates, an
interesting and catchy content that makes the applicants to keep
reading on and an unambiguous text about the job.
An obvious and important query for Human Resources personnel is
which method of recruitment supplies the best talent pool. One
method proposed for increasing the effectiveness of all recruiting
methods is the use of Realistic Job Previews (RJP), which provide
complete job information, both positive and negative to the job
applicant-a departure from the early attempts to sell the
organization and job by making it look good. The RJP has been found
to reduce new employee turnover.
Organizational Inducements in Recruitment.

69

Recruitment seeks to attract a large pool of qualified personnel for


the job opening. Organizational inducements are all the positive
features and benefits the organization offers to attract job
applicants.
Three of the most popular inducements are: i.
Compensation systems: Starting salaries, frequency
of pay raises, incentives and the nature of the organizations
fringe benefits can all influence the number of people attracted
via a recruitment process.
ii.

Career opportunities: Organizations that have a


reputation for providing employees with career opportunities
also attract large pools of qualified candidates via a recruitment
process.
These
include
employee
and
management
development opportunities, assisting current employees in
career planning shows the firm cares, and also serves to attract
or as an inducement to potential employees.

iii.

Organizational
reputation:
The
organizations
reputation is also a great inducement to potential workers.

Factors that affect reputation include:

The organizations general treatment of workers


Nature & quality of its products and services
Participation in worthwhile social endeavours.

ORGANIZATIONAL RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION POLICY.


A recruitment policy of an organisation establishes the general
guidelines for the staffing process. It specifies the objectives of
recruitment and provides a framework of implementation through
well-established procedures.
Recruitment policy involves a commitment to broad principles such
as filling vacancies with the best-qualified individuals. It may
embrace several issues such as the extent of promotion from within,
attitude of the enterprise in recruiting its old employees, friends,
relatives, handicaps, minority groups, women employees and
relatives of present employees.
It may also involve the
organisations systems and procedures to be followed for
implementing a recruiting programme.
Elements of a Recruitment Programme.
A good recruitment policy has the following elements:

70

i.
ii.

iii.
iv.
v.

Organisations objectives both in the short run and long


run must be taken into consideration as basic parameters for
recruitment decisions.
Identification of the recruitment needs. The recruiting
staff must make decisions regarding the balance of qualitative
dimensions of the persons to be recruited. They should prepare
a profile of each category of workers and accordingly work out
the recruits specifications, decide the selections, departments or
branches where they should be placed and identify the particular
responsibilities to be immediately assigned to them.
Preferred sources of recruitment, which could be tapped
by the organisation internal and external sources, should be
identified.
Identification of selection criteria. A good selection
criterion capable of meeting the organisations staffing needs
should be decided upon by the management.
Cost of recruitment should be estimated.
Cost of
recruitment involved should be considered by comparing the
sources and methods of recruitment.
TASK

o
o

Describe the relationship among job analysis, personnel planning,


recruitment and selection.
What are some of the Government of Kenya Labour regulations that
impact on recruitment?

EMPLOYEE SELECTION:
INTRODUCTION
Once the organizations recruitment activities have succeeded in
attracting sufficient members of relevant applications from the
external labour market, the aim of subsequent selection activities is
to identify the most suitable applicants and persuade the to join the
organization.
The process of recruitment ends once a company has successfully
managed to attract a fair number of replies to a vacancy posting.
SELECTION TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Preliminary Interviews
Filling Application Blanks/Forms
Selection Interview
Psychometric tests /Employment tests
Assessment Centres
Medical Examination
71

vii)
viii)

Reference Check
Final Selection by the officer in charge.

1. PRELIMINARY INTERVIEWS
The preliminary interviews to job applicants is usually conducted by
a special interviewer at the employment office. It is essentially a
sorting process in which the interviewer compares the applicants
qualifications with the job requirements.
Assessment Centre
2. APPLICATION BLANKS.
This is one of the most common methods used for collecting
information from applicants. Application blanks are meant to secure
desired factual information from an applicant in a format convenient
for evaluating the applicants qualifications.
Application blanks set out the information on candidates in a
standardized format the application blank serves the following
purposes:

They provide the candidates first formal


introduction to the company.
They generate data in uniform formats and hence
make it easy to make cross comparisons of the applicants.
They generate data that can serve as a basis to
initiate a dialogue in the interview.
Data in the application blank can be used for
purposes of analysis and research in personnel. The data
collected may be stored for subsequent use-development of a
databank.

Most application blanks seem to contain the following kinds of


information:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Personal data
Marital data
Physical data
Educational data
Employment data
Extra-curricular data
References

Normally a member of the human resources department reviews the


information on the application form to determine the applicants
72

qualifications in relation to the requirements of current available


jobs.
Another screening procedure is the use of weighted application
forms. These forms assign different weights to different questions.
Sorting Applications.
Applications are usually sorted out by dividing them into three
categories: o Clearly suitable
o Possibles
o Unsuitable
Clearly suitable applicants are invited for interviews, possible
contenders are held temporarily in reserve, while unsuitable
applicants are rejected.
Once the shortlist has been drawn up and the candidates invited for
interviews, the application form and/or CV takes on a different role,
that of aiding the interviewer in the next interactive stage of the
selection process: the interview.
SELECTION METHODS.
The main selection methods are the interview, assessment centres
and psychological tests.
An interview is a formal exchange of facts, impressions and
viewpoints between a [prospective employer and a prospective
employee with a view to their mutual selection or parting. the most
common interview options are: o One interviewer
o Two interviewers
o A panel of interviewers
Individual Interviews.
The individual interview is the most familiar method of selection. It
involves face-to-face discussion and provides the best opportunity
for the establishment of close contact and rapport between the
interviewer and the candidate.
Interview Panels.
This consists of two or more people gathered together to interview
one candidate. More often than not this consists of a manager
(personnel) and the line manager.
73

Selection Boards.
Selection boards are more formal and usually larger interviewing
panels convened due to a large number of parties interested in the
selection. They enable a number of different people to have a look
at the applicants and compare notes on the spot. However; they
may waste time due to unplanned questions. Candidates are not
allowed to expand their arguments.
3. SELECTION INTERVIEW
This includes questions designed to test achievement or aptitude
and is at present the most commonly used method of personality
assessment.
Interviews: A selection procedure designed to predict future job
performance on the basis of applicants' oral responses to oral
inquiries.
The selection interview is to obtain and assess information about a
candidate, which will enable a valid prediction to be made of his, or
her future performance in the job in comparison with the predictions
made for any other candidate.
Advantages of Interviews
o
Provide opportunities for interviewers to ask probing questions
about the candidates experiences and explore the extent to
which the candidates competences match those specified for the
job.
o
Enable interviewers to describe the job and organization in
greater detail.
o
Provide opportunities for candidates to ask questions about
the job and clarify any issues they may have e.g. those
concerning training, career prospects, the organization, terms
and conditions of employment.
o
Enables a face-to-face encounter so that the interviewer can
make an assessment of the candidate.
o
Gives the candidate the same opportunity to assess the
organization, the interviewer and the job.
o
Useful for determining if the applicant has requisite
communicative or social skills which may be necessary for the
job
o
Interviewer can obtain supplementary information
o
Used to appraise candidates' verbal fluency
o
Can assess the applicant's job knowledge
o
Can be used for selection among equally qualified applicants
74

