Anda di halaman 1dari 33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar
Between1943and1945,withthehelpofWarnerBros.finest,theU.S.Armyproducedaseriesof27propagandacartoonsdepictingthe
94
calamitousadventuresofPrivateSnafu.MarkDavidKaufmanexplorestheiroverarchingthemeofcontainmentandhowonefilm
inadvertentlyletsliponeofthewarsgreatestsecrets.
56

34

32

OpeningcardoftheU.S.armyWWIIshortanimatedfilmsPrivateSnafu,1943Source
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_SNAFU.JPG).

Inearly1942,withAmericastillreelingfromtheattackonPearlHarbor,Hollywoodmobilizedforwar.Soon,silverscreenluminarieslike
JimmyStewartandClarkGablewerepinningwingstotheirlapels,makingtherosteroftheU.S.ArmyAirForceslookliketheopeningcredits
ofanMGMblockbuster.AndwhileTinseltownbristledwithshinynewuniformsandalltooperfectsmiles,neighboringToontownwasalso
bangingtheproverbialdrum.FromWaltDisneytoWarnerBros.,theanimationstudioswerelettingslipthedogsandducksofwar.Donald,
ofcourse,wasanaturalrecruit(hesasailor,afterall).ThefeatheredherosawactioninthejunglesofAsia,bravingsnipersandravenous
crocodilestosinglewingedlywipeoutanenemyairbase.Nottobeoutdone,Daffyprovedthathetoowasabirdtobereckonedwith.In1943,
thefowlmouthedmallardparachutedcommandostylebehindGermanlinestowageunholyanduntranslatablehavoc.Othersfollowedsuit:
PopeyepunchedNazis,Supermansunkships,andBugsBunnypeddledwarbonds.Fortheseveteransofpaintandlight,itwasamerrywar,a
loonywar,andfornonesomuchasforthearmyssecretmascot:PrivateSnafu.
EveryG.I.worthhiscreamedchippedbeefknewtheacronym,butwhenitfirstappearedonthebarracksscreeninacartoontitledComing!
Snafu!inJuneof1943thefirstoftwentysevensuchfilmsproducedbetween1943and1945theboysweregreetedwithamore
wholesomeinterpretation:SituationNormal,AllFouledUp!Evenwatereddown,thiswouldseemacuriousmantraforaseriesoftraining
filmsaimedatpreparingenlistedmenforthechallengesofmodernworldwarfarethatis,untilonemeetstheprotagonist.Introduced,tongue
incheek,asapatriotic,conscientiousguywhothinksthearmysswell,PrivateSnafuisashort,bald,motormouthedBrooklynitewitha
penchantforcatchingtropicaldiseases,leakingclassifiedinformation,andaccidentallyblowinghimselfup.Heis,insum,ashiningexampleof
whatasoldiershouldnotbe,andhestandsasatestamenttohowthemilitarybrassevidentlyviewedG.I.Everyman:nave,careless,and
perpetuallyhorny.

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

1/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

FamilyfriendlyversionofthephrasebehindtheacronymofSNAFUSource
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Snafu).

Thecartoonsweretheproductofanextraordinarycollaboration.DuringtheSecondWorldWar,theproductionofpropagandaandtrainingfilms
felltotheFirstMotionPictureUnit,amotleycrewofactors,artists,writers,andfilmmakersunderthesupervisionofHollywooddirectorFrank
Capra,thatchampionofsmalltownAmericanvalueswhohadalreadygiventheworldMr.SmithGoestoWashington(1939)andwouldgoonto
directItsaWonderfulLife(1946).Astheringleaderofthiscircus,MajorCapralaterColonelCapraoversawnotonlytheSnafushortsbut
alsothehighlysuccessfulWhyWeFightseries,whichwouldwinhimanAcademyAwardforBestDocumentaryin1943.Typically,these
projectswereoutsourcedtolocalstudioswiththenecessarytimeandresourcesattheirdisposal.Whenitcamedowntofindingagroupof
animatorswillingtotakeonPrivateSnafu,Disneyprovedtooexpensiveandtoodictatorial,andsothecontractwenttoLeonSchlesingers
WarnerBros.Cartoonsstudio.Atthetime,theboysofTermiteTerrace(asthestudiowasknown)werestillrelativelyobscure.Inretrospect,
though,thetalentrosterbehindtheSnafucartoonsreadslikeapantheonofanimationicons:ChuckJones,FrizFreleng,BobClampett,Frank
Tashlin,andtheManofaThousandVoiceshimself,MelBlanc.Intothismix,addTheodorGeisel(a.k.a.Dr.Seuss),thenworkingasa
politicalcartoonistfortheleftistNewYorknewspaperPM,andthemerrymashupiscomplete.
Withsomanydangerousmindsonthejob,itslittlewonderthatworkonthecartoonswascarriedoutintheutmostsecrecy.Thesecurity
measures,whichdividedupproductiondutiesamongdifferentdepartmentswhoseindividualworkerswerenotpermittedtoseethefinished
films,maketheWarnerBros.operationlooklikeaparodyoftheManhattanProject.Butinspiteofthehushhushatmosphere,thesubjectmatter
seemsharmlessenoughonthesurface.Thetwentysixsurvivingepisodesallblackandwhiterunthegamutofmilitarysafetytopics:
everythingfromhowtomaintainproperhygieneinthefield,towhattodowhenfacedwithasquadronofmalarialmosquitos,towhyitssimply
notagoodideatogoskippingthroughaminefield.InBobClampettsFightingTools
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fighting_Tools.ogv)(1943),forexample,PrivateSnafulearnsthatkeepinghisriflemuzzledowninthe
mudcanleadtoastickysituationwhencaughtoffguardbyaWehrmachtpatrol.Similarly,inChuckJonessGas
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gas.ogv)(1944)anepisodeinwhichBugsBunnymakesabriefcameoSnafulearnsthevalueof
keepinghisgasmaskhandywhenpoisonouscloudsofTeutonicnastinesscatchhimnappingunderatree.

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

2/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

StillfromGas(1944),showingBugsBunnysbriefcameo,SnafumistakinghimforagasmaskSource
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gas.ogv).

Othercartoonsforegroundthechallengesofworkinginexoticclimes,suchasJoness(ironicallytitled)IntheAleutiansIslesofEnchantment
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:In_the_Aleutians.ogv)(1945)andFrelengsHotSpot
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hot_Spot.ogv)(1945),whichfindsSnafuhumpingitoutinthedesertsofoccupiedIran.Stillothers
focusonthebasicnecessities,likekeepingaproperdietonthemarch.InFrankTashlinsbizarreTheChowHound
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Chow_Hound.ogv)(1944),theghostofaslaughteredbullpresidesoveritsowndevouring,
growingfuriousasthepuerileprivatethrowsoutperfectlygoodchunksofcarcass.Themoral:dontwastechow.Itdishonorsthebeastswho
noblyvolunteeredtobeprocessedforthecause.
Althoughsuchcockandbullstoriesmayhavehadthedesiredeffectofteachingsoldiersthefactsofmilitarylife,thisdidacticfunctionobscures
amorecrucialone,thatofprovidinganoutletforresentmentwhilesimultaneouslydefusingpopularmisconceptions,liketherumorthatother
branchesoftheservicearesaferandmoreglamorous(ThreeBrothers(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Three_Brothers.ogv),1944)or
thenaggingsuspicionthateveryonebackhomeishavingaballwhilethegruntsareoutriskingtheirlives(TheHomeFront
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Home_Front.ogv),1943).Ineffect,thesecartoonsareaformofofficiallysanctionedsubversion,akind
ofFoucauldianpressurevalvedesignedtoventtheaveragesoldiersdiscontent,releasingjustenoughanarchicenergytokeepthesystem
functioning.Take,forinstance,Gripes(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gripes.ogv)(1943).DirectedbyFreleng,thisshortopenswith
Snafuonkitchenpatrol,scrubbingpots,peelingpotatoes,and,well,griping:
Ijoinedthisherearmytojoininthefun,
AjabbintheJapandahuntintheHun.
Andlookatthejobthattheyhandedtome:
KP,KP,KP,andKP!
Aftercataloguingmorewoesofarmylifelonglines,longerneedles,andendlesshoursintheinfirmarythesoldiersthoughtsturnto
mutiny.Fortunately,Snafusimaginedrebellionisinterruptedbyhispersonifiedmilitaryconscience:thegravelyvoiced,cigarsmoking,
perpetuallyfiveoclockshadowedTechnicalFairy,FirstClass.Thiscuddlysergeantwithwingsplaysanavuncularroleinthecartoons,
managing,onoccasion,topreventtheprivatefromdismemberingorotherwisemakingafoolofhimself.

