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EW609

Pocket Welding Guide


A Guide to Better Welding
30th Edition Revised
All Rights Reserved
including the right to reproduce this book or
portions thereof in any form
by
Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
400 Trade Square East
Troy, OH 45373 USA
Filler metal information courtesy
Hobart Brothers Company, Troy, Ohio, USA.
State Board of Career Colleges and Schools
Registration No. 70-12-0064HT
Accrediting Commision of Career Schools
and Colleges of Technology No. 000403
2010 Hobart Institute of Welding Technology
ISBN: 978-1-936058-28-0
Cover photo: Hobart Institute Instructor Luke Bailey welding pipe.

INTRODUCTION
The Pocket Welding Guide began as a 30-page booklet
with 3.5 x 5.5-inch dimensions that would actually fit
into a shirt pocket. In fact, the early title of the book
was Hobart Vest Pocket Guide to Better Welding.
The booklet contained three types of electrodes, four
essentials of proper welding procedures, types of joints
and welding positions, early welding symbols, some of
the early build your own Hobart welding generators,
and a page of the early Practical Arc Welding training
books.
The up-to-date welding training was, at that time,
being provided at the Hobart Trade School. It is stated
on the cover, Thousands of men and women have
received thorough training at the Hobart Trade School,
and have immediately stepped into high paying jobs.
It goes on to indicate that the training was being
offered to those interested in preparing for steady
employment in post-war industry. And that training
was fully accredited under the G.I. Bill.
With each new edition, more information was added.
More welding symbols were developed, welding terms
have been standardized and added and today, in its
30th edition, the book is 146 pages in length. It has
been completely revised and improved. The Pocket
Welding Guide is a great addition to any welders
toolbox. It remains a quick and ready reference.

FOREWORD
This 30th edition of the Pocket Welding Guide is
dedicated to all those who are interested in and work
with any aspect of welding. It covers a wide variety
of subjects that are essential for the student or
beginner and are of interest to the veteran welders,
draftsmen, instructors, supervisors, foremen,
technicians, and engineers.
You are encouraged to strive for the perfect weld.
Putting every effort forth to attain it will make you
more valuable as a welder. No matter what your
task may be, you can do no better than to try for
perfection.

Contents
Welding & Cutting Processes...........................................................................6
5 Essentials for Good Welding...................................................................... 16
Examples of Good & Bad Beads................................................................... 18
Common Welding Problems, Causes and Cures.................................... 30
Checkpoints for Quality Welding................................................................ 33
Welding Positions............................................................................................. 35
Types of Joints.................................................................................................... 37
Welding Symbols.............................................................................................. 38
General Welding Safety.................................................................................. 44
Welding Metals.................................................................................................. 48
Steel Available for Welding........................................................................... 49
Identification of Metals................................................................................... 50
Typical Preheating for Various Metals....................................................... 52
AISI-SAE Designation System for
Carbon and Alloy Steels............................................................................. 53
Cost Saving Hints.............................................................................................. 54
8 Factors to Consider When Selecting Electrodes................................ 56
Metal Cored Wire............................................................................................... 57
Oven Storage & Reconditioning of Filler Metals.................................... 59
How To Calculate Filler Metal Consumption........................................... 60
Shielding Gases & Their Uses........................................................................ 62
AWS Electrode Classifications & Comparative Indices........................ 63
GMAW Short Circuiting Transfer Welding
Parameters & Shielding Gases................................................................ 74
GMAW Spray Transfer Welding Parameters
& Shielding Gases....................................................................................... 75
Hobart Filler Metals.......................................................................................... 79
Mild & Low Alloy Steel Electrodes......................................................... 79
Stainless Steel Electrodes......................................................................... 92
Mild Steel Solid Wires................................................................................ 95
Tubular Wires................................................................................................ 99
Metal Cored Wires.....................................................................................109
Hard Surfacing...........................................................................................113

Filler Guide for Welding Aluminum..........................................................114


Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels.........................115
Welding Terms & Definitions......................................................................136
Metric Conversion Tables.............................................................................140
HIWT Training & Certification Services....................................................143
HIWT Training Materials...............................................................................144
Index....................................................................................................................145

Welding & Cutting Processes


SMAW

Shielded Metal Arc Welding, also called Stick welding and Manual Metal
welding is an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence of
metals by heating them with an arc between a covered consumable metal
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from decomposition of
the electrode covering. The process is normally manually applied and is
capable of welding thin and thick steels and some nonferrous metals in all
positions. The process requires a relatively high degree of welder skill.

GMAW

Gas Metal Arc Welding, also known as MIG welding, CO 2 Welding,


Micro Wire Welding, short arc welding, dip transfer welding, wire welding, etc., is an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence
of metals by heating them with an arc between a solid, continuous,
consumable electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from an
externally supplied gas or gas mixture. The process is normally applied
semiautomatically; however, the process may be operated automatically
and can be machine operated. The process can be used to weld thin and
fairly thick steels and some nonferrous metals in all positions. A relatively
low degree of welding skill is required for the process.

FCAW

Flux Cored Arc Welding, also known as Dual-Shielded, Inner-shield, Self


Shield, FabCO, etc., is an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous
flux filled electrode wire and the work. Shielding is obtained through
decomposition of the flux within the tubular wire. Additional shielding may or may not be obtained from an externally supplied gas or gas
mixture. The process is normally applied semi-automatically, but can
be applied automatically or by machine. It is commonly used to weld
medium to thick steels using large diameter electrodes in the flat and horizontal position and small electrode diameters in all positions. The process
is used to a lesser degree for welding stainless steel and for overlay work.
The skill level required for FCAW is similar to GMAW.

Protective Gas From


Electrode Coating
Molten Weld
Metal

Slag

Electrode Wire
Electrode Coating
Arc

Solidified
Weld Metal

Metal Droplets

Base Metal

Shielding Gas
Solidified
Weld Metal

Molten Weld Metal

Nozzle
Electrode
Arc

Gas (Optional)
Molten Metal

Base Metal

Nozzle (Optional)

Solidified
Weld Metal
Slag

Molten
Slag

Flux Cored
Electrode
Arc

Base Metal

Welding & Cutting Processes


SAW

Submerged Arc Welding, also known as Union Melt, Hidden Arc, Welding
Under Powder, etc., is an arc welding process that produces coalescence
of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs between a bare electrode or
electrodes and the work. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular flux
on the work. The process is normally applied by machine or automatically,
but is used on a limited basis semi-automatically. It is used to weld medium
to thick steel in the flat and horizontal position only. Manual welding skill
is not required; however, a technical understanding of the equipment and
welding procedures is necessary to operate the process.

GTAW

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding, also known as TIG welding, Heliarc Welding,
Heli-Welding, Argon-Arc Welding and Tungsten Arc Welding, is an electric
arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them
with an arc between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work.
Filler may or may not be used. Shielding is obtained from an inert gas or an
inert gas mixture. The process is normally applied manually and is capable
of welding steels and nonferrous metals in all positions. The process is commonly used on thin metals and for the root and hot pass on tubing and pipe.
Requires a relatively high degree of welder skill.

PAW

Plasma Arc Welding, sometimes referred to as Needle Arc and Micro Plasma, is
an electric arc welding process that produces coalescence of metals by heating them with a constricted arc between a tungsten electrode and the work
(transferred arc) or the electrode and the constricting nozzle (non-transferred
arc). Shielding is obtained from the hot ionized gas issuing from the orifice.
An auxiliary inert shielding gas or mixture of inert gases may supplement the
system. The process is commonly applied manually, but may be automatic
to increase welding speeds. It can be used to weld almost all metals and
can be all position at lower currents. Normally used on thinner metals, the
process requires a slightly lesser degree of welder skill than Gas Tungsten
Arc Welding, but a greater knowledge of equipment set-up.

Slag

Electorde

Molten Flux

From Flux
Hopper
Flux Blanket

Solidified
Weld Metal

Molten
Weld Metal

Arc Path

Base Metal

Welding Torch

Shielding Gas

Tungsten Electrode

Molten Weld
Metal

Arc

Solidified
Weld Metal

Filler Rod

Base Metal

Coolant
Tungsten
Electrode

Orifice to Constrict Arc


Plasma Stream
Shielding Gas
Solidified
Metal

Filler Metal
Base Metal
Molten Weld Metal

Welding & Cutting Processes


CAW

Carbon Arc Welding, is an electric arc welding process that produces a


coalescence of metals by heating with an arc between a carbon electrode
and the work. No shielding is used. A variation of the process uses two
carbon electrodes with an arc between them. The process is normally applied manually and is capable of welding thin metals. The process is also
commonly used for brazing. It requires a relatively high degree of welding
skill. This process has limited industrial popularity.

ESW

Electroslag Welding, also known as Porta-Slag or Slag Welding, is a welding


process that produces a coalescence of metals with molten slag which melts
the filler metal and the surface of the work to be welded. The molten weld
pool is shielded by a slag covering which moves along the joint as welding
progresses. The process is not an arc welding process, except that an arc is
used to start the process. After stabilization the molten slag provides the
necessary heat for welding. The process is always applied automatically. It is
a limited application process used only for making vertical welds on medium
to heavy thickness of mild steel. Manual welding skill is not required, but a
techincal knowledge of the process is required to operate the equipment.

EGW

Electrogas Welding, also known as Verti-Matic and Automatic Vertical Aircomatic, is an arc welding process that produces a coalescence of metals by
heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable)
electrode and the work. Molding shoes are used to confine the molten
weld metal for vertical position welding. The electrode may be either flux
cored or solid. Shielding may or may not be obtained from an externally
supplied gas or gas mixture. The process is always applied automatically. It is
a limited application process used only for making vertical welds on medium
to heavy thickness mild steel. Manual welding skills are not required, but
like electroslag welding, a technical knowledge of the process is required
to operate the equipment.

10

Arc Stream Arc Flame

Electrode

Arc Core
Base Metal

Filler Rod

Electrode
Base Metal

Consumable Guide Tube

Base Metal
Molten Flux

Molten Weld Metal


Solidified Weld Metal

Electrode Conduit

Electrode Wire
(Tubular or Solid)

Shielding Gas

Water Out
Molten Weld Metal
Water In

Shielding Gas
Welding Head
Shielding Gas
Water Out

Water In
Solidified Weld Metal

11

Welding & Cutting Processes


SW

Stud Welding, also known as Arc Stud Welding, is a special purpose arc welding process used to attach studs to base metal. Partial shielding is obtained
by a ceramic ferrule surrounding the stud. It is a machine welding process,
using a specialized gun that holds the stud and makes the weld. The process
is normally used on steels in the flat and horizontal position. A low degree
of welding skill is required for stud welding operation.

OAW

Oxyacetylene Welding, sometimes referred to as Gas Welding, Oxy-Fuel Gas


Welding, and Torch Welding, is an oxy-fuel gas process that produces a coalescence of metals by heating them with a gas flame or flames obtained from
the combustion of acetylene with oxygen. The process may be used with
or without filler metal. It can be used on thin to medium thickness metals
of many types, steels and nonferrous in all positions. The process is applied
manually and requires a relatively high degree of welding skill.

TB

Torch Brazing, sometimes called Gas Brazing, is similar to Oxyacetylene


Welding, except the base metal is not melted, and the filler metal is usually a
nonferrous metal. The filler metal flows into the joint by capillary attraction.
Brazing can be done in all positions on most metals and is especially popular
for repair work on case iron. The process is normally applied manually and
requires a relatively high degree of brazer skill.

12

Welding Torch Tip


Inner Cone
Acetylene Feather

Filler Rod

Molten Weld Metal


Solidified
Weld Metal
Base Metal

Welding
Torch Tip
Base Metal

Deposited
Braze Metal

Inner Cone

Acetylene Feather

Brazing
Filler Metal

13

Welding & Cutting Processes


OC

Oxygen Cutting, also known as Oxygen Fuel Gas Cutting, Acetylene Cutting, Gas Cutting and Burning, is a thermal process used to sever metals by
heating the metal with a flame to an elevated temperature and using pure
oxygen to oxidize the metal and produce the cut. Different fuel gases can
be used including: acetylene, natural gas, propane and various trade-name
gases. The process is normally applied manually with hand-held torches
or by machine with highly accurate tracing devices and multi-torches for
cutting simultaneous shapes. It is used to cut thin to very thick metals,
primarily steels; however, with various arrangements it can be used on
other metals. Manual oxygen cutting requires a fairly high degree of
flamecutter skill.

PAC

Plasma Arc Cutting, sometimes called Plasma Burning and Plasma Machining, is an arc cutting process which severs metal by melting a localized
area with a constricted arc and removing the molten material with a high
velocity jet of hot ionized gas issuing from the orifice. It can be used with
a hand held torch manually or by machine cutting in extremely accurate
machines with special tracing devices. It is used for cutting steels and non
ferrous metals in thin to medium thicknesses. The process requires a lesser
degree of cutter skill than oxygen cutting except the equipment is much
more complex for manual operation.

AAC

Air Carbon Arc Cutting and Gouging is a process in which metals to be cut
are melted by the heat of a carbon arc and the molten metal is removed by
a blast of air. Normally, it is a manual operation used in all positions, but
may also be operated automatically. The process can be used on steels and
some nonferrous metals. The process is commonly used for back gouging
welds, for gouging out defective welds and repairing castings. The process
requires a relatively high degree of cutting skills.

14

Cutting Tip

Preheat Flames
Oxygen Jet

Base Metal

Slag

Plenum Chamber
Shielding Water
Nozzle
Tungsten Electrode
Outer Gas Cup

Orifice Gas
Nozzle
Shielding Gas
Shielding Water

Constricting Orifice
Arc

Base Metal

Hand Held Electrode Holder

Carbon Electrode

Air Stream
Work Lead

Base Metal

15

5 Essentials for
Good Welding
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Correct Electrode Size


Correct Current
Correct Arc Length
Correct Travel Speed
Correct Electrode Angle

Besides the steady sizzling sound that a correct arc produces,


the shape of the molten pool and the movement of the metal
at the rear of the pool serve as a guide in checking weld quality. In a correctly made deposit the ripples produced on the
bead will be uniform and the bead will be smooth, with no
overlap or undercut.

1. Correct Electrode Size

The correct choice of electrode size involves consideration


of a variety of factors, such as the type, position, and
preparation of the joint, the ability of the electrode to carry
high current values without injury to the weld metal or
loss of deposition efficiency, the mass of work metal and
its ability to maintain its original properties after welding,
the characteristics of the assembly with reference to effect
of stresses set up by heat application, the practicability of
heat treatment before and/or after welding, the specific
requirements as to welding quality and the cost of achieving the desired results.

2. Correct Current

If current on equipment is too high or too low, you are


certain to be disappointed in your weld. If too high, the
electrode melts too fast and your molten pool is large and
irregular. If too low, there is not enough heat to melt the
base metal and your molten pool will be too small, will
pile up, look irregular.

16

3. Correct Arc Length

If the arc is too long or voltage too high the metal melts
off the electrode in large globules which wobble from
side to side as the arc wavers, giving a wide, spattered
and irregular bead with poor fusion between original
metal and deposited metal. If the arc is too short, or voltage too low, there is not enough heat to melt the base
metal properly and the electrode quite often sticks to the
work, giving a high, uneven bead, having irregular ripples
with poor fusion.

4. Correct Travel Speed

When your speed is too fast your pool does not last long
enough, impurities and gas are locked in. The bead is
narrow and ripples pointed. When speed is too slow the
metal piles up, the bead is high and wide, with a rather
straight ripple.

5. Correct Electrode Angle

The electrode angle is of particular importance in fillet


welding and deep groove welding. Generally speaking,
when making a fillet weld, the electrode should be held so
that it bisects the angle between the plates (as shown at
right) and is perpendicular to the line of weld. If undercut
occurs in the vertical member, lower the angle of the arc
and direct the arc toward the vertical member.

17

Examples of Good and Bad Beads


Good
Proper Current
Voltage & Speed

Bad
Welding Current
Too Low

Bad
Welding Current
Too High

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018

A smooth, regular,
well-formed weld bead.

Excessive piling up of
weld metal.

Excessive spatter
to be cleaned off.

No undercut, over-lap or
pile up

Slow up progress.

Undercutting along
edges weakens joint.

Uniform in crosssection.
Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost.

18

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Irregular deposit.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Shielded metal arc welding

AWS E7018 - General Purpose Electrode

Bad
Arc Too Long
(Voltage Too High)

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Fast

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Slow

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 7018

Weld bead very irregular


with poor penetration.

Weld bead too small, with


irregular contour.

Excessive piling up
of weld metal..

Weld metal not


properly shielded.

Not enough weld


metal in the cross-section.

Too much time


consumed.

An inefficient weld.

Weld not strong


enough.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Wasted electrodes
and productive time.

19

Examples of Good and Bad Beads


Good
Proper Current
Voltage & Travel

Bad
Welding Current
Amp Too Low

Bad
Welding Current
Amp Too High

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010
Smooth, regular,
well formed bead.
No undercut, over-lap or
pile up.
Uniform in crosssection.
Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost.

20

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010
Excessive piling up
of weld metal.

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010
Excessive spatter to be
cleaned off.

Slow up progress.

Undercuting along
edges weakens joint.

Wasted filler metal


and time..

Irregular deposit..
Wasted filler metal
and time.

Shielded metal arc welding


AWS E6010 - General Purpose Electrode

Bad
Arc Too Long
(High Voltage)

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Fast

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Slow

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010

Weld Bead Face


SMAW 6010

Weld bead very


irregular with poor
penetration..

Weld bead too small,


with irregular contour.

Excessive bead width.

Weld metal not


properly shielded.

Not enough weld metal


in the cross-section.

An inefficient weld.

Weld not strong


enough.

Wasted filler metal and


time..

Too much time


consumed.
Wasted filler metal
and time.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

21

Examples of Good and Bad Beads


Good
Proper Current
Voltage & Travel

Bad
Welding Current
Too Low
(High Voltage)

Bad
Welding Current
Too High
(Low Voltage)

Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding

Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding

Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Weld bead excessively


convex and narrow.

Weld bead excessively


wide and flat.

Difficult slag removal.

Smooth, regular,
well formed bead.
No undercut,
overlap or pile up
Uniform in crosssection.
Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost.

22

Undercutting along edges


weakens joint.
Irregular weld bead contour.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Flux cored arc welding -- self shielding

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Fast

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Slow

Bad
Stick-out
Too Short

Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Fillet

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Cross-section Weld Bead

Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding

Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding

Weld Bead Face


FCAW Self-shielding

Weld bead too small


with irregular contour.

Excessive weld bead width.

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Not enough weld metal


in cross-section.
Poor mechanical
properties.
Undercut at toe
lines of fillet.

Fillet with
unequal legs.
Wasted filler metal
and time.

Weld bead very irregular


with poor penetration.
Weld metal not
properly shielded.
Wasted filler metal
and time.

23

Examples of Good and Bad Beads


Good
Proper Current
Voltage & Travel

Cross section fillet

Bad
Welding Current
Too Low
(High Voltage)

Bad
Welding Current
Too High
(Low Voltage)

Cross section fillet

Cross section fillet

Cross section weld bead

Cross section weld bead

Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas

Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas

Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas

Smooth, regular,
well formed bead.

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Weld bead excessively


convex and narrow.

No undercut,
overlap or pile up

Weld bead excessively


wide and flat.

Difficult slag removal.

Uniform in crosssection.

Undercutting along edges


weakens joint.

Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost.

Irregular weld bead contour.

Cross section weld bead

24

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Flux cored arc welding -- with shielding gas

Bad
Welding Travel
Speed Too Fast

Bad
Welding Travel
Speed Too Slow

Bad
Insufficient Shielding
Gas Coverage

Cross section fillet

Cross section fillet

Cross section fillet

Cross section weld bead

Cross section weld bead

Cross section weld bead

Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas

Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas

Weld Bead Face


FCAW with shielding gas

Weld bead too small


with irregular contour.

Excessive weld bead width.

Excessive spatter and porosity.

Overlapping without
penetration at edges.

Weld bead very irregular with


poor penetration.

Fillet with
unequal legs.

Weld metal not properly


shielded.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Wasted filler metal and time..

Not enough weld metal


in cross-section.
Poor mechanical
properties.
Undercut at toe
lines of fillet.

25

Examples of Good and Bad Beads


Bad
Welding Current
Too Low

Bad
Welding Current
Too High
(Low Voltage)

Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding

Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding

Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding

Smooth, regular,
well formed bead.

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Weld bead excessively


convex and wide.

No undercut,
overlap or pile up

Excessive piling up of weld


metal.

Difficult slag removal.

Uniform in crosssection.

Undercutting along edges


weakens joint.

Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost.

Irregular weld bead


contour.

Good
Proper Current
Voltage & Travel

26

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Gas Metal Arc Welding


Bad
Welding Speed
Too Fast

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Slow

Bad
Insufficient Shielding
Gas Coverage

Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding

Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding

Weld Bead Face


Gas metal arc welding

Weld bead too small


with irregular contour.

Excessive weld bead


width.

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Not enough weld metal


in cross-section.

Fillet with
unequal legs.

Weld bead very irregular


with poor penetration.

Poor mechanical
properties.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Weld metal not properly


shielded.

Undercut at toe
lines of fillet.

Wasted filler metal


and time..

27

Examples of Good and Bad Beads


Good
Proper Current
Voltage & Travel

Bad
Welding Current
Too Low

Bad
Welding Current
Too High
(Low Voltage)

Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding

Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding

Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding

Smooth, regular,
well formed bead.

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Weld bead excessively


convex and narrow.

No undercut,
overlap or pile up

Weld bead excessively


wide and flat.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Uniform in crosssection.

Undercutting along edges


weakens joint.

Excellent weld at
minimum material
and labor cost.

Irregular weld bead contour.

28

Metal Cored Welding


Bad
Welding Speed
Too Fast

Bad
Welding Speed
Too Slow

Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding

Weld Bead Face


Metal core welding

Weld bead too small


with irregular contour.

Excessive weld bead width.

Excessive spatter
and porosity.

Overlapping without
penetration at edges.

Weld bead very irregular


with poor penetration.

Fillet with
unequal legs.

Weld metal not properly


shielded.

Wasted filler metal


and time.

Wasted filler metal


and time..

Not enough weld metal


in cross-section.
Poor mechanical
properties.
Undercut at toe
lines of fillet.