Enables the supervisor and/or co-workers to determine if there


is compatibility between the applicant and the employees
o
Allows the applicant to ask questions that may reveal
additional information useful for making a selection decision
o
The interview may be modified as needed to gather important
information
o

Disadvantages
o
Can lack validity as a means of making sound predictions of
performance and lack reliability in the sense of measuring the
same things for different candidates.
o
Rely on the skill of the interviewer.
o
Do not necessarily assess competence in meeting the
demands of the particular job.
o
Can lead to biased and subjective judgments by interviewers.
o
Subjective evaluations are made
o
Decisions tend to be made within the first few minutes of the
interview with the remainder of the interview used to validate or
justify the original decision
o
Interviewers form stereotypes concerning the characteristics
required for success on the job
o
Research has shown disproportionate rates of selection
between minority and non-minority members using interviews
o
Negative information seems to be given more weight
o
Not much evidence of validity of the selection procedure
o
Not as reliable as tests
INTERVIEWING ARRANGEMENTS
The following is a general pattern of interview arrangements.
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Candidate should be contacted well in advance and told where


and when to come and whom to ask for.
Applicants should have somewhere quiet and comfortable in
which to wait for the interview.
Interviewers must have been fully briefed and trained on
interviewing and the programme.
Identify private and comfortable rooms for the interview.
Allow time for the candidate to be told about the company and
job and conditions of employment.
Tell candidates what will be the next step after the interview.
People who are to conduct the interview must be properly
briefed on the job and procedures they will use. Training in
interviewing techniques is important here for all the panellists.
The legal requirements on recruitment and selection must be well
understood.
75

o
o
o
o
o

Careful preparation is essential and this means a careful study


of the person specifications and the candidates application
form / CV. Three fundamental questions need to be answered at
this stage.
What are the criteria to be used in selecting the candidate?
(Experience, qualifications, competence and skills etc)
What else needs to be known to ensure the candidate meets
the selection criteria?
What further information is needed from the interview for an
accurate picture of how well the candidate meets the criteria?
The interviewer must ensure that the interview will not be
interrupted through visitors, telephone calls etc.
There should be no desks for interviewees to sit behind as this
creates a psychological barrier. Interviewing across a desk that is
cluttered up with filling trays, telephones, ornaments and other
objects should be avoided as this adds to the psychological
barrier.
The candidate should be placed on one side of the desk or two
chairs with a low table in between may be used.

Train Interviewers.
Improve the interpersonal skills of the interviewer and the
interviewer's ability to make decisions without influence from nonjob related information.
Interviewers should be trained to:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Avoid asking questions unrelated to the job


Avoid making quick decisions about an applicant
Avoid stereotyping applicants
Avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics.
Try to put the applicant at ease during the interview
Communicate clearly with the applicant
Maintain consistency in the questions asked

Conducting the Interview.


Generally, an interview can be divided into five sections:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

The welcome and introductory remarks.


The major part Obtaining information about the
candidate to assess against the person specification.
Provision of information to candidates about the
organization and the job.
Answering questions from the candidate.
76

v)

Closing the interview with an indication of the next


step
Most experienced interviewers begin an interview session with a few
remarks and questions designed to welcome and set the candidate
at ease.
When framing questions, the following should be adhered to:
o
o
o
o
o

Questions should not suggest their own answers


The meaning of questions should be clear and expressed in a
way appropriate to the candidates experience and education.
Probing questions those that begin with how, why should
be asked.
Irrelevant questions should be avoided.
Inappropriate selection criteria MUST be avoided, particularly
the halo effect Interviewers assume that one desirable
characteristic in an applicant necessarily means that the
candidate is equally worthy in other respects, e.g. an attractive
physique does not imply that the applicant for a secretarys job
will be a good typist.
Record all facts of the interview immediately after the
interview.

INTERVIEW SKILLS
Among the most frequently suggested skills for interviewing are the
following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

The ability to prepare adequately.


Ability to listen, including picking up points implied in the
candidates responses.
Questioning skills-asking relevant questions at the right time.
Ability to analyse the picture of the candidate as is emerging
during the interview
Ability to summarize and make notes on the candidates
performance
Ability to supply relevant information to the candidate, without
boring him
Skill in building and maintaining a relationship/rapport with
the candidate
Ability to control the interview with tact, diplomacy and
firmness
77

THE DOS AND DONTS OF INTERVIEWING.


DO
o
Prepare job related questions pertaining to the application &
resume.
o
Take brief notes
o
Listen carefully
o
Build rapport
o
Demonstrate respect for the candidate
o
Be friendly, yet businesslike
o
Set the agenda
o
Hide your personnel feelings
o
Manage the interview
o
Remain as objective as possible
o
Ask open ended questions
o
Be silent after asking a question
o
Follow up any answers that appear to be evasive and keep
track
o
Close interview by stating sequence of events and time
frames
o
Jot down notes and your impressions of the candidates.
Evaluate each candidate after the interview is concluded.
DO NOT
o
Do not lose eye contact for long periods of time by taking
extensive notes.
o
Do not make judgments on one trait without considering all
traits. Avoid stereotyping the candidate.
o
Do not overdo it by being too friendly or too stern
o
Do not let the applicant see that you favour or disfavour him.
o
Avoid questions that only allow a yes or no response.
o
Do not accept general questions. Probe for more specific
information.
o
Do not continue to talk just because the applicant does not
reply quickly.
o
Do not let yourself become lost or fail to listen carefully to
everything being said.
o
Do not use leading, multiple or loaded questions.
o
Do not coach the candidate about the job and requirements
before asking your planned question.
o
Do not dominate the interview.
Summary of Interviews
In general, interviews have the following weaknesses:
o Validity of the interview is relatively low
o Reliability of the interview is also low
78

o Stereotyping by interviewers, in general, may lead to adverse


impact against minorities
o The subjective nature of this procedure may allow bias such as
favouritism and politics to enter into the selection process
o This procedure is not standardized.
o Not useful when large numbers of applicants must be
evaluated and/or selected

What are the possible consequences of not training and briefing the

interviewer, before an interview exercise commences.

TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
i)
Patterned/Structured Interviews
ii)
Free/Unstructured Interviews
iii)
Semi-Structured Interviews
iv)
Stress Interviews
v)
Behaviour Description Interviews
vi)
Situational Interviews
vii)
Group/Discussion Interviews
viii)
Oral Interview Boards
PATTERNED/STRUCTURED INTERVIEW
This is the most common method of interviewing. It involves
working out in advance the questions to be asked, the kind of
information to be sought, how the interview is to be conducted and
how much time is to be allotted to it. Questions are asked in a
particular order with very little or no deviations at all. If an
applicant wants to discuss something else, he is quickly guided back
to the prepared questions. Pattered interviews are of two types: o Comprehensive Structured interviews
o Structured behavioural interviews.
Comprehensive Structured Interviews Candidates are asked
questions pertaining to how they would handle job-related
situations, job knowledge, worker requirements, and how the
candidate would perform various job simulations.
Structured behavioural interviews. This technique involves
asking all interviewees standardized questions about how they
handled past situations that were similar to situations they may
encounter on the job. The interviewer may also ask discretionary
probing questions for details of the situations, the interviewee's
behaviour in the situation and the outcome. The interviewee's
responses are then scored with behaviourally anchored rating
scales.
79

FREE/UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS.
This involves a procedure where different questions may be asked of
different applicants. The term refers to unstructured and relatively
unplanned type of interview. In such an interview, the applicant is
asked some general questions and he may reply to them for a
considerable length of time. Generally, the interview is conducted
in a free atmosphere and the candidate is encouraged to express
himself on a variety of subjects such as his expectations,
motivation, interests etc. Interviewee is allowed to express himself
fully allowing assessment by the employer.
SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS
Here, the interviewer utilizes questions in key areas, which are
prepared in advance.
STRESS INTERVIEWS
In this type of interview, the interviewer assumes a hostile role
towards the applicant. He deliberately asks questions or makes
comments, which are meant to frustrate the interviewee. Usually,
the interviewer in such circumstances asks questions rapidly,
criticizes the interviewees answers, interrupts frequently etc.
The purpose is to find out how the candidate behaves in a stressful
environment whether he loses temper, gets confused or
frightened.
BEHAVIOUR DESCRIPTION INTERVIEWS
Behaviour Description Interviews Candidates are asked what actions
they have taken in prior job situations that are similar to situations
they may encounter on the job. The interviews are then scored
using a scoring guide constructed by job experts.
SITUATIONAL INTERVIEWS
Situational Interview Candidates are interviewed about what actions
they would take in various job-related situations. The job-related
situations are usually identified using the critical incidents job
analysis technique. The interviews are then scored using a scoring
guide constructed by job experts.
GROUP/DISCUSSION INTERVIEWS
Groups rather than individuals are interviewed. The interviewees
are given certain problems and are asked to reach a decision within
a specified time limit. The assumption underlying this type of
interview is that behaviour displayed during problem solving is
related to the potential success of the job.
80

The objective is to see how well individuals perform on a particular


task or particular situation. These interviews are held for top
managerial positions.
ORAL INTERVIEW BOARDS
Oral Interview Boards This technique entails the job candidate giving
oral responses to job-related questions asked by a panel of
interviewers. Each member of the panel then rates each interviewee
on such dimensions as work history, motivation, creative thinking,
and presentation. The scoring procedure for oral interview boards
has typically been subjective; thus, it would be subject to personal
biases of those individuals sitting on the board. This technique may
not be feasible for jobs in which there are a large number of
applicants that must be interviewed.
4. PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS/EMPLOYMENT TESTS
The term Psychometric Tests is used to refer to tests of personality,
motivation and psychological make-up. The three most important
tests conducted during the selection process are: a. Aptitude or Intelligence Tests
b. Work Sample/performance/Achievement Tests
c. Personality Tests
a) Aptitude Tests or Intelligence Tests
These tests are used to measure intellectual ability of an individual
candidate. They focus attention on a particular type of talent e.g.
learning and reasoning.
Cognitive Abilities Tests. These are Paper and pencil or
individualized assessment measures of an individual's general
mental ability or intelligence. They are intended to measure the
general intelligence (IQ) of a job candidate.
Ability tests measure job related characteristics such as number,
verbal, perceptual or mechanical ability.
Aptitude Tests are job specific tests designed to predict the potential
an individual has to perform tasks within a job.
Examples of such tests include;
o The 16 PF Test assumes 16 clusters of behaviour, relating to
excitability,
assertiveness,
emotional
stability,
conscientiousness,
extrovert,
introvert,
cheerfulness,
depression.
81

o Myers-Briggs Type Indicator seeks to categorize test subjects


under
four
main
headings;
objective/intuitive,
logical/emotional, decisive/hesitant, introvert/extrovert.
o DISC Test aims to identify the extents of Dominance, or
Inducement, Submission or Steadiness and Compliance in
test-subjects personalities.
Advantages of Psychometric Tests.
o Easy and cheap to administer.
o Assists make distinctions among candidates with same
academic qualifications and work experience.
o Assists other selection procedures
o Assists weed out mentally incapable candidates.
o People with less education but genuine intellectual abilities
are identifiable.
o Highly reliable
o Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity
for a wide range of jobs
o The validity rises with increasing complexity of the job
o Combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than
individual tests alone
o May be administered in group settings where many applicants
can be tested at the same time
o Scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning
equipment
o Lower cost than personality tests
Disadvantages of psychometric tests.
o May turnout in unfairness
o May lead to poor allocation of roles
o Persons may practice so well to pass tests.
o Persons state of mind, may affect results.
o Persons worth depends on so many other factors
o Makes people feel nervous and fearful leading to loss of selfconfidence and poor performance.
o Differences between males and females in abilities (e.g.,
knowledge of mathematics) may negatively impact the scores
of female applicants
Examples of Cognitive Ability Tests
o Employee Aptitude Survey a battery of employment tests
designed to meet the practical requirements of a personnel
office. Consists of 10 cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor
ability tests. Nine of the 10 tests have 5-minute time limits.
Such tests seek to understand; verbal comprehension,
numerical ability, visual pursuit, visual speed, space
82

o
o

visualization, numerical reasoning, verbal reasoning, word


fluency, manual speed and accuracy and, symbolic reasoning.
Progressive matrices. A nonverbal test designed for use as an
aid in assessing mental ability. Requires the examinee to solve
problems presented in abstract figures and designs.
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Brief individually administered
measure of verbal and nonverbal intelligence for people aged
4-90. Developed specifically for screening purposes and for
those situations where it would be difficult to do a more indepth assessment.
Short-term Memory Tests A form of cognitive ability test that
are exemplified by short-term memory tasks such as forward
digit span and serial rote learning, which do not require
mental manipulation of inputs in order to provide an output.
Short-term memory tests lack face validity in predicting job
performance.
Information Processing Tests Selection tests that have the
same information processing requirements that occur on the
job. In other words, the tests are tailored for each particular
job. There is some evidence that adverse impact is reduced