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

3/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

StillfromGripes(1943),showingtheTechnicalFairySource(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gripes.ogv).

Inthiscase,theTechnicalFairyshowsSnafuavisionofwhatwouldhappenifhewereincharge.Uponreceivinghisfantasypromotionto
MasterSargeSuperSargeWhoopityDoo,Snafuproceedstoissueaseriesofdictums.Nomorecleaninglatrines.Nomorediscipline.Instead,
eachenlistedmanwillbeprovidedwithtwodamesandanextendedleavepass.Ascharmingasthisimageofstatesponsoredprostitutionmay
be,itallgoespearshapedwhentheGermansmakeasurpriseattack.WithhistroopsintoxicatedandtheLuftwaffebearingdown,Snafudecides
itsbettertotakeaneedleinthetuckusthananincendiarybombwherethestarsandstripesdontshine.Thefantasydissolves.Hierarchyis
restored.Andwhiletheprivatehappilyscrubshispotsandpans,theTechnicalFairydishesoutwartimeethics:Themoral,Snafu,istheharder
youwork,/ThesoonerweregonnabeatHitler,thatjerk.ManyoftheSnafushortsfollowasimilarpattern:theactivationofdangerousdesires,
whicharethendisarmedbythenarrativelogicofthecartoonitself.
Thisformofvicariousindulgenceisalsoevidencedbythefilmsratherfrankdepictionsofsexuality,whichweremoreshallwesay
developedthanonewouldexpectfromcartoonsofthatera.BecausemilitaryfilmsdidnothavetobeapprovedbytheHaysOfficethebody
responsibleforenforcingtheMotionPictureProductionCodetheanimatorscouldpushtheboundariesofadulthumorinwaysthat
conventionalHollywoodcouldnot.Inadditiontosuggestivelanguage,thecartoonsaboundwithbuxomcabaretdancers,eagergirlsnextdoor,
andmysteriousfemmesfatales.Thesevirtualpinupqueens,clearlyintendedtoappealtoaG.I.aesthetic,inviteacurioussortofvoyeurism.
Fromacontemporaryperspective,thispeepholeonthepastcanbeabitdisturbingwatchingaseventyyearoldimageofacartoonvixen
bendingoverhervanitytableinnothingbutagarterbelt,onesuddenlyhastheuneasyrealizationthatoneisoglingthegrandmotherofJessica
Rabbit.Butforthelonelysoldierswhofirstsawthesefilms,representationsofwomenservedsimultaneouslyaseroticoutletsandwarnings
againstbeingdistractedbylonglegsandbattingeyes.Forexample,inBoobyTraps(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu_
_Booby_Traps.ogv)(1944),directedbyBobClampett,wefindourherointhedesertliberatingalocalharem.Theonlyproblemisthatthis
bevyofbombshellsisactuallyanestofhomicidalfembotswhosecurvesare(quiteliterally)explosive.

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

4/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

StillfromBoobyTraps(1944),SnafudiscoveringthefembotsbehindismadeofbombsSource
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu__Booby_Traps.ogv).

StillfromBoobyTraps(1944),SnafudiscoveringthefembotsbreastsarealsomadeofbombsSource
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu__Booby_Traps.ogv).

InSnafusworld,womenwiththepossibleexceptionofonesmotherarenottobetrusted.Indeed,theonlylongtermrelationshipthat
seemstoworkoutistheoddrapportbetweentheprivateandhisTechnicalFairy.Onatleastoneoccasion,thehappyendingculminateswithan
imageofSnafuandhisimaginaryNCOengagedinabig,wetkiss.(Dontask.Donttell.)
Eachoftheseoverarchingthemesthepreservationofbodilyintegrity,themitigationofresentment,andthenegationoffemalesexuality
boilsdowntoonepredominantconcern:containment.Andofallthetropesofcontainmentfoundinthecartoons,themostpersistentisthe
controlofinformation.WithtitleslikeSpies(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu__Spies.ogv)(1943),Rumors

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

5/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rumors.ogv)(1943),andCensored(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Censored.ogv)(1944),
theSnafufilmspresentaprimeronkeepingonesmouthshut.Ofthese,ChuckJonessSpiesisthemostmemorable.ComposedinSeussian
verses,SpiesfindstheloquaciousprivatehomeonleavewithaheadfullofconfidentialplansregardingtroopdeploymentstoAfrica:
94

56

34

32

Ijustlearnedasecret
Itsahoney,itsapip!
Buttheenemyislistening,
SoIllneverletitslip.
CausewhenIlearnasecret,
Boy,Izipperupmylip!

Theenemyisindeedlistening.AndSnafu,chronicallyunabletokeephiszipperupinanysituation,goesaboutunawareofthesinister
stereotypesbeefyTeutons,toothyJapanese,andalleycatswithgingivitiswhoarepoisedtopickupscrapsofintelligence.Stoppingata
newsstand,SnafugreetsthepornographypeddlingproprietorHey,givemesomemagazinestoreadforwhenImontheship!andhis
carelesswordsareoverheardbythreebystanderswholooksuspiciouslylikeBenitoMussolini,HermannGoering,andFumimaroKonoe.

StillfromSpies(1943),showingtheMussolini,Goering,andKonoelookalikeseavesdroppingatthenewsstandSource
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu__Spies.ogv).

Dontbreatheawordtonoone,theychant,buthesgoingtogobyship!CuttoSnafuatthelocalwateringhole,whereaheadycombination
ofboozeandbroadserodesthepadalockinhisbrain,releasingagushofusefulinformationintothereadylapofafemmefatalewhopacksa
minitypewriterinhergarter.Say,youreaniftytrick,hedrunkenlytellsher.IhopeImeetsomebabesinAfricaascuteasyouare!Later,in
herlair,Snafumanagestodropafinal,crucialdetail
Itsbeenawonderfulevening,
AndIdliketostaysomemore,
ButIgottagetamoveon
Isailathalfpastfour!
atwhichpointtheAryanbeautysbreaststransformintoswastikashapedradiotransmitterswithadirectlinetotheFhrer,who,upon
receivingthesetitbits,dispatchesapackofUboatstointerceptthetransport.Theshipistorpedoed,andtheprivatefindshimselfinafiery
cauldronlordedoverbyahellishHitler.Apparently,notevenaguardianfairycanprevailovertheuncontrollabledesiretoselfdestruct,a
compulsionthatwendsitswaythroughthecartoonswiththeobstinacyofadeathdrive.

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

6/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

StillfromSpies(1943),theswastikashapedradiotransmittersSource(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu__Spies.ogv).