Bad
Insufficient Shielding
Gas Coverage

29

Common Arc Welding Problems: Causes and Cures


porous welds
Why

1. Excessively long or short arc


length.
2. Welding current too high.
3. Insufficient or damp
shielding gas.
4. Too fast travel speed.
5. Base metal surface covered
with oil, grease, moisture, rust,
mill scale, etc.
6. Wet, unclean or damaged
electrode.

What to do

1. Maintain proper arc length.


2. Use proper welding current.
3. Increase gas flow rate and
check gas purity.
4. Reduce travel speed.
5. Properly clean base metal
prior to welding.
6. Properly maintain and store
electrode.

cracked welds
Why
1.
2.
3.

4.

5.
6.

Insufficient weld size.


Excessive joint restraint.
Poor joint design and/or
preparation.
Filler metal does not match
base metal.
Rapid cooling rate.
Base metal surface covered with
oil, grease, moisture, rust, dirt or
mill scale.

What to do
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

Adjust weld size to part


thickness.
Reduce joint restraint through
proper design.
Select the proper joint design
Use more ductile filler.
Reduce cooling rate through
preheat.
Properly clean base metal
prior to welding.

3.


4.
5.
6.

Use proper welding current for


electrode size and welding
position.
Reduce arc length.
Reduce travel speed.
Reduce effects of arc blow

undercutting
Why
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Faulty electrode manipulation.


Welding current too high.
Too long an arc length.
Too fast travel speed.
Arc blow.

What to do
1.


2.

Pause at each side of the


weld bead when using a
weaving technique.
Use proper electrode angles.
30

distortion
Why
1.

2.
3.

4.

Improper tack welding and/


or faulty joint preparation.
Improper bead sequence.
Improper set-up and
fixturing.
Excessive weld size.

What to do

2. Use proper bead sequencing.


3. Tack or clamp parts securely.
4. Make welds to specified size.

1. Tack weld parts with


allowance for distortion.

spatter
Why
1.
2.
3.
4.

Arc blow.
Welding current too high.
Too long an arc length.
Wet, unclean or damaged
electrode.

What to do

1. Attempt to reduce the effect


2.
3.
4.

of arc blow.
Reduce welding current.
Reduce arc length.
Properly maintain and store
electrodes.

lack of fusion
Why
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Improper travel speed.


Welding current too low.
Faulty joint preparation.
Too large an electrode
diameter.
Magnetic arc blow.
Wrong electrode angle.

What to do

1. Reduce travel speed.

2.
3.


4.
5.

6.

Increase welding current.


Weld design should allow
electrode accessibility to all
surfaces within the joint.
Reduce electrode diameter.
Reduce effects of magnetic
arc blow.
Use proper electrode angles.

overlapping
Why

1. Too slow travel speed.


2. Incorrect electrode angle.
3. Too large an electrode.

What to do

1. Increase travel speed.


2. Use proper electrode angles.
3. Use a smaller electrode size.
31

Common Welding Problems: Causes and Cures

poor penetration
Why
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

Travel speed too fast.


Welding current too low.
Poor joint design and/or
preparation.
Electrode diameter too large.
Wrong type of electrode.
Excessively long arc length.

What to do

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

6.

Decrease travel speed.


Increase welding current.
Increase root opening or
decrease rootface.
Use smaller electrode.
Use electrode w/deeper
penetration characteristics.
Reduce arc length.

magnetic arc blow


Why

1 Unbalanced magnetic field


during welding.
2. Excessive magnetism in
parts or fixture.

What to do
I.
2.

3.

Use alternating current.


Reduce welding current and
arc length.
Change the location of the
work connection on the
workpiece.

inclusion
Why
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Incomplete slag removal


between passes.
Erratic travel speed.
Too wide a weaving motion.
Too large an electrode.
Letting slag run ahead of arc.
Tungsten spitting or sticking.

32

What to do
1.

2.
3.

4.

5.


6.

Completely remove slag


between passes.
Use a uniform travel speed.
Reduce width of weaving
technique.
Use a smaller electrode size for
better access to joint.
Increase travel speed or
change electrode angle or
reduce arc length.
Properly prepare tungsten and
use proper current.

Check-Points for Quality Welding


The future of welding and the future of the welders security rest upon quality welding. Public confidence in welding has been built up through the satisfactory service
of millions and millions of welds. Public confidence can quickly be destroyed by a
catastrophe that could be caused by a defective weld. Adherence to the following
rules will insure quality welds and the future of the welding industry as well as
your own job security.
1. Use only high quality welding machines, electrodes end welding
accessories.
2. Know the base material that you are working on.
3. Select the proper welding process to give the highest quality welds on the
base material to be used.
4. Select the proper welding procedure to meet the service requirement of the
finished weldment.
5. Select the correct electrode for the job in question. See additional information
concerning this elsewhere in this booklet.
6. When preheating is specified or required make sure that the temperature
requirements are met. In any case do not weld on material below 32 F, without
first preheating.
7. Clean the base metal of all slag, paint, grease, oil, moisture, and any other
foreign materials.
8. Remove weld slag and thoroughly clean each bead prior to making the next
bead or pass.
9. Do not weld over cracks or porous tack welds. Defective tack welds shoud be
removed prior to welding.
10. Be particularly alert to obtain root fusion on the first pass of fillet and groove
welds.
11. When root gaps of groove welds are excessive, build up one side of the joint
prior to welding the pieces together.
12. When the root gap is excessive in fillet welding, be sure to increase the size
of the fillet weld the amount of the root gap in order to maintain the strength
requirement. In some cases it is an advantage to make a groove weld in order to
avoid extremely large fillets.
13. Inspect your work and immediately remove any defective weld and replace
it.
14. Observe the size requirement for each weld and make sure that you meet or
slightly exceed the specified size.
15. Make sure that the finished appearance of the weld is smooth and that overlaps
and undercuts have been properly repaired. Remember that many people judge
the strength of a weld merely by its external appearance.

33

34

Troubleshooting Guide for Semiautomatic Wire Welding



Welding
Arc
Welding
Travel
Nozzle
Stick-out or
Wire
Change Variable
Voltage
Current *
Speed
Angle
Tip-to-work
Size
Type
Required
(see footnote)
Distance
1
3
2
5

Increase
Trailing
Decrease
Smaller*
Deeper
Penetration
Max. 25
1
3
2
5

Shallower
Decrease
Leading
Increase
Larger*
Penetration
1
2
3

Larger
Increase
Decrease
Increase*

Bead
Bead
1
2
3

Smaller
Decrease
Increase
Decrease*
Height

Bead
and
1
3
3

Higher
Decrease
Trailing
Increase
bead

Narrower Bead
width
1
2
3

Flatter
Increase
90 or
Decrease

Wider Bead
Leading
1
2
3


Faster
Increase
Increase*
Smaller

Deposition Rate
1
2
3


Slower
Decrease
Decrease*
Larger

Deposition Rate
Key: (1) First Choice, (2) Second Choice, (3) Third choice, (4) Fourth Choice, (5) Fifth Choice
Note: Same adjustment is required for wire feed speed.
* When these variables are changed, the wire feed speed must be adjusted so that the welding current remains constant.
See deposition rate of welding variables section.
This change is especially helpful on materials 20 gage and smaller in thickness.

Gas

CO2

AR + CO2

Types of joints

Butt

Corner

Lap

Edge

T-Joint

Types of Welds
Plug

Slot

Groove

Arc Seam
Edge
Surfacing

Fillet

Variations of grooves
Square

Single-J

Single-V

Single-Bevel
Single-U

Flare-V

Flare-Bevel
35

Flat

Welding Positions
Horizontal
(2F)

throat of weld
vertical

(1F)

fillet
weld

vertical
plate

axis of weld
horizontal

groove
weld

axis of weld
horizontal

horizontal
plate

plates and axis


of pipe vertical

plates and axis of


pipe horizontal
pipe shall be rolled
while welding
(2G)

(1G)

test position
horizondal

test position flat

Welding Codes and Qualification of Welders


Before a welder can begin work on any job covered by a welding code, qualification
under the code that applies is required. Many different codes are in use and it is
required that the specific code is referred to when taking qualification tests. In
general the following type of work is covered by codes: pressure vessels and pressure
piping, highway and railway bridges, public buildings, tanks and containers that will
hold flammable or explosive materials, cross country pipelines, aircraft, ordinance
material, ships and boats, and nuclear facilities. A qualified welding procedure is
normally required.
Qualification is obtained differently under the various codes. Qualification under one code will not necessarily qualify a welder to weld under a different code.
Qualification for an employer will not allow the welder to work for another employer
(except in cases where welders are qualified by an association of employers). If the
welder uses a different process or if the welding procedure is altered drastically,
requalification is required. In most codes, if the welder is continually welding with
the qualified procedure, welding requalification is not required, providing the work
performed meets the quality requirement. An exception is the military aircraft code
which requires periodical requalification.
Qualification tests may be given by responsible manufacturers or contractors.
The welding procedure must be qualified before the welders can be qualified.
To become qualified, the welder must make specified welds using the qualified
welding procedure.
36

Vertical
(3F)

axis of vetical plate

Overhead
(4F)
horizontal
plate

vertical
plate

(3G)

axis of weld
horizontal

vertical
plate

plates
vertical
axis of weld
vertical

(4G)
plates
horizontal
(6G)

(5G)
pipe shall not be
turned or rolled while welding

45

The welding procedures include information such as : process, base metal,


thickness, electrode type position and joint design. In government specifications,
a government inspector may witness the making of weld specimens. Specimens
must be properly identified and prepared for testing.
The most common test is the guided bend test. In some cases radiographic
(x-ray) examinations, fracture test or other tests are employed. Satisfactory completion of test specimens, providing they meet acceptability standards, will qualify the
welder for specific types of welding. The welding allowed depends on the particular
code. In general, the code indicates the range of thicknesses and the alloys which
may be welded, and the positions which may be employed.
The qualification of welders is an extremely technical subject and cannot be
adequately covered in this short publication. The actual code must be obtained
and studied prior to taking the test.
The most widely used codes are: Structural Welding Code - AWS D1.1; Welding
and Brazing Qualifications - Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code; Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities - API 1104; American
National Standard Code for Pressure Piping - ANSI B31.1; American Bureau of
Shipping; Federal and Military Specifications. These codes can be obtained from
the sponsoring association.

37

Welding Symbols
AWS welding symbols are the shorthand of welding. They
enable the engineer and draftsman to convey complete
instructions-for-welding to the welder on blueprints and
drawings.
Company-wide use of welding symbols will result in the following advantages:
1. Control of specific design instruction to
the shop regarding weld sizes and plate edge
preparation, eliminating the tendency for overwelding or under welding (resulting in either
increased production costs or unsafe fabrication) because of lack of definite information.
2. Elimination of unnecessary details on drawings when such detail is for the sole purpose of
indicating weld sizes and specifications. Welding
notes will be minimized.
3. Establish a common understanding of design
intent and requirements between engineering,
shop, inspection, customers representatives
and code inspection authorities. The benefits
of this advantage are readily apparent.
4. Standardization, not only within the company but industry-wise as well. AWS welding
symbols are a national standard and are used
worldwide.
The symbols shown on the following pages are
from Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing,
and Nondestructive Examination, A2.4, published by the American Welding Society.

38

Location of Information on Welding Symbols

39

Welding Symbols
Type of Weld

Arrow
Side

Other
Side

Both
Sides

not used

Fillet
Plug

not used

Spot or Projection

not used

Stud

not used

Back or Backing
Surfacing
Edge

W
e
l
d
s

not used

Groove
Weld Symbol

Groove
Weld Symbol

not used

not used
not used

not used
not used
not used

Square
V

not used

Bevel

not used

not used

not used

Flare-V

not used

Flare-Bevel

not used

Scarf for
Brazed Joint
40

not used

not used

not used

Seam

G
r
o
o
v
e

No Arrow
Side or
Other Side
Significance

not used

Typical Welding Symbols


Unequal double fillet
welding symbol

size (length
of leg)
Desired Weld

Chain
intermittent
fillet welding
symbol

locate welds
at ends of Joint

length of segments
pitch (distance
between centers)
of segments

Desired Weld

Staggered
intermittent
fillet welding
symbol

Symbol

locate welds
at end of joint

Symbol

length of segments
pitch (distance
between centers) of
segments

Desired Weld

Symbol

Single V-groove
welding symbol
root opening
Desired Weld

Single V-groove
(5/8) weld size
welding
symbol indicating
Desired Weld
depth of preparation

groove angle
root opening
Symbol

depth of
preparation

groove angle
Symbol

41

Supplementary Welding Symbols


Weld All
Around

Field
Weld

Meltthru

Consumable
Insert

Backing
Spacer

Contour
Flush or
Flat

Convex

Concave

Desired Weld

Plug welding
symbol

Symbol

size (diameter of
hole at root)

Desired Weld

1/2 1/2
45

depth of filling in
inches
included angle of
countersink

Symbol

depth of filling in
inches

Slot welding
symbol
Desired Weld

orientation
must be
shown in
drawing

included angle of
countersink
Symbol
GTAW

Spot welding
symbol
Desired Weld

42

Omission of size
dimenroot
opening sion indicates
a total depth
of chamfering
equal to
thickness of
members

groove angle

Double-bevel
groove welding
symbol

Symbol

Size (diameter of weld)


strength in lb. per weld
may be used instead
Process reference must be
used to indicate process
desired
Pitch (distance between
center) of welds
Number of welds

Typical Welding Symbols


Groove weld made before
welding other side

Symbol to indicate
single-pass back weld

back weld

Desired Weld

Symbol

Note: Material and dimension


of spacer as specified

Double-V-groove
weld indicating a
spacer is to be used

See Note
spacer
Desired Weld

Symbol

Single V-groove weld


indicating a backing
strip is to be used

R
R = Removed
after welding
backing strip
Symbol

Desired Weld

Size of surface
built up by welding

/32

Size (thickness
of a surfacing
weld)

/32

Desired Weld

Symbols with multiple


reference lines

Symbol

First operation
shown on reference line nearest
arrow. Second
operation or
supplementary
data.
Third operation or
text information.

1st
2nd
3rd

Desired Weld

Symbol

Edge weld symbol


1/8

1/8
Edge weld size

Desired Weld

Symbol

43

General Welding Safety


Essentially, welding is not a hazardous occupation if proper precautionary
measures are always observed. This requires continuous awareness of
possibilities of danger and habitual safety precaution by the welders.
They have an obligation to learn safe practices, to obey safety rules
and regulations, and to work in a safe manner. It is the responsiblity of
supervisors to enforce safety rules and regulations set forth in ANSI Z49.1
available from http://www.aws.org.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that
employers must have a comprehensive hazard communication program
to inform employees about hazardous substances that might be used in
the workplace. The purpose of the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
is to explain the hazards involved in handling/using products such as
welding consumables and the precautionary measures which must be
put in place for safe welding.

For Goggles or Helmet


Operation
Shade Number
Soldering
2
Torch Brazing
3 or 4
Oxygen Cutting up: to 1 inch
3 or 4

1 to 6 inches
4 or 5

6 inches and over
5 or 6
Gas Welding up to 1/8 inch
4 or 5

1/8 to 1/2 inch
5 or 6

1/2 inch or over
6 or 8
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, Stick)
1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32, inch electrodes
10
Nonferrous Metal Welding
Gas Megal Arc Welding (GTAW, TIG)
11

Operation
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, MIG)
1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 inch electrodes
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Ferrous Metal Welding
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW, TIG)
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW, MIG)
1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 inch electrodes
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW, Stick)
1/16, 7/32, 1/4 inch electrodes
5/16, 3/8 inch electrodes

Shade Number
11

11

12
14

Safety Precautions for Arc Welding


1. Make sure your arc welding equipment is installed properly and
grounded and is in good working condition.
2. Always wear protective clothing suitable for the welding to be done.
3. Always wear proper eye protection when welding, cutting, or grinding.
Do not look at the arc without peoper eye protection.
4. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above the arc.
5. Keep your work area clean and free of hazards. Make sure that no
flammable, volatile, or explosive materials are in or near the work area.
6. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. keep caps on
when not in use.
44

7. Make sure that compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall or
other structural supports.
8. When compressed gas cylinders are empty, close the valve and mark
the cylinder empty.
9. Do not weld in a confined space without taking special precautions.
10. Do not weld on containers that have held combustibles without taking special precautions.
11. Do not weld on sealed containers or compartments without providing
vents and taking special precautions.
12. Use mechanical exhaust at the point of welding when welding lead,
cadmium, chromium, manganese, brass, bronze, zinc, or galvanized steel,
and when welding in a confined space.
13. When it is necessary to weld in a damp or wet area, wear rubber boots
and stand on a dry, insulated platform.
14 Do not use cables with frayed, cracked or bare spots in the insulation.
15 When the electrode holder is not in use, hang it on brackets provided.
Never let it touch a compressed gas cylinder.
16. Dispose of electrode stubs in proper containers since stubs on the
floor are a safety hazard.
17. Shield others from the light rays produced by your welding arc.
18. Do not weld near degreasing operations.
19. When working above ground, make sure that scaffold, ladder or work
surface is solid and properly secured.
20. When welding in high places, use a safety belt or lifeline.
Safety Precautions for Oxyacetylene Welding and Cutting
1. Make sure that all gas apparatus shows UL or FM approval, is installed
properly, and is in good working condition. Make sure that all connections
are tight before lighting the torch. Do not use a flame to inspect for tight
joints. Use soap solution to detect leaks.
2. Always wear protective clothing suitable for welding or flame cutting.
3. Keep work area clean and free from hazardous materials. When flame
cutting, sparks can travel 30 to 40 feet (10 to 15 m). Do not allow flame
cut sparks to hit hoses, regulators, or cylinders.
4. Handle all compressed gas cylinders with extreme care. Keep cylinder
caps on when not in use.
5. Make sure that all compressed gas cylinders are secured to the wall
or to other structural supports. Keep acetylene cylinders in the vertical
position.
45

6. Store compressed gas cylinders in a safe place with good ventilation.


Acetylene cylinders and oxygen cylinders should be kept apart.
7. When compressed gas cylinders or fuel gas cylinders are empty, close
the valve and mark the cylinder empty.
8. Use oxygen and acetylene or other fuel gases with the appropriate
torches and only for the purpose intended.
9. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above the flame.
10. Never use acetylene at a pressure in excess of 15 psi (103.4 K Pa). Higher
pressure can cause an explosion.
11. Never use oil, grease, or any material on any apparatus or threaded
fittings in the oxyacetylene or oxyfuel system. Oil and grease in contact
with oxygen may cause spontaneous combustion..
12. Do not weld or flame cut in a confined space without taking special
precautions.
13. When assembling apparatus, crack gas cylinder valve before attaching
regulators (cracking means opening the valve on the cylinder slightly, then
closing.) This blows out any accumulated foreign material. Make sure that
all threaded fittings are clean and tight.
14. Always use this correct sequence and technique for lighting a torch:
(a) Open acetylene cylinder valve.
(b) Open acetylene torch valve 1/4 turn.
(c) Screw in acetylene regulator, adjusting valve handle to working
pressure.
(d) Turn off acetylene torch valve (you will have purged the acetylene
line).
(e) Slowly open oxygen cylinder valve all the way.
(f ) Open oxygen torch valve 1/4 turn.
(g) Screw in oxygen regulator screw to working pressure.
(h) Turn off oxygen torch valve (you will have purged the oxygen line).
(i) Open acetylene torch vlave 1/4 turn and light with lighter (use frictiontype lighter or special provided lighting device only).
(j) Open oxygen torch valve 1/4 turn.
(k) Adjust to neutral flame.
15. Always use this correct sequence and technique of shutting off a
torch:
(a) Close acetylene torch valve first. Then close oxygen torch valve.
(b) Close cylinder valves -- the acetylene valve first, then the oxygen
valve.
(c) Open torch acetylene and oxygen valves (to release pressure in the
regulator and hose).
(d) Back off regulator adjusting valve handle until no spring tension is
felt.
(e) Close torch valves.
46

16. Use mechanical exhause when welding or cutting lead, cadmium,


chromium, manganese, brass, bronze, zinc, or galvanized steel.
17. If you must weld or flame cut with combustible or volatile materials
present, take extra precautions, make out hot work permit, and provide
for a lookout, etc.
18. Do not weld or flame cut on containers that have held combustibles
without taking special precautions.
19. Do not weld or flame cut into sealed container or compartment without
providing vents and taking special precautions.
20. Do not weld or cut in a confined space without taking special precautions.
There must be continual vigilance over safety conditions and safety hazards. Safety meetings should be held regularly. The safety rules should be
reissued annually and they must be completely understood and enforced.
Safety rules and precautions should be posted in the welding shop.

47

Welding Metals
Almost every metal known can be welded by one process or another. The arc welding processes used primarily for steels include
Shielded Metal Arc Welding(SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding(GMAW)
and Flux Cored Arc Welding(FCAW). Welding electrodes should
be selected based on the composition of the steel to be welded.
Steels are manufactured and specified in many different ways. In
general, steels are classified according to the carbon content, that
is, low carbon, medium carbon or high carbon steels. In addition
they are also classified according to the type of alloy employed,
such as chrome moly, nickel, manganese, etc. Steels are also sold
under many trade names and specifications. The following is a brief
listing of some of the specifications in use.
ASTM The American Society for Testing and Materials sponsors
specifications covering many different types of steels. Their specifications may be prefixed by their acronym of ASTM.
API The American Petroleum Institute specifies steels usually
employed in pipe.
ASME The American Society of Mechanical Engineers specifies steels but in general utilize the same numbers as the ASTM
specifications.
Military and Federal Specification The Government specifications
are usually indicated by the letters MIL or QQ.
SAE and AISI The Society of Automotive Engineers and the American Iron and Steel Institute have a very complete listing of steels
using code numbers that indicate the steel composition. Stainless
steels are covered by the AISI numbers.

48

Steel Available for Welding

Steel warehouses located in most larger cities carry stocks of the popular sizes and shapes of
mild steel. Large requirements can be obtained direct from steel mills. The following is a listing
of the various shapes, sizes and types usually available.

Shapes

(Composition usually to ASTM Specs)


American Standard Beams 6 to 24
Specified: Depth by wt. per foot
Wide Flange Shapes 6 to 36 Specified: Depth by wt. per foot
American Standard Channels 3 to 18

Specified: Depth by wt. per foot


Angles (equal and unequal legs) 1 x 1 to 8 x 8
leg by leg by thickness
Structural Tees-These are split beams or wide flange shapes.
Misc. Light and Junior Sections Lighter and thinner than above.
Misc. Sections such as Zees, pilings, rails, etc.