Work Sample/performance/Achievement Tests


These tests measure an individuals current achievement at the
time of testing and thus they check on the practical ability that the
job applicant claims to have on a specific job.
Work sample tests measure ones range and depth of knowledge of a
subject and the individuals grasp of basic principles which are
acquired as a result of education, training or on the job experience.
Achievement tests are of two types;
a. Tests for measuring job knowledge, which may be oral or
written.
These tests are administered to determine the
proficiency of a candidate in performing a particular job
activity.
b. Work sample tests which requires the actual performance of
a job as a means of testing what the individual is capable of
achieving.
Work Sample tests are based on the premise that the best predictor
of future behaviour is observed behaviour under similar situations.
These tests require the examinee to perform tasks that are similar
to those that are performed on the job.
Personality tests include the following types of tests; self-report,
projective tests, self-assessment, group discussions, physical
indications and situational tests.
83

Advantages
o High reliability as it exposes candidates true abilities.
o Directly relevant to the work to be done.
o High content validity since work samples are a sample of the
actual work performed on the job
o Low adverse impact
o Because of their relationship to the job, these tests are
typically viewed more favourable by examinees than aptitude
or personality tests
o Difficult for applicants to fake job proficiency which helps to
increase the relationship between score on the test and
performance on the job
o Work Sample tests use equipment that is the same or
substantially similar to the actual equipment used on the job
Disadvantages
o Covers only part of the duties of the vacant job.
o Tests conditions (Nervousness, fear, stress) may give poor
results.
o Those who have done similar tests before may fair better.
o Candidates who pass may think they know everything.
o Internal candidates who fail may suffer loss of confidence
o Access to education and training is a disadvantage.
o High-test scores is no guarantee for good performance.
o Tests do not evaluate the entire person.
o Costly to administer; often can only be administered to one
applicant at a time
o Although useful for jobs where tasks and duties can be
completed in a short period of time, these tests have less
ability to predict performance on jobs where tasks may take
days or weeks to complete
o Less able to measure aptitudes of an applicant thus restricting
the test to measuring ability to perform the work sample and
not more difficult tasks that may be encountered on the job
Types of Work Sample Tests
Work-Sample Tests of Trainability. These are tests through a
period of instruction when the applicant is expected to learn tasks
involved in a work sample. The work-sample tests of trainability are
suitable for untrained applicants with no previous job experience.
Simulation of an Event. These tests present the candidate with a
picture of an incident along with quotations from those involved.
The candidates then respond to a series of questions in which they
84

write down the decisions they would make. The test is scored by
subject matter experts.
Low Fidelity Simulations These tests present applicants with
descriptions of work situations and five alternative responses for
each situation. Applicants choose the responses they would most
likely and least likely make in each situation.
Work-samples Applicants perform observable, job-related
behaviours as predictors of criterion performance. It is not feasible
to adapt certain work behaviours for testing. Work samples often are
not conducive to group administration and, therefore, were dropped
from consideration because of concerns regarding test security.
Personality Tests
These aim at measuring those basic characteristics of an individual,
which are non-intellectual in nature. They probe deeply to discover
clues about an individuals value system, emotional reactions,
maturity, motivation, interests, ability to adjust to the stress of
everyday life and capacity for interpersonal relations and self-image.
Personality Tests refer to the selection procedure that measures the
personality characteristics of applicants that are related to future
job performance. Personality tests typically measure one or more of
five personality dimensions: extroversion, emotional stability,
agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
Advantages
o Can result in lower turnover due if applicants are selected for
traits that are highly correlated with employees who have high
longevity within the organization
o Can reveal more information about applicant's abilities and
interests
o Can identify interpersonal traits that may be needed for
certain jobs
o Disadvantages
o Difficult to measure personality traits that may not be well
defined
o Applicants training and experience may have greater impact
on job performance than applicant's personality
o Responses by applicant may be altered by applicant's desire
to respond in a way they feel would result in their selection
especially where there is awareness of being examined.
Applicants are likely to display only desired personality traits.
o Lack of diversity if all selected applicants have same
personality traits
85

o They ignore the average behaviour of the individual.


o Likelihood of different personality descriptions by different
assessors.
o Cost may be prohibitive for both the test and interpretation of
results
o Lack of evidence to support validity of use of personality tests
The techniques for personality testing include;
o Projective tests describing the meaning of objects and
shapes.
o Assessment of contribution to a leaderless group discussion
o Self analysis sessions candidates assess their own behaviour
and motivations
o Physical indications tests
o Situational tests for personality.
o Physical Abilities Tests
o Physical Abilities Tests: Tests typically test applicants on some
physical requirement such as lifting strength, rope climbing, or
obstacle course completion.
Advantages
o Can identify individuals who are physically unable to perform
the essential functions of a job without risking injury to
themselves or others
o Can result in decreased costs related to disability/medical
claims, insurance, and workers compensation
o Decreased absenteeism
Disadvantages
o Costly to administer
o Requirements must be shown to be job related through a
thorough job analysis.
o May have age based disparate impact against older applicants
Self-Assessments
This technique involves applicants generating self-ratings on
relevant performance over time; self-assessments can be useful to
clarify job performance expectations between employees and
supervisors.
Problems with this approach:
o
Self-ratings show greater leniency, less variability, more bias,
and less agreement with the judgments of others
86

o
o
o
o
o
o

The predictive validity of this technique is questionable the


predictors related to self-assessments and supervisors ratings
may show a lack of congruence.
Research suggests that applicants may not honestly respond
to this type of technique
Self-assessment scores tend to be inflated
Evidence suggests there is low face validity and perceived
fairness associated with using this technique to promote law
enforcement personnel.
The evidence suggests low accuracy compared to objective
measures.
Self-assessments may not correspond to ratings from other
sources (e.g., peers) due to a lack of congruence on which
specific job dimensions are to be assessed and the relative
importance of specific job dimensions.
Congruency in ratings between supervisors and employees
may be affected by the decision of supervisors to agree with the
self-assessments of employees to avoid potential employee
relation conflicts.

OTHER EMPLOYEE SELECTION TESTS


Biographical Inventories
Techniques for scoring application forms or
questionnaires to be used for selection of applicants.

biographical

Advantages
o Useful for jobs where a large number of employees are
performing the same or similar job
o Useful for jobs where there are a large number of applicants
relative to the number of openings
Future Autobiographies
A candidate is asked to write a future autobiography stating what
he/she would be doing in five years. The autobiographies are then
scored by two judges for differentiation, demand, and agency.
Agency is defined as the extent to which a person sees
himself/herself as the prime agent in determining the course of
his/her future life. Demand is defined as the extent to which an
individual portrays his/her life as a long-term, continuing effort on
his/her part. Differentiation is defined as the extent to which an
individual has created a complex, detailed mapping of his/her
future.
Problems with this technique:
o This test does not measure any of the KSA's that were
identified through the job analysis.
87

o There is no evidence that this method would reduce adverse


impact.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the CV in the selection process?
What is a self-report questionnaire and how exactly does it work?

88

SELECTION TECHNIQUES: ASSESSMENT CENTRES.


