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MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

EDB 2034
Analogue Electronics (Jan 2016 Semester)
MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFET) Intro & Biasing
Lecturer:
Phone:
Email:

Saiful Azrin bin Mohd Zulkifli


05-368 7852
saifulazrin_mz@petronas.com.my

Page 1

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Coverage :

Introduction to MOSFETs

Derivation of iD vDS Relationship

MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics

Summary of MOSFET Current-Voltage


Characteristics

MOSFET Circuit at DC

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Introduction

Three-terminal devices (Gate, Drain, Source).


Most widely used electronic devices as ICs.
Current flow in longitudinal direction S to D.
Fabricated on a single silicon chip.
Symmetrical device (S D)
Small in sizes compared to BJT.
Focusing on Enhancement-type of MOSFET.
TWO types: n-channel & p-channel.
For n-channel MOSFET :
Fabricated on p-type substrate
Two heavily doped n+ created namely source
and drain
Thin insulator (SiO2) between Gate to
substrate (tox 2 50 nm)
4 Metal contacts deposited for
connection (G, S, D, B)
Polysilicon contact is now used
as gate electrode

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Introduction : MOSFET Operations
No Gate Voltage :
With no bias voltage to the gate, two back to
back diodes exist in series between drain and
source.
Prevent current conduction from drain to
source when vDS is applied.

n-channel MOSFET

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Creating a Channel For Current Flow:


S and D are grounded.
Positive voltage applied to the Gate, vGS.
Positive gate voltage causes:

Free holes (positively charged) repelled from


the region underneath the G (pushed toward
substrate).
Leave behind a carrier-depletion (populated
negative charge) region.
Positive gate also attract electrons from n+
source and drain. (abundance in the channel).
Sufficient electrons create n region between S
and D.
If voltage is applied between D to S, current
will flow in the channel.
The value of vGS which allow for mobile
electrons to accumulate and form conducting
channel is called the Threshold voltage, VT.

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Applying a Small vDS:


Consider vds is small (i.e. 50 mV or so) when
vGS > VT.
Voltage vDS causes iD to flow through the
induced n channel.
Current is carried by free electrons travelling
from S to D. By convention I from D to S.
iD depends on density of electrons in the
channel, which depends on magnitude of vGS.
iD versus vDS shows a linear resistance
relationship as vDS is increased and controlled
by vGS.
The resistance is infinite for vGS VT.

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Operation as vDS is Increased :


Let vGS be held constant greater than VT.
As vDS is increased, it appears as a voltage
drop across the channel.
Voltage measured relative to source increases
from 0 to vDS.
Voltage between G and points along the
channel decreases from vGS at S to vGS - vDS at
D end. Since channel depth depends on this
voltage, channel is therefore has non-uniform
depth (Deepest at S while shallowest at D).
Thus, iD - vDS curve no longer straight but
bends. (Picture next slide)

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

When vDS is increased to the value that reduces the voltage between gate and
channel at the D end to VT (or vGS vDS = VT), the channel depth at the D end
decreases to almost ZERO. Channel is said to be pinched-off.
Increasing vDS beyond this value has little effect of iD. iD becomes constant
(saturate).
The voltage vDS at which saturation occurs is denoted as vDsat = vGS-VT

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Derivation of the iD vDS Relationship
Objective to derive the iD vDS relationship at Triode and Saturation region of
operations.
Assume that vGS > VT to induce a channel.
Voltage vDS is applied between D to S.
Consider operation in Triode region:
vDS < vGS - VT
Since the gate and the channel form a parallel plate
capacitor denoted by Cox therefore, the capacitance per
unit gate area Cox is given by

Cox ox
tox

[F/m2]

Where ox is the permittivity of the SiO2,


ox = 3.45 x 10-11 F/m

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Consider the infinitesimal strip of the


gate at distance x from the source:
The capacitance of the strip is given
by
CoxWdx [F]
The electron charge dq in the
infinitesimal portion of the channel at
point x is given by

Q CV

Effective voltage

dq Cox Wdx vGS v( x) VT


Negative charge

The electric field produced by vDS in the negative x direction can be written as

E x

dv x
dx

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

The electric field produced causes the electron charge dq to drift toward the drain
with velocity of
dv x
n - Mobility of electrons
dx
n E x n
dt
dx
Finally the resulting drift current, i can be obtained as follows:

dq dq dx

dt dx dt

i nCoxW vGS v( x) VT

dv x
dx

The drain-to-source current, iD can therefore be written as

iD i nCoxW vGS v( x) VT

dv x
dx

iD dx nCoxW vGS v( x) VT dv x

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Integrating both sides from x = 0 to x = L, corresponding to v(0) = 0 to v(L) = vDS


yield
L

vDS

iD dx

nCoxW vGS v( x) VT dv x

1 2

iD L nCoxW vGS VT vDS vDS

W
iD nCox
L

1 2

V
v

vDS
GS T DS
2

iD Triode region

To obtain current in the saturation region, we substitute vDS = vGS VT into above
equation which yield

iD

1
W
2
nCox vGS VT
2
L

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

The term nCox is known as the process transconductance parameter an normally


substitute as kn

kn' nCox
Therefore iD vDS can be rewritten as

1 2
W
iD kn' vGS VT vDS vDS
2
L

1 W
2
iD kn' vGS VT
2 L
Aspect ratio

(Triode region)
(Saturation region)