Bars

(Composition usually to AISI or SAE Specs)


Flats thickness 1/4 to 4 by width 3/8 to 8
Square 1/4 sq.: to 2 3/4 sq. Special 1/2 sq. to 6 square.
Rounds 3/16 dia. to 2 7/8 dia. Special 3/8 dia. to 9 1/2 dia.
Half Rounds 1/2 to 3 (across diameter)
Hexagons 1/2 to 1 3/8 (across flats)

Tubular

(Composition usually to ASTM or API Specs)


Pipe Specified by nominal pipe diameter in inches.
Wall thickness specified by Schedule Number or by Standard,
Extra Strong or Double Extra Strong
Round Tubing Seamless Mechanical
3/16 dia. O.D. wall thickness 24 gage to 16 gage to 10 dia. O.D. wall
thickness 1/4 to 1 1/8.
Round Tubing Welded Mechanical
3/8 dia. O.D. wall thickness 22 gage to 16 gage, to 6 dia.
O.D. wall thickness 11 gage to 1/4
Square Tubing Mechanical and Structural Welded or Seamless
1/2 to 1/2 wall thickness 20 gage to 16 gage, to 4 x 4 wall thickness
11 gage to 3/16.
Rectangular Tubing Welded Mechanical
1 1/2 x 1 wall thickness 14 gage, to 4 x 2 wall thickness 3/16.

Sheet and Plates

(Composition usually to ASTM or chemistry for end use)


Widths beyond 8 inches are considered sheet or plate thickness above 3/16
considered plates. Sheets specified by gage thickness. Plates specified by thickness
in inches or weight per square foot.

Misc.

Warehouses offer many other forms of steeel such as dished heads for tanks, reinforc ing rods, etc. and flame cutting service.
Note Trade names are often used to identify steel compositions.

49

Test
appearance
magnetic
chisel
fracture
flame

Low carbon
steel
Dark grey
Strongly magnetic
Continuous chip,
smooth edges,
chips easily
Bright grey
Melts fast, becomes
bright red before
melting

Medium
carbon
steel

High carbon
steel

High sulphur
steel

Dark grey

Dark grey

Strongly magnetic

Strongly magnetic

Strongly magnetic

Continuous chip,
smooth edges,
chips easily

Hard to chip,
Can be continuous

Continuous chip,
Smooth edges,
Chips easily

Very light grey

Very light grey

Bright grey,
Fine grain

Melts fast, becomes


bright red before
melting

Melts fast, becomes


bright red before
melting

Melts fast, becomes


bright red before
melting

Yellow lines
Sprigs Very Plain Now
(Approx. .20% to .45%
carbon)

Yellow Lines Bright Burst


Very Clear Numerous Star
Burst (approx. .45%
carbon and above)

Swelling Carrier Lines


Cigar Shape

Dark grey

spark*
* For best results, use at least 5,000
surface feet per minute on grinding
equipment.
Cir. x R.P.M.
= S.F. per minute
12

Long Yellow Carrier


Lines (Approx. 20%
carbon or below)

Identification of Metals

50

Metal

Manganese
steel

Stainless
steel

Cast
iron

Wrought
iron

appearance
Dull cast surface

Bright, Silvery,
Smooth

Dull grey, Evidence


of sand mold

Light grey,
Smooth

magnetic
Nonmagnetic

Depends on
exact analysis

Strongly
magnetic

Strongly
magnetic

chisel
Extremely

hard to chisel

fracture
Course grained

Continuous chip,
Small chips about
Smooth,
1/8 in., Not east to
Bright color
chip, Brittle
Depends on type,
Brittle
Bright

Continuous chip
Smooth edges, Soft,
Easily cut & chipped
Bright grey,
Fibrous appearance

flame

Melts fast,
Becomes bright
red before melting

Melts slowly,
Becomes dull
red before melting

Melts fast,
Becomes bright
red before melting

1. Nickel-black shape
close to wheel; 2. Moly-short
arrow shape tongue (only); 3.
Vanadium-long spearpoint,
tongue(only).

Red carrier lines


(very little carbon exists)

Long straw color lines


(practically free of
bursts or sprigs)

Melts fast,
Becomes bright
red before melting
Spark*

51

*For best results, use at


least 5,000 surface feet
per minute on grinding
equipment.

Cir. x R.P.M.
12

= S.F. per minute

Bright white
fan-shaped burst

Identification of Metals

Metal
Test

52

Typical Preheat for Various Metals

AISI-SAE Designation System for Carbon and Alloy Steels

53

Cost Saving Hints


Welding is the most economical method of joining metals. However, we should all
be on the lookout for ways to save time and materials to make welding the most
advantageous. The following hints will help to lower arc welding costs.
Material Select an easily weldable material that will not require expensive electrodes or complicated welding procedures.
Joint Design On heavier
material, double bevel and vee joints
save considerable weld material. Of
course, it is necessary to be able to
weld both sides.
Rolled Sections and Forming Use bends and rolled angle channels, etc., to
reduce the number of weld joints required.
Distortion Control Use wandering or back step sequence to reduce warpage
and keep material in line to reduce the machining necessary.
Proper Fit-up Wide gaps between pieces to be welded waste weld metal. Fillets must be increased by the amount of gap to maintain strength.

Fillet Weld Size Fillet weld size must


be closely controlled. Doubling the size
of a fillet requires four times as much
weld metal.
Overwelding and Reinforcement Extra reinforcement and unequal legged fillets waste
weld metal. The crown or reinforcement adds
little to the strength of the weld.
Positioning Position the job for flat welding if at all possible. This is the most
efficient position. It allows use of larger electrodes. It is easier and more comfortable for the welder.
Arc Length Keep a short arc or low voltage. This will concentrate all of the welding
current in the joint and will minimize spatter.
Electrode Type Select the higher production type electrode for cost savings. See
description in electrode section of booklet.

54

Use Largest Size Electrode Possible


electrode
size

feet
of joint
welded
per hour
(approx.)

10

15

20

25

30

3/8

3/32
1/8
5/32

Butt Weld

3/16
1/4
5/16

Electrode Size Use the largest size electrode possible. Large size stick electrodes cost less
and increase the welding speed. This is generally true in wire electrodes.
Stub Ends
Burn electrodes to a 2 inch length or use the continuous wire electrodes.
Machine Efficiency Match the welding machine to the job. Too small a machine is inefficient since it may be operated beyond its capacity. Machines should be checked
periodically for loose connections, wire, etc.
Cable Size and Length Too small welding cable will heat up. Heat produced in the cable
is wasteful. It is not doing useful work. Cables that are too long waste power, and causes
a voltage drop at the holder. Excessive cable wrapped in coils is also very wasteful. Use
the proper size cable and keep cable to reasonable lengths for efficiency.
Loose Connections Check cables, connectors, electrode holders for hot spots. Loose
connections or broken wire will show up as hot spots which waste power. Correct
them when found.

recommended
minimum
cable sizes

Welding Current (amps.)

Cable Size (No.)

100
150
200
250-300
300-450
500
600

4
2
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0

55

8 Factors to Consider
When Selecting Electrodes

1. Base Metal Strength Properties


2. Base Metal Composition
3. Welding Position
4. Welding Current
5. Joint Design and Fit-up
6. Thickness and Shape of Base Metal
7. Service Condition And/Or Specifications
8. Production Efficience and Job Conditions

1. Base Metal Strength Properties


Know and match mechanical properties. Mild steel generally E-60XX or E-70XX
electrodes match base metal. Low alloy steel select electrodes that match base
metal properties.
2. Base Metal Composition
Know and match composition. Mild steel any E-6OXX or E-70XX electrode is
satisfactory. Low alloy steel select electrode that most closely matches base
metal composition.
3. Welding Position
Match electrode to welding position encountered.
4. Welding Current
Match power supply available. Some electrodes are designed for direct current (DC);
others, alternating current (AC); some, either. Observe correct polarity.
5. Joint Design and Fit-up
Select for penetration characteristic digging, medium, or light. No beveling or
tight fit-up use digging. Thin material or wide root opening light, soft arc.
6. Thickness And Shape of Base Metal
To avoid weld cracking on thick and heavy material of complicated design, select
electrode with maximum ductility. Low hydrogen processes or electrodes are
recommended.
7. Service Condition And/Or Specifications
Determine service conditions low temperature, high temperature, shock loading
match base metal composition, ductility and impact resistance. Use low hydrogen
process. Also, check welding procedure or specification for electrode type.
8. Production Efficiency And Job Conditions
For high deposition and most efficient production under flat position requirements,
select high iron powder types or large diameter wires: For other conditions, you
may need to experiment with various electrodes and sizes.
56

Metal Cored Wire

Edited from an article by Steve Barhorst and


used with permission from Hobart Brothers Company.

Metal cored wire is a tubular electrode that consists of a


metal sheath and a core of various powdered materials,
primarily iron. The core contributes almost entirely to the
deposited weld metal.
WHAT APPLICATIONS BENEFIT FROM METAL-CORED
WIRE?
Solid wire in the flat and horizontal positions where spray
transfer is being used.
Many gas shielded, flux cored, and some submerged arc
applications.
Multiple-pass robotic and automatic welding
Other applications determined by weld cost calculations
or quality issues (compensating for poor fit-up, bead
appearance, burn-through).
WHY USE METAL CORED WIRE?
Can save $100 to $200 for every 100 pounds of weld
metal deposited.
High deposition rates and travel speeds.
No slag; almost no spatter.
Little or no post-weld cleanup or cleaning between
passes.
Excellent side-wall fusion and root penetration.
Ability to bridge part gaps without burn-through.
Ability to weld thin materials at high amperages without
burn-through.
Capability to weld out-of-position with pulsed spray or
short-circuit transfer.
Compliance with ABS, DNV, API, LRS, ANSI, and AWS
standards.

57

METAL CORE WIRE

SOLID WIRE

Metal Core lacks deeper penetration.


58

Oven Storage and Reconditioning of Filler Metals




Storage of

Item Designation
Pipemaster 60, 70, 80, 90, 335A, 333C

Contents of Open Cartons


Dry at room temperature

Reconditioning
Not recommended

12, 1139, 447A, 447C, 14A, 27, 24

125F

250F, 1 hour

718,716C, 18AC, 418, 718MC, 7018C1, 8018C2, 8018C3, 8018B2, 80182L

300F

575F, 1 hour

9108M, 9018B3, 9018B3L, 10018M, 10018D2, 10018M, 12018M

300F

600F, 1 hour

Smootharc, and Smootharc Plus Stainless Stick Electrodes

250F

500F, 1 hour

Cast Iron electrodes

150F

250F, 1 hour

Excel-Arc, FacCOR, GSF, FabCO, Fabshield, Fabloy, Formula XL

Dry at room temperature

Not recommended

* Be sure that electrodes or wires are properly removed from packaging that may be damaged.

59

Welding electrodes and wires may be


damaged by atmospheric moisture. The
following table recommends proper storage
conditions, and time and temperature
for reconditioning electrodes that have
absorbed excessive moisture.
Notes: Pallets and unopened cartons of
electrodes and wires should be stored
away from exposure to water in the form
of rain, snow,

spray, or humidity. Only hermetically-sealed


cans are safe against these conditions.
Damaged cartons permit entry of damp
air which may be picked up by the product
and lower its quality. Humidity below 50%
should be avoided for XX10, XX11, XX12,
and XX13 covered electrodes. At no time
should these classes of electrodes be stored
in an oven above 130F.

The instruction, Dry at Room Temperature


in the table signifies that the humidity
should be below 70% and the temperature
should be within the limits 40 to 120F.

How to Calculate Filler Metal Consumption


60

The following tables will help you estimate


electrode quantity and cost for a variety
of joints. The bases for the tabulations are
explained below.
Should you encounter a variation in conditions
or joint preparation that is not shown in the
tables, substitute appropriate figures in the
W=D/(1-L) formula and calculate it.
Electrode requirements have been calculated
as follows:
W = D

Horizontal Fillet Weld

L
L

1-L
W = Weight of electrodes required
D = Weight of steel deposited
L =
Total
electrode losses
To arrive at the weight of steel deposited, it
is necessary to calculate first the volume of
deposited metal (area of the groove multiplied
by the length). Then this volumetric value is
converted to weight by the factor 0.283 pounds
per cubic inch for steel. Where weld reinforcement
is involved, it is added to the requirements for net,
Size of fillet

L
(in inches)

unreinforced welds.
These figures are based on the efficiency of
the process used. On square and V groove
joints, the figures are based on stick electrode
efficiency. For tubular wire results, divide steel
deposit weight by .80, and for solid wire, divide
by .90.

Steel deposited
Pounds of electrodes required
per linear foot
per linear foot of weld (approx.)
of weld (lbs.)
Stick* (SMAW)
Tubular (FCAW)
Solid (GMAW)


1/8
0.027

3/16
0.063

1/4
0.106

5/16
0.166

3/8
0.239

1/2
0.425

5/8
0.663

3/4
0.955

1
1.698
*Includes scrap end and spatter loss.

.049
.114
.193
.302
.434
.773
1.205
1.736
3.087

.034
.079
.133
.208
.298
.531
.829
1.194
2.123

.03
.07
.118
.184
.265
.472
.737
1.061
1.890

Square Groove Butt Joints


welded one side
R=0.07

welded two sides

if root of top weld is chipped or flame gouged and


welded, add 0.07 lb. to steel deposited (equivalent
to approx. 0.13 lb. of electrodes).

R=0.07

R=0.07

V Groove Butt Joint


60
B

R=.008

T
1/8
G

61

Material
Thickness
T

Bead
Width
B

Root
Openings
G


Joint dimensions
Steel deposited per linear
Pounds of electrodes required

(inches) foot of weld (lbs.) per linear foot of weld* (approx.)

Metal
Bead
Root
With
With
Thickness Width
Open
Without
reinforcement
Without
reinforcement

T
B
G
reinforcement
(R**=0.07)
reinforcement
(R**=0.07)

3/16
3/8
0

0.088

0.16

1/16
0.020
0.109
0.04
0.20

1/4
7/16
1/16
0.027
0.129
0.05
0.23

3/32
0.039
0.143
0.07
0.26

5/16
1/2
1/16
0.033
0.153
0.06
0.27

3/32
0.050
0.170
0.09
0.30

1/8
1/4
0

0.119

0.21

1/32
0.013
0.132
0.03
0.24

3/16
3/8
1/32
0.020
0.199
0.04
0.36

1/16
0.040
0.218
0.07
0.39

1/4
7/16
1/16
0.053
0.261
0.10
0.47

3/32
0.080
0.288
0.14
0.53

Joint dimensions Steel deposited per linear
Pounds of electrodes required

(inches)
foot of weld (lbs.) per linear foot of weld* (approx.)

Metal
Bead
Root
With
With
Thickness Width
Open
Without
reinforcement
Without
reinforcement

T
B
G
reinforcement
(R**=0.08)
reinforcement
(R**=0.08)

1/4
0.207
1/16
0.085
0.143
0.15
0.25
5/16
0.311
3/32
0.173
0.258
0.31
0.46

3/8
0.414
1/8
0.282
0.394
0.50
0.70

1/2
0.558
1/8
0.489
0.641
0.87
1.15

5/8
0.702
1/8
0.753
0.942
1.35
1.68
3/4
0.847
1/8
1.088
1.320
1.94
2.35

1
1.138
1/8
1.930
2.240
3.45
4.00
*Includes scrap end and spatter loss. **R=Height of reinforcement.

Shielding Gases and Their Uses


Shielding Gas

GMAW
Reaction

GTAW
and FCAW

GTAW
and PAW

Pure Gases
Argon, Ar

Inert

Nonferrous

Helium, He
Inert
Nonferrous

All Metals
Al, Mg, and Cu
and alloys

Carbon dioxide, CO2


Oxidizing
Mild and low-alloy
Not used

steels, some

stainless steels


Two-Component
Mixtures
Argon mixtures
Argon + 20-50% He
Inert


Argon + 1-2% CO2


Argon + 3-5% CO2

Oxidizing

Not used

Slightly
Oxidized

Mild and low-alloy


steels, some
stainless steels

Not used

Inert

CO2 mixtures
Oxidizing
CO2 + up to 20% O2


CO2 + 3-10% O2

Three-Component
Mixtures
Helium mixtures
He + 75% Ar +
25% CO2

Argon mixtures
Ar + 3-10% O2 +
15% CO2

62

Not used

Mild, low-alloy,
and stainless
steels

Argon + 2-4% He
Reducing

Helium mixtures
Helium + 25% Ar

Stainless and
low-alloy steels

Al, Mg, and alloys

Oxidizing


Argon + 20-30% CO2

Al, Mg, and Cu


and alloys

Oxidizing

Inert
Oxidizing

Not used

Al and alloys,
Cu and alloys
Mild and low-alloy
steels (used in
Japan)

Nickel and alloy


and AustineticSS
Al and alloys,
Cu and alloys
Not used

Mild and low-alloy


steels (used in Europe)

Not used

Stainless steel and


low-alloy steels

Not used

Mild Steels

Not used

(used in Europe)

AWS Electrode Classifications


& Comparative Indices
How AWS classifies mild steel covered electrodes,
SMAW process

E 7018-1 H4 R

Electrode
Tensile in ksi
Position
Type of coating and current
Meets lower temperature impact requirements
Hydrogen: H4=less than 4ml/100g
H8=less than 8 ml/100g
Meets requirements of absorbed moisture test

Position
1. Flat, Horizontal, Vertical, Overhead
2. Flat and Horizontal only
4. Flat, Horizontal, Vertical Down, Overhead

Types of coating and current











Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
E6020

Type of Coating
cellulose sodium
cellulose potassium
titania sodium
titania potassium
iron powder titania
low hydrogen sodium
low hydrogen potassium
iron powder iron oxide
iron powder low hydrogen
iron oxide sodium

Welding Current
DCEP
AC or DCEP
AC or DCEN
AC or DCEP or DCEN
AC or DCEN or DCEP
DCEP
AC or DCEP
AC or DCEP or DCEN
AC or DCEP
AC or DCEP or DCEN

DCEP Direct Current Electrode Positive


DCEN Direct Current Electrode Negative

63

How AWS classifies low alloy covered electrodes

E 80 1 8 - B2
Electrode
Tensile in ksi
All Position
For AC or DCEP
Chemical composition of
weld metal deposit

Chemical composition of weld deposit


Suffix
C
A1
.12
B1
.12
B2L
.05
B2
.12
B3L
.05
B3
.12
B4L
.05
B9
.08-.13
C1
.12
C2
.12
C3
.12
D1
.12
D2
.15
G

M**
.10

Mn
.40 -.65*
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
.90
1.25
1.20
1.20
.40-1.25
1.25-1.75
1.65-2.00
1.0 Min
.60-2.25*

Si
.40-.80
.60-.80
.8-1.00*
.60-.90
.8-1.00*
.60-.80*
1.00
.30
.60-.80*
*
.80
.60-.80*
.6-.8*
.80 Min
.60-.80*

Ni







1.0
1.00-2.75
3.00-3.75
.80-1.10


.50 Min
1.40-2.50*

Cr

.40-.65
1.00-1.50
1.00-1.50
2.00-2.50
2.00-2.50
1.75-2.25
8.00-10.50 .


.15


.30 Min
.15-1.50*

Mo
Va
.40-.65

.40-.65

.40-.65

.40-.65

.90-1.20

.90-1.20

.40-.65

85-1.2 .15-.30

.35
.05
.25-.45

.25-.45

.20 Min .10 M


.25-55*
.05

* Amount depends on electrode classification. Single values indicate


maximum, refer to AWS 5.5 for the different electrode classes.
** There are several different M classes. M classifications are intended to
conform to military specifications.

