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1.

2 Ultrastructure of Cells
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Prokaryotic Cells
primitive cells
cells that lack membrane-bound organelles
ie: no nucleus, no mitochondria, no vacuoles,
etc
Ex: bacteria (ie E. Coli) found in soil, water, on
your skin, in your intestine
Ex: blue green algae

Prokaryotes
organisms that are made of prokaryotic cells.
Most prokaryotes are unicellular, such as
bacteria, however, they can be multicellular
too, such as blue green algae

Blue- Green Algae

E. coli

Prokaryote Cell Structure

Prokaryote Cell Structue

Prokaryote Cell Parts


CELL SURFACE MEMBRANE / PLASMA
MEMBRANE:
Thin layer composed of phospholipids
Controls the entry/ exit of substance via active
or passive transport
Selectively permeable

Prokaryote Cell Parts


CELL WALL:
Rigid to semi-rigid wall surrounding the plasma
membrane.
Contains pores to allow passage of materials in
and out of the cell.
The Cell wall supports the cell and provides
shape

Prokaryote Cell Parts


SLIME CAPSULE:
Protective outside layer, found outside the cell
wall
Also known as surface layer or the S-layer
Protects the cell from environmental dangers
Contains proteins and or glycoproteins

Prokaryote Cell Parts


Cytoplasm:
The inside of the cell
Contains cytosol (fluid of the cell)
Contains the enzymes (biological catalysts) for
catalyzing chemical reactions of metabolism
Contains ribosomes and naked DNA
No membrane bound organelles!

Prokaryote Cell Parts


NUCLEOID:
Region of the prokaryotic cytoplasm where
genetic information is found (1 main
chromosome and plasmids)
The 1 chromosome is made of NAKED DNA
This means that the DNA is not bound to proteins
(like histones)
This reduces the amount of space they take up
Usually circular

Prokaryote Cell Parts


PLASMID:
Small, circular, naked, DNA
Smaller, and contains less information than the
chromosome.
Found in the nucleoid region

Prokaryote Cell Parts


Mesosome:
Indentation in the cell membrane of bacteria
Unknown function, produced by chemical
fixation techniques.

Prokaryote Cell Parts


RIBSOSOME:
Made of RNA and proteins
Makes proteins
Less dense than eukaryotic ribosomes

Prokaryote Cell Parts


FLAGELLUM:
threadlike, motile proteins structures and are
used for locomotion
Cell may have none, 1, or several

Prokaryote Cell Parts


PILI (plr) / PILUS (singular):
Thin protein tubes found outside the plasma
membrane and extend out from the slime
capsule
Attachment Pili
Have sticky ends that allow it to attach to
surfaces (i.e. another cell)

Conjugation Pili (Sex Pili)


Longer
Build a bridge between 2 bacterial cells allowing
for exchange of DNA (conjugation)

Prokaryotic Reproduction
Prokaryotic cells divide asexually by binary
fission (similar to mitosis)
They duplicate their chromosome (their
circular DNA) and then split in half (each new
daughter cell gets half the cytoplasm and 1
chromosome)

Since binary fission is a form of asexual


reproduction, the daughter cells produced
are identical to the original parent cell.
Conjugation (with the help of conjugation
pili) allows for genetic variation allows for a
new combination of DNA

Annotate and Identify Structures from


and electron micrograph of E. Coli
ribosome
Nucleoid
region
(DNA,
plasmid)
Cell wall
cytoplas
m
Plasma
membrane
No visible slime
capsule in this

PILUS

SLIME LAYER

Metabolic Activity of Prokaryotic


Cells

1. Photosynthesis: light + CO2 + H2O


C6H12O6 + O2
2. Nitrogen Fixation: Convert nitrogen from
an unusable from to a usable form
3. Fermentation: convert organic substances
into simpler substances (ie sugar into
ethanol)