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Example:
Consider a process technology for which Lmin = 0.4 m, tox = 8 nm, n = 450 cm2/V.s,
and VT = 0.7 V.
a) Find Cox and kn.
b) For a MOSFET with W/L = 8 m/0.8 m, calculate the values of VGS and VDSmin
needed to operate the transistor in the saturation region with a dc current ID = 100
A.
c) For the device in (b), find the value of VGS required to cause the device to operate
as a 1000 resistor for very small vDS.

Solution:
a)

Cox

ox
tox

3.45 1011
8 10

4.32 103 F / m2

kn' nCox 450 cm2 / V .s 4.32 103 F / m2 194 106 F / V .s

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

b) For operation in the saturation region,

iD
100 106

1 ' W
2
kn vGS VT
2 L

1
8
2
194 106
vGS 0.7
2
0.8

vGS 0.32 0.7 1.02V

vDS min vGS VT 1.02 0.7 0.32V

c) For operation in the triode region,

W
iD kn'
L

1 2

V
v

vDS

GS T DS
2

For very small vDS, equation above can be reduced to

W
iD kn'
L

vGS VT vDS

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

From which the drain-to-source resistance rDS can be found as

v
rDS DS
iD small _ v
DS

1000

W
kn' vGS VT
L

194 106 10 vGS 0.7

vGS 1.22V

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics
The iD-vDS Characteristics:
- Figure shows a std biasing of
n-channel MOSFET.
- The circuit can be used to measure
iD vDS characteristics family of
curves at a constant vGS.
- The characteristics show 3 regions
of operation : cutoff, triode, &
saturation.
- Saturation region Amplifier
- Cutoff & triode Switching

- CUTOFF:

vGS VT
- TRIODE:

vGS VT

(Induced Channel)

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

vGD VT

(To maintain continuous Channel)

In terms of vDS,

vGD vGS vSD vGS vDS


Which yield

vGS vDS VT
Rearranging above equation will result in

vDS vGS VT

(To maintain continuous Channel)

In Triode region, the iD vGS characteristic can be described as

W
iD kn'
L

1 2

V
v

vDS

GS T DS
2

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

If vDS is sufficiently small then the previous equation will become

W
iD kn'
L

vGS VT vDS

Specifically, for a value of vGS, rDS is given by

v
W

rDS DS
kn' vGS VT
iD small _ v
L

DS

It is also useful to express above equation in terms of gate-to-source


overdrive voltage given by

VOV VGS VT
Which will lead to

W
rDS kn'
L

V
OV

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

- SATURATION:

vGS VT

(Induced Channel)

The pinched off at drain end occurs by raising vDS to a value that results the gateto-drain voltage, VGD falling below VT,

vGD VT

(Pinched-off Channel)

In terms of vDS,

vGD vGS vDS


vGS vDS VT

vDS vGS VT

(Pinched-off Channel)

The boundary between the triode and the saturation region is given by

vDS vGS VT

(Boundary)

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

In Saturation region, the iD vGS characteristic can be described as

iD

1 ' W
2
kn vGS VT
2 L

The large-signal equivalent-circuit model that represents the MOSFET operation in


Saturation region is given by:

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Channel-Length Modulation:
- Previously we assume that increase of vDS beyond vDSsat has no effect on channels
shape.
- In reality, as vDS is increased beyond VDSsat, the channel pinch-off point is moved
slightly away from the drain, toward the source.
- This is due to the additional voltage applied beyond vDSsat which accelerates the
electrons that reach the drain end of the channel and sweeps them across the
depletion region into the drain.
- With depletion-layer widening, the
channel length effect is reduced
from L to L - L.
- This phenomenon is known as
channel-length modulation.

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

From previous equation and by including the channel-length modulation effect we


get

1 ' W
2
kn
v

GS T
2 L L

1 ' W
1
v V 2
iD kn
GS
T
2
L 1 L
L

iD

iD

1 ' W
kn
2
L

L
2
1
vGS VT
L

and

L ' vDS
Where is a process technology parameter (m/V).