64

Pieces Per Pound Arc Welding Electrodes


Hobart
Type

Diameter:
Length:

3/32
10

3/32
14

1/8
14

5/32
14

3/16
14

3/16
18

1/4
18

Pipemaster 60, 70, 80

30

17

12

335A, 335C

25

15

11

447A, 447C

25

15

10

14A

24

13

24 (-1)

10

XX18 (Iron Powder)

32

15

10

Stainless

31

13

Comparative Index of Mild Steel & Low Hydrogen


AWS Class

E6010

HOBART

McKAY

ESAB

LINCOLN

MUREX

Pipemaster Pro 60

----

SW-10P PLUS

5P5P+

Pipemaster 60

6010 PM

SW-10P

5P5P+

E6011

335A, 335C

6011

SW-14

FW 180, FW35

6011C

E6013

447A, 447C

6013

SW-15

FW 37

6013D

E6022

1139

FW 22

E7010-P1

Pipemaster 70

SW-710P

SA HYP+

E7014

E7018 (AC)

14A

7014

SW-14IP

FW 47

7014

18AC

AA 7018AC

7018AC

7018AC

E7018-1 H4

418,718, 718MC

SOFT-ARC 7018-1

E7018 H4R

418, 718, 718MC

7018 XLM

AA 7018

Jetweld LH-70

7018MR

E7018-1H4R

418,718,718MC

EX 7018-1MR,LH-75MR

718 MC

AA 7018-M

EX 7018M MR

E7018-1H4R(M)

E7024

Rocket 7024

7024

SW-24

Jetweld 3

7024

E8010-P1

Pipemaster 80

SW-810P

Shield-Arc 80

65

Comparative Index of Low Alloy Electrodes


AWS Class

HOBART

ESAB

LINCOLN

E7018-A1
HOBALLOY
EXCALIBUR
7018-A1 MR

ATOM ARC
7018 A1

7018-MO

E8018-B2

MR

HOBALLOY
8018 B2

ATOM ARC
8018-CM

Jet-LH
8018-B2

E8018-B2L

HOBALLOY
8018B2L

ATOM ARC
8108 - B2L

E8018-C1
EXCALIBUR

MR

HOBALLOY

ATOM ARC

8018C1

8018-C1

8018-C1

E8018-C2

HOBALLOY
8018C2

ATOM ARC
8018-N

E8018-C3
EXCALIBUR

MR

HOBALLOY

ATOM ARC

8018C3

8018

E9018-B3

MR

HOBALLOY
9018B3

ATOM ARC
9018-CM

E9018-B3L

HOBALLOY
9018B3L

ATOM ARC
9018-B3L

E9018-M
EXCALIBUR

MR

HOBALLOY

ATOM ARC

9018M

9018

E10018-D2

HOBALLOY
10081D2

ATOM ARC
10018-MM

E11018-M
EXCALIBUR

MR

HOBALLOY

Atom Arc T

E12018-M

HOBALLOY
12018M

66

11018M

Atom Arc
12018

8018-C3

JET-LH
9018 B3

9018M

11018M

How AWS classifies stainless steel coated


electrodes, SMAW process

E 308 x-1 5
Electrode
Indicates what a weld made
by this electrode will have in it
Indicates any changes
to the original alloy
Position
Type of coating and current

Additional Requirements

Suffix

Changes Made or Additional Requirements

Has a lower carbon content

Limited to the upper range on the carbon content

Mo

Molybdenum added pitting resistance, creep

strength, ferrite increased

Cb (Nb)

Columbium added prevents corrosion just outside

of the weld bead


Ni

Nickel added high temperature strength, corrosion


resistance, added toughness


LR
Low Residuals lower range for: C, Si, P, S narrower

range: Cb and Mn
Note: Nb(Niobium) is the European name for Columbium.
Dash
Number

Out of
Position

Bead
Ripple

Slag
Removal

Spatter Transfer
Level
Type

Operating
Current

Bead
Profile
Convex

-x5

1(5/32)

Globular

DCEP

-x6

2(5/32)

Globular

AC/DCEP

Flat

-x7

3(3/16)

Spray

AC/DCEP

Concave

Ratings: 1 = the best, 3 = the least


67

How AWS classifies stainless steel


flux-cored wires

E 308 x T1 -1
Electrode
Indicates what a weld made
by this electrode will have in it
Indicates any changes
to the original alloy
Indicates that this is a
flux-core wire. Tubular
Position
Indicates the shielding gas, if any

Shielding Chart
Dash Number

Shielding Gas

Welding Current

-1

CO2

DCEP

-3

None

DCEP

-4

75% Ar/25% CO2

DCEP

Additional Requirements

Suffix


L

H

Mo


Cb (Nb)


Ni


Ti


K

Changes Made or Additional Requirements


Has a lower carbon content
Limited to the upper range on the carbon content
Molybdenum added pitting resistance, creep strength,
ferrite increased
Columbium added prevents corrosion just outside of
the weld bead
Nickel added high temperature strength, corrosion
resistance, added toughness
Titanium added prevents corrosion just outside of the
weld bead
Specially formulated for cryogenic temperature service
(less than -238F)

Note: Nb (Niobium) is the European name for Columbium.


68

Stainless Electrodes for AISI Steels


Chemical Analysis Of Austenitic Stainless Steels (Percent)
AISI type
Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Chromium
Nickel
Other elements

number
percent
maximum %
percent
percent
percent
percent

201
0.15 Max
5.5/7.5
1.00
16.00/18.00
3.50/5.50
N2 0.25 Max

202
0.15 Max
7.5/10.0
1.00
17.00/19.00
4.00/6.00
N2 0.25 Max

301
0.15 Max
2.00
1.00
16.00/18.00
6.00/8.00


302
0.15 Max
2.00
1.00
17.00/19.00
8.00/10.00


302B
0.15 Max
2.00
2.00/3.00
17.00/19.00
8.00/10.00


303
0.15 Max
2.00
1.00
17.00/19.00
8.00/10.00
S 0.15 Min

304
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
18.00/20.00
8.00/12.00


304L
0.03 Max
2.00
1.00
18.00/20.00
8.00/12.00


305
0.12 Max
2.00
1.00
17.00/19.00
10.00/13.00


308
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
19.00/21.00
10.00/12.00


309
0.20 Max
2.00
1.00
22.00/24.00
12.00/15.00


309S
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
22.00/24.00
12.00/15.00


310
0.25 Max
2.00
1.50
24.00/26.00
19.00/22.00


310S
0.08 Max
2.00
1.50
24.00/26.00
19.00/22.00


314
0.25 Max
2.00
1.50/3.00
23.00/26.00
19.00/22.00


316
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
16.00/18.00
10.00/14.00
Mo 2.00/3.00

316L
0.03 Max
2.00
1.00
16.00/18.00
10.00/14.00
Mo 2.00/3.00

317
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
18.00/20.00
11.00/15.00
Mo 3.00/4.00

317L
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
18.00/20.00
11.00/15.00
Mo 3.00/4.00

321
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
17.00/19.00
9.00/12.00
Ti5 2 C Min

347
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
17.00/19.00
9.00/13.00
Cb + Ta 10 x C Min

348
0.08 Max
2.00
1.00
17.00/19.00
9.00/13.00
Cb + Ta 10 x C Min

69

Weld with
type
308
308
308
308, 309
308
312*
308
308L, 347
308
308
309
309
310, 309
310
310
316, 310Mo
316L
317
317L
321, 347
347, 308L
347
Ta 0.10 Max

70

Comparative Index for Stainless Steel Electrodes



AWS
Avesta
ESAB
Class

Harris
Lincoln
McKay
Murex
Welco

E308-16

E308H-16

Arcaloy
308-16
308-16, 308H-16

E308-16

E308L-16

Arcaloy
308L-16
308 ELC-16

E308-17

E308H-17

308-17


308H-17


E308L-17
308L-17



E309-16



E309-16

E309L-16

Arcaloy

308-17 Plus

Sandvik

Stainweld 308-16
Red Baron 308/308H MR

308/308H
Sterling AP

308/308H-16

Stainweld 308L-16
Red Baron 308L MR

308/308L
Sterling AP

308L-16

Blue Max
308/308L, AC-DC

308/308H-17
Sterling

Saffire
18/8-308L

308/308H-16SA
Spray-Arc

Blue Max
308/308L

308/308L-17
Sterling

nicrex
308/308L-17

308L-16SA
Spray-Arc

Arcaloy
309-16
309-16

Stainweld 309-16
Red Baron 309/309L MR

Arcaloy
309L-16
309 ELC-16

Red Baron
309/309L MR

309(H)
Sterling AP
309/309L
Sterling AP

Bostrand
309LSi

309-16
309L-16


E309-17
309-17


Blue Max
309/309L AC-DC

309-17
Sterling

309-16SA
Spray-Arc


E309L-17
309L-17

Blue Max
309/309L AC-DC

309/309L-17

Sterling

309L-16SA
Spray-Arc

Arcaloy

309-17 plus


E310-16

Arcaloy
310-16
310-16


E312-16

Arcaloy
312-16

312-16

E316-16

E316H-16

E316-16

E316L-16

E316-17
E316H-17


E347-16

Arcaloy 316-16
316-16

316H-16
Arcaloy
316L-16
316 ELC-16

316-17


316H-17


E316L-17
316L-17

Stainweld 310-16
Red Baron 310 MR

Arcaloy

316L-17 Plus


Arcaloy
347-16

347-16
347-16

Stainweld 316L-16
Red Baron 316/316L MR

310
AC-DC

310-16

312
AC-DC

312-16

316/316H
Sterling AP

Saffore
18/8/3 Mo

316/316H-16

316/316L
Sterling AP

Nicrex
316 L-17

316L-16

Blue Max
316/316L AC-DC

316/316H-17

Sterling

316/316H-16SA
Spray-Arc

Blue Max
316L AC-DC

316/316L-17

Sterling

316L-16SA
Spray-Arc

Stainweld 347-16
Red Baron 347 MR

347
AC-DC

OK Tigrod 16.21

347-16

How AWS classifies mild


steel solid electrodes,
GMAW, GTAW and PAW

ER 70 S- 3
Electrode or rod
Tensile in ksi
Solid
Chemical composition &
shielding gas

Chemical compostion of solid wires using CO2 shielding gas

AWS
classification


Shielding
gas

Yield
Strength
KSi (MPa)

Tensile
Strength
KSi (MPa)

% Elongation
min. in 2
(50 mm)

Impact strength
Min.
ft-lbs at oF (J at oC)

ER70S-2
ER70S-3
ER70S-4
ER70S-5
ER70S-6
ER70S-7
ER80S-D2

CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2
CO2

72 (500)
72 (500)
72 (500)
72 (500)
72 (500)
72 (500)
80 (550)

60 (420)
60 (420)
60 (420)
60 (420)
60 (420)
60 (420)
68 (470)

22
22
22
22
22
22
17

20 at -20 (27 at -29)


20 at 0 (27 at -18)

20 at -20 (27 at -29)


20 at -20 (27 at -29)
20 at -20 (27 at -29)

Mn

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Cu

Other

.07
.06-.15
.07-.15
.07-.19
.07-.15
.07-.15
.07-.12

.90-1.40
.90-1.40
1.00-1.50.
.90-1.40
1.40-1.85
1.50-2.00
1.60-2.10

.40-.70
.40-.70
65-.85
.30-.60
.80-.1.15
.50-.80
.50-.80

.025
.025
.025
.025
.025
.025
.025

.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.035
.025







.15







.40-.60

.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50

Ti, Zr, Al

Al

Chemical Composition

71

How AWS classifies metal-cored wires, GMAW


process (AWS A5.18)

E 70 C- 3 M
Electrode
Tensile lb ksi
Composite metal-cored
electrode
Impact: 3 = 20 ft.lbs @ 0F (27J @ -18C)

6 = 20 ft.lbs @ - 20F (27J @ -29C)
Shielding gas:

C = CO2
M = 75% - 80% Ar, balance CO2

Position of welding, shielding, polarity, and application requirements



AWS
Classification

Welding
Positiona

Shieldingb

Currentc

Applicationd


E70C-3X
F and H

75-80% Ar/Balance CO2


or 100% CO2

DCEP


E70C-6X
F and H

75-80% Ar/Balance CO2


or 100% CO2

DCEP

E70C-G(X)

F and H

(f )

DCEP

E70C-GS(X)

F and H

(f )

DCEP

Chemical Composition Requirements for Weld


Metal from Composite Electrodes

Mn

Si

Ni

Cr

Mo

Cu

0.12
0.12

1.75
1.75

0.90
0.90

0.03
0.03

0.03
0.03

(e)
(e)

(e)
(e)

(e)
(e)

(e)
(e)

0.50
0.50

Not Specified for -Gg


Chemical Requirements not specified for -GSh
Notes:
a. The final X shown in the classification represents a C or M which corresponds to the shielding gas

with which the electrode is classified. The use of C designates 100% CO2 shielding, M designates
75-80% Ar/balance CO2. For E70C-G and E70C-GS, the final C or M may be omitted if these

gases are not used for classification.
b. F=Flat, H=Horizontal.
c. Use of a shielding gas other than that specified will result in different weld metal composition.
d. Single values are maximum weight percent.
e. To be reported if intentionally added; the sum of Ni, Cr, Mo, and V shall not exceed 0.50%.
f. Shielding gas shall be as agreed upon between purchaser and supplier.
g. Composition shall be reported; the requirements are those agreed to between purchaser and supplier.
h. The composition of weld metal from this classification is not specified since electrodes of this

classification are intended only for single pass welds. Dilution, in such welds, usually is quite high.

72

How AWS classifies


low alloy solid electrodes,
GMAW, GTAW and PAW

ER 80 S- D2
Electrode or rod
Tensile in ksi
Solid
Chemical composition

Typical shielding gas mixtures and their uses


Type of Gas

Typical Mixtures

Primary Uses

Argon

Non-ferrous Metals

Helium

Aluminum, Magnesium,
and Copper Alloys

Carbon Dioxide

Mild and Low Alloy


Steel

Argon-Helium
20-80% He

Aluminum, Magnesium,
Copper and Nickel
Alloys

Argon - Oxygen

1-2% O2

Stainless Steel


3-5 O2

Mild and Low Alloy


Steel

Argon-Cabon Dioxide

Mild and Low Alloy

20-50% CO2
Steels

Helium-Argon-Carbon

90He-7-1/2A-2-1/2 CO2

Stainless Steel

Dioxide

60-7He-25-36Ar-5 CO2

Low Alloy Steels

Nitrogen

Copper Alloys

73

74

GMAW Short Circuiting Transfer Welding Parameters



Material thickness1 Electrode
Welding
Arc voltage
Wire feed
Travel
Shielding
diameter
current
(electrode
speed
speed
gas flow

size
in. (decimal)
mm
in.
mm
amps-DC
positive)
ipm
ipm
CFH2

24 ga.
0.025
0.6
0.030
0.8
30-50
15-17
85-100
12-20
15-20

22 ga.
0.031
0.8
0.030
0.8
40-60
15-17
90-130
18-22
15-20

20 ga.
0.037
0.9
0.035
0.9
55-85
15-17
70-120
35-40
15-20

18 ga.
0.050
1.3
0.035
0.9
70-100
16-19
100-160
35-40
15-20

1/16
0.063
1.6
0.035
0.9
80-110
17-20
120-180
30-35
20-25

5/64
0.078
2.0
0.035
0.9
100-130
18-20
160-220
25-30
20-25

1/8
0.125
3.2
0.035
0.9
120-160
19-22
210-290
20-25
20-25

1/8
0.125
3.2
0.045
1.1
180-200
20-24
210-240
27-32
20-25

3/16
0.187
4.7
0.035
0.9
140-160
19-22
210-290
14-19
20-25

3/16
0.187
4.7
0.045
1.1
180-205
20-24
210-245
18-22
20-25

1/4
0.250
6.4
0.035
0.9
140-160
19-22
240-290
11-15
20-25

1/4
0.250
6.4
0.045
1.1
180-225
20-24
210-290
12-18
20-25
Note: Single-pass flat and horizontal fillet positions. Reduce current 10 to 15% for vertical and overhead welding.

1. For fillet and groove welds for fillet welds, size equals metal thickness; for square groove welds, the root opening should equal
1/2 the metal thickness.

2. Shielding gas is CO2, or 75% Ar/25% CO2.

Shielding Gases for Short Circuiting Transfer (GMAW)

Carbon steel
CO2 Broad penetration; reduces chances of porosity.

75% Ar/25% CO2 High welding speeds without burn-through; minimum distortion and spatter.

Ar/5-10% CO2 Deeper penetration; faster welding speeds.
Low alloy steel
60-70% He/25-35% Ar/4-5% CO2 Minimum reactivity; excellent toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics, and

bead contour; little spatter.

75% Ar/25% CO2 Fair toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting characteristics and bead contour; little spatter.

GMAW Spray Transfer Welding Parameters



Electrode
Welding
Arc voltage Wire feed

Material thickness
Type of diameter
current
(electrode
speed
1
in.
mm
amps-DC
positive)
ipm

size in.(decimal)
mm
weld

Travel
speed
ipm

92% Ar/8% CO2


gas flow
CFH


18 ga.
0.050
1.3

fillet
square groove

0.045
0.045

1.1
1.1

280
270

26
25

350
340

190
180

25
25


16 ga.
0.063
1.6

fillet
square groove

0.045
0.045

1.1
1.1

325
300

26
28

360
350

150
140

35
35


14 ga.
0.078
2.0

fillet
square groove
square groove

0.045
0.045
0.045

1.1
1.1
1.1

325
325
330

27
29
29

360
360
350

130
110
105

35
35
35


11 ga.
0.125
3.2

fillet
square groove

1/16
0.045

1.6
1.1

380
350

28
29

210
380

85
100

35
35


3/16
0.188
4.8

fillet
square groove
square groove

1/16
1/16
1/16

1.6
1.6
1.6

425
425
375

31
30
31

260
320
260

75
76
70

35
35
35

square groove

1/16

1.6

475

32

340

55

35

1/4

0.250

6.4

For mild carbon and low alloy steels on square groove welds, backing is required.

Shielding Gases for Spray Transfer (GMAW)


75

Carbon steel

95-98% Ar/2-5% O2 Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable puddle; good coalescence and bead contour;
minimizes undercutting; permits higher speeds than pure argon.

90-92% Ar/8-10% CO2 High-speed mechanized welding; low-cost manual welding; pulsed welding.

Low alloy steel


98% Ar/2% O2 Minimizes undercutting; provides good toughness.

How AWS classifies mild steel flux-cored


(tublular) wires, FCAW process

E 70 T - 10 M J H8

Electrode
Tensile x 10 ksi
Position
Flux-cored (tubular) electrode
Gas type, usability and
performance capabilities
Mixed Gas: 75% - 80% Ar, balance CO2
Impacts: -20 ft.lbs. @-40F
Hydrogen: H4 = less than 4 ml/100g, HB =
less than 8 ml/100g
Position of welding, shielding, polarity, and application requirements


AWS
Classification
E70T-1

Welding
Positiona
H and F

Shieldingb
CO2

E70T-1M

H and F

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E71T-1

H, F, VU, OH

CO2

DCEP

E71T-1M

H, F, VU, OH

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E70T-2

H and F

CO2

DCEP

E70T-2M

H and F

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E71T-2

H, F, VU, OH

CO2

DCEP

E71T-2M

H, F, VU, OH

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E70T-3

H and F

None

DCEP

Currentc
DCEP

Applicationd
M

E70T-4

H and F

None

DCEP

E70T-5

H and F

CO2

DCEP

E70T-5M

H and F

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E71T-5

H, F, VU, OH

CO2

DCEP or DCENe

E71T-5M

H, F, VU, OH

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP or DCENe

E70T-6

H and F

None

DCEP

E70T-7

H and F

None

DCEN

E71T-7

H, F, VU, OH

None

DCEN

E70T-8

H and F

None

DCEN

E71T-8

H, F, VU, OH

None

DCEN

76

Position of welding, shielding, polarity, and application requirements (cont.)




AWS
Classification
E70T-9

Welding
Positiona
H and F

Shieldingb
CO2

E70T-9M

H and F

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E71T-9

H, F, VU, OH

CO2

DCEP

E71T-9M

H, F, VU, OH

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E70T-10

H and F

None

DCEN

E70T-11

H and F

None

DCEN

E71T-11

H, F, VD, OH

None

DCEN

E70T-12

H and F

CO2

DCEP

M
M

Currentc
DCEP

Applicationd
M

E70T-12M

H and F

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E71T-12

H, F, VU, OH

CO2

DCEP

E71T-12M

H, F, VU, OH

75-80% Ar/bal CO2

DCEP

E61T-13

H, F, VD, OH

None

DCEN

E71T-13

H, F, VD, OH

None

DCEN

E71T-14

H, F, VD, OH

None

DCEN

EX0T-G

H and F

Not Specified

Not Specified

M
M

EX1T-G

H, F, VD or VU, OH

Not Specified

Not Specified

EX0T-GS

H and F

Not Specified

Not Specified

EX1T-GS

H, F, VD or VU, OH

Not Specified

Not Specified

a. H = horizontal position; F = flat position; OH = overhead position;


VD = vertical position with downward progression; VU = vertical
position with upward progression
b. Properties of weld metal from electrodes that are used with external
gas shielding (EXXT-1, EXXT-1M, EXXT-2, EXXT-2M, EXXT-5,
EXXT-5M, EXXT-9, EXXT-9M, EXXT-12, and EXXT-12M) vary
according to the shielding gas employed. Electrodes classified with
the specified shielding gas should not be used with other shielding
gases without first consulting the manufacturer of the electrode.
c.


The term DCEP refers to direct current electrode positive (dc,


reverse polarity).
The term DCEN refers to direct current electrode negative (dc,
straight polarity).

d. M = single- or multiple-pass; S = single-pass only


e. Some E71T-5 and E71T-5M electrodes may be recommended for use
on DCEN for improved out-of-position welding.
77

Comparative Index of Self-Shielded Tubular Wires


78

AWS Class
E70T-4
E70T-7
E71T-8
E70T-10
E71T-11
E71T8-K6
E71T-GS

Hobart
Corex
Fabshield 4
Self-Shield 4
Fabshield 7027

Fabshield XLR-8


Fabshield 21B
Self-Shield 11
Fabshield 3Ni1

Fabshield 23
Self-Shield 11 GS

ESAB
Coreshield 40
Coreshield 7
Coreshield 8
Coreshield 10
Coreshield 11

Coreshield 15

Lincoln
Innershield NS-3M
Innershield NR-311
Innershield NR-203MP, NR-232, NR-203MP
Innershield NR-131
Innershield NR-211-MP
Innershield NR-207, NR-203
Innershield NR-151, NR-152, NR-157, NR-204-H

Comparative Index of Gas-Shielded Tubular Wires


AWS Class
Hobart
Corex
ESAB

E70C-6M
FabCOR 86R
Metal-Cor 6, 6L
Coreweld 70, Coreweld Ultra

E70T-1
FabCO RXR
Flux-Cor 7
Dual Shield 111 A-C, R-70

FabCO TR-70
Super-Cor

E70T-5
FabCO 85

Dual Shield T-75
EXCEL-ARC 71
Verti-Cor I
Dual Shield 7100 Ultra

E71T-1 (C O2 )

Versatile

E71T-1
EXCEL-ARC 71
Verti-Cor I
Dual Shield 7000
Versatile
Dual Shield 7100 Ultra

(75 Ar/25 CO 2 )
FORMULA XL-550

Dual Shield II-71 Ultra

E71T-1 (CO2 )

Low H2 , J class
Verti-Cor 70
Dual Shield II-70
E71T-1(75 Ar/25 CO2 ) FORMULA XL-525

Low H2 , J class
Dual Shield II-70T12 Ultra

E81T1-Ni1
FORMULA XL8Ni1

Dual Shield II-80-Ni

Dual Shield 8000C3

E81T1-Ni2
Verti-Cor 81Ni2
Dual Shield 8000-Ni2

E110T5-K4
FabCO 115

Dual Shield T-115

Lincoln tri-mark
MC-710
Metalloy 70, 71, 76
Outershield 70
TM-11, TM-RX7
Outershield 75
Outershield
71, 71M
Outershield 71, 71M

TM-55
TM-711M, Triple 7

Outershield

71M-H

UltraCore 71

TM-770

Outershield 81Ni1-H

TM-81N1, TM-811N1

TM-81N2, TM-811N2
TM-115

TM-711M, Triple 7

Hobart Filler Metals


Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes
The information contained or otherwise referenced herein is presented only as typical
without guarantee or warranty, and Hobart Brothers Company expressly disclaims any liability
incurred from any reliance theron. Typical data are those obtained when welded and tested in
accordance with AWS specifications. Other tests and procedures may produce different results.
No data is to be construed as a recommendation for any welding condition or technique
not controlled by Hobart Brothers Company.