Eukaryotic Cells
complex cells with membrane bound organelles
Ex: the cells that make up you! (and other
animals)
Ex: plant cells
STRUCTURE: all eukaryotes contain:
Plasma membrane
Central nucleus with DNA
Membrane bound organelles in the cytoplasm

Eukaryotic Organelles
Plasma Membrane:

Outer surface of animal cells


Made of phospholipid bilayer
(usually double layer)
Controls the entry and exit of
molecules

Eukaryotic Organelles
Nucleus:

Control center of the cell


Largest organelle
Surrounded by a double membrane (nuclear envelope)
Contains chromosomes made of DNA and proteins

Nuclear Envelope:
Controls entry and exit of molecules
Contains nuclear pores (openings)

Eukaryotic Organelles
Chromosomes:
Contains hereditary info
Made of DNA and proteins

Nucleolus:
In center of nucleus
Makes ribosomes

Eukaryotic Organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum:
Tubules fro transport and synthesis of large
organic molecules
Often continuous with the nuclear envelope
RER rough ER has ribosomes
SER smooth ER makes carbs and lipids

Eukaryotic Organelles
Ribosomes:
Made of proteins and RNA
Site of protein synthesis

Lysosomes:

suicide sac
Contains digestive enzymes
breakdown of macromolecules
Digest worn-out cell parts/organelles
Digest pathogens
Can cause cell death if it breaks open (cell
lysis) and releases enzymes

Eukaryotic Organelles
Mitochondrion:

Site of cellular respiration


Makes ATP (adenosine triphosphate) energy for the cell
Double membrane
Has its own DNA (mDNA)
Own ribosomes

Chloroplast:
Site of photosynthesis (makes sugar from light energy)
Has double membrane, own DNA, own ribosomes

Eukaryotic Organelles
Flagella:
Long microtubules strand
whiplike tail
For motility

Cillia:
Short microtuble strands
For motility

Eukaryotic Organelles
Golgi Apparatus/Golgi Body/Golgi Complex:

Looks like a stack of deflated balloons


Membranous sacs
Packaging plant of the cell
Packages cell products (ie: carbs and lipids)

Vacuoles:
Membrane bound organelles used for storage of
water, wastes, and macromolecules

Eukaryotic Organelles
Cell Wall:
Rigid outer layer of plant cells
Made of cellulose

Plasmodesmata:
Gaps in cell walls
Create junctions between plant cells

Atypical Cells
Striated Muscle
Muscle Fibres
(Muscle Cells)
Longer than
typical cells
(30mm opposed
to <0.3mm)
Multiple nuclei

Atypical Cells
Giant Algae
Ex Acetabularia, a
unicellular
organism, can grow
to a length of 10
cm, despite having
only 1 nucleus.
Usually organisms
that large consist of
several cells.

Atypical Cells
Aseptate Hyphae
Narrow thread like
structure in fungi
Have a cell wall
and membrane.
In aseptate fungi,
the hyphae is an
uninterrupted
tube-like structure
with many nuclei
spread along it.

Animal vs Plant Cells


ANIMAL CELL
No chloroplasts
No cell wall
Usually no large central
vacuole
Carbohydrates stored as
glycogen
Have lysosomes
Amorphic shape

PLANT CELL
Chloroplasts usually present
Cell wall present
Have large central vacuole
Carbohydrates stored as
starch or cellulose
Generally lack lysosomes
Rigid shape, often with
straight edges

Prokaryotic Cell vs
Eukaryotic Cell
PROKARYOTES
Do not have membrane
bound organelles
Naked circular DNA (no
proteins associated)
DNA in nucleoid region
RIBOSOMES: free floating
in cytoplasm
No mitochondria; uses
plasma membrane for
respiration

EUKARYOTES
Membrane bound
organelles present
DNA wrapped around
histone proteins
DNA within the nucleus
Ribosomes: attached to
RER or free floating in
cytoplasm
Has mitochondria for
aerobic cellular respiration