An Assessment Centre consists of a standardized evaluation of
behaviour based on multiple evaluations including: job-related
simulations, interviews, and/or psychological tests. Job Simulations
are used to evaluate candidates on behaviours relevant to the most
critical aspects (or competencies) of the job.
The term "assessment centre" refers to a controlled environment
used to predict the probable managerial success of individuals
mainly on the basis of evaluation of their behaviour in a variety of
simulated situations.
Assessment centres usually have some sort of in-basket exercise,
which contains contents similar to those, which are found in the inbasket for the job, which is being tested.
Other possibilities include oral exercises, counselling simulations,
problem analysis exercises, interview simulations, role-play
exercises, written report/analysis exercises, and leaderless group
exercises. Assessment centres allow candidates to demonstrate
more of their skills through a number of job relevant situations.
Several trained observers and techniques are used. Judgments
about behaviour are made and recorded. These judgments are
pooled in a meeting among the assessors or by an averaging
process. In discussion among assessors, comprehensive accounts of
behaviour, often including ratings, are pooled. The discussion results
in evaluations of the performance of the assessed on the
dimensions or other variables.
An Assessment Centre can be defined as "a variety of testing
techniques designed to allow candidates to demonstrate, under
standardized conditions, the skills and abilities that are most
essential for success in a given job".
Assessment centres incorporate a range of assessment techniques
and typically have the following features:
o The focus of the centre is on behaviour.
o Exercises are used to capture and simulate the key
dimensions of the job.
o Interviews and tests will be used in addition to group
exercises.
o Several candidates or participants are assessed together to
allow interaction and to make the experience more open and
participative.

o Several assessors or observers are used in order to increase


the objectivity of assessments.
Assessment centres provide good opportunities for indicating the
extent to which the candidates match the culture of the
organization. They give the candidates a better feel for the
organization and its values so that they can decide for themselves
whether or not they are likely to fit.
An assessment centre is a process, not a place that incorporates
multiple forms of assessment-simulation exercises, in-tray exercises,
psychological tests and interviews.
It is distinguished by its: o
o
o
o

Combination of assessment methods


The central role of simulation exercises
Groups of candidates assessed by groups of observers
Extended period of selection process

Advantages
o Considerable data about the candidates can be collected
o Candidates can display a range of knowledge and skills over
the course of the half to one-and-a half days
o If successful, can produce valid and reliable choices of
candidates
o Has the potential for use as a staff development tool as well
as for selection purposes
o Provides useful experience for assessors-testing own
judgment against that of others.
Disadvantages
o Complexities of putting an assessment centre together
(selecting tests, devising simulations, organizing interviews
and assessors etc)
o Costliness of setting up and then running a centre.
o Assessment centres cannot accurately measure tacit skills or
capabilities.
ASSESSMENT CENTRE METHODS
Leaderless Group Discussion
The leaderless group discussion is a type of assessment centre
exercise where groups of applicants meet as a group to discuss an
actual job-related problem. As the meeting proceeds, the behaviour
of the candidates is observed to see how they interact and what
leadership and communications skills each person displays.

Problems with this technique:


o This type of exercise was not feasible for selecting candidates
from a potential applicant pool of 8000 individuals because of
the time and cost involved with training the individuals rating
the applicants.
o Since every group would be different, individuals could argue
that the process is biased or unfair.
o The process is not standardized.
Role Playing
Role-playing is a type of assessment centre exercise where the
candidate assumes the role of the incumbent of the position and
must deal with another person in a job- related situation. A trained
role player is used and responds "in character" to the actions of the
candidate. Observing raters assesses performance.
Problems with this technique:
o Since this technique is not conducive to group administration,
test security would be an issue.
o Job content areas identified in the job analysis were not as
amenable to this type of exercise as they were to the selection
techniques utilized in the final test
While assessment centres vary in the number and type of exercises
included, two of the most common exercises are the in-basket and
the oral exercise.
In a traditional in-basket exercise, candidates are given time to
review the material and initiate in writing whatever actions they
believe to be most appropriate in relation to each in-basket item.
When time is called for the exercise, the in-basket materials and any
notes, letters, memos, or other correspondence written by the
candidate are collected for review by one or more assessors. Often
the candidates are then interviewed to ensure that the assessor(s)
understand actions taken by the candidate and the rationale for the
actions. If an interview is not possible, it is also quite common to
have the candidate complete a summary sheet (i.e., a
questionnaire).
Like all assessment centre exercises, oral exercises can take many
forms depending on the work behaviours or factors of the job being
simulated. Common forms of oral exercises include press conference
exercises, formal presentations, and informal presentations (briefing
exercise).
In oral presentation exercises, candidates are given a brief period of
time in which to plan/organize their thoughts, make notes, etc., for
the presentation/briefing.

Traditionally, the audience is played by the assessor(s) who


observes the presentation and makes ratings. Candidates may also
be asked a series of questions following their briefing/presentation.
The questions may or may not relate directly to the topic of the
presentation.
6. PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATION.
Physical and medical examination is conducted to determine
whether a candidate is medically fit for certain types of jobs which
may require unusual stamina, strength or tolerance of working
conditions.
A physical or medical examination could therefore qualify an
individual for a particular job if he is medically fit for the job.
Candidates are examined by the companys doctor or by a doctor
approved by the company.
The medical and physical examination is therefore resorted to by
employers to;
o Determine whether the applicant has the physical ability to
carry on the duties and responsibilities of the job effectively.
o Ascertain whether the applicant has a record of health
problems, which can potentially affect his behaviour on the job
adversely.
o Know whether the applicant is more sensitive to certain
aspects of workplace environment such as chemicals.
7. REFERENCES OR BACKGROUND INVESTIGATION.
Before one is offered the job, a reference check is made. This may
include verification from past teachers, employers or public people
and even police verification.
The main objective of this is to get background information of the
job applicant regarding his working ability, cooperativeness,
dependability etc. It is meant to gather additional information about
the mental faculties, behaviour and physical health. It is sought to
guard oneself against possible falsification by applicants.
References may be made through mail, telephone, personal
contacts or completion of a reference form.
8. FINAL SELECTION & APPROVAL BY THE MANAGER
CONCERNED.

Finally, after the candidates has undergone all the selection steps
administered by the company including checking a reference check
and the management is satisfied that the candidate is qualified, the
manager concerned approves the appointment of this person and
the employment letter containing the terms and conditions of
employment and reporting date is sent to the qualified candidate.

TASKS
Discuss the importance of the Factories Act and the Trade Unions Act in
the employee selection process.
What is meant by the term screening?
What is the purpose of screening and how well is it achieved?

Which

are the best methods of recruitment for positions below


supervisory level?