StillfromSpies(1943),SnafuinacauldronlordedoverbyahellishHitlerSource(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Private_Snafu_
_Spies.ogv).

Foralltheirpreoccupationwithsecrecy,however,onestillwonderswhythecartoonsthemselveswerekeptconfidential.Whatwassodangerous
aboutpersonalhygiene?DiditreallymatteriftheGermansfoundoutthatU.S.servicemenwerebeingencouragedtokeepinformationfromthe
Germans?Inshort,whatwasthebigsecret?Asithappens,therewasabigsecretareallybigsecretbutoneunknowntothedirectors,
writers,andartistswhoinadvertentlyletitslip.InMayof1944,JonesandhisteamproducedGoingHome
(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Going_Home.ogv).Penned(mostlikely)byGeisel,thecartoonwasintendedasyetanotherwarning
againstlooselipsonleave.Uponarrivingbackinhishometown,Snafuproceedstoregaleasuccessionoffamilymembers,girlfriends,

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

7/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

bartenders,andgasstationattendantswithtalesofAlliedmaneuvers,newlandingfielddesigns,andotherrestrictedstuff.Theninoneof
thosecosmiccoincidencesthatreaffirmonesbeliefinGod,Loki,ortheIlluminatithecartoontakesasingularlypropheticturn.Snafubrings
adatetothelocalmovietheater,whereanewsreelflashes:U.S.SECRETWEAPONBLASTSJAPS.
94

56

34

32

StillfromGoingHome(1944),thenewsreelheadlineannouncementSource(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Going_Home.ogv).

Theheadlineisfollowedbyanimageofanislandreducedtoavoid,likeawoundinthewater.Snafugrabshisgirlandwhispers(loudly):
Iknowwhatdidit
Whatmadethebighole
Ournewflyinbazooka
Withradarcontrol.
Astheimprudentprivategivesarundownoftheweaponanditsfeatures,theviewerseesavaguelyfamiliarimage,morebombthanbazooka,
withmysteriousvalvesandmenacingfins.

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

8/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

StillfromGoingHome(1944),thesecretweapon,morelikebombthanbazookaSource(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Going_Home.ogv).

This,onceagain,wasthespringof1944.Atthatverymoment,gravelookingscientistsinremotedesertbunkersweresmokingcigarettes,poring
overblueprints,andorderingshipmentsofuranium235.WhenthepowersthatbegotwindofthefactthatWarnerBros.hadindependently
inventedtheatomicbomb,shadydepartmentsflewintoaction.Thecartoonwaspulled,nottoseethelightofdayuntilsomeyearsafterthewar,
andthefilmmakers,whohadnoclueastowhatwashappening,suddenlyfoundthemselvesinthemiddleofapoorlywrittenspythriller,
completewithintimidatingvisitsfromgovernmentspooksinhomburgsandtrenchcoats.Therewerenoprosecutions,ofcourse.Howcouldthere
havebeen?TodosowouldhavemeantacknowledgingtheexistenceoftheManhattanProjectoverayearbeforethebombingsofHiroshimaand
Nagasaki.Nottomentionthatthiswasnoconspiracy,butratheranaccidentofink,paint,andimagination.Allthesame,thischanceunveiling
remindsusthatcartoonsarethemselvessitesoffusion,crucibleswheretechnology,violence,andcreativitycombineinwaysthatcollapsethe
dividebetweenrealityandfantasy,leavingustoponderwhichismoredisturbing:thefactthatthesecomicmindscouldrandomlyhituponthe
mostsignificantbreakthroughinmodernwarfare,orthatthescientistsresponsiblefordesigningandbuildingthemostdestructiveweaponin
humanhistoryadevicecapableoferadicatingalllifeonEarthintheblinkofaneyeseemedtosharesomuchincommonwiththecreator
ofWileE.Coyote.
Perhapstheultimateironyisnotthataseriesofmilitarytrainingfilmsobsessedwithmaintainingsecrecynearlyletthebombdrop,butthatthe
Snafucartoons,whichflirtedsopromiscuouslywithsubversionasamodeofcatharsis,accidentallysucceededinbecominggenuinelysubversive.
Nevertheless,whenthereelswereshelvedafterthewar,itsdoubtfulthiswasduetotheirmilitaryindiscretions,butmorelikelyoutoffearthat
theirracialcaricatureswouldoffendanewlyrehabilitatedGermanyandJapan.Nowdeclassifiedandavailableinthepublicdomain,thefilms
offeraglimpseofatimebeforeenemiesbecamefriendsandfriendsenemies,beforetheColdWarusheredinanewsituation,evenmorefouled
up,inwhichSnafussecretweaponthreatenedandcontinuestothreatenanendingwithnomerrymelody,nocurtaindrawn,andno
PorkyPigtostammerThatsall,folks!

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

9/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

32

MarkDavidKaufman,Ph.D.,isanAssistantProfessorofEnglishatAlverniaUniversityinReading,Pennsylvania.HehaspublishedcriticalessaysinHypermediaJoyceStudies,
Biography:AnInterdisciplinaryQuarterly,andtheEuropeanJournalofAmericanStudies.Currently,heisatworkonabookproject,tentativelytitledSecretStates:Modernism,
Espionage,andtheOfficialSecretsAct.Formoreinformation,pleasevisithiswebsiteatwww.markdavidkaufman.com(http://www.markdavidkaufman.com/).

PublicDomainWorks
PrivateSnafufilms
InternetArchive(https://archive.org/search.php?query=private%20snafu&and[]=mediatype%3A%22movies%22)
WikimediaCommons(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Private_Snafu)

FurtherReading
DOINGTHEIRBIT:WARTIMEAMERICANANIMATEDSHORTFILMS,19391945(McFarland,2004)
byMichaelS.ShullandDavidE.Wilt
Filmographygivingthoroughlydetailedsummariesofthemorethan250animatedshortsproducedbytheUSWarDepartmentbetween
19391945.
(HTTP://WWW.AMAZON.COM/DOINGTHEIRBITAMERICAN19391945/DP/078641555X?TAG=THEPUBDOMREV20)

LIVINGLIFEINSIDETHELINES:TALESFROMTHEGOLDENAGEOFANIMATION(UniversityPressof
Mississippi,2005)
byMarthaSigall
MarthaSigall,oneofthebestknowncartoonistofthegoldenageofanimation,recountsherwildandwonderfulexperiences
withthecartooncrewatWarnerBros.,includingherexperiencesofbeingoneoftheonlywomeninamaledominatedindustry.
(HTTP://WWW.AMAZON.COM/LIVINGLIFEINSIDELINESANIMATION/DP/1578067499?TAG=THEPUBDOMREV20)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

10/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

BookslinkthroughtoAmazonwhowillgiveusasmallpercentageofsaleprice(ca.6%).Discovermorerecommendedbooksinour
94
dedicatedsectionofthesite:FurtherReading(/furtherreading/).
56

34

32

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

11/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

5Comments

PublicDomainReview

Recommend 2

Share

Login

SortbyBest

Jointhediscussion

94

56

RichardSlagle ayearago
34

32

AnotherseriesofcartoonsrelatedtheadventuresofNavySeamanFUBAR,whowasSnafu'scousinIbelieve.

Reply Share

ConnieHinesDorothyProvine ayearago

I'veseenafewofthosecartoons.I'vealsoseenanumberoftheWWIIcartoonsthatWarnerBros.madestarringitsfamouscharacters.They
withdrewmostofthosecartoonsfromcirculationafterWWIIsinceitwasnolongeracceptabletomakeNazislookfunny.Evenso,cartoons
likeHerrMeetsHare(inwhichBugsBunnymakesmincemeatofHermannGoering)areariot.