Pipemaster 60

Pipemaster 70

You can rely on the performance of the


Pipemaster 60 for quick starting, excellent
arc stability, superior arc drive (penetration), light slag, and excellent wash-in. An
all-position cellulosic mild steel electrode,
it outdoes itself in producing X-ray quality
welds.

The Pipemaster 70, an all-position cellulosic mild steel electrode, is excellent for
producing X-ray quality welds. Its quick
starting with excellent arc stability, superior
penetration, light slag and excellent washin. Pipemaster 70 can also help you handle
vertical down welding on all passes with 5L,
5LX and X52 through X65 pipe.

AWS A5.5 - E7010-P1

AWS A5.1 - E6010

Typical applications:

Construction and shipbuilding, generalpurpose fabrication, maintenance welding,


out-of-position X-ray welds, pipe welding,
vertical and overhead plate welding

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon................................. .06
Manganese...................... .40
Silicon.................................. .20

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

76,000
61,000
26%
64%

60,000
48,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch impact values


(AW):
Avg. at -20F

34 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm)............................... 40-70 amps


(3.2 mm).............................65-130 amps
(4.0 mm).............................90-175 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................140-225 amps

Type of current: DCEP

Drill platforms, pipeline welding using


downhill travel, shipbuilding, storage tanks,
welding of high-yield pipe steels

AWS Spec

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Nickel...................................
Molybdenum....................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................
Chromium..........................
Vanadium...........................

.10
.85
.40
.55
.10
.01
.01
.02
.

.20
1.20
.60
1.00
.50
.03
.03
.30
.10

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

87,000
71,000
26%
63%

70,000
60,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch impact values


(AW):AWS Spec
Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -40F

35 ft.lb.
25 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:
1/8(3.2 mm)....................................70-140 amps
5/32(4.0 mm)..................................80-190 amps
3/16(4.8 mm)................................120-230 amps

Type of current: DCEP


79

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Pipemaster 80

Pipemaster Pro-60

With features like quick starting, excellent arc


stability, superior penetration, light slag, and
excellent wash-in, the Pipemaster 80 is great
for a variety of jobs. This all-position cellulosic
mild steel electrode gets a handle on vertical
down welding on all passes with X56 through
X70 pipe. And with good low-temperature impact properties, it can be used on pipe steels
with relatively high silicon (up to .30).

Pipemaster Pro-60 is a quick-starting, cellulosic mild steel electrode that provides you
with outstanding arc stability, penetration
and wash-in. Its ideal for welding in all positions and produces an X-ray quality weld with
light slag thats easy to remove. Pipemaster
Pro-60 can be used to weld the following API
5L steels: Grade A, B. X42, X46, X52, X56 and
for the root pass on material up to X80. It
features enhanced weldability and increased
physical properties.

AWS a5.5 - E8010-P1

AWS A5.1 - E6010

Typical applications:

Drill platforms, pipe welding using


downhill travel, shipbuilding, storage tanks,
welding of high-yield pipe steels

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .13
Manganese........................ .53
Silicon.................................. .12
Nickel................................... .65
Molybdenum.................... .10
Phosphorus....................... .01
Sulphur................................ .01
Chromium.......................... .03
Vanadium................................

.20
1.20
.60
1.00
.50
.03
.03
.30
.10

Typical applications:

Pipes, plates, construction, shipbuilding,


and general purpose fabrication and
maintenance welding.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
Carbon................................. .15
Manganese........................ .45
Silicon.................................. .15

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

72,000
60,000
25%

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Reduction of Area

AWS Spec

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

92,000
76,000
23%
60%

80,000
67,000
19%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
AWS Spec

Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -50F

30 ft.lb.
25 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

1/8 (3.2 mm).............................70-140 amps


5/32 (4.0 mm).............................80-190 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................130-240 amps

Type of current: DCEP

80

Avg. at -20F

60,000
48,000
22%

55% not required

35 ft.lbs. 20 ft.lbs.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm)............................... 40-70 amps


(3.2 mm).............................65-130 amps
(4.0 mm) ..........................90 - 175 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................140-225 amps

Type of current: DCEP

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hobart 335A

Hobart 335C

Stable arc characteristics and good penetration are what you can expect to get from Hobart 335A electrode. Designed for use with AC
power sources, Hobart 335A has high operator appeal and produces a fine spray transfer
that is ideal for all welding positions.

Hobart 335C is an all-position, cellulosic


electrode that delivers the ultimate in operator appeal. Not only will you get a smooth,
stable arc that is easy to control, but you will
also have the ability to weld through paint,
mill scale or rust. Designed for use with AC
power sources, Hobart 335C provides excellent penetration, and heavier slag coverage
than its closest relative, Hobart 335A.

AWS A5.1 - E6011

AWS A5.1 - E6011

Typical applications:

General fabrication, railroad cars, shipbuilding, structural work, piping, galvanized steel
work.

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................

.14
.47
.18
.009
.009

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

77,700
63,200
25%
22-63%

60,000
48,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
AWS Spec

Avg. at -20F

30 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

Typical applications:

General construction, light sheet metal


fabrication, maintenance and repair welding, shipyards, welding on galvanized steels,
welding through paint, mill scale, or rust

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

(2.4 mm)............................... 60-90 amps


(3.2 mm).............................80-125 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-190 amps

Type of current: AC or DCEP

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................

.10
.50
.20
.015
.020

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

82,000
68,000
26%
35-70%

60,000
48,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F

45 ft.lb. 20 ft.lbs.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm)............................... 60-90 amps


(3.2 mm).............................80-125 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-190 amps

Type of current: AC or DCEP

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

81

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hobart 447A

Hobart 447C

When poor fit-up conditions exist, youll


prefer the fast-freeze characteristics of Hobart
447A. Whether put to use with AC or DC power
sources, the 447A has a very stable arc and
good bead appearance.

A soft arc AWS E6013 electrode, Hobart 447C


is the best way to take control of poor fit-up
conditions. It has fast-freeze characteristics
giving it preferred operator appeal. Its versatility extends to use with AC or DC power
sources and low open-circuit voltage AC
machines.

AWS A5.1 - E6013

AWS A5.1 - E6013

Typical applications:

General purpose fabrication, machine


parts, metal buildings and structures, shaft
buildup

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon . ..............................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................

AWS Spec

72,600
61,300
26.5%
25-55%

60,000
48,000
17%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Not applicable

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm)............................... 40-80 amps


(3.2 mm).............................70-120 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................140-220 amps

Type of current: AC, DCEN


or DCEP

82

General-purpose fabrication, machine


parts, metal buildings and structures, shaft
buildup

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

.10
.28
.27
.012
.016

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

Typical applications:

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................

.10
.48
.35
.019
.022

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

70,000
65,000
20-28%

60,000
48,000
17%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Not applicable

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32 (2.4 mm)............................... 40-85 amps


1/8 (3.2 mm).............................70-120 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-160 amps

Type of current: AC, DCEN


or DCEP

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hobart 1139

Hobart 14A

When you want to get a handle on roof decking, you can rely on Hobart 1139. It is a very
fluid electrode designed for welding roof
decking to support beams with burn-through
spot welds. You can also rely on the 1139 for
rapid downhill welding when joining lightgauge materials.

When you are tackling jobs where higher


deposition and speed of travel is needed,
the Hobart 14A is the electrode to choose. An
all-position electrode, Hobart 14A is equipped
with a rutile base and iron powder addition
to increase deposition rates and give operator
appeal. This electrode offers outstanding slag
removal and bead appearance and can be
operated with DCEN, DCEP or AC power.

AWS A5.1 - E6022

AWS A5.1 - E7014

Typical applications:

Rapid downhill welding, roof decking ,


sheet metal

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................

.18
.25
.15
.015
.017

Typical mechanical properties:

Transverse tensile strength exceeds


60,000 psi

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Not applicable

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

1/8 (3.2 mm)...........................110-150 amps


5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................150-180 amps

Type of current: DCEN or AC

Typical applications:

Frames, heavy sheet metal, machine bases

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur

.06
.54
.35
.026
.013

1.25 max
.90 max

Typical mechanical properties


(AW):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

79,000
68,100
27.5%
33-55%

70,000
58,000
17%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Not applicable

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

For more information:

(2.4 mm)............................... 70-90 amps


(3.2 mm)...........................120-145 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................140-210 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................180-280 amps

Type of current: AC, DCEN


or DCEP

http://www.hobartbrothers.com

83

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hobart 24

Hobart 418

AWS A5.1 - E7024, E7024-1

AWS A5.1 - E7018-1 H4R

If you want speed, the Hobart 24 high-speed


electrode has it. Hobart 24 is exceptionally fast
when used down hand in properly designed
weld joints or in horizontal fillet welds where
equal leg fillets are desirable. It has excellent
operation on either AC or DCEN power with
a drag welding technique. It also meets AWS
E7024-1 impact requirements.

A general purpose electrode that allows you


to tackle a wide variety of welding projects.
You will get superior weldability from this
low hydroge, mild steel electrode. It provides
excellent start and restart capabilities and
smooth and virtually spatter-free arc. It has
a very flat bead shape with fine ripple appearance. Slag removal is one fo the best
and in many cases is self-peeling. Operates
smoothly, even on somewhat dirty or rusty
surfaces. A low-moisture absorbing product
that can be exposed to higher temperatures
and humidity over 8 hours and meet AWS
requirements.

Typical applications:

Earthmoving equipment, mining machinery,


plate fabrication, railroad cars, structurals,
shipbuilding, and mobile trailers.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Typical applications:

AWS Spec

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur

.06
.81
.43
.018
.019

1.25 max
.90 max

Typical mechanical properties


(AW):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

82,000
72,000
25%
20-40%

70,000
58,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values
(AW) for E7024-1:
42 ft.lb.

(3.2 mm)...........................130-150 amps


(4.0 mm)...........................180-225 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-280 amps
(5.6 mm)...........................250-320 amps
(6.4 mm)...........................300-360 amps

Type of current: DCEN or AC

84

AWS Spec

Carbon..................................02
Manganese........................ 1.06
Silicon ................. .50

Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .014
Nickel................................... .07
Molybdenum.................... .01
Chromium.......................... .01
Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V ..........1.28

.15
1.60
.75
.035
.035
.30
.30
.08
1.75

AWS Spec

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:
1/8
5/32
3/16
7/32
1/4

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Typical mechanical properties


(AW):

AWS Spec

Avg. at 0F

Field erections, shipbuilding, structurals,


offshore rigs, powerplants.

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

78,500
65,500
28%
72%

70,000
58,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch impact values

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hobart 718MC

Hobart Rocket 7024

Designed to provide improved deposition


rates, bead appearance and operator appeal
over other electrodes of the same class when
welding in low-temperature environments
where low temperature impacts are important. Ideal for the welding of enameling steels,
free machining steels, and low, medium or
high carbon steels, Excellent moisture resistance, good out-of-position welding capabilities and X-ray quality weld deposit.

Hobart Rocket 7024 is a newly engineered


electrode dedsigned to provide the user with
outstanding features in several important
areas. It is engineered with a slag system to
provide the easiest slag removal and in most
cases is self-peeling. Spatter levels are extremely low. It has a super smooth soft arc and
is less harsh than other E7024 products.

AWS A5.1 - E7018 H4R, E7018-1 H4R

Typical applications:

Offshore rigs, shipbuilding, boiler code applications, field erections, steel structures,
petro-chemical plants, power plants, railroad
and locomotive construction.

Rocket 7024 is more forgiving than other


E7024 products when the material being
welded is moderately rusty or isnt as clean
as it should be. It can be used with a drag
welding technique and operates equally well
on either AC or DC-EN power.

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .04
Manganese........................ .98
Silicon.................................. .61
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .010
Nickel................................... .08
Chromium.......................... .08
Molybdenum.................... .02
Vanadium........................... .01
Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V...........1.17

AWS A5.1 - E7024 (E4824)

.15
1.60
.75
.035
.035
.30
.20
.30
.08
1.75

Plate fabrication, tank fabrication, barge


construction, construction, and earth moving equipment.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................

.074
.680
1.25 max
.406
.90 max
.012
.014

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

AWS Spec

AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

77,700
62,100
30%
68%

70,000
58,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
123 ft.lb.
93 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4

76,000
68,000
19%
30-40%

70,000
58,000
17%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

AWS Spec

Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -50F

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-165 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................125-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-300 amps
(6.4 mm)...........................270-380 amps

AWS Spec

Avg. at 0F (-18 C) 40 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4

(3.2 mm)...........................130-170 amps


(4.0 mm)...........................180-245 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
(6.4 mm)...........................300-380 amps

Type of current: DCEN, AC or DCEP

Type of current: DCEP or AC


85

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hobart 18AC

Hoballoy 7018A1

A low-hydrogen electrode, Hobart 18AC is


designed for welding low, medium, and highcarbon steels as well as some high-strength,
low-alloy steels. It is also excellent for skip
or tack welds and is highly recommended
for applications using small 208/230V, singlephase AC welders. Hobart 18AC produces
a smooth, stable arc and has outstanding
restriking capabilities. Although it is designed
for use with AC power sources, Hobart 18AC
also works exceptionally well on DC utilitytype welders.

Hoballoy 7018A1 is an outstanding welding


electrode for welding the 0.50% molybdenum
steel and other low alloy steels. The coating
is specially formulated to resist moisture pickup of high heat and humidity. The electrode
offers resistance to moisture reabsorption
which helps prevent hydrogen cracking
and aids in elimination of starting porosity.
Definitely a preferred electrode with high
operator appeal.

AWS A5.1 - E7018 H8

AWS A5.5 - E7018-A1 H4R

Typical applications:

Low, medium, and high carbon steels, skip or


tack welds, shops, farms and hobbyists, some
high-strength low alloy steels.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
.15
1.60
.75
.035
.035
.20
.30
.30
.03
1.75

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

81,200
73,100
29.5%
75%

70,000
58,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
AWS Spec

Avg. at -20F

57 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-165 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................125-220 amps

Type of current: AC, DCEN or DCEP


86

Pressure vessel applications including


construction and maintenance of boilers,
piping, and tubing.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .04
Manganese........................ .67
Silicon.................................. .29
Phosphorus........................008
Sulphur.................................010
Chromium.......................... .07
Molybdenum.................... .01
Nickel................................... .08
Vanadium........................... .02
Mn+Ni+Cr+Mo+V............85

Typical applications:

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................
Molybdenum....................

.04
.12 max
.72
.90 max
.31
.80 max
.014
.03 max
.011
.03 max
.54 .40 - .65

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1150F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

89,000
77,000
27%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -40F

102 ft.lb.
42 ft.lb.

70,000
57,000
25%

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hoballoy 8018B2

Hoballoy 8018B2L

Hoballoy 8018B2 is an outstanding electrode


for welding higher strength steels requiring tensile strengths of 80,000 lbs. or more.
Ideal for welding in conditions of high heat
or humidity, it features a specially formulated
coating thats designed to reduce moisture
pick-up and thus help keep hydrogen cracking and starting porosity to a minimum.
Definitely a preferred electrode with high
operator appeal.

Hoballoy 8018B2L is an outstanding electrode


for welding higher strength steels requiring
tensile strengths greater than 80,000 lbs. It
offers good arc characteristics and easy slag
removal. The coating is specially formulated
to resist moisture pick-up under condisions
of high heat and humditiy. This electrode,
with high operator appeal, offers resistance
to moisture reabsorption which helps prevent
hydrogen cracking and aids in elimination of
starting porosity.

AWS A5.5 - E8018-B2 H4R

AWS A5.5 - E8018-B2L H4R

Typical applications:

Fabrication and maintenance of boilers and


associated piping, steels such as 1-1/4 Cr1/2
Mo and 1/2 Cr1/2 Mo areproperly welded
with Hoballoy 8018B2.

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ .71
Silicon.................................. .62
Phosphorus....................... .010
Sulphur................................ .009
Chromium.......................... 1.30
Molybdenum.................... .55

.12 max
.90 max
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
1.00-1.50
.40 - .65

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

102,000
91,000
21%

80,000
67,000
19%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (SR):
Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -40F

42 ft.lb.
35 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

Fabrication and maintenance of


boilers and associated piping and steels
such as 1-1/4 Cr1/2 Mo and 1/2 Cr1/2 Mo.

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................
Chromium..........................
1.00-1.50
Molybdenum....................

.04
.65
.53
.011
.012

.05 max
.90 max
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
1.36

.62

.40-.65

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

98,000
84,000
24%

80,000
67,000
19%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -40F

46 ft.lb.
30 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
(6.4 mm)...........................300-400 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


87

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hoballoy 8018C1

Hoballoy 8018C3

Hoballoy 8018C1 is a high-quality electrode


thats designed for applications of 2% nickel
deposits. The outstanding characteristics of
this electrode provide good puddle control
with excellent wetting action and tie in. This
electrode, with high operator appeal, offers good arc characteristics and easly slag
removal. The Hoballoy 8018C1 will provide
notch toughness of 20 ft.lbs. at
-75F.
The coating is specially formulated to resist
moisture reabsorption, helps retard hydrogen
cracking and aids in elimination of starting
porosity.

This is an outstanding electrode that is designed for 80,000 tensile strength applications
and also 1% nickel applications. It provides
excellent puddle control with good wetting
action and tie in. The electrode offers good
arc characteristics and easy slag removal.
The coating is specially formulated to resist
conditions of high heat and humidity. The
electrode, with high operator appeal, offers
resistance to moisture reabsorption, helps
prevent hydrogen cracking and aids in eliminating starting porosity.

Typical applications:

Commercial and military applications using


80,000, tensile steels.

AWS A5.5 - E8018-C3 H4R

AWS A5.5 - E8018-C1 H4R

Welding of nickel-bearing steels for low


temperature applications where toughness
of the weld metal is important, including
shipbuilding, storage, piping, and tanks
used in the storage of gases.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .042
Manganese........................ .95
Silicon.................................. .36
Phosphorus....................... .010
Sulphur................................ .011
Nickel................................... 2.43

.12 max
1.25 max
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
2.00-2.75

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1150F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

91,000
80,000
26%

80,000
67,000
19%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (SR):

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.03
Silicon.................................. .26
Phosphorus....................... .012
Sulphur................................ .009
Nickel................................... .96
Chromium.......................... .07
Molybdenum.................... .010
Vanadium........................... .02

20 ft.lb.

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


88

.12 max
.40-1.25
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
.80-1.10
.15 max
.35 max
.05 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


82,000
Yield Strength (psi)
70,000

Elongation % in 2
28%

80,000
68,00080,000
24%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -40F

50 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

AWS Spec

AWS Spec

Avg. at -75F

Typical applications:

95 ft.lb.

Available diameter and

20 ft.lb.

recommended operating ranges:


3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps
1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hoballoy 9018B3

Hoballoy 9018B3L

Hoballoy 9018B3 is an outstanding welding


electrode for welding higher strength piping, castings, and forgings. The coating is
specially formulated to resist moisture pick-up
under conditions of high heat and humidity.
The electrode offers resistance to moisture
reabsorption which helps prevent hydrogen
cracking and aids in elimination of starting
porosity. Definitely a preferred electrode
with high operator appeal. This product has
excellent arc characteristics, low spatter and
smoke level, and easy slag removal. It has a
stable, easy to control arc and is resistant to
hydrogen-induced cracking.

Hoballoy 9018B3L is an outstanding electrode


for welding high-strength piping where cracking is a problem. It provides excellent notch
toughness, 20 ft.-lbs minimum at 100 degrees
F. The coating is specially formulated to reduce moisture pick-up which makes it ideal
for conditions of high heat and humidity and
for minimizing hydrogen cracking and starting porosity. Definitely a perferred electrode
with high operator appeal.

AWS A5.5 - E9018-B3L h4R

AWS A5.5 - E9018-B3 H4R

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

.05-.12
.90 max
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
2.00-2.50
.90-1.20

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

112,000
95,000
21%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -40F

24 ft.lb.

90,000
77,000
17%

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

Chrome-moly pipes, boiler work

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Chrome-moly pipes and boiler work

Carbon................................. .08
Manganese........................ .72
Silicon.................................. .42
Phosphorus....................... .014
Sulphur................................ .009
Chromium.......................... 2.28
Molybdenum....................1.19

Typical applications:

Carbon................................. .03
Manganese........................ .61
Silicon.................................. .39
Phosphorus....................... .02
Sulphur................................ .01
Chromium.......................... 2.10
Molybdenum.................... .99

.05 max
.90 max
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
2.00-2.50
.90-1.20

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1275F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

102,000
85,000
21%

90,000
77,000
17%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F

25 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32 (2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


1/8 (3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

89

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hoballoy 9018M

Hoballoy 10018D2

Hoballoy 9018M is an outstanding electrode


thats designed for applications requiring
tensile strengths in excess of 90,000 psi. An
ideal choice for conditions of high heat and
humidity, The 9018M has a specially formulated coating that reduces moisture pick-up
which helps to minimize hydrogen cracking
and starting porosity.

A high-quality electrode that is designed


for the welding of high tensile steels and
manganese-molybdenum steels. It has high
operator appeal and offers a wide variety
of welding advantages including good arc
characteristics, ductility, crack-resistance, easy
slag removal, and low spatter and smoke. It is
an ideal choice for conditions of high heat and
humidity because it features a special coating
thats designed to reduce moisture pick-up
which also helps to minimize hydrogen cracking and starting porosity.

AWS a5.5 - E10018-D2 h4R

AWS A5.5 - E9018-M h4R

Typical applications:

Joining HY-90, HY-80, T-1, and other hightensile steels.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Typical applications:

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .054
Manganese........................ 1.10
Silicon.................................. .27
Phosphorus....................... .012
Sulphur................................ .009
Nickel................................... 1.64
Chromium.......................... .07
Molybdenum.................... .35
Vanadium........................... .012

.10 max
.60-1.25
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
1.40-1.80
.15 max
.35 max
.05 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi) 100,000 90,000


Yield Strength (psi)
89,000 78,000
90,000
Elongation % in 2
24%
24%

M anganese-moly castings, alloy forgings,


structures, pressure vessel applications
in either the as welded or stress-relieved
condition

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .11
Manganese........................ 1.71
Silicon.................................. .24
Phosphorus....................... .014
Sulphur................................ .010
Nickel................................... .09
Molybdenum.................... .40

.15 max
1.69-2.00
.80 max
.03 max
.03 max
.90 max
.25-.45

Typical mechanical properties


(stress relieve 1 hour @ 1150F):
AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
AWS Spec

Avg. at -60F

56 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)..........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

104,000 100,000
88,000 87,000
22%
16%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
AWS Spec

Avg. at -60F

30 ft.lb.