PLACEMENT AND ORIENTATION OR INDUCTION


PLACEMENT
PLACEMENT refers to assigning rank and responsibility to an
individual, identifying him with a particular job.
It is the
determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be
assigned and his assignments for that particular job.
It is a
matching of what the supervisor has reason to think the candidate
can do with the job demands (job requirements).
If the person adjusts himself to the job and continues to perform as
per expectations, it might mean that the candidate is properly
placed. However, if the candidate is seen to have problems in
adjusting himself to the job, the supervisor must find out whether
the person is properly placed as per his aptitude and potential.
Placement problems usually arise out of wrong selection or improper
placement or both.
Cases of employees performing below
expectation and potential, and employee related problems such as
turnover, absenteeism, low morale, accidents etc may be related to
placement problems.
ORIENTATION/INDUCTION
Induction is the process of receiving employees when they begin
work, introducing them to the company and their colleagues and
informing them of the activities, customs and traditions of the
company.

Induction refers to the introduction of a new person to the job and


the organisation. The purpose is to make this person feel at ease
and develop a sense of pride in the organisation and a commitment
to the job.
The process is supposed to indoctrinate, orient,
acclimatize and acculturate the employee to the job and the
organisation. Induction may be regarded as the beginning of
training or the final stage of the selection process.
Objectives of induction
A new employee in an organisation is a stranger to the people, the
workplace and the work environment. He may feel insecure, shy
and nervous. The first few days may be full of anxiety caused by
not being able to follow the new practices, procedures and lack of
understanding of the new policies. If such a person is left
unattended, he may develop discouragement, disillusion or even
defensive behaviour. Induction is therefore supposed to reduce this
feeling to the most comfortable level possible.
The induction process provides new employees with basic
background information they need to perform their jobs
satisfactorily a process that is part of the new employees
socialization (socialization is the ongoing process of instilling in all
employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values and patterns
of behaviour that are expected by the organisation and its
departments.
Objectives of an induction programme therefore are:
o Introduce the new employee to the new work procedures,
rules and regulations.
o Familiarize the new employee with his work environment,
workmates and immediate supervisor or departmental head.
o Set a new employee at ease with his new job and instil
confidence in him.
o Reduce fear and anxiety associated with working in new
environments.
Feelings of insecurity, shyness and
nervousness are therefore reduced.
Induction Procedure
An induction process consists of two stages; the introduction to the
work group and introduction to the organisations background.
An organisation has an obligation to make integration of a new
employee into its setup as smooth and as anxiety free as possible.
This is achieved through a formal and also informal induction
process. Such programmes depend on the size of the organisation
and the complexity of individuals in the new environment.

Some organisations have developed formal orientation programmes;


which include a detailed process of introduction to the work, the
workplace and its environment and the organisation.
New employees usually get a handbook or printed materials that
cover issues such as working hours, performance reviews, getting
on the payroll, vacations and a tour of the facilities.
Other
handbook information includes; personnel policies, the employees
daily routine, company organisation and operations and safety and
health measures and regulations.
Other organisations may utilize informal orientation programmes,
which might include being assigned to a senior worker who will not
only introduce the new worker to other members of staff but also
show him other things of interest. However, this must be done
carefully as there are possible negative effects of an informal
orientation programme.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of an informal staff orientation
process

What are the disadvantages of the formal staff orientation programmes?


Formal orientation programmes usually cover such things like
introduction to the work itself; its processes, tasks, procedures and
responsibilities and the terms and conditions of employment;
compensation, benefits, personnel policies, employees daily
routine, company organisation and operations, safety and health
among other things. The supervisors may have a checklist of
requirements for the induction process.
This may include;
o Word of welcome.
o Explanation of overall departmental organisation and its
relationship to other activities of the company.
o Explaining employees individual contributions to the
objectives of the department and his broad terms.
o Discussing job content with employee and give him a copy of
the job description if available.
o Explaining departmental training programmes and salary
increase practices and procedures.
o Discussing where the employee lives and transport facilities
provided by the company.
o Explaining working conditions.
o Hours of work
o Use of employee entrance and exit.
o Lunch hours
o Coffee breaks

Personal telephone calls and internet/e-mail usage.


Overtime policy and requirements.
Other issues safety habits and security arrangements.
Requirement for continuance of employment explaining
company standards as regards the:
Performance of duties.
Attendance and punctuality.
Handling confidential information.
Behaviour
General appearance
Wearing of uniform (where applicable)
Introducing the new staff member to manager and other
personnel and supervisors of the company. Special attention
should be paid to the staff member to whom the new
employee will be assigned.
Releasing the new employee to his immediate supervisor who
will then:
- Introduce the new staff to fellow workers.
- Familiarize the employee with his new workplace.
- Begin the on the job training.

o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

What in your opinion are the likely consequences to an organisation, of a poorly


conducted induction process?

What are some of the issues likely to be addressed by a placement and


induction/orientation policy?

TOPIC 5: LEGISLATION GOVERNING EMPLOYMENT IN


KENYA
THE EMPLOYMENT ACT: CHAPTER 226 (Revised 1984)
Specific objectives of the topic:
At the end of this topic, the trainee should be able to:o Discuss the legislation relevant to employment in Kenya.
o Apply the provisions of the legislation to given practical
situations in the organisation.
The Employment Act is an Act of Parliament to consolidate with
amendments of the law relating to employment and for matters
incidental thereto and connected therewith.
Exemptions to the Provision of the Act
The Provisions of the Act shall not apply to: o The Armed Forces or the reserve
o Kenya Police, Kenya Prisons Service, Administration Police
Force
o National Youth Service
o Such person or class such trade or industry or such public
body as the Minister may exempt.
Definition
The Act defines a casual employee as an individual the terms of
whose engagement provide for his payment at the end of each day
and who is not engaged for a longer period than 24 hrs at a time.
A child is any individual who has not attained the age of 16 years.
A contract of service: - an agreement, whether oral or written, and
whether expressed or implied, to employ or to serve as an employee
for any period of time and includes a contract of apprenticeship and
indentured learnership.
Piecework: -means any work the pay for which is estimated by the
amount of work performed irrespective of the time occupied by its
performance.
Conditions of Employment
Payment disposal and Recovery of Wages, Allowances

The entire amount of the wages earned by and payable to an


employee shall be paid to him directly in the currency of Kenya.
Provision may be paid with the consent of the employee for such an
amount to be paid into; an account at a bank, by cheque, postal or
money order, to any person (in the absence, but with consent of the
employee).
Payment of wages shall be made on a working, during working
hours, at or near to the place of employment. Wages payment shall
not be made in any place where liquor is sold.
The employee may recover any balance due him from an
employees salary.
No employer shall dictate to an employee how to dispose his wages.
When wages are due:
In the case of a contract for performance of a task or piecework
when a task has not been completed, at the option of his employer,
to be paid at the end of the day in proportion to work done.
To complete the task of on the following day, in which case be
entitled to full pay at the end completion of the task.
In the case of piecework to be paid at the end of each month in
proportion of work done or completion of the work, whichever date
is earlier.
The times when wages shall be deemed due shall be as
follows: For casual employees at the end of the day.
For someone employed for a period more than a day but not
exceeding one month, at the end of that period.
o
For someone employed for a period exceeding one month, at
the end of each month.
o
For someone employed for an indefinite period or on a
journey, at the expiry of each month, or on completion of the
journey.
o
o

These provisions shall not affect an order or award of the industrial


court, or an agreement between employer and employee, whose
terms are favourable to the employee.
Where an employee is summarily dismissed for lawful cause, he
shall be paid on dismissal all moneys, allowances and benefits due
to him up to the date of his dismissal.