Reply Share

HotSplice ayearago

TheSNAFUfilmswereproducedforinclusionintheinternalmilitarynewsreelseries"ArmyNavyScreenMagazine."It'shelpfultoconsider
theminthiscontext.TheScreenMagazineswereconfidentialbecausetheyincludedinformationthatwasnotopenduringwartime,and
usedatonethatwasnotconsistentwiththefilmsproducedforpublicconsumption.Theywereshelvedafterthewarbecause,likeyesterday's
newspaper,theywerenolongercurrent.There'smorebackgroundfromtheNationalArchiveshere:http://blogs.archives.gov/unwr...Tosee
newtransfersofahandfulofArmyNavyScreenMagazines,seethisplaylist:

Reply Share

Guest ayearago

TrulynoonewantstoreadyourcommentaryonthesecartoonsthatareasignificantthoughbarelyrememberedpartofourAmerican
culture.Youhavealotofnerve,therefore,innotlinkingtothecartoonreelsinquestion.Youareguaranteedthatnoonewillreadyour
article.Sorry.

Reply Share

Guest>Guest ayearago

Ipostedthat,andhowhappyIamtobewrong.Thesearedelightfulandperspectiveformingcartoons,losomanydecadeslater.

Subscribe

Reply Share

AddDisqustoyoursiteAddDisqusAdd

Privacy

FOLLOWUSON:
(https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/104068541016932564294/+PublicdomainreviewOrg/posts)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

(http://publicdomainreview.tumblr.com/)

12/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

(https://www.youtube.com/user/PublicDomainReview)
(http://twitter.com/#!/publicdomainrev)

(http://publicdomainreview.org/feed/)

(http://www.facebook.com/PublicDomainReview)

(http://pinterest.com/publicdomainrev/)

(https://instagram.com/publicdomainrev/)

94

56

MagnificentAmodelofdigitalcuration.
34

TheGuardian(/testimonials/)

32

Oneofourfavouritejournals.
TheParisReview(/testimonials/)

(/2016/06/01/francisvanhelmontandthealphabetofnature/)

FrancisvanHelmontandtheAlphabetofNature(/2016/06/01/francisvanhelmontandthealphabetofnature/)
Largelyforgottentodayintheshadowofhismorefamousfather,the17thcenturyFlemishalchemistFrancisvanHelmontinfluencedandwasfriendswiththelikesofLocke,Boyle,andLeibniz.
WhileimprisonedbytheInquisition,inbetweentorturesessions,hewrotehisAlphabetofNatureontheideaofauniversalnaturallanguage.JeWilsonexplores.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2016/06/01/francisvanhelmontandthealphabetofnature/)

(/2016/04/21/georgewashingtonatthesiamesecourt/)

GeorgeWashingtonattheSiameseCourt(/2016/04/21/georgewashingtonatthesiamesecourt/)
KeentoappearoutwardlookingandopentoWesternculture,in1838theSecondKingofSiambestoweduponhissonamostunusualname.RossBullenexploresthecuriouscaseofPrince
GeorgeWashington,a19thcenturySiameseprince.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2016/04/21/georgewashingtonatthesiamesecourt/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

13/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2016/03/23/divinecomedylucianversusthegods/)

32

DivineComedy:LucianVersusTheGods(/2016/03/23/divinecomedylucianversusthegods/)
WiththetwentysixshortcomicdialoguesthatmadeupDialoguesoftheGods,the2ndcenturywriterLucianofSamosatatookthepopularimagesoftheGreekgodsandredrewthemasgreedy,
sexobsessed,powermaddespots.NicholasJeevesexploresthestorybehindtheworkanditsreceptionintheEnglishspeakingworld.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2016/03/23/divinecomedylucianversusthegods/)

(/2015/12/09/worldswithoutend/)

WorldsWithoutEnd(/2015/12/09/worldswithoutend/)
Attheendofthe19thcentury,inspiredbyradicaladvancesintechnology,physicistsassertedtherealityofinvisibleworldsanideathroughwhichtheysoughttoaddressnotonlypsychic
phenomenasuchastelepathy,butalsospiritualquestionsaroundthesoulandimmortality.PhilipBallexploresthisfascinatinghistory,andhowinthisturntotheunseeninthefaceofmystery
thereexistsaparalleltoquantumphysicstoday.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/12/09/worldswithoutend/)

(/2015/10/28/notesonthefourthdimension/)

NotesontheFourthDimension(/2015/10/28/notesonthefourthdimension/)
Hyperspace,ghosts,andcolourfulcubesJonCrabbontheworkofCharlesHowardHintonandtheculturalhistoryofhigherdimensions.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/10/28/notesonthefourthdimension/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

14/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2015/09/30/badairpollutionsinandsciencefiction/)

32

BadAir:Pollution,Sin,andScienceFictioninWilliamDelisleHaysTheDoomoftheGreatCity(1880)(/2015/09/30/badairpollutionsinand
sciencefiction/)
Deadlyfogs,moralisticdiatribes,debunkedmedicaltheoryBrettBeasleyexploresapieceofVictoriansciencefictionconsideredtobethefirstmoderntaleofurbanapocalypse.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/09/30/badairpollutionsinandsciencefiction/)

(/2015/08/19/whenthebirdsandthebeeswerenotenough

aristotlesmasterpiece/)
WhentheBirdsandtheBeesWereNotEnough:AristotlesMasterpiece(/2015/08/19/whenthebirdsandthebeeswerenotenougharistotles
masterpiece/)
MaryFissellonhowawildlypopularsexmanualfirstpublishedin17thcenturyLondonandreprintedinhundredsofsubsequenteditionsbothtaughtandtitilatedthroughtheearlymodern
periodandbeyond.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/08/19/whenthebirdsandthebeeswerenotenougharistotlesmasterpiece/)

(/2015/06/03/thenightwalkerandthenocturnalpicaresque/)

TheNightwalkerandtheNocturnalPicaresque(/2015/06/03/thenightwalkerandthenocturnalpicaresque/)
Theintroductionofstreetlightingto17thcenturyLondonsawanexplosionofnocturnalactivityinthecapital,mostofitcentringaroundthesellingofsex.MatthewBeaumontexploreshow
somewriters,withtheintentionofcondemningthesenefariousgoingson,tooktothecity'sstreetsafterdark,andintheprocessgavebirthtoapeculiarnewliterarygenre.Continued

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

15/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/06/03/thenightwalkerandthenocturnalpicaresque/)

94

56

34

32

(/2015/05/06/scurvyandtheterraincognita/)

ScurvyandtheTerraIncognita(/2015/05/06/scurvyandtheterraincognita/)
Oneremarkablesymptomofscurvy,thatconstantbaneoftheAgeofDiscovery,wastheacuteandmorbidheighteningofthesenses.JonathanLambexploreshowthisunusualeffectofsailing
intounchartedterritoryechoedadifferentkindofvoyage,oneundertakenbytheEmpiriciststhroughtheirexperimentsinenhancingthesensesartificially.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/05/06/scurvyandtheterraincognita/)

(/2015/03/11/sexandscienceinrobertthorntonstempleof

flora/)
SexandScienceinRobertThorntonsTempleofFlora(/2015/03/11/sexandscienceinrobertthorntonstempleofflora/)
Bridalbeds,blushingcaptives,andswollentrunksCarlLinnaeus'taxonomyofplantsheraldedawholenewerain18thcenturyEuropeofplantsbeingspokenofinsexualisedterms.Martin
KempexploreshowthisassociationbetweenthefloralanderoticreacheditsvisualzenithinRobertThornton'sexquisitelyillustratedTempleofFlora.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/11/sexandscienceinrobertthorntonstempleofflora/)