Previously assumed

L L

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Inserting into previous equation yield

iD

1 ' W
kn
2
L

'

2
1 vDS vGS VT
L

Usually, /L is denoted as , therefore

1 W
iD kn'
1 vDS vGS VT 2
2
L
A typical set of iD-vDS characteristics showing the effect
of channel-length modulation is as follows:
From the plot, when the straight-line are extrapolated,
they intercept at the point vDS = -VA (Early Voltage).
Due to VA, the output resistance, ro can be derived as

V
ro A
ID

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Finally the large-signal equivalent circuit model by including the channel-length


modulation is given by

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Summary of the MOSFET Current-Voltage Characteristics
NMOS Transistor:

Operation in the Triode region:


Conditions:
(1) vGS VT

vDS VGS VT

(2) vGD VT

i-v Characteristics:

W
iD nCox
L

1 2

V
v

vDS
GS T DS
2

For vDS << 2(vGS-VT) vDS << 2VOV:

v
rDS DS

iD small _ v
DS

C
v

n ox L GS T

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Operation in the Saturation region:


Conditions:
(1) vGS VT
(2) vGD VT

vDS VGS VT

i-v Characteristics:

1 W
iD kn'
1 vDS vGS VT 2
2
L
iD

1 ' W
2
kn vGS VT
2 L

(With Channel-Length Modulation effect)

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


MOSFET Circuit at DC: Example 1
Analysis of MOSFET circuit at dc.
Neglect channel-length modulation unless specified (= 0).
Design the circuit of the circuit below so that the transistor
operates at ID = 0.4 mA and VD = 0.5 V. The NMOS transistor has
VT = 0.7 V, nCox = 100 A/V2, L = 1 m, and W = 32 m.

Since,

vGD VG VD 0 0.5 0.5 VT 0.7


NMOS transistor is operating in Saturation region.

1 ' W
W
2 1
2
kn vGS VT kn' VOV
2 L
2 L
1
32
2
0.4m 100 VOV
2
1
iD

VOV 0.5V

VOV VGS VT ;VGS VOV VT 1.2V

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Since the Gate is grounded,

VGS VG VS 0 VS 1.2V ;VS 1.2V


From the G to S loop,
V VSS 1.2 2.5
RS S

3.25k
ID
0.4m
From D region,

V V
2.5 0.5
RD DD D
5k
ID
0.4m

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Example 2
Design the circuit of the circuit below so that the transistor
operates at ID = 80 A. Find the value required for R and find the
dc voltage VD. Let the NMOS transistor has VT = 0.6 V, nCox =
200 A/V2, L = 0.8 m, and W = 4 m.
From the circuit,
vG VD

vGD VD VD 0 VT 0.6V
NMOS transistor is operating in Saturation region.

iD

1 ' W
W
2 1
2
kn vGS VT kn' VOV
2 L
2 L
1
4
2
80 200
VOV
2
0.8

VOV 0.4V

VOV VGS VT ;VGS VOV VT 1.0V VG

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Since the S is grounded,

VGS VG VS VG 0 1.0V VG VD
From D region,

V V
3 1
RD DD D
25k
ID
80

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Example 3
Design the circuit of the circuit below to establish a drain voltage of 0.1 V. What
is the effective resistance between drain and source at this operating point?. Let
VT = 1 V, and kn(W/L) = 1 mA/V2.

vGD VG VD 5 0.1 4.9V VT 1V


MOSFET is operating in Triode region.

W
iD nCox
L

1 2

V
v

vDS

GS T DS
2

2
iD 1m 5 1 0.1 0.1 0.395mA
2

The required value for RD can be


determined by

V V
5 0.1
RD DD D
12.4k
ID
0.395m

The effective drain-to-source resistance


is calculated as

V
0.1
rDS DS
253
ID
0.395m

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)


Example 4
Analyze the circuit shown below to determine the voltages at all nodes and the
current through all branches. Let VT = 1 V, and kn(W/L) = 1 mA/V2.
Since the gate current, IG is zero, the voltage at the
gate is simply given by the voltage divider

VG VDD

RG 2
10M
10V
5V
RG 2 RG1
10M 10M

Assuming that the MOSFET is operating in


saturation region,

VGS 5 I D 6k
Using

iD

1 ' W
2
2 1
kn vGS VT 1m 5 I D 6k 1
2 L
2
2
18I D
25I D 8 0

I D 0.89mA; I D 0.5mA

MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

Since we have two solution for ID, check the first solution yield

VS I D 6k 0.89m 6k 5.34V

VS VG

Doesnt make sense (NMOS is OFF).

Check the second solution yield

VS I D 6k 0.5m 6k 3V

VGS VG VS 5 3 2V

VD 10 I D RD 10 0.5m 6k 7V
Since VD > VG - VT, the transistor is indeed operating in saturation region.