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


90

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and recommended


operating ranges:

Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes


Hoballoy 11018M

Hoballoy 12018M

Designed for military applications and


other projects that require weld joints with
minimum tensile strength of 100,000 psi, this
electrode provides excellent puddle control
with good wetting action and tie in. It provides good arc characteristics and easy slag
removal, good ductility and crack resistance,
low spatter and smoke level, with a stable,
easy to control arc.

Hoballoy12018M is designed for welding


high tensile steels requiring weld joints with
tensile strengths of 120,000 psi. It offers a
wide variety of welding advantages that
include: good arc characteristics, ductility,
crack-resistance, easy slag removal, and low
spatter and smoke. The coating is specially
formulated to resist conditions of high heat
and humidity.The electrode offers resistance
to moisture reabsorption which helps retard
hydrogen cracking and aids in eliminating
starting porosity.

AWS A5.5 - E12018-M h4r

AWS A5.5 - E11018-m h4r

Typical applications:

Low-alloy steels including HY-80, HY-90,


HY-100 and T-1

Low-alloy steels, forgings, castings, plate


and pressure vessels.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.40
Silicon.................................. .028
Nickel .................................. 1.85
Phosphorus....................... .014
Sulphur................................ .014
Molybdenum.................... .33
Chromium.......................... .20
Vanadium........................... .010

Typical applications:

.10 max
1.30-1.80
.60 max
1.25-2.50
.03 max
.03 max
.25-.50
.40 max
.05 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .06
Manganese........................ 1.91
Silicon.................................. .32
Phosphorus....................... .016
Sulphur................................ .011
Nickel .................................. 2.34
Molybdenum.................... .46
Chromium.......................... .66

.10 max
1.30-2.25
.60 max
.03 max
.03 max
1.75-2.10
.30-.55
.30-1.50

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi) 110,000 110,000


Yield Strength (psi)
101,000 98,000-

110,000
Elongation % in 2
21%
20%

Tensile Strength (psi) 138,000 120,000


Yield Strength (psi)
116,000 108,000
120,000
Elongation % in 2
21%
18%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
AWS Spec

AWS Spec

Avg. at -60F

52 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16
1/4

(2.4 mm).............................75-115 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps
(6.4 mm)...........................300-400 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

Avg. at -60F

47 ft.lb.

20 ft.lb.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................70-110 amps


(3.2 mm).............................90-160 amps
(4.0 mm)...........................130-220 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................200-300 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


91

Stainless Steel Electrodes


McKay 308/308H SterlingAP

McKay 309H

Excellent for use on Type 301, 302, 304,


305 and 308 base metals, the 308/308H
Sterling AP is specially formulated with
more than .04 carbon to provide maximum
elevated temperature strength. It has a
smooth running arc that results in a uniform
weld bead that is flat to slightly convex. It is
also ideal for use as an intermediate layer
prior to the deposit of hard-facing materials. It yields a concave weld bead that is
smooth and refined. Note: Actual certs are
included in every master carton of stainless
stick electrodes at no charge.

The moisture resistant, all-position 309 (H)


Sterling AP electrode is primarily designed
for welding. Type 309 metal but can also be
used for 18-8 clad steels or dissimilar materials
if the alloy content is sufficiently high for a
sound, ductile deposit. It yields a uniform weld
bead that is flat to slightly convex. Note: Actual certs are included in every master carton
of stainless stick electrodes at no charge.

AWS A5.4 - E308-16 & E308h-16

Typical applications:

Food and beverage, petrochemical plants,


pulp and paper, other general fabrication on
stainless steel.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
E308-16

Carbon................................. .06
Manganese........................ 1.00
Phosphorus....................... .018
Sulphur................................ .013
Silicon.................................. .50
Copper................................. .10
Chromium..........................19.50
Nickel .................................. 9.80
Molybdenum.................... .10

.08 max
.5-2.25
.04 max
.03 max
.90 max
.75 max
18.0-21.0
9.0-11.0
.75 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


E308-16

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
DeLong Ferrite Range

86,000
65,000
41%
4-10

80,000
not req.
35%
not req.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps


1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps
1/4 (6.4 mm)..................................180-225 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

Note: Sterling is a registered trademark of


Hobart Brothers Company

92

AWS A5.4 - E309-16

Sterling AP

Typical applications:

Food and beverage, petrochemical plants,


pulp and paper, other general fabrication on
stainless steel.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
E308-16

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.05
Phosphorus....................... .020
Sulphur................................ .016
Silicon.................................. .56
Copper................................. .10
Chromium..........................23.50
Nickel .................................. 13.00
Molybdenum.................... .10

.08 max
.5-2.25
.04 max
.03 max
.90 max
.75 max
22.0-25.0
12.0-14.0
.75 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec.

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
DeLong Ferrite Range

88,000
67,000
37%
6-15

80,000
not req.
30%
not req.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32 (2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps


1/8 (3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
5/32 (4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
3/16 (4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps
1/4 (6.4 mm)..................................180-225 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


Detailed data sheets may be found at
www.hobartbrothers.com

Stainless Steel Electrodes


McKay 310 AC-DC

McKay 312 AC-DC

The all position 310 AC-DC is ideal for


welding base metal of similar composition, when the stainless base metal is of
unknown composition, as well as for dissimilar metals. Also excellent for welding
and building up parts for heat treatment and
case hardening furnaces, cement kilns and
other burners subject to high temperature
oxidation in a non-sulphurous atmosphere
It has a smooth running arc that results in a
uniform bead that is flat to slightly convex.
Note: Actual certs are included in every
master carton of stainless stick electrodes
at no charge.

Ideal for new fabrication or repair maintenance applications, 312 AC-DC is designed
for welding dissimilar joints of Type 312
metals. 312 AC-DC can be used on hardenable steels, steel armor and generally
hardto weld steels, offering outstanding
performance with a directional arc and
self-detaching slag. With capabilities considered equal to special maintenance
electrodes, 312 AC-DC is available at much
less than the special maintenance price. It
has a smooth running arc that results in a
uniform bead that is flat to slightly convex.

Typical applications:

Joining dissimilar steels or hard-to-weld


steels. Single and multiple pass DCEP, AC.

AWS A5.4 - E310-16

AWS A5.4 - E312-16

Fabrication of preheater tubes for pressure


vessels and other high temperature applications.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
Carbon................................. .14
.08-.20 max
Manganese........................ 2.02
1.0-2.5
Phosphorus....................... .015
.03 max
Sulphur................................ .015
.03 max
Silicon.................................. .46
.75 max
Copper................................. .15
.75 max
Chromium..........................26.12
25.0-28.0
Nickel .................................. 21.00
20.0-22.5
Molybdenum.................... .12
.75 max

Typical mechanical properties


(AW):
80,000
not req.
35%
not req.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ .80
Phosphorus....................... .015
Sulphur................................ .017
Silicon.................................. .40
Copper................................. .15
Chromium..........................28.50
Nickel .................................. 9.10
Molybdenum.................... .11

.15 max
.05-2.5
.04 max
.03 max
.90 max
.75 max
28.0-32.0
8.0-10.5
.75 max

Typical mechanical properties


(AW):
AWS Spec.

AWS Spec.

86,000
63,000
40%
0

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
E308-16

E308-16

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
DeLong Ferrite Range

Typical applications:

(2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps


(3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
(4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps

Tensile Strength (psi) 115,000 95,000


Yield Strength (psi)
95,000 not req.
Elongation % in 2
25%
22%
DeLong Ferrite Range 25-80 not req.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps


(3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
(4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC

Type of current: DCEP or AC


93

Stainless Steel Electrodes


McKay 316/316H
AP

Sterling

AWS A5.4 - E316-16 & E316H-16

316/316H SterlingAP is a fully alloyed


core wire electrode featuring a rutile basic
coating. It is excellent for welding Type 316
steel in applications requiring increased
corrosion resistance of molybdenumbearing steels. A carbon content of at least
.04 provides increased high temperature
strength. It has a smooth running arc that
results in a uniform weld bead that is flat
to slightly convex. Note: Actual certs are
included in every master carton of stainless
stick electrodes at no charge.

Typical applications:

Food and beverage, petrochemical plants,


pulp and paper, other general fabrication on
stainless steel.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
E316-16

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.05
Phosphorus....................... .015
Sulphur................................ .015
Silicon.................................. .50
Copper................................. .20
Chromium..........................18.50
Nickel .................................. 12.40
Molybdenum.................... 2.21

.08 max
.5-2.25
.04 max
.03 max
.90 max
.75 max
17.0-20.0
11.0-14.0
2.0-3.0

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec.

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
DeLong Ferrite Range

85,000
68,000
42%
2-6

75,000
not req.
30%
not req.

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps


(3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
(4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


94

McKay 410 AC-DC


AWS A5.4 - E410-16

An air-hardening stainless steel stick


electrode, 410 AC-DC is used extensively
in welding 12 Cr material and requires
post-weld heat treatment. It has a smooth
running arc that results in a uniform bead
that is flat to slightly convex. Note: Actual
certs are included in every master carton
of stainless stick electrodes at no charge.

Typical applications:

Power generation, hydro electric plants, fabrication of type CA-6NM castings and joining of
Type 409, 410, 410S, and 405 stainless steels.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
E316-16

Carbon................................. .09
Manganese........................ .55
Phosphorus....................... .016
Sulphur................................ .017
Silicon.................................. .29
Copper................................. .10
Chromium..........................12.30
Nickel .................................. --
Molybdenum.................... .08

.12 max
1.0 max
.04 max
.03 max
.90 max
.75 max
11.0-13.5
.7 max
.75 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


AWS Spec.

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

93,500
79,000
21%

75,000
not req.
20%

Available diameter and


recommended operating ranges:

3/32
1/8
5/32
3/16

(2.4 mm).............................. 45-80 amps


(3.2 mm).............................55-120 amps
(4.0 mm).............................65-170 amps
(4.8 mm)...........................160-205 amps

Type of current: DCEP or AC


The information contained or otherwise referenced
herein is presented only as typical withouth
guarantee or warranty, and McKay expressly disclaims
any liability incurred from any reliance thereon.
Typical data are obtained when welded and tested in
accordance with AWS specification. Other tests and
precedures may produce different results. No data is
to be construed as a recommendation for any welding
condition or technique not contolled by McKay.

Mild Steel Solid Wires


QuantumArc D2

HB-25

QuantumArc D2 is a high-strength,
copper-coated mild steel solid wire that
provides X-ray quality welds when used on
carbon and low alloy steels. Ideal for single
or multi-pass welding, it can be used with
CO2 gas - as well as with Ar/CO2 mixtures
- to produce a high quality weld that is virtually porosity and slag free.

HB-25 is a mild steel, copper coated solid


wire formulated with silicon and manganese deoxidiers to produce high quality
welds with virtually no porosity or slag. An
industry favorite, HB-25 can be used for a
wide variety of general fabricationprojects.
It delivers excellent short circuit welding
performance with CO2 75% Ar/25% CO2
and other recommendedcommercially
available shielding gases. It can also be
used for spray transfer arc welding applications.

AWS A5.28 - ER80S-D2

AWS A5.28 - ER80S-D2

Typical applications:

Construction equipment, pipe, trailers, or


any high quality, high strength application.
Root pass on open butt weld joints.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):

AWS

Spec

Carbon................................. .09
Manganese........................ 1.90
Silicon.................................. .60
Phosphorus....................... .015
Sulphur................................ .015
Molybdenum..................... .51
Nickel................................... .015
Copper................................. .50

.07 - .12
1.60 -2.10
.50 -.80
.025 max
.025 max
.40 - .60
.15 max
.50 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


CO2

Tensile Strength (psi) 80,000


Yield Strength (psi)
68,000
Elongation % in 2
17.0%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2

Auto frames, railcars, sheet metal, metal


furniture, storage bins and general fabrication with wire feed speeds ranging
from very slow to moderately fast.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):
AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .09
Manganese........................ 1.22
Silicon.................................. .55
Phosphorus....................... .013
Sulphur................................ .013
Copper................................. .13

.06 - .15
.90 -1.40
.45 -.75
.025 max
.035 max
.50 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


CO2

Tensile Strength (psi) 70,000


Yield Strength (psi)
58,000
Elongation % in 2
22.0%

55 ft.lb.
27 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:

(Short circuit Transfer)


Wire Feed
Dia.
Amps
Volts
ipm
1/16 (1.6 mm)........... 80-120
17-20
5/64 (2.0 mm).........100-130 18-21
1/8 (3.2 mm).........120-175 19-22
3/16 (4.7 mm).........140-175 19-22
1/4 (6.4 mm).........180-225 20-23

Typical applications:

Speed /
120-180
160-220
210-290
150-225
190-240

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2

68 ft.lb.
52 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:

(Short circuit Transfer)


Wire Feed
Dia.
Amps
Volts
ipm
1/16 (1.6 mm)........... 80-120
17-20
5/64 (2.0 mm).........100-130 18-21
1/8 (3.2 mm).........120-175 19-22
3/16 (4.7 mm).........140-175 19-22
1/4 (6.4 mm).........180-225 20-23

Speed /
120-180
160-220
210-290
240-290
190-240

95

Mild Steel Solid Wires


QCL-6

HB-28

AWS A5.18 - ER70S-6

AWS A5.18 - ER70S-6

HB-28 is copper coated, mild steel solid


welding wire that is formulated with a high
deoxidizer content to provide excellent welding performance with CO2 and argon-rich
shielding gases. Ideal for short-circuit transfer
general fabrication welding, HB-28 produces
an exceptionally smooth and stable arc with
minimal spatter and offers good wetting characteristics that allow for uniform tie-in. Its a
great choice for welding light to moderately
scaled, oily or rusty plates and spray transfer
applications.

Typical applications:

Pressure vessels, pipe, shaft build-up, tanks,


farm implements, steel castings, auto body
collision repair, and very thin sheet metal.
Excellent when welding wire feed speeds
ranging from very slow to moderately fast.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):
Carbon................................. .09
Manganese........................ 1.61
Silicon.................................. .90
Phosphorus....................... .010
Sulphur................................ .010
Copper................................. .12

.06 - .15
1.40 -1.85
.80 -1.15
.025 max
.025 max
.50 max

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2
Avg. at -40F, CO2
Avg. at -60F, CO2

Typical applications:

Farm fabrication, automotive structures, farm


implements, construction equipment, pressure vessels, pipe fabrication, railcar construction and repqir, general fabrication, robotic,
automatic, and semi-automatic applications.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):

AWS Spec

QCL-6 is a premium copperless, mild steel


wire, formulated to provide high quality welds
and trouble-free performance in heavy-duty,
high speed, spray-transfer applications to
light duty, low speed, short arc applications.
Even in the most difficult applications, QCL-6
produces a smooth, stable arc with low spatter, producing a weld bead that ties in evenly
with the sides and has a smooth finished
appearance. QCL-6 has a high deoxidizer
content and can be used to weld light to
moderately scaled or lightly rusted plate
without precleaning.

CO2

85,000
70,000
29%

68 ft.lb.
52 ft.lb.
47 ft.lb.
41 ft.lb.

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .088
Manganese........................ 1.60
Silicon.................................. .88
Phosphorus....................... .013
Sulphur................................ .011
Copper ............................... .04

Typical weld metal properties


Chem Pad):
75% Ar

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Copper

CO2

.09
1.01
.56
.015
.014
.06

25% CO2

.082
1.06
.61
.015
.012
.06

90% Ar
10% CO2

.083
1.22
.69
.018
.013
.05

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


CO2

AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi) 84,000 70,000


Yield Strength (psi) 67,300 58,000
Elongation % in 2 28.0%
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2
Avg. at -40F, CO2

96

.06-.15
1.40-1.85
.80-1.15
.025 max
.025 max
.50 max

90 ft.lb.
57 ft.lb.
56 ft.lb

Mild Steel Solid Wires


QCL-3

QCL-D2

QCL-3 is a premium copperless, mild steel


wire, with silicon and manganese levels suitable for general purpose welding over clean
to light levels of rust and mill scale. QCL-3
has the flexibility to provide trouble-free
performance in heavy-duty, high speed, spray
or pulse applications to light duty, low speed,
short arc applications. A smooth, stable arc
with lower spatter levels can be expected
even in the most difficult applications.

QCL-D2 is a premium copperless, solid wire,


that includes1/2% molybdenum to provide
increased strength for applications requiring
tensile strengths of 80,000 to 90,000 psi. QCLD2 has higher levels of manganese and silicon
to control porosity, provide radiographic
quality welds, and produce a smooth, flat
bead. It will provide a smooth, stable arc
and trouble-free performance in a variety
of applications.

Typical applications:

Typical applications:

AWS A5.18 - ER70S-3

AWS A5.28 - ER80S-D2

Fabrication, farm, construction, mining, railcar,


and other industrial general purpose type applications. Outstanding performance through
a wide range of wire feed speeds in robotic,
automatic, and semi-automatic applications.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .089
Manganese........................ 1.20
Silicon.................................. .56
Phosphorus....................... .013
Sulphur................................ .013
Copper ............................... .04

.06-.15
.90-1.40
.45- .70
.025 max
.035 max
.50 max

Typical weld metal properties


Chem Pad):
75% Ar

CO2

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Copper

.088
.91
.34
.012
.011
.06

25% CO2

.083
.93
.36
.012
.011
.05

90% Ar
10% CO2

.084
.98
.41
.012
.011
.05

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


CO2

Tensile Strength (psi) 75,000


Yield Strength (psi) 62,000
Elongation % in 2 27.0%
Reduction of Area
68%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW): CO2

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2
Avg. at -40F, CO2

74 ft.lb.
63 ft.lb.
48 ft.lb.

AWS Spec

70,000
58,000
22%

High-temperature service piping, construction equipment, trailers, cranes, and high


tensile strength applications. Root pass on
open butt joints.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .095
Manganese........................ 1.95
Silicon.................................. .65
Phosphorus....................... .012
Sulphur................................ .010
Molybdenum.................... .50
Nickel................................... .02
Copper ............................... .08

.07-.12
1.60-2.10
.50- .80
.025 max
.025 max
.40-.60
.15 max
.50 max

Typical weld metal properties


Chem Pad):
75% Ar

CO2

Carbon
.095
Manganese 1.42
Silicon
.27
Phosphorus
.012
Sulphur
.010
Molybdenum .47
Nickel
.02
Copper
.07

25% CO2

.095
1.58
.51
.012
.010
.53
.02
.06

90% Ar
10% CO2

.095
1.63
.54
.012
.010
.54
.02
.06

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


CO2

AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi) 93,500 80,000


Yield Strength (psi) 82,000 68,000
Elongation % in 2 20.0%
17%
Reduction of Area 60.0%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW): CO2

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2
Avg. at -40F, CO2

60 ft.lb.
40 ft.lb.
30 ft.lb.

97

Mild Steel Solid Wires


QUANTUM ARC 3

QUANTUM ARC 6

QUANTUM ARC 3 is copper-coated, mild


steel solid wire with silicon and manganese
deoxidizer levels preferred most for general fabrication. It is recommended for both
short-circuit and spray transfer applications.
It features excellent, smooth feedability and
clean weld deposits.

QUANTUM ARC 6 is copper-coated, mild steel


solid wire that is ideal for general fabrication.
It is an excellent choice for welding light to
moderately scaled or lightly rusted plates
because its high deoxidizer content reduces
the need for some pre-cleaning. In addition to
an exceptionally stable and smooth arc, it has
good wetting action plus good feedability,
making it especially suitable for high-duty
cycle applications.

AWS A5.18 - ER70S-3

AWS A5.18 - ER70S-6

Typical applications:

Fabrication, light sheet metla fabrication,


automotive frames, metal storage bins, metal
furniture, and railcrs. Excellent for robotic, automatic, and semiautomatic applications with
wire feed speeds ranging from moderately
slow to very fast.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .09
Manganese........................ 1.22
Silicon.................................. .55
Phosphorus....................... .013
Sulphur................................ .013
Copper ............................... .13

.06-.15
.90-1.40
.45- .75
.025 max
.035 max
.50 max

Typical weld metal properties


Chem Pad):
75% Ar

CO2

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Copper

.09
.90
.35
.011
.012
.13

90% Ar
10% CO2

25% CO2

.09
.93
.38
.011
.012
.12

.09
.95
.40
.011
.012
.12

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2
Reduction of Area

CO2

77,000
64,000
26.0%
67.2%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW): CO2

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2
Avg. at -40F, CO2
Avg. at -60F, CO2

98

AWS Spec

70,000
58,000
22%

72 ft.lb.
64 ft.lb.
50 ft.lb.
42 ft.lb.

Typical applications:

Automotive frames, farm implements, construction equipment, pressure vessels, pipe


and railcars. Excellent for robotic, automatic,
and semiautomatic applications with wire
feed speeds ranging from moderately slow
to very fast.

Typical wire chemistry


(as manufactured):

AWS Spec

Carbon................................. .10
Manganese........................ 1.54
Silicon.................................. .92
Phosphorus....................... .013
Sulphur................................ .013
Copper ............................... .13

.06-.15
1.40-1.85
.80- 1.15
.025 max
.025 max
.50 max

Typical weld metal properties


Chem Pad):
75% Ar

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur
Copper

CO2

.09
1.13
.59
.011
.012
.13

25% CO2

.09
1.15
.65
.011
.012
.12

90% Ar
10% CO2

.09
1.22
.78
.011
.012
.12

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


CO2

AWS Spec

Tensile Strength (psi) 86,000 70,000


Yield Strength (psi) 69,000 58,000
Elongation % in 2 28.0%
22%
Reduction of Area 68.0%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW): CO2

Avg. at 0F, CO2


Avg. at -20F, CO2
Avg. at -40F, CO2
Avg. at -60F, CO2

65 ft.lb.
50 ft.lb.
45 ft.lb.
43 ft.lb.