(/2014/11/12/illustrationsofmadnessjamestillymatthewsand

theairloom/)
IllustrationsofMadness:JamesTillyMatthewsandtheAirLoom(/2014/11/12/illustrationsofmadnessjamestillymatthewsandtheairloom/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

16/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

MikeJayrecountsthetragicstoryofJamesTillyMatthews,aformerpeaceactivistoftheNapoleonicWarswhowasconfinedtoLondon'snotoriousBedlamasylumin1797forbelievingthathis
mindwasunderthecontrolofthe"AirLoom"aterrifyingmachinewhosemesmericraysandmysteriousgaseswerebrainwashingpoliticiansandplungingEuropeintorevolution,terror,and
war.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/11/12/illustrationsofmadnessjamestillymatthewsandtheairloom/)

94

56

34

32

(/2014/08/20/redressingthebalancelevinusvincentswonder

theatreofnature/)
RedressingtheBalance:LevinusVincentsWonderTheatreofNature(/2014/08/20/redressingthebalancelevinusvincentswondertheatreof
nature/)
BertvandeRoemerexploresthecuriositycabinetsoftheDutchcollectorLevinusVincentandhowtheaestheticdrivebehindhismeticulousorderingofthecontentswasinessencereligious,an
attempttoemphasisethewonderofGod'screationsbyrestoringthenaturalworldtoitsprelapsarianharmony.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/08/20/redressingthebalance
levinusvincentswondertheatreofnature/)

(/2014/06/25/picturingpyrotechnics/)

PicturingPyrotechnics(/2014/06/25/picturingpyrotechnics/)
SimonWerrettexploreshowartiststhroughtheageshaverespondedtothechallengeofrepresentingfireworkdisplays,fromthehighlypoliticisedandallegoricalrenderingsoftheearlymodern
periodtoWhistler'simpressionisticNocturneinBlackandGold.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/06/25/picturingpyrotechnics/)

(/2014/05/14/intheimageofgodjohncomeniusandthefirst

childrenspicturebook/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

17/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

IntheImageofGod:JohnComeniusandtheFirstChildrensPictureBook(/2014/05/14/intheimageofgodjohncomeniusandthefirstchildrens
picturebook/)
Inthemid17thcenturyJohnComeniuspublishedwhatmanyconsidertobethefirstpicturebookdedicatedtotheeducationofyoungchildren,OrbisSensualiumPictusorTheWorldofThings
ObvioustotheSensesdrawninPictures,asitwasrenderedinEnglish.CharlesMcNamaraexploreshow,contrarytoComenius'declarations,thebookcanbeseentobeasmuchaboutthe
invisibleworldasthevisible.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/05/14/intheimageofgodjohncomeniusandthefirstchildrenspicturebook/)
94

56

34

32

(/2014/03/19/victorianoccultismandtheartofsynesthesia/)

VictorianOccultismandtheArtofSynesthesia(/2014/03/19/victorianoccultismandtheartofsynesthesia/)
Groundedinthetheorythatideas,emotions,andevenevents,canmanifestasvisibleauras,AnnieBesantandCharlesLeadbeatersThoughtForms(1901)isanoddandintriguingwork.
BenjaminBreenexploresthesesynestheticabstractionsandaskstowhatextentthey,andtheVictorianmysticismofwhichtheywereborn,influencedtheModernistmovementthatflourished
inthefollowingdecades.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/03/19/victorianoccultismandtheartofsynesthesia/)

(/2013/12/11/encounteratthecrossroadsofeuropethe

fellowshipofzweigandverhaeren2/)
EncounteratthecrossroadsofEuropethefellowshipofZweigandVerhaeren(/2013/12/11/encounteratthecrossroadsofeuropethefellowship
ofzweigandverhaeren2/)
StefanZweig,whoseworkspassedintothepublicdomainthisyearinmanycountriesaroundtheworld,wasoneofthemostfamouswritersofthe1920sand30s.WillStoneexploresthe
importanceoftheAustrian'searlyfriendshipwiththeoftoverlookedBelgianpoetEmileVerhaeren.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/12/11/encounteratthecrossroadsof
europethefellowshipofzweigandverhaeren2/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

18/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2013/09/18/theseriousandthesmirkthesmileinportraiture/)

32

TheSeriousandtheSmirk:TheSmileinPortraiture(/2013/09/18/theseriousandthesmirkthesmileinportraiture/)
Whydowesoseldomseepeoplesmilinginpaintedportraits?NicholasJeevesexploresthehistoryofthesmilethroughtheagesofportraiture,fromDaVincisMonaLisatoAlexanderGardners
photographsofAbrahamLincoln.Todaywhensomeonepointsacameraatus,wesmile.ThisistheculturalContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/09/18/theseriousandthesmirk
thesmileinportraiture/)

(/2013/07/10/robertbadenpowellsentomologicalintrigues/)

RobertBadenPowellsEntomologicalIntrigues(/2013/07/10/robertbadenpowellsentomologicalintrigues/)
In1915RobertBadenPowell,founderoftheworldwideScoutsmovement,publishedhisDIYguidetoespionage,MyAdventuresasaSpy.MarkKaufmanexploreshowthebooksideastoutilise
suchnaturalobjectsasbutterflies,mothsandleaves,workedtomythologizeBritishresourcefulnessandpromoteacertainweaponizationoftheContinued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/07/10/robertbadenpowellsentomologicalintrigues/)

(/2013/04/18/vesaliusandthebodymetaphor/)

VesaliusandtheBodyMetaphor(/2013/04/18/vesaliusandthebodymetaphor/)
Citystreets,awinepress,pulleys,spinningtops,arayfish,curdledmilk:justafewofthemanyimagesusedby16thcenturyanatomistAndreasVesaliustoexplaintheworkingsofthehuman
bodyinhisseminalworkDeHumaniCorporisFabrica.MarriLynnexplores.AndreasVesaliusthrewdownaContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/04/18/vesaliusandthebody
metaphor/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

19/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2013/02/20/stillbookingondequinceysmailcoach/)

32

StillBookingonDeQuinceysMailCoach(/2013/02/20/stillbookingondequinceysmailcoach/)
RobinJarvislooksatThomasdeQuinceysessayTheEnglishMailCoach,ortheGloryofMotionandhowitsmeditationontechnologyandsocietyisjustasrelevanttodayaswhenfirst
publishedin1849.Inthelastquarterof1849ThomasDeQuinceypublishedtwoseparateessaysinBlackwoodsContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/02/20/stillbookingonde
quinceysmailcoach/)

(/2012/10/17/truthbeautyandvolapuk/)

Trth,Beaty,andVolapk(/2012/10/17/truthbeautyandvolapuk/)
ArikaOkrentexplorestheriseandfallofVolapkauniversallanguagecreatedinthelate19thcenturybyaGermanpriestcalledJohannSchleyer.JohannSchleyerwasaGermanpriestwhose
irrationalpassionforumlautsmayhavebeenhisundoing.Duringonesleeplessnightin1879,hefeltContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/10/17/truthbeautyandvolapuk/)

(/2012/06/26/thepolyglotofbologna/)

ThePolyglotofBologna(/2012/06/26/thepolyglotofbologna/)
MichaelErardtakesalookatTheLifeofCardinalMezzofanti,abookexploringtheextraordinarytalentofthe19thcenturyItaliancardinalwhowasreportedtobeabletospeakoverseventy
languages.Withoutadoubt,themostimportantbookinEnglishdevotedtoCardinalGiuseppeMezzofanti(17741849),theContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/06/26/thepolyglot
ofbologna/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

