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Module BIO00011C Cell and Developmental Biology

Practical Observation of Developing Embryos


Multiple choice (MCQ) assessment: contributes 10% to final module mark.
Enter your candidate number on the answer sheet.
Use the answer sheet provided and indicate the letter corresponding to the best
answer for each question.
Submit the answer sheet via the VLE by 12 noon on Monday 14th March 2016.
1.
The somites are repeated blocks of mesoderm found in the embryos of all
animals with backbones. Which one of these tissues is derived from the somite? (1
mark)
A.

Neural tissue

B.

Blood

C.

Skeletal muscle

D.

Hair

2.
Which of the following are advantages that the external development of frog
and fish offer to developmental biologists? (1 mark)
A.

The earliest stages of developmental are easy to visualise

B.

The cells of early embryos can be microinjected with RNA and DNA.

C.
Grafting and transplantation experiments are possible to investigate cell-cell
interactions during early development
D.

All of the above.

3.

Which one of these statements is correct? (1 mark)

A.
During the initial stages of amphibian development there is considerable
increase in the volume of the cells derived from each cell division
B.
During the initial stages of amphibian development the volume of the cells
derived from each cell division does not change.
C.
During the initial stages of amphibian development each cell division gives
rise to cells with successively smaller volumes.
D.
The first two cell divisions in amphibian development result in a 4-fold
increase in the volume of the embryo.

4.
At 23oC the length of the cell cycle in early Xenopus embryos is about 30
minutes. What do you predict will be the effect on the length of the cell cycle from
growing the embryos at a lower temperature? (1 mark)
A.

Speed it up

B.

Slow it down

C.

No effect

D.

Will affect cell cycle randomly

5.
Which two of these statements are correct? Incorrect statements will receive a
negative mark (2 marks)
A.
In situ hybridization is a sensitive technique for analysing gene expression in
development.
B.
In situ hybridization gives an accurate indication of the spatial localization of a
specific mRNA in the developing embryo.
C.
In situ hybridization gives an accurate indication of the spatial localization
within the developing embryo of a specific mRNA and the protein translated from it.
D.
In situ hybridization gives an accurate indication of the spatial localization of a
specific protein in the developing embryo.

6.
Where is the Brachyury gene expressed in gastrula stage Xenopus embryos?
(1 mark)
A. In the mesoderm
B. In the ectoderm
C. In the neural tube
D. in the somites

7.
The cells of what structures express high levels of myoD mRNA in tailbud
stage Xenopus embryos? (1 mark)
A.

The neural tube

B.

The organiser

C.

The cement gland

D.

The somites

8.

Where does the neural plate of the Xenopus embryo develop? (1 mark)

A.

In the left lateral ectoderm

B.

In the dorsal ectoderm

C.

In dorsal mesoderm

D.

In dorsal endoderm

9.
The expression of what gene would you use as a molecular marker for
developing neural tissue in amphibian embryos? (1 mark)
A.

Myosin

B.

Actin

C.

MyoD

D.

Sox2

10.
What is the name of the dorsal mesodermal structure which lies immediately
beneath the amphibian neural tube? (1 mark)

A.

The hypochord

B.

The notochord

C.

The somite

D.

The spinal cord

11.

What is the correct order of these developmental stages? (1 mark)

A.

Fertilization, cleavage, gastrula, blastula, neurula

B.

Fertilization, blastula, cleavage, gastrula, neurula

C.

Fertilization, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula

D.

Fertilization, cleavage, blastula, neurula, gastrula

12.
Xenopus tropicalis is considered to be a better genetic model than Xenopus
laevis because: (1 mark)
A.

The embryos of Xenopus tropicalis are bigger.

B.

Xenopus tropicalis has fewer genes.

C.

Xenopus tropicalis lays more eggs.

D.

Xenopus tropicalis has a diploid genome.

13.
What axis of this of this larval stage Xenopus embryo is indicated by the
arrow? (1 mark)
A.

Anterior-posterior

B.

Dorsal-ventral

C.

Left-right

D.

Up-down

14.
What makes amphibian and fish embryos useful models for understanding
human development? (1 mark)
A.
They can be used to generate gene knock-outs by homologous
recombination.
B.
Their eggs can be stored indefinitely in liquid nitrogen and fertilised when
needed.
C.

Their embryos contain the same cell-types as human embryos.

D.

The life cycles of fish and frogs is of a similar length to humans

15.
Why is it an advantage for developmental studies that the genomes of fish
and frogs have been sequenced? (1 mark)
A.
It allows easy identification of gene sequences known to be important in the
development of other animals such as fruit flies.
B.
It makes it is possible to identify all genes expressed in a given cell type at a
given stage.
C.
It allows identification of regions of genomic DNA that regulate the expression
of developmentally important genes.
D.

All of the above.

16.
Which stage of amphibian development is characterised by complex cell
movements and formation of the gut cavity? (1 mark)
A.

The blastula stage

B.

The gastrula stage

C.

The blastocoel stage

D.

The cleavage stage

17.
How do the cells of amphibian and fish embryos obtain nutrition in early
development?
A.
They are able to engulf micro-organisms from the aqueous environment by
endocytosis.
B.
Close contact between the foetal and maternal blood supplies allows the rapid
exchange of nutrients.
C.

They make use of symbiotic algae living within their cells

D.

Their eggs contain abundant supplies of yolk.

18.
What is the effect of transplanting the dorsal blastopore lip from one gastrula
stage amphibian embryo into another host embryo? (1 mark)
A.

The host embryo regulates and a normal but larger embryo results

B.

A twinned embryo with two complete body axes results.

C.

The host embryo will reject the graft and the graft will die.

D.

A half embryo consisting of either the left or right side results

19. The tightly spiralled gut tube that you observed in the live tadpole demonstration
is derived which of the germ layers?
A.

The pachyderm

B.

The mesoderm

C.

The ectoderm

D.

The endoderm