Upon termination of a contract the employer must ensure the


employee is paid the entire amount of wages earned and payable to
him and also the allowances due.
No wages will be paid to the employee in respect to of a period
during which he is detained or serving a sentence imposed under
the law.
Deductions from Wages.
An employer may deduct from the wages of his employee: o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o

Any amount as a contribution to any provident fund or any


other scheme approved by the Labour Commissioner, to which
the employee has agreed to contribute.
A reasonable amount for any damage or loss of any property
lawfully in the possession or custody of the employer caused by
wilful default of the employee.
An amount not exceeding one days wages in respect of each
working day for the whole of which the employee, without leave
or other lawful cause, absents himself from work.
An amount equal to the amount of any shortage of money
arising through the negligence or dishonestly of the employee
whose contract provides he be entrusted with the receipt,
custody and payment of money.
Any amount paid to the employee in error as wages in excess
of the amount of wages due to him.
Any amount of the deduction of which is authorized by any
written Law for the time being in force.
Any amount, not of benefit to the employer and which the
employee has requested the employer in writing to deduct from
his wages.
Any amount due to the employer as repayment of a loan, but
not exceeding 50% of the wages payable to the employee.
Such other amounts as the Minister may prescribe.

No deductions shall be made from the wages, as an advance of


wages in consideration of, or as a reward, for the provision of
employment to the worker or for retaining him in employment.
At any one time, the total amount of deductions shall not exceed
half of such wages.

Leave, Housing, Health & Welfare.

Every employee shall be entitled to Leave: After every 12 consecutive months of service with his
employer to not less than 21 working days of leave with full pay.
o
Where employment is terminated after the completion of 2 or
more consecutive months of service during any 12 months
leaving-earning period, to not less than one and three-quarter
days of leave with full pay, for each completed month of service
in that period, to be taken consecutively.
o
A woman employee shall be entitled to two months maternity
leave with full pay. Such a woman, who has taken 2-months
maternity leave, shall forfeit her annual leave in that year.
o
After 2 consecutive months of service with his employer, an
employee shall be entitled to sick leave of not less than seven
days with days with full pay and thereafter to sick leave of seven
days with half pay, in each period of 12 consecutive months of
service. Such will be granted on production of a certificate of
incapacity, signed by a medical practitioner.
o

The leave granted to an employee in (i) above shall be


additional to all public holidays, weekly rest days and any sick
leave.

Every employee shall be entitled to at least one rest day in


every period of seven days.

Housing:
Every employer shall at all, at his own expense, provide reasonable
housing accommodation for each of employees, or shall pay to the
employee such sufficient as rent, in addition to his wages or salary,
as will enable the employee to obtain reasonable accommodation.
Water:
Every employer shall provide a sufficient supply of wholesome water
for the use of his employees at the place of employment and within
a reasonable distance of any housing accommodation provided for
them by him.
Food:
Every employee shall, where the provision of food has been
expressly agreed to in or at the time of entering into a contract of
service, ensure that every employee is properly fed and supplied
with sufficient and proper cooking utensils and means of cooking, at
the employers expense. These provisions shall not be deemed to
impose upon an employer any liability in respect of any employee
during the time such an employee is absent from his place of

employment without the permission of the employer or without


lawful expense.
Medical Attention:
Every employer shall ensure the provision for his employees of
proper medicines during illnesses and of medical attendance during
serious illness, and shall take all measures to ensure the illness is
brought to his notice.
Death of an employee:
The employer shall inform the labour officer or DC of the areas
where the employee was employed upon learning of his death. He
will then pay to this officer or DC all wages due to the employee at
the date of his death and shall deliver to him all property belonging
to the deceased employee for transmission to the person legally
entitled to.
Contracts of Service, Termination, Dismissal, etc.
Every contract of service for a period equivalent to 6 working
months or more or one which provides for the performance of any
specified work, to be completed in a period equivalent to 6 months
or more shall be in writing. The employee may either sign on it or
imprint the impression of his thumb /fingers as a sign of consent.
The employer is the one who will ensure the contract is drawn up
and consented upon.
Termination
Every contract of service not being a contract to perform some
specific work, and with no reference to time or to undertake a
journey:
o Where it is a contract to pay wages daily, be terminable by
either party at the close of any day, without notice.
o Where it is a contract where wages are paid periodically, at
intervals of less than one month, a contract terminable by
either party at the end of the period next following the giving
notice in writing.
o Where a contract to pay wages or salaries periodically at
intervals of or not exceeding one month, a contract terminable
by either party at the end of
the period of 28 days next
following the giving of notice in writing.
Either party may terminate the contract without notice upon
payment
to the other party of wages or salary, which have been
earned by the other party in respect of the period of notice required
to be given.

A contract of service shall not be terminated on account of


redundancy unless the following conditions are complied with: The employees union or the areas labour officer is informed of the
reasons, for and extent of the intended redundancy.
The employer shall have due regard to seniority in time and in skill,
ability and reliability of each employee of the particular class of
employees affected by the redundancy.
No employee shall be placed at a disadvantage for being or not
being a member of the trade union.
Any leave due to any employee who is declared redundant shall be
paid off in cash.
Any employee declared redundant shall be entitled to one months
notice or one months pay in lieu of notice.
An employee declared redundant shall be entitled to severance pay
at the rate of not less than 15 days pay for each completed year of
service as severance pay.
Summary dismissal
The following matters may amount to gross misconduct and may
justify the summary dismissal of an employee: o If without leave or lawful cause, an employee absents himself
from his place of work the workstation.
o If, during working hours, by becoming intoxicated or being
intoxicated, an employee renders himself unwilling or
incapable to perform his work.
o If the employee wilfully neglects to perform any work, which it
was his duty to perform, or if he carelessly and improperly
performs any work which he should have performed carefully
and proper.
o If an employee uses abusive or insulting language, or behaves
in a manner insulting to his employer or to a person placed in
authority over him by his employer.
o If the employee knowingly fails or refuses to obey a lawful and
proper command which it was within the scope of his duty to
obey, issued by his employer or a person placed in authority
over him by his employer.
o If the employee is arrested for an offence punishable by
imprisonment and is not within
10 days either released on
bail or on bond or set at liberty.

o If the employee commits or is suspected of having committed


a criminal offence against or at the detriment of his employers
property.
Certificate of Service.
Every employee who has worked for a period of more than 4
consecutive weeks is entitled to a certificate of service, which shall
contain: o
o
o
o
o
o

Name and postal address of his employer


Name of employee
Date when employment commenced
Nature and usual place of employment
Date when employment ceased
Such other particulars as may be prescribed.