20/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2012/05/28/thekrakatoasunsets/)

32

TheKrakatoaSunsets(/2012/05/28/thekrakatoasunsets/)
WhenavolcanoeruptedonasmallislandinIndonesiain1883,theeveningskiesoftheworldglowedformonthswithstrangecolours.RichardHamblynexploresalittleknownseriesofletters
thatthepoetGerardManleyHopkinssentintothejournalNaturedescribingthephenomenonlettersthatContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/05/28/thekrakatoasunsets/)

(/2012/01/24/anunlikelylunchwhenmaupassantmet

swinburne/)
AnUnlikelyLunch:WhenMaupassantmetSwinburne(/2012/01/24/anunlikelylunchwhenmaupassantmetswinburne/)
JulianBarnesonwhenayoungGuydeMaupassantwasinvitedtolunchattheholidaycottageofAlgernonSwinburne.Aflayedhumanhand,pornography,theservingofmonkeymeat,and
inordinateamountsofalcohol,allmadeforatrulystrangeAngloFrenchencounter.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/01/24/anunlikelylunchwhenmaupassantmetswinburne/)

(/2011/11/14/thememoirsofjosephgrimaldi/)

TheMemoirsofJosephGrimaldi(/2011/11/14/thememoirsofjosephgrimaldi/)
AndrewMcConnellStott,authorofThePantomimeLifeofJosephGrimaldi,introducesthelifeandmemoirsofthemostfamousandcelebratedofEnglishclowns.Fewbiographershaveproved
soreluctant,butwhentherawmaterialsthatwouldbecome*TheMemoirsofJosephGrimaldi*reachedCharlesDickensdeskintheContinued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/11/14/thememoirsofjosephgrimaldi/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

21/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2011/09/05/dogstoriesfromthespectator/)

32

DogStoriesfromTheSpectator(/2011/09/05/dogstoriesfromthespectator/)
Dogswhoshop,buryfrogs,andtake800milesoloroundtripsbyrailwriterandbroadcasterFrankKeygivesabrieftourofthestrangeanddelightfulDogStoriesfromTheSpectator.Hereisa
puzzle:[Feb.2,1895.]IventuretosendyouthefollowingstoryIhaveContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/09/05/dogstoriesfromthespectator/)

(/2011/08/05/americankaleidoscopemortonprinceandthe

bostonrevolutioninpsychotherapy/)
AmericanKaleidoscope:MortonPrinceandtheBostonRevolutioninPsychotherapy(/2011/08/05/americankaleidoscopemortonprinceandthe
bostonrevolutioninpsychotherapy/)
In1906theAmericanphysicianandneurologistHenryMortonPrincepublishedhisremarkablemonographTheDissociationofaPersonalityinwhichhedetailstheconditionofSally
Beauchamp,America'sfirstfamousmultiplepersonalitycase.GeorgeProchnikdiscussesthelifeandthoughtofthemanFreudcalledanunimaginableass.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/08/05/americankaleidoscopemortonprinceandthebostonrevolutioninpsychotherapy/)

(/2011/03/01/thelifeandworkofnehemiahgrew/)

TheLifeandWorkofNehemiahGrew(/2011/03/01/thelifeandworkofnehemiahgrew/)
Inthe82illustratedplatesincludedinhis1680bookTheAnatomyofPlants,theEnglishbotanistNehemiahGrewrevealedforthefirsttimetheinnerstructureandfunctionofplantsinalltheir
splendorousintricacy.BrianGarret,professorofphilosophyatMcMasterUniverity,exploreshowGrewspioneeringmechanistvisionContinued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/03/01/thelifeandworkofnehemiahgrew/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

22/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

(/2011/01/31/christophersmartsjubilateagno/)
94

56

34

ChristopherSmartsJubilateAgno(/2011/01/31/christophersmartsjubilateagno/)
ThepoetChristopherSmartalsoknownasKitSmart,KittySmart,JackSmartand,onoccasion,MrsMaryMidnightwasawellknownfigurein18thcenturyLondon.Nowadays
heisperhapsbestknownforconsideringhiscatJeoffry.WriterandbroadcasterFrankKeylooksatSmartsweirdandContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/01/31/christophersmarts
jubilateagno/)

32

(http://publicdomainreview.org/subscribe/)

Youremail

Subscribe

(/2016/05/04/frolicsomeenginesthelongprehistoryofartificial

intelligence/)
FrolicsomeEngines:TheLongPrehistoryofArtificialIntelligence(/2016/05/04/frolicsomeenginesthelongprehistoryofartificialintelligence/)
Defecatingducks,talkingbusts,andmechanisedChristsJessicaRiskinonthewonderfulhistoryofautomata,machinesbuilttomimictheprocessesofintelligentlife.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2016/05/04/frolicsomeenginesthelongprehistoryofartificialintelligence/)

(/2016/04/06/picturingdonquixote/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

23/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

PicturingDonQuixote(/2016/04/06/picturingdonquixote/)
Thisyearmarksthe400thanniversaryofthedeathofMigueldeCervantes,authorofoneofthebestlovedandmostfrequentlyillustratedbooksinthehistoryofliteratureDonQuixote.Rachel
Schmidtexploreshowthevaryingapproachestoillustratingthetalehavereflectedandimpacteditsreadingthroughthecenturies.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2016/04/06/picturingdonquixote/)

94

56

34

32

(/2016/03/09/thestrangecaseofmrwilliamthorton/)

TheStrangeCaseofMrWilliamT.Horton(/2016/03/09/thestrangecaseofmrwilliamthorton/)
ChampionedinhisdaybyfriendandfellowmysticW.B.Yeats,todaytheartistWilliamT.Hortonandhisstarkminimalisticcreationsarelargelyforgotten.JonCrabbonauniqueandunusual
talent.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2016/03/09/thestrangecaseofmrwilliamthorton/)

(/2015/11/25/thescienceoflifeanddeathinmaryshelleys

frankenstein/)
TheScienceofLifeandDeathinMaryShelleysFrankenstein(/2015/11/25/thescienceoflifeanddeathinmaryshelleysfrankenstein/)
ProfessorSharonRustonsurveysthescientificbackgroundtoMaryShelley'sFrankenstein,consideringcontemporaryinvestigationsintoresuscitation,galvanism,andthepossibilityofstates
betweenlifeanddeath.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/11/25/thescienceoflifeanddeathinmaryshelleysfrankenstein/)

(/2015/10/14/richardspruceandthetrialsofvictorian

bryology/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

24/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

RichardSpruceandtheTrialsofVictorianBryology(/2015/10/14/richardspruceandthetrialsofvictorianbryology/)
Obsessedwiththesmallestandseeminglyleastexcitingofplantsmossesandliverwortsthe19thcenturybotanistRichardSpruceneverachievedthefameofhismorepopularist
contemporaries.ElaineAyersexplorestheworkofthisunsungheroofVictorianplantscienceandhowhiscomplexitiesechoedtheverysubjectofhisstudy.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/10/14/richardspruceandthetrialsofvictorianbryology/)

94

56

34

32

(/2015/09/16/drmitchillandthemathematicaltetrodon/)

DrMitchillandtheMathematicalTetrodon(/2015/09/16/drmitchillandthemathematicaltetrodon/)
OneoftheearlyRepublic'sgreatpolymaths,NewYorkerSamuelL.Mitchillwasamanwithafingerinmanyapie,includingmedicine,science,naturalhistory,andpolitics.DrKevinDann
arguesthatMitchill'speculiarbrandofcuriositycanbestbeseeninhisstudyoffishandtheattentionhegivesoneseeminglyunassumingspecimen.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/09/16/drmitchillandthemathematicaltetrodon/)