Tubular Wires
FabCOR 86R

FabCO RXR

Smooth and consistent, this metal-cored gas


shielded wire gives you the high deposition
rates of a flux-cored wire along with the
high efficiency of a solid wire. FabCOR86R is
designed to weld mild steels in either single
or multi-pass applications. It produces an
extremely smooth arc with low spatter and
smoke levels and minimal slag coverage.
Excellent choice for high production and
automatic applications.

Designed for flat and horizontal lap, fillet and


groove welding applications that require extra
deoxidation, FabCO RXR is a high-quality,
gas-shielded tubular wire that is formulated
with added deoxidizers to alloy you to weld
through rust, mill scale and light oil without
the need for precleaning. Excellent for welding clean plates, this offers a spray type transfer which, combined with its high deposition
rate, promotes deep penetration of the weld
metal to produce a strong, low hydrogen weld
deposit with slag that is easy to remove. It
maintains high-operator appeal throughout a
wide range of apmperage settings, is versatile
and suitable for single or multi-pass weldilng
of mild steels and some low-alloy steels.

AWSA5.20 - E70T-1, E70T-9

AWS A5.18 - E70C-6M H4

Typical applications:

Steel structures, storage vessels, earthmoving


equipment and railroad cars.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):

75% Ar/25% CO2 - 1.48 ml/100 g

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):

Steel structures, storage vessels, earthmoving


equipment, heavy fabrication and railroad
cars.

Carbon
Manganese
Silicon
Phosphorus
Sulphur

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):
100% CO2

75% Ar
25% CO2

90% Ar
10% CO2

.033
1.44
.67
.008
.015

.033
1.61
.77
.009
.018

Typical mechanical properties (AW):




Tensile Strength(psi)
Yield Strength(psi)
Elongation % in 2

75% Ar
25% CO2
81,600
68,500
30%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -20F

90% Ar
10% CO2
83,600
70,600
29%

74ft.lb. 63 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm)
200-400 27-36
.052 (1.4 mm)
200-400 25-36
1/16 (1.6 mm)
250-500 28-36

Electrical
Stickout
3/4
1
1

Shielding gas:
75% Ar/25% CO2 or higher argon gas mixtures

Type of current: DCEP

Carbon................................. .07
Manganese ....................... 1.47
Silicon.................................. .59
Phosphorus....................... .012
Sulphur................................ .009

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

89,000
73,000
25%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at -0F 42 ft.lb.
Avg. at -20F

28 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
045 (1.2 mm).........150-250 25-29
1/16 (1.6 mm).........200-375 25-29
5/64 (2.0 mm).........250-400 26-33
3/32 (2.4 mm).........350-550 26-36
7/64 (2.8 mm).........500-700 30-36
1/8 (3.2 mm).........600-800 32-38

Electrical
Stickout
3/4
3/4
1
1
1
1

Type of current: DCEP


99

Tubular Wires
FabCO TR-70

FabCO 85

For general purpose welding with 100%


CO2 gas. Specially forumlated with added
deoxidizers to alloy you to weld through rust,
mill-scale and light oil with minimal need for
precleaning. Primarily designed for single or
multi-pass welding in the flat and horizontal
positions, it welds mild steels and low alloy
steels with very light spatter and particulate
fume generation.

FabCO 85 is a flux-cored wire that is designed


for welding low and medium carbon and
low alloy high strength steels. It is ideal for
applications where the welding arc may be
exposed to drafts, such as outside construction work or whenever exceptionally low
temperature impact values are required.

AWS A5.20 - E70T-1 H8, E70T-9 H8

Typical applications:

Earthmoving equipment, heavy fabrication, railroad cars, steel structures, storage


vessels.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography): 5.5 ml/100 g
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Pad):

Carbon................................. .02
Manganese ....................... 1.50
Silicon.................................. .57
Phosphorus ...................... .013
Sulphur................................ .010

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

86,600
73,100
28%

38 ft.lb.
28 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........150-280 24-30
.052 (1.4 mm).........150-350 24-32
1/16 (1.6 mm) .......170-350 25-34
5/64 (2.0 mm) .......250-550 26-34
3/32 (2.4 mm).........300-650 26-40

Shielding Gas:
100% CO2

Type of Current: DCEP

Typical applications:

Low to medium carbon steels and some low


alloy high strength steels where properties of
FabCO 85 are appropriate.
Typical diffusible hydrogen (gas chromatography):

CO2
1.10ml/100 g

Electrical
Stickout
1/2
3/4
1
1
1

CO2

80% Ar/20% CO2

Carbon..................... .06
Manganese ........... 1.18
Silicon ..................... .60
Phosphorus .......... .009
Sulphur .................. .013

.07
1.47
.75
.010
.014

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


79,000
63,000
29%

90,000
76,000
24%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Avg. at -40F

100% CO2
45 ft.lb.


Avg. at -40F

80% Ar/20%CO2
41 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
5/64 (2.0 mm).........210-450 25.5-31
3/32 (2.4 mm).........240-540 26.5-32.5

Type of current: DCEP

100

80% Ar/20% CO2


1.61ml/100 g

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):

Tensile Strength(psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at 0F
Avg. at -20F

AWS A5.20 E70T-5J H4, E70T-5MJ H4

Electrical
Stickout
1
1

Tubular Wires
Excel-Arc 71

AWS A5.20 - E71T-1, E71T-1M, E71T-9,


E71T-9M H8

Excel-Arc 71 is a flux cored wire that is


designed for general purpose fabrication,
welding in all positions. It can be used with
eitner 100% CO2 or 75% Ar/25% CO2 shielding gas, offering a spray-type transfer of weld
metal. It provides good impact strength at
low temperatures, has low spatter levels, and
the slag is easy to remove. Excel-Arc is available in .045, .052 and 1/16 diameters with
the optional H8 hydrogen designator. Other
diameters which may be available do not carry
this optional designator.

Typical applications:

Low-alloy steels, mild steels.

100% CO2

75% Ar/25% CO2

5.0 ml/100 g

5.7 ml/100g

.022
1.60
.82
.014
.010
87,700
79,100
27.6%

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


80% Ar/20% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

96,000
85,800
25.6%

59 ft.lb.
51 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:

Based on 100% CO2



Dia.
Amps
Volts
.035 (0.9 mm).........125-225 23-28
.045 (1.2 mm).........170-260 23-27
.052 (1.4 mm).........170-300 24-28
1/16 (1.6 mm).........215-360 24-29

82,000
73,000
29%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at 0F
Avg. at -40F

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW)

Avg . at -0F 70 ft.lb.


Avg . at -20F
ft.lb.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):

Carbon................................. .04
Manganese........................ 1.24
Silicon.................................. .29
Nickel................................... .37
Phosphorus....................... .010
Sulphur................................ .015

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Shipbuilding, storage vessels, earthmoving


equipment, piping

80% Ar/20% CO2

75% Ar/25% CO2

Carbon..................... .021
Manganese............ 1.30
Silicon...................... .69
Phosphorus........... .015
Sulphur.................... .011

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):
CO2

AWS A5.20 - E71T-1M, E71T-12MJ H8

Formula XL-525 is a tubular, all-position


wire that is designed for the welding of mild
and carbon steels, especially when good
impact toughness at subzero temperatures
is required. Ideal for single- and multi-pass
applications, it delivers outstanding welding
performance and produces a high-quality,
X-ray clear weld deposit with a bead contour
that is flat to slightly convex.

3.38 ml/100 g

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):

Formula XL-525

Electrical
Stickout
1/2
1/2
3/4
1

100 ft.lb.
66 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........195-230 24-26
1/16 (1.6 mm).........230-280 24-27

Electrical
Stickout
1/2-1
1/2-1

Shielding gas:

75-80% AR-20-25% CO2

Type of current: DCEP

Type of current: DCEP


101

Tubular Wires
Formula XL-550

FabCO 115

Formula XL-550 is formulated with added


deoxidizers to allow you to weld through
rust, mill scale and some primers with little
or no pre-cleaning. Outstanding, all-position
Formula XL-550 is designed to weld mild
steels, producing a high-quality, X-ray clear
weld deposit that delivers high impact values
at low temperatures. Good wet-in action
produces a bead contour thats flat to slightly
convex with light slag that keeps clean-up
time to a minimum.

FabCO 115 is a high-strength, flux-cored wire


thats comparable to a low alloy E11018M
electrode but with higher deposition rates. It is
used primarily for welding A514, A517, HY100
and similar quenched and tempered highstrength, low alloy steels, producing a low
hydrogen deposit with basic slag which helps
to minimize cracking. FabCO 115 has high impact values at low temperatures and provides
you with a modified globular metal transfer.
For use with 100% CO2 shielding gas only.

Typical applications:

Typical applications:

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

AWSA5.20 - E71T-1, E71T-12J H8

Ships, storage vessels, structures, earthmoving equipment, piping

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):
100% CO2

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................1.17
Silicon.................................. .25
Phosphorus....................... .012
Sulphur................................ .014
Nickel................................... .50

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

100% CO2

Typical mechanical properties


(Aged 48 hours @ 220F):

100% CO2

126,000
102,000

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Avg. at 0F
110 ft.lb.
Avg. at -40F
101 ft.lb.

Avg. at -60F

48 ft.lb.

Recommended welding procedures:

Recommended welding procedures:

Electrical
Stickout
3/4
3/4

Shielding gas: 100% CO2


Type of current: DCEP

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com
102

100% CO2

Carbon................................. .04
Manganese........................1.50
Silicon.................................. .41
Phosphorus........................012
Sulphur.................................014
Chromium...........................42
Nickel................................... 2.37
Molybdenum.....................42

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2 18%

84,000
77,300
26.6%


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........195-230 23-26
1/16 (1.6 mm).........230-280 23-27

Mining equipment, earthmoving equipment,


off-the-road vehicles

.045, .052 - 3.32 ml/100 g

AWS A5.29 - E110T5-K4


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........120-220 22-27
1/16 (1.6 mm).........190-350 22-30
3/32 (2.4 mm).........290-525 25-32
3/4-1-1/4

Shielding gas: 100% CO2


Type of current: DCEP

Electrical
Stickout
1/2-1
1/2-1

Tubular Wires
Fabshield 21B

Fabshield 23

AWS A5.20 - E71T-11

AWS A5.20 - E71T-GS

This self-shielding flux-cored wire is designed


for single or multi-pass welding of thin gauge
to 3/4 thick mild or galvanized steels. Great
for welding fillet or lap welds, you will find that
this all-position wire has high operator appeal,
producing a smooth spray-like arc transfer
with low spatter levels, excellent weld bead
appearance, and easy-to remove slag.

Fabshield 23 is an E71T-GS self-shielding


tubular wire designed for welding thin gauge
mild or galvanized steel. Suitable for single
pass applications, especially for filled and
lap welds, with outstanding welding performance, as Fabshield 23 produces a smooth
spray arc type of transfer with good wetting
action. Great for outdoors or in drafty conditions, this all-position wire also provides very
low spatter levels, resulting in a weld bead
that is excellent in appearance.

Typical applications:

General fabrication, light structurals,


machinery part fabrication, prefab construction, railroad car repair, short-assembly
welds, tanks

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon................................. .28
Manganese........................ .34
Silicon.................................. .15
Phosphorus....................... .008
Sulphur................................ .003
Aluminum.......................... 1.04

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

91,000
62,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Not applicable

Recommended welding procedures:


Electrical
Dia.
Amps
Volts
Stickout
.035 ( .9 mm).......... 55-120
17-20
1/2
.045 (1.2 mm).........115-200
15-18
1/2
1/16 (1.6 mm).........160-260
18-20
3/4
.068 (1.7 mm) ..........145-255
17-22
3/4
5/64 (2.0 mm).........215-315 19-22.5
1
3/32 (2.4 mm).........250-300 18.5-21.5
1

Type of current: DCEN

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

Typical applications:

Prefab building fabrication, tanks, ornamental iron, farm implement repairs and general
fabrication.

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon................................. .18
Manganese........................ .65
Silicon.................................. .40
Phosphorus....................... .01
Sulphur................................ .01
Aluminum.......................... 1.30

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)

83,000

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.030 (.8mm)................. 25-125
14-16
.035 (.9mm)................. 55-120
17-20
.045 (1.2 mm).........130-160 15-17

Electrical
Stickout
1/2
1/2
1/2

Type of current: DCEN


FabCOR Inches per Pound of Wire

Diameter

in./lb.*

.030 (0.8 mm).......................................... 5,910


.035 (0.9 mm).......................................... 4,350
.045 (1.2 mm).......................................... 2,500
1/16 (1.6 mm).......................................... 1,300
5/64 (2.0 mm).............................................925
3/32 (2.4 mm)..............................................615
7/64 (2.8 mm)..............................................550
.120 (3.0 mm)..............................................420

* Approximate Values will vary with AWS


class and wire type. Please contact factory for specific
FabCOR values.

103

Tubular Wires
Fabshield 4

Fabshield 7027

Fabshield 4 is an outstanding high-deposition,


self-shielded tubular wire that is used to weld
mild and medium carbon steels. Ideal for
either single or multi-pass welding, it provides
you with outstanding performance with deposition rates of up to 42 lbs./ hr. and deposition efficiencies of 85% or better. Fabshield
4 produces a globular type transfer with an
arc that is not affected by drafts or moderate
wind. It is specially designed to desulphurize
the weld metal and resist cracking.

Fabshield 7027 is a high-deposition, selfshielded tubular wire that is designed for use
on structural weldments where the physical
properties of the weld deposit need to match
that of the application. It provides outstanding performance through excellent arc stability adn high deposition efficience and can be
used for either single or multi-pass welding in
flat or horizontal positions.

AWS A5.20 - E70T-4

AWS A 5.20 - E70T-7

Typical applications:

Machine fabrication, certain ship equipment,


industrial and heavy equipment repair.

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):

Carbon................................. .27
Manganese........................ .73
Silicon.................................. .30
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .005
Aluminum.......................... 1.42

94,600
62,600
24%

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon................................. .33
Manganese........................ .28
Silicon.................................. .05
Phosphorus....................... .014
Sulphur................................ .005
Aluminum.......................... 1.3
Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

92,200
63,200
23%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values: Not applicable
Recommended welding procedures:

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Not applicable

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
5/64 (2.0 mm)........ 290-370 29-31
1/4
3/32 (2.4 mm)........ 250-500 28-34
3/4
.120 (3.2 mm) . ...... 160-300 28-37

Barges, structural steel fabrication, and


similar applications.

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Typical applications:

Electrical
Stickout
1-3/4-2-


Dia.
Amps
Volts
5/64 (2.0 mm).........240-460 23-30
3/32 (2.4 mm).........240-560 27-32
7/64 (2.8 mm).........320-600
24-32

Electrical
Stickout
1-1/2
1-1/2
1-1/2

Type of current: DCEN

2-1/4-22-1/2-3

Type of current: DCEP

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

FabCOR Inches per Pound of Wire

Diameter

in./lb.*

.035 (0.9 mm).......................................... 4,350


.045 (1.2 mm).......................................... 2,500
1/16 (1.6 mm).......................................... 1,300
5/64 (2.0 mm).............................................925
3/32 (2.4mm)...............................................615
7/64 (2.8 mm)..............................................550
.120 (3.0 mm)..............................................420

* Approximate Values will vary with AWS


class and wire type. Please contact factory for
specific FabCOR values.

104

Tubular Wires
Fabshield XLR-8

Fabshield 3Ni1

Fabshield XLR8 has been specifically designed for the demanding application of
structural steel erection. This outstanding
self-shielded, flux-cored wire produces a
stable arc within a wide range of parameters.
It is capable of depositing X-ray quality welds
in all positions and is especially well suited for
producing vertical-up welds at high current
levels for increased productivity. It is designed
for single and multiple pass applications and
will produce flat weld beads with excellent
slag removal. Fabshield XLR-8 will produce
welds with excellent mechanical properties
under a wide range of heat input. Designed
to be used with constant voltage (CV) power
sources.

An all-position, flux-cored wire that can be


used for single or multi-pass welding of fillet,
lap and deep groove butt welds, providing
you outstanding performance with its fastfreezing and easy to remove slag. Fabshield
3Ni1 is a self-shielded, globular transfer wire
designed for applications requiring high
impact values at low temperatures.

Typical applications:

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

AWS E71T-8jd h8/e491t-8jd h8

AWS 5.20- E71T8-K6J

Structural steel erection, heavy equipment


repair, bridge construction, ship and barge
construction.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography)
Less than 6.7 ml/100g

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................
Aluminum..........................

Storage, piping, transportation, offshore drilling rigs, ships barges, construction, and other
types of structural and general fabrication.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography)
Less than 6.0 ml/100 g

Carbon.................................
Manganese........................
Silicon..................................
Phosphorus.......................
Sulphur................................
Nickel...................................
Aluminum..........................

.08
.84
.06
.012
.003
.67
.62

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

.19
.51
.17
.009
.006
.51

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

79,700
64,100
29%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:
Avg. at -20oF

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Typical applications:

110 ft.lbs.

Recommended welding procedures:

84,100
67,600
25%


Dia.
Amps
Volts
5/64 (2.0 mm).........200-280 18.5-20

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:

3/32 (2.4mm)...........250-500

Electrical
Stickout
3/4

28-34

Type of current: DCEN

As Welded

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
1/16 (1.6 mm)........150-3000 19-23

Electrical
Stickout
1

.072 (1.8mm)............160-350

18-23

5/64 (2.0mm)...........190-350

18-23

1.25

Type of current: DCEN

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com
105

Tubular Wires
Formula XL-8Ni1

AWS A5.29 - E81T1-Ni1J, E81T1-Ni1


MJ

Formula XL-8Ni1 is an all-position tubular wire


that is designed fro welding medium carbon
and low alloy steels. Specifically formulated
to produce a high-quality, X-ray clear weld
deposit that is flat to slightly convex in contour. Formula XL-8Ni1 provides you with good
wet-in capabilities along with high impact
values at low temperatures. It allows you
weld over rust, mill scale, and some primers
without precleaning.

Typical applications:

Ships, storage vessels, structures, earth moving equipment and piping.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):
Typical weld metal properties (Chem
Pad):
75% Ar/25% CO2

CO2 4.6 mls/100g

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


75% Ar/25% CO2

96,300
86,500
24.5%

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

75% Ar/25% CO2

Type of current: DCEP


106

90,000
79,000
27%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:

93.3 ft.lb.
85.3 ft.lb.
63.3 ft.lb.

0F (-18C) 76 ft. lbs. (103J)

Recommended welding procedures:

Shielding gas:

Carbon................................. .03
Manganese........................ 1.27
Silicon.................................. .56
Phosphorus....................... .013
Sulphur................................ .009

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........175-340 21-32
1/16 (1.6 mm).........220-320 24-29

Shipbuilding, railcar fabrication, general plate


fabrication,heavy gauge sheet metal, pressure
vessels, and certain pipe weldments.

Typical diffusible hydrogen

Carbon................................. .008
Manganese........................ 1.35
Silicon.................................. .40
Phosphorus....................... .014
Sulphur................................ .011
Nickel................................... 1.06

Avg. at -20F
Avg. at -40F
Avg. at -60F

AWS E71T-1C HB, E71T-1M H8


Triple 7 is designed for the semi-automatic
gas-shielded welding of carbon steel and
some higher strength steels where requirements and conditions do not exceed its
capabilities. It is intended for singleand
multiplepass welding in all positions and has
a fast-freezing slag that permits the welder
to use higher current to deposit more metal
faster and still produce a flat bead in all positions. The slag removes easily even from deep
groove weldments and spatter is low, so a
welder spends more time welding and less
time cleaning up. The X-ray quality surpasses
the radiographic specifications of AWS A5.20
and ASME SFA 5.20 when welded with the
recommended procedures.

Typical applications:

5.9 ml/100 g

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Tri-Mark Triple 7

Electrical
Stickout
3/4
3/4

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................100-325 23-34

Electrical
Stickout
1/2-3/4

.052

......................125-350

22-33

1/2-3/4

1/16 ......................150-450

23-35

1/2-3/4

Type of current: DCEP

Tubular Wires
Tri-Mark TM-811N1

Tri-Mark TM-991K2

AWS A5.29 - E81T1-Ni1CJ H8, E81T1Ni1MJ H8

AWS A5.29 - E91T1-K2C H8, E91T1K2M H8

TM-811N1 is comparable to E8018-C3


covered electrodes in deposit composition
and properties. In many applications, TM811N1 is more economical to use than
stick electrodes. TM-811N1 offers good
welder appeal, with excellent arc stability,
low spatter, fastfreezing slag to facilitate
all-position welding, and very easy slag
removal. It is recommended for single-and
multiple-pass welding in all positions using
either CO2 or a 75% Ar/25% CO2 gas
mixture for shielding.

TM-991K2 offers exceptional combination


of properties for an all-position wire,
with good low temperature toughness
combined with tensile strength in the
90,000-110,000 psi range. TM-991K2
is characterized by welder appeal, with
a smooth stable arc, low smoke and
spatter levels. The quick-freezing slag is
easily removed and bead geometry in all
positions is excellent.

Typical applications:

Petro-chemical applications where deposit


nickel must be kept low for weatheringsteel fabrication where color match is not
required. It is used for mining and earth
moving equipment and other fabrication
where good low temperature
impact values are needed.

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 75% Ar/25%C O2

Carbon................................. .06
Manganese........................ 1.40
Silicon.................................. .36
Phosphorus....................... .015
Sulphur................................ .010
Nickel................................... .096

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


75% Ar/25% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

Typical diffusible hydrogen


3.8 mls/100g

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 100%C O2

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.04
Silicon.................................. .19
Phosphorus....................... .009
Sulphur................................ .014
Molybdenum.................... .01
Nickel................................... 1.92

100% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

-40F (-40C) 102 ft. lbs. (138J)

Recommended welding procedures:

Type of current: DCEP

All-position work with many highstrength


low alloy steels such as A514, A710, and
HY-80. It is recommended for single-and
multiple-pass welding in all positions with
100% CO2 or 75% Ar/25% CO2 shielding
gas.

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

93,000
85,000
24.5%


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................125-320 24-33
.052 ......................125-375 24-34

Typical applications:

Electrical
Stickout
5/8+1/8
3/4+1/8

92,000
80,000
27%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

0F (-18C) 85 ft. lbs. (115J)

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................150-300 23-30
.052 ......................175-375 23-32

Electrical
Stickout
1/2
1/2

Type of current: DCEP


107

Tubular Wires
Tri-Mark TM-911B3

Tri-Mark TM-101

TM-911B3 provides 2-1/4% chromium/1%


molybdenum steel weld metal in
combination with excellent welder appeal.
Bead geometry is good in all positions.
TM-911B3 is recommended for the welding
of 2-1/4% chromium/1% molybdenum
steels, specifically ASTM A387, Grade
21 and 22.TM-911B3 also provides
some corrosion resistance. The wire is
recommended for single-and multiple-pass
welding in all positions using 100% CO2 or
80% Ar/20% CO2 shielding gas.