No employer is bound to give am employee a testimonial, reference


or certificate relating to the character or performance of an
employee.
A foreign contract of service is a contract of service made within
Kenya and to be performed in all or part outside Kenya. Such a
contract of service shall be binding; when the labour office is
satisfied;
o That the employees consent has been given.
o There was no coercion, fraud or undue influence to the
employee to enter the contract.
o The contract is in the prescribed form.
o That the terms and conditions of employment are within the
provisions of the Employment Act 226, and are understood by
the employee.
o That the employee is medically fit for the performance of his
duties under the contract.
o That the employee is not to serve under any other contract of
service during the period provided in the foreign contract.
o No child shall be employed in an industrial undertaking. The
provisions do not apply to the employment of a child in an
industrial undertaking.
o The provisions of the Act shall not cover a child duly employed
under the provisions of the Industrial Training Act.
o No child shall be employed in attendance on machinery.

o No child shall be employed in any open-cast workings or subsurface workings which are entered by means of a shaft or
adit.
No woman or juvenile shall be employed between the hours of 6.30
pm and 6.30 am in an industrial undertaking. The women and young
persons may only be employed in such circumstances,
o In cases of emergencies, that are unforeseen and which
interfere with normal work.
o Where their work is connected with raw materials, which
need their presence during such hours to preserve the
material from certain loss.
o Women, holding positions of managerial or technical nature or
employed in health and welfare services and not manual work.
o In cases of emergencies, the Minister may suspend, by
Gazette Notice, the above section as it affects women and
male young persons.
No female shall be employed on underground work in a mine,
EXCEPT, in the following circumstances.
o One holding a management position and does not perform
manual work.
o One engaged in health or welfare services.
o One, who is in the course of her studies, spends a period of
time training in the underground parts of the mine.
o One who for some reason is forced to enter the mine on a nonmanual occupation?
Employees who employ a juvenile must keep and maintain a
register of their age or date of birth, date of entry into and leaving
the employment and any such other particulars as may be
prescribed.
An authorized officer may require any juvenile in employment
to be medically examined at any time during the period of his
employment.
During the hearing of a charge for an offence under this Act, the
court may for its own reasons determine the Age of such person,
using other available evidence and if not available, using a medical
officer.
If a labour officer deems it that the employer is an undesirable
persons, or that the employment is immoral, dangerous or likely to

be injurious to ones health, he may by notice in writing served to


the employer, prohibit him from employing juveniles.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.
Every employer shall keep a written record of all employees
employed by him and maintain their personnel details and avail
them for inspection by an authorized officer.
Nothing in this Act, shall prevent an employer or employee from
being proceeded against according to law for an offence punishable
under any law in force.
AN AUTHORIZED OFFICER
Every authorized officer shall be given a certificate of his
appointment, by the labour commissioner.
Such a person will notify the employer or his representative on
inspection or visit, of his presence unless such notification is seen
prejudicial to the performance of the inspectors duties. He will, if
requested, produce his certificate of appointment for the attention
of the employer.
Powers of Authorized Officers
o Enter, inspect and examine any land or building or other
structure on which he has reasonable ground for believing that
an employee is living, residing or employed; so as to
determine whether the provisions of the Act are being
complied with.
o Require an employer to produce an employee in his
employment and a document relating to the employment.
o Examine and take copies of a register, record, book or other
document relating to employment and take possession of that
register, record, book or other document which he has reason
to believe may contain evidence of an offence under this Act.
o Enter, inspect and examine all latrines and other sanitary
arrangements or water supply.
o Inspect and examine all food provided or appearing to be
provided for the use of employees and take samples, in the
presence of the employer, seal one for taking away and
another to be left with the employer.
o Order that all buildings and premises where employees are
housed or employed be kept clean and in good sanitary
conditions.
o Institute proceedings in respect of any contravention or any
offence committed by an employer under this Act.
o Institute on behalf of any employee in any civil proceedings by
an employee against his employer in respect of any matter,
thing arising out of employment.

o Take custody and return to his parent or guardian or other


person, any child employed in contravention of this Act.
o Subject to any direction of the labour commissioner, delegate
to any labour inspector any of the powers conferred upon him
under this section.
Powers of a Medical Officer
Medical Officer (See Act Cap. 226.P.5)
o A medical officer means: o A medical practitioner registered under the Medical
Practitioners and Dentists Act.
o A person licensed under Section 13 of the Medical
Practitioners and Dentists Act.
o The Medical Officer of Health of any local authority for the
purposes of the Public Health Act.
A medical officer may for the purposes of this Act exercise the
powers conferred upon an authorized officer by points (a) and (f)
under the authorized officer.
o Order an employee, who he thinks is sick and for whom the
conditions prevailing at the place of employment are not
conducive to the rapid recovery of his health or strength to
return to his engagement or to proceed to hospital. The
employer shall at the earliest opportunity and at his own
expense send the employee to his place of engagement or to
the hospital.
o Condemn any food for employees which, in his opinion is unfit
for human consumption, and all food so condemned shall be
destroyed forthwith in his presence.
o Condemn any building or other structure, whether permanent
or temporary in which an employee is living, residing or
employed in his opinion, it is unfitted by reason of its
construction, situation or condition for the purpose to which it
is put.
o Order at the expense of the employer such variety of food for
an employee as he may deem necessary provided that the
cost of the food supplied under such order shall not exceed
the normal cost of rations ordinarily supplied by employers to
employees in that area.
o Order the employer to supply an employee working under a
written contract of service with one or more blankets or with
clothing and such cost is to be deducted from the employees
wages.
o Inspect all drugs and medicines provided for the use of
employees.

RULES
The minister may make rules providing for all or any of the purposes
that may be convenient for the administration of this Act. This may
include: o Prescribing anything under this Act that is to be or may be
prescribed.
o Controlling the conditions under which employees may be
housed or employed, including sanitary arrangements and
water supply.
o Controlling the feeding of the employees in cases where food
is to be supplied by the employer under the contract of
service Quantity, variety, etc.
o Regulating the care of sick and injured employees.
o Prescribing books to be kept & returns to be rendered by
employers.
o Prescribing: o For any period the maximum number of hours an employee
will be required to work.
o Intervals to be allowed to them for meals and rest.
o Holidays or half holidays allowed to them.
o Any other conditions of employment.
o Appoint labour supervisors where employees of one employer
exceed maximum allowed.
o Registration and employment of casual employees.
o Establishment and administration of employment exchanges.
o Prohibiting where necessary, employment of women, young
persons or children in specified trades or occupations.
o Requiring employers of children to furnish information and
returns to any specified officer in respect of such children.
o The issue by employers or any class of employers to
employees in relation to any particular kind of employment,
employment cards, etc.
o Prescribing particulars to be included in Certificate of Service.
o Prescribing the form and providing for the display in places of
employment, of notices relating to wages and the terms and
conditions of employment.

What are the powers of the Labour officer and medical officer
as regards the ensurance of the welfare of the workers?
In what particular instances would you consider the Act
outdated and in need of a review