(/2015/07/15/catpianossoundhousesandotherimaginary

musicalinstruments/)
CatPianos,SoundHouses,andOtherImaginaryMusicalInstruments(/2015/07/15/catpianossoundhousesandotherimaginarymusical
instruments/)
DeirdreLoughridgeandThomasPatteson,curatorsoftheMuseumofImaginaryMusicalInstruments,explorethewonderfulhistoryofmadeupmusicalcontraptions,includingapianocomprised
ofyelpingcatsandFrancisBacon's17thcenturyvisionofexperimentalsoundmanipulation.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/07/15/catpianossoundhousesandother
imaginarymusicalinstruments/)

(/2015/05/20/theempatheticcamerafranknorrisandthe

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

25/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

inventionoffilmediting/)
TheEmpatheticCamera:FrankNorrisandtheInventionofFilmEditing(/2015/05/20/theempatheticcamerafranknorrisandtheinventionof
filmediting/)
AttheheartofAmericanauthorFrankNorris'grittyturnofthecenturyfictionliesanessentialengagementwiththeeverydayshockandviolenceofmodernity.HenryGiardinaexploreshowthis
focus,combinedwithhisuniqueapproachtostorytelling,helpedtopavethewayforatrulyfilmicstyle.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/05/20/theempatheticcamerafrank
norrisandtheinventionoffilmediting/)

94

56

34

32

(/2015/04/09/blackonblack/)

BlackonBlack(/2015/04/09/blackonblack/)
Shouldweconsiderblackacolour,theabsenceofcolourorasuspensionofvisionproducedbyadeprivationoflight?BeginningwithRobertFludd'sattempttopicturenothingness,Eugene
Thackerreflects*onsomeofthewaysinwhichblacknesshasbeenusedandthoughtaboutthroughthehistoryofartandphilosophicalthought.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/04/09/blackonblack/)

(/2015/01/28/whenchocolatewasmedicinecolmenero

wadsworthanddufour/)
WhenChocolatewasMedicine:Colmenero,WadsworthandDufour(/2015/01/28/whenchocolatewasmedicinecolmenerowadsworthanddufour/)
Chocolatehasnotalwaysbeenthecommonconfectionaryweexperiencetoday.WhenitarrivedfromtheAmericasintoEuropeinthe17thcenturyitwasarareandmysterioussubstance,thought
moreofasadrugthanasafood.ChristineJonestracesthehistoryandliteratureofitsreception.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/01/28/whenchocolatewasmedicine
colmenerowadsworthanddufour/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

26/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2014/10/16/thepoetthephysicianandthebirthofthemodern

32

vampire/)
ThePoet,thePhysicianandtheBirthoftheModernVampire(/2014/10/16/thepoetthephysicianandthebirthofthemodernvampire/)
FromthatfamednightofghoststoriesinaLakeGenevavillain1816,aswellasFrankenstein'smonster,therearosethatothergreatfigureof19thcenturygothicfictiontheVampireacreation
ofLordByron'spersonalphysicianJohnPolidiri.AndrewMcConnellStottexploreshowafractiousrelationshipbetweenPolidiriandhispoetemployerliesbehindthetale,withLordByron
himselfprovidingamodelforthebloodsuckingaristocraticfigureofthelegendwearefamiliarwithtoday.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/10/16/thepoetthephysicianand
thebirthofthemodernvampire/)

(/2014/08/06/oexcellentairbaghumphrydavyandnitrous

oxide/)
O,ExcellentAirBag:HumphryDavyandNitrousOxide(/2014/08/06/oexcellentairbaghumphrydavyandnitrousoxide/)
Thesummerof1799sawanewfadtakeholdinoneremarkablecircleofBritishsociety:theinhalationof"LaughingGas".TheoverseerandpioneeroftheseexperimentswasayoungHumphry
Davy,futurePresidentoftheRoyalSociety.MikeJayexploreshowDavy'sextremeandnearfatalregimeofselfexperimentationwiththegasnotonlymarkedanewerainthehistoryofscience
butaturntowardthephilosophicalandliteraryromanticismofthecenturytocome.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/08/06/oexcellentairbaghumphrydavyandnitrous
oxide/)

(/2014/05/28/thenaturalistandtheneurologistoncharles

darwinandjamescrichtonbrowne/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

27/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

TheNaturalistandtheNeurologist:OnCharlesDarwinandJamesCrichtonBrowne(/2014/05/28/thenaturalistandtheneurologistoncharles
darwinandjamescrichtonbrowne/)
StassaEdwardsexploresCharlesDarwin'sphotographycollection,whichincludedalmostfortyportraitsofmentalpatientsgiventohimbytheneurologistJamesCrichtonBrowne.Thestudyof
thesephotographs,andtherelatedcorrespondencebetweenthetwomen,wouldproveinstrumentalinthedevelopmentofTheExpressionoftheEmotionsinManandAnimals(1872),Darwin's
studyontheevolutionofemotions.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/05/28/thenaturalistandtheneurologistoncharlesdarwinandjamescrichtonbrowne/)
94

56

34

32

(/2014/04/02/darknessoveralljohnrobisonandthebirthofthe

illuminaticonspiracy/)
DarknessOverAll:JohnRobisonandtheBirthoftheIlluminatiConspiracy(/2014/04/02/darknessoveralljohnrobisonandthebirthofthe
illuminaticonspiracy/)
Conspiracytheoriesofasecretivepowereliteseekingglobaldominationhavelongheldaplaceinthemodernimagination.MikeJayexplorestheideasbeginningsinthewritingsofJohn
Robison,aScottishscientistwhomaintainedthattheFrenchrevolutionwastheworkofacovertMasoniccellknownastheIlluminati.Continued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/04/02/darknessoveralljohnrobisonandthebirthoftheilluminaticonspiracy/)

(/2014/03/05/frederikruyschtheartistofdeath/)

FrederikRuysch:TheArtistofDeath(/2014/03/05/frederikruyschtheartistofdeath/)
LuucKooijmansexplorestheworkofDutchanatomistFrederikRuysch,knownforhisremarkablestilllifedisplayswhichblurredtheboundarybetweenscientificpreservationandvanitasart.
Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2014/03/05/frederikruyschtheartistofdeath/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

28/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2013/11/13/lostintranslationproustandscottmoncrieff/)

32

LostinTranslation:ProustandScottMoncrieff(/2013/11/13/lostintranslationproustandscottmoncrieff/)
ScottMoncrieff'sEnglishtranslationofProust'sAlarecherchedutempsperduiswidelyhailedasamasterpieceinitsownright.HisrenderingofthetitleasRemembranceofThingsPast
Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/11/13/lostintranslationproustandscottmoncrieff/)isnot,however,consideredahighpoint.WilliamC.Carterexploresthetwomen's
correspondenceonthissomewhatstickyissueandhowtheShakespeareantitlemissedthemarkregardingProust'stheoryofmemory.

(/2013/08/07/thelostworldofthelondoncoffeehouse/)

TheLostWorldoftheLondonCoffeehouse(/2013/08/07/thelostworldofthelondoncoffeehouse/)
Incontrasttotodaysrathermundanespawnofcoffeehousechains,theLondonofthe17thand18thcenturywashometoaneclecticandthrivingcoffeedrinkingscene.DrMatthewGreenexplores
thehalcyondaysoftheLondoncoffeehouse,ahavenforcaffeinefueleddebateandinnovationwhichhelpedtoshapeContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/08/07/thelostworldof
thelondoncoffeehouse/)

(/2013/05/01/asaluteoutoftunerobertburtonsmelancholy/)

AsaLuteoutofTune:RobertBurtonsMelancholy(/2013/05/01/asaluteoutoftunerobertburtonsmelancholy/)
In1621RobertBurtonfirstpublishedhismasterpieceTheAnatomyofMelancholy,avastfeatofscholarshipexamininginencyclopaedicdetailthatmostenigmaticofmaladies.NogaArikha
exploresthebook,saidtobethefavoriteofbothSamuelJohnsonandKeats,andplacesitwithinthecontextoftheContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/05/01/asaluteoutoftune
robertburtonsmelancholy/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

29/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2013/03/20/marytoftandherextraordinarydeliveryof

32

rabbits/)
MaryToftandHerExtraordinaryDeliveryofRabbits(/2013/03/20/marytoftandherextraordinarydeliveryofrabbits/)
Inlate1726muchofBritainwascaughtupinthecuriouscaseofMaryToft,awomanfromSurreywhoclaimedthatshehadgivenbirthtoalitterofrabbits.NikiRusselltellsoftheeventsofan
elaborate18thcenturyhoaxwhichhadKingGeorgeIsownContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2013/03/20/marytoftandherextraordinarydeliveryofrabbits/)

(/2012/11/01/athanasiusunderground/)

Athanasius,Underground(/2012/11/01/athanasiusunderground/)
Withhisenormousrangeofscholarlypursuitsthe17thcenturypolymathAthanasiusKircherhasbeenhailedasthelastRenaissancemanandthemasterofhundredarts.JohnGlassielooksat
oneofKirchersgreatmasterworksMundusSubterraneusandhowitwasinspiredbyasubterraneanadventureKircherhimselfmadeContinued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/11/01/athanasiusunderground/)

(/2012/10/03/theimplacabilityofthings/)

TheImplacabilityofThings(/2012/10/03/theimplacabilityofthings/)
JonathanLambexploresthegenreofitnarrativesstoriestoldfromthepointofviewofanobject,oftenasittravelsincirculationthroughhumanhands.Someofthebestrecentbooksabout
things,suchasJohnPlotzsPortableProperty(2008)andElaineFreedgoodsIdeasinThings(2006),dealContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/10/03/theimplacabilityofthings/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

30/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2012/06/12/seeingjoyce/)

32

SeeingJoyce(/2012/06/12/seeingjoyce/)
ThisyearsBloomsday108yearsafterLeopoldBloomtookhislegendarywalkaroundDublinonthe16thJune1904isthefirstsincetheworksofJamesJoyceenteredthepublicdomain.
FrankDelaneyaskswhetherweshouldperhapsnowstoptryingtoreadJoyceandinsteadmakeContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/06/12/seeingjoyce/)

(/2012/02/20/lostlibraries/)

LostLibraries(/2012/02/20/lostlibraries/)
Inthelatterhalfofthe17thcenturytheEnglishpolymathThomasBrownewroteMusaeumClausum,animaginedinventoryofremarkablebooks,antiquities,picturesandraritiesofseveral
kinds,scarceorneverseenbyanymannowliving.ClairePrestonexploresBrownesextraordinarycatalogueamidthewidercontextofaContinued
(http://publicdomainreview.org/2012/02/20/lostlibraries/)

(/2011/11/28/themysteriesofnatureandart/)

TheMysteriesofNatureandArt(/2011/11/28/themysteriesofnatureandart/)
JulieGardham,SeniorAssistantLibrarianatUniversityofGlasgowsSpecialCollectionsDepartment,takesalookatthebookthatwassaidtohavespurredayoungIsaacNewtonontothe
scientificpath,TheMysteriesofNatureandArtbyJohnBate.Courteousreader,thisensuingtreatisehathlienbymeeContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/11/28/themysteriesof
natureandart/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

31/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

34

(/2011/10/31/onbenjaminspublicoeuvre/)

32

OnBenjaminsPublic(Oeuvre)(/2011/10/31/onbenjaminspublicoeuvre/)
OntherunfromtheNazisin1940,thephilosopher,literarycriticandessayistWalterBenjamincommittedsuicideintheSpanishbordertownofPortbou.In2011,over70yearslater,hiswritings
enterthepublicdomaininmanycountriesaroundtheworld.AncaPusca,authorofWalterBenjamin:TheContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/10/31/onbenjaminspublicoeuvre/)

(/2011/08/15/labillardiereandhisrelation/)

LabillardireandhisRelation(/2011/08/15/labillardiereandhisrelation/)
WhentheFrenchexplorerLaprousewentmissing,asearchvoyagewasputtogethertoretracehiscoursearoundtheislandsofAustralasia.OnthemissionwasthenaturalistJacques
Labillardirewhopublishedabookin1800ofhisexperiences.EdwardDuyker,authorof*CitizenLabillardire:ANaturalistsLifeinRevolutionandExploration(17551834)*,exploresthe
impactofhispioneeringwork.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/08/15/labillardiereandhisrelation/)

(/2011/03/27/bugsandbeastsbeforethelaw/)

BugsandBeastsBeforetheLaw(/2011/03/27/bugsandbeastsbeforethelaw/)
Murderouspigssenttothegallows,sparrowsprosecutedforchatteringinChurch,agangofthievingratsletoffonawhollytechnicalacquittaltheoreticalpsychologistandauthorNicholas
Humphrey*exploresthestrangeworldofmedievalanimaltrials.Continued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/03/27/bugsandbeastsbeforethelaw/)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

32/33

6/19/2016

IgnorantArmies:PrivateSnafuGoestoWar|ThePublicDomainReview

94

56

(/2011/02/08/talesfromtahiti/)

34

32

TalesfromTahiti(/2011/02/08/talesfromtahiti/)
In1890HenryAdamsthehistorian,academic,journalist,anddescendentoftwoUSpresidentssetoutonatouroftheSouthPacific.AfterbefriendingthefamilyofthelastQueenofTahiti,
hebecameinspiredtowritewhatisconsideredtobethefirsthistoryoftheContinued(http://publicdomainreview.org/2011/02/08/talesfromtahiti/)

(/support/)

ClickHERE(/support/)tolearnabouthowyoucanhelp

(/subscribe/)

Youremail

Subscribe

(https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/104068541016932564294/+PublicdomainreviewOrg/posts)
(https://www.youtube.com/user/PublicDomainReview)

(https://publicdomainreview.org/feed/)

(http://twitter.com/#!/publicdomainrev)

(http://pinterest.com/publicdomainrev/)

(http://publicdomainreview.tumblr.com/)
(http://www.facebook.com/PublicDomainReview)
(https://instagram.com/publicdomainrev/)

Themajorityofthedigitalcopiesfeaturedareinthepublicdomainorunderanopenlicense(http://www.opendefinition.org/)allovertheworld,however,someworksmaynotbesoinalljurisdictions.OneachCollectionspostwe'vedoneourbesttoindicate
whichrightswethinkapply(/rightslabellingonoursite),sopleasedocheckandlookintomoredetailwherenecessary,beforereusing.AllarticlespublishedunderaCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlike3.0license
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/bysa/3.0/).Ifyouwishtoreuseourmaterialpleaserefertoourattributionpolicy(/legal).StrongFreedomintheZone.

Thissiteusescookies Noproblem Moreinfo(http://publicdomainreview.org/cookiepolicy)

http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/03/25/ignorantarmiesprivatesnafugoestowar/

33/33

Minat Terkait