TM-101 is an all position gas-shielded


flux-cored wire designed for welding of
high strength steels such as A514, A710,
and similar HSLA and Q&T steels. TM101 offers exceptional low temperature
impact toughness with tensile strength
in the 105,000-115,000 psi range. TM101 provides excellent welder appeal by
offering a smooth stable arc, low spatter,
low smoke generation, and smooth bead
profile. The quick freezing slag is ideal for
high deposition welding while maintaining
a flat bead profile.

Typical applications:

Typical applications:

Typical diffusible hydrogen

Typical diffusible hydrogen

AWS A5.29 - E91T1-B3C H4, E91T1B3M H4

All position work requiring creep resistance


at elevated temperatures such as pressure
piping.

AWS A5.29 - E101T1-GM

It is recommended for single and multiplepass welding in all positions with 75%
Ar/25% CO2 shielding gas.

C O2 3ml/100g

3.8mls/100g

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 100%C O2

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 75%Ar/25%C O2

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ .64
Silicon.................................. .27
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .013
Molybdenum.................... .93
Chromium..........................2.04

Carbon................................. .06
Manganese........................ 1.60
Silicon.................................. .38
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .011
Molybdenum.................... .01
Nickel...................................1.95

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

100% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

0F (-18C) 78 ft. lbs. (106J)

Not required.

Recommended welding procedures:

Type of current: DCEP


108

110,000
102,000
20%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................115-325 20-30
.052 ......................125-375 21-32

75% Ar/25% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

100,000
86,000
20%

Electrical
Stickout
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................150-300 22-28
1/16 ......................175-400 22-32

Type of current: DCEP

Electrical
Stickout
3/4
3/4-1

Metal Cored Wires


Tri-Mark Metalloy Vantage
Ni1

Tri-Mark Metalloy Vantage


D2

Metalloy Vantage Ni1 is a metal-cored


wire designed for single or multi-pass
welding of nickelmolybdenum steels. This
wire also incorporates patented formulation
to reduce silicon island formation. Weld
bead toe lines and weld face are almost
completely free of silicon deposits,
eliminating cleanup time and effort. The
remaining islands of silicon are almost
self-peeling.With exceptionally low spatter
rates, Metalloy Vantage Ni1 will save time
and money spent cleaning prior to painting,
coating, or plating.

Metalloy Vantage D2 is a gas-shielded


metal-cored wire that is equivalent to
ER80S-D2 solid wire. Metalloy Vantage
D2 offers improved welding performance
through higher deposition rates and better
wet-in than solid wire. In addition, weld toe
lines are almost completely free of silicon
deposits which will save time and money by
eliminating troublesome cleanup and part
preparation. Arc characteristics improve
with richer argon gases while spatter and
fume levels decrease.

TM

AWS A5.28 - E80C-ni1 H4

Typical applications:

Welding castings, equipment and those


applications requiring touhness at sub-zero
temperatures. Suitable for joining HSLA
weathering steels in structural construction
applications where color match is not
required.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):
2.05ml/100gr

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 75% Ar/25% CO2

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.38
Silicon.................................. .65
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .013
Nickel................................... 1.0

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):
98% AR/ 2% O2

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 98% Ar/2% O2

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.47
Silicon.................................. .48
Molybdenum.................... .45

98% Ar/2% O2

92,000
81,000
25%

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

99,400
91,600
21.8%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

-20F (-29C) 50 ft. lbs. (68J)

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Recommended welding procedures:

-20F (-29C) 48 ft. lbs. (65J)

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........200-400 27-35
1/16 (1.6 mm).........275-500 29-37

Typical applications:

Metalloy Vantage D2 was developed


for high-strength, low alloy steels found
in heavy equipment and structural
applications. Recommended for singlepass and multi-pass welding with Ar/CO2
and Ar/O2 shielding gas.

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

AWS A5.28 - E90C-D2

2.0ml/100g

75% AR/ 25% CO2

75% Ar/25% CO2

TM

Electrical
Stickout
5/8+1/8
1+1/4


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................200-350 24-28
.052 ......................250-400 25-31

Electrical
Stickout
5/8+1/8
5/8+1/8

Type of current: DCEP

Type of current: DCEP


109

Metal Cored Wires


Tri-Mark Metalloy 76

Tri-Mark Metalloy Vantage


AWS E70C-6M H4

AWS E70C-6M H4
EN758 T46 4 M M 2 H5
Metalloy 76 is a gas shielded metal cored wire
that has higher manganese and silicon levels
than Metalloy 71 with slightly lower spatter
and higher strength. The increased deoxidization level allows for more tolerance of mill
scale, with fewer root pores than Metalloy 71.
Metalloy 76 is recommended for single-pass
and multi-pass welding in flat and horizontal
positions with 75-95% Ar/CO2. The wetting
action is better than solid wire, minimizing
cold lap on heavier sections of steel.
PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS:
Higher deoxidizer levels for improved performance on mill scaled plate
Better wetting action than solid wire minimizes cold lap
Superb operator appeal
Good choice to use for short-circuit or pulse
applications.

2.10 ml/100 g (75% AR/ 25% CO2)

2,05ml/100gr

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad): 75% AR/ 25% CO2

Typical mechanical properties (AW): 75%

75% Ar/25% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

0F (-18C) 72 ft. lbs. (98J)

Recommended welding procedures:

Electrical
Stickout
1/2 +1/8

.045

......................200-350

27-34

5/8+1/8

.052

......................250-400

28-34

5/8+1/8

110

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.38
Silicon.................................. .65
Phosphorus....................... .011
Sulphur................................ .013
Nickel................................... .40

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

88,700
78,200
27%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values:

Type of current: DCEP

75% AR/ 25% CO2

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 75% Ar/25% CO2

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.58
Silicon.................................. .71
Phosphorus....................... .012
Sulphur................................ .013


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.035 ......................200-260 26-30

PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS:
Exceptionally clean weld beads
Better wetting action than solid wire.
Better gap bridging and reduced burn
through than solid wire.
Higher deposition rates and travel speeds
thansolid wire.
Better side wall fusion than solid wire.

Typical diffusible hydrogen


(gas chromatography):

Typical diffusible hydrogen

AR/ 25% CO2


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation % in 2

Metalloy Vantage is a metal-cored wire


with fewer silicon islands than other
metal-cored wires, eliminating troublesome cleanup time and effort. Remaining
islands of silicon are almost self-peeling. With
exceptional low spatter rates, it will save time
and money spent cleaning prior to painting,
coating, or plating. Recommended for singlepass and multi-pass welding in both the flat
and horizontal positions. Recommended
shielding gas is a mixture of argon and carbon
dioxide, with a minimum of 75% argon and
a maximum of 95% argon.

90,200
80,000
25%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
0F (-18C) 50 ft. lbs. (68J)

Recommended welding procedures:


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 (1.2 mm).........200-400 26-31
1/16 (1.6 mm).........275-450 29-33

Type of current: DCEP

Electrical
Stickout
5/8+1/8
3/4+1/4

Metal Cored Wires


Tri-Mark TM-1101K3-C

Tri-Mark Metalloy 90

TM-1101K3-C offers excellent arc stability


and low spatter with CO2 shielding gas. It
also has a fastfreezing slag for all-position
welding. These features, along with relatively low diffusible hydrogen levels, excellent slag removal, good impact values and
high strength levels, make TM-1101K3-C a
superior choice for welding higher-strength
steels. It is recommended for single-and
multiple-pass welding in all
positions using 100% CO2 shielding gas.

Metalloy 90 is a metal-cored wire designed


for welding high-strength steels, particularly those requiring high toughness at
sub-zero temperatures. Metalloy 90 can be
used for both single and multipass welding
with either 98% Ar/2% O2 or 75% Ar/25%
CO2 shielding gas.

AWS A5.28 - E90C-K3

AWS A5.29 - E111T1-K3CJ H8

Typical applications:

Welding high-strength steels.

Below 5.0ml/100g

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad): 100%C O2

Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ 1.55
Silicon.................................. .34
Phosphorus....................... .009
Sulphur................................ .017
Molybdenum.................... .37
Chromium.......................... .03
Nickel...................................1.97
Vanadium........................... .02

Carbon................................. .05
Manganese........................ 1.32
Silicon.................................. .33
Nickel...................................1.89
Molybdenum.................... .37

117,000
105,000
22%

98% Ar/2% CO2

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

100,800
91,400
25%

-60F (-51C) 25 ft. lbs. (34J)

-20F (-29C) 34 ft. lbs. (46J)

Recommended welding procedures:

Type of current: DCEP

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):


Dia.
Amps
Volts
.045 ......................125-325 24-31
.052 ......................150-375 24-32
1/16 ......................175-400 23-32

Suitable for welding high strength low


alloy steels.
Single or multi-pass welding.
Higher deposition rates compared to
solid wire.
High CVN at sub-zero temperatures.

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):
98% Ar/2% CO2

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

Ideal for castings, pressure vessels and


other applications associated with building
ships and offshore platforms.

Product Charactistics:

Typical diffusible hydrogen

100% CO2

Typical applications:

Electrical
Stickout
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4
1/2 - 3/4

Recommended welding procedures:



Deposition
Dia.
Amps
Volts
hr)
.045 ......................200-350 27-35
1/16 ......................300-450 29-34

Rate(lb/
5.9 - 15.2
11.2 - 20.9

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com
111

Metal Cored Wires


Tri-Mark Metalloy 100

Tri-Mark Metalloy 110

Metalloy 100 is a low alloy steel metal


cored welding electrode designed to
produce weld metal with a minimum of
100 ksi tensile strength. In addition to
high tensile strength, the weld metal has
excellent low temperature toughness to
-60XC. Metalloy 100 produces these
properties over a wide heat input range.
Like most metal cored wires, Metalloy 100
has low diffusible hydrogen levels below
4 ml/100g.

Metalloy 110 is a metal-cored, gas shielded wire that is designed for the single and
multi-pass welding of quenched and tempered steels including T1-type, HY80 and
HY100. For use with 75% Ar/25% CO2, it
is also highly recommended for welding
high-strength steels.

AWS A5.28 - E110C-K4

AWS A5.28 - E100C-K3

Product Charactistics:

Single or multi-pass welding of high


strength low alloy steels, such as A514,
A517, T-1, HY-80, HSLA A80, A710 and
many others.
Higher deposition rates compared to
solid wire.
Designed for Ar/CO2 shielding gas
mixtures containing up to 10% CO2.
Shielding gas mixtures containing more
than 10% CO2 may be used but will result
in tensile strength below 100 ksi.

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):
90% Ar/10% CO2

Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ 1.50
Silicon.................................. .38
Nickel...................................1.58
Molybdenum.................... .34

90% Ar/10% CO2

113,300
103,300
21%

Single or multi-pass welding of high


strength low alloy steels.
Higher deposition rates compared to
solid wire.
Recommended for welding quenched and
tempered HSLA steels.

Typical weld metal properties (Chem


Pad):
75% Ar/25% CO2

Carbon................................. .07
Manganese........................ 1.63
Silicon.................................. .48
Nickel...................................2.22
Chromium.......................... .21
Molybdenum.................... .59

Tensile Strength (psi)


Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

119,900
95,000
22%

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):

-60F (-51C) 39 ft. lbs. (53J)

Recommended welding procedures:

-60F (-51C) 49 ft. lbs. (66J)

Recommended welding procedures:

112

Product Charactistics:

75% Ar/25% CO2

Typical Charpy V-notch


impact values (AW):
Deposition
Dia.
Amps
hr)
.045 ......................200-350
.052 ......................250-400
1/16 ......................300-450

Metalloy 110 can be used for welding castings, heavy equipment, and shipbuilding
projects.

Typical mechanical properties (AW):

Typical mechanical properties (AW):


Tensile Strength (psi)
Yield Strength (psi)
Elongation

Typical Applications:

Volts

Rate(lb/

27-35
28-34
28-34

5.9 - 15.2
9.0-21.5
11.2 - 20.9


Deposition
Dia.
Amps
Volts
hr)
.045 .....................200-4000 27-35
1/16 ......................300-450 28-34

Rate(lb/
6.0 - 18.6
11.2 - 20.9

Hard Surfacing
Notice:

Hobart FabTuf 960


Overlay

With CO2 shielding, FabTuf 960 is the right


filler metal when you need a high-quality,
uniform deposit thats porosity-free. Its ideal
for CO2 welding in hard surfacing applications where moderate impact strength and
moderate abrasion resistance is required. It
is also an excellent choice for metal-to-metal
wear resistance applications. During welding,
the tubular steel sheath and metal powders
of the core fuse together to form alloy steel
weld metal with almost no slag. Youll get a
deposition efficiency equal to that of solid
welding wires. FabTuf 960 can be used for
out-of-position welding.

Typical applications:

Coal conveyors, conveyor bucket lips, dredge


parts, extruder worms, ore drag lines

Typical weld metal properties


(Chem Pad):
Carbon................................. .70
Manganese........................ 2.00
Chromium.......................... 8.00
Silicon.................................. 1.00

Machinability: Possible by grinding


Flame cut: No
Hardness: 55-60 Rc
Wear index: 35
Type of current: DCEP
Available diameter and recommended
operating ranges:
Dia.

Amps
.045 (1.2 mm)...............................120-210
1/16 (1.6 mm)...............................170-310

Volts
20-28
20-28

Recommended welding positions:


Flat, Horizontal, and Vertical

For more information:


http://www.hobartbrothers.com

Actual use of the products may produce


varying results due to conditions and
welding techniques over which the
producer has no control, including, but
not limited to, plate chemistry, weldment
design, fabrication methods, electrode size,
welding procedure, service requirements
and environment. The purchaser is solely
responsible for determining the suitability
of any products for the purchasers own
use. Any prior representations shall not
be binding. The companies disclaim any
warranty of merchantability or fitness for
any particular purpose with respect to its
products.

The information contained or otherwise referenced herein is presented


only as typical without guarantee
or warranty, and Hobart Brothers
Company expressly disclaims any
liability incurred from any reliance
theron. Typical data are those obtained when welded and tested in
accordance
with AWS specifications. Other tests and procedures
may produce different results. No
data is to be construed as a recommendation for any welding condition or technique not controlled by
Hobart Brothers Company.
Caution:

Consumers should be thoroughly familiar


with the safety precautions shown on the
Warning Label posted on each shipment in
and in American National Standard Z49.1,
Safety in Welding and Cutting, published
by the American Welding Society, 550
NW LeJeune Road, Miami, FL 33126,
and OSHA Safety and Health Standards
29 CFR 1910, available from the U.S.
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C.
20210.

113

Filler Guide for Welding Aluminum


114

6061, 6063
6101,6151
5154
5052
5005
3004
2014
6201,6951
5456
5454
5254a
5086
5083
5652a
5050
Alc.3004
2219
2024

1100
3003
Alc.3003

1060
EC

ER4145

ER1100c

ER1260c

ER4145

ER4145

ER1100c

ER4145g

ER4145g

319, 333
354, 355,
C355

1060, EC
1100,3003
Alclad 3003

ER414c,i

ER4043i,f

ER4043e,i

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER5356c

ER4043e,i

ER4043e,l

ER356c

ER5356c

ER4043i

ER1100c

ER4043

ER414c,i

ER4043i,f

ER4043e,i

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER5356c

ER4043e,i

ER4043e,l

ER5356c

ER5356c

ER4043e,i

ER4043e

ER4043e

2014,2024

ER4145g

ER4145

ER4145

ER4145

ER2319c,f,i

2219

13, 43, 344,


356, A356
214,A214
A357,359
B214,F214

7039
A612,C612
D612,7005k
6070



Base Metal

ER4145g,c,i

ER4145c,i

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER4043f,i

ER4043f,i

ER4043

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER4043

ER4043

ER4043i

ER4043

ER4043

3004
Alclad 3004

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER5654b

ER5356e

ER4043e

ER4043b

ER5356e

ER5654b

ER5654b

ER5656e

ER5356e

ER4043e,i

ER4043e

ER4043e

5005, 5050

ER4043i

ER4043i

ER5654b

ER5356e

ER4043e

ER4043b

ER5356e

ER5654b

ER5654b

ER5356e

ER5356e

ER4043e,i

ER4043d,e

5052, 5652a

ER4043i

ER4043b,i

ER5654b

ER5356e,h

ER5356b,c

ER5356b,c

ER5356b

ER5354b

ER5654b

ER5356e

ER5256e

ER5654a,b,c

ER5183e

5083

ER5356c,e,i

ER5356e

ER5183e,h

ER5356e

ER5356e

ER5183e

ER5356e

ER5356e

ER5356e

5086

ER5356c,e,i

ER5356e

ER5356e,h

ER5356e

ER5356e

ER5356e

ER5356b

ER5356b

ER5356e

ER5654a,b

ER4043b,l

ER5654b

ER5356b,h

ER5356b,c

ER5356b,c

ER5356b

ER5656b

5454

5154, 5254a

ER4043l

ER4043b,l

ER5654b

ER5356b,h

ER5356b,c

ER5356b,c

ER5356b

ER5664c,e

5456

ER5356c,e,i

ER5356e

ER5556e,h

ER5356e

ER5356e

ER5556e

ER4043b,i

6061,6063,6101
ER4145c,i
ER4043b,i
ER5356b,c
6201,6151,6951

ER5356b,c
b.c.h.i.

ER4043b,i

ER4043e,i

ER5356c,e

ER5356c,e,h,i

ER4043e,i

7039
A612,C612
ER4043i
ER4043b,h,i
D612,7005k

ER5356b,h

ER5039e

214,A214
B214,F214

ER5654b,d

6070

ER4145c,l

13,43,344
356,A356
A357,359
319,333
354,355,C355

Note 1:


Note 2:

ER4043b,i

ER4145c,i

ER4043c,i

ER4145d,c,i

Service conditions such as immersion in fresh or salt water,


exposure to specific chemical or a sustained high temperature (over
150oF) may limit the choice of filler metals.
Recommendations in this table apply to gas shielded-arc welding
processes. For gas welding, only R1100, R1260 and R4043 filler
metals are ordinarily used.

ER4145

Note 3: Filler metals designated with ER prefix are listed in AWS



specifications A5.10.

a Base metal alloys 5654 are used for hydrogen peroxide
service. ER5654 filler metal is used for welding both alloys for
low-temperature service (150OF and below).

b ER5183, ER5356, ER5554, ER5556 and ER5654 may be used.
In some cases they provide (1) improved color match after
anodizing treatment. (2) highest weld ductility, and (3) higher
weld strength. ER5554 is suitable for elevated temperature
service.

c ER4043 may be used for some applications

d Filler metal with the same analysis as the base metal is
sometimes used.

e ER5183, ER5356 or ER5556 may be used.

f ER4145 may be used for some applications.

g ER2319 may be used for some applications.

h ER5039 may be used for some applications.

i ER4047 may be used for some applications.

j ER1100 may be used for some applications.

k This refers to 7005 extrusions only.
Note 4: Where no filler metal is listed, the base metal combination
is not recommended for wiring.

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

FCAW

115


A3
1, 2
Bars
Steel
6012, 6013, 7014, 7024
70S-3, 70S-6
71T-1, 70T-1,

70C-3C, 70C-6M

A27
All
Castings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7,

71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M

A36
Structural
Steel
6012, 6013, 7014, 7024,
70S-3, 70S-6
71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4,

7018
70T-7, 70C-3C, 70C-6M

A53
A & B
Pipe
Steel
6010, 6011
80S-D2, 70S-6
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M

A82
Reinforcing
Steel
7018, 7018-1
70S-3, 70S-6
70T-5, 70T-1, 70T-4,

71T-8, 71T-11, 70T-7,

71T-GS, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A105
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A106
A & B
Pipe
Steel

C
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
80S-D2, 70S-6
A109
Strip
Steel
6012, 6013, 7024
70S-3, 70S-6
70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A123
Sheet, strip
Steel
7018, 7018-1
70S-6
71T-11, 71T-GS, 70T-1, 71T-1,

71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A131
Structural
Steel
Same as A36
A134
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A135
A & B
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A139
All
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A148
80-40, 80-50
Castings
Low alloy
8018-C3
80S-D2
71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M

90-60
Castings
Low alloy
9018-M
110T5-K4

105-85
Castings
Low alloy
11018-M
110T5-K4

120-95
Castings
Low alloy
12018-M
A161
Tubes
Steel
6010, 6011
70S-6, 80S-D2
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

116


A167

309S, 309

310S, 310

316

316L, 317L

317

347, 348

XM-15
A176
429, 430

442, 446
A177
A178
A

C
A179
A181
60

70
A182
F1

F2, F11, F12

F5, F5a, F21, F22

F304, F304H

F304L

F310

F316L

F347H, F348, F348H

F10
A184
40

50, 60

304L
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Sheet, strip
Tubes
Tubes
Tubes
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Pipe, fittings
Reinforcing
Reinforcing

Sheet, strip
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
C/Mo
Cr/Mo
Cr/Mo
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Steel
Low alloy

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

Stainless
308L
309
309
310
316
316L
316L
316L
317L
347
310
308
309
309
308
308L
7018
80S-D2
Same as A53
Same as A53
Same as A53
7018
80S-D2
7018-A1
80S-D2
8018-B2
9018-B3
308
308L
308L
308L
310
316L
316L
347
310
Same as A82
9018-M

FCAW
308L 308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

309LT-1
308LT-1
71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8

71T-8
110T5-K4
8018-B2
308LT-1
308LT-1
316LT-1

70T-5, 70C-3C, 70C-6M


110T5-K4

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

FCAW

117

A185
Reinforcing
Low alloy
7018
71T-8
A192
Tubes
Steel
7018
80S-D2, 70S-6
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A199
T3b, T4, T22
Tubes
Cr/Mo
9018-B3

T11
Tubes
Cr/Mo
8018-B2
A200
Tubes
Cr/Mo
Same as A199
A202
A & B
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
9018-M
110T5-K4
A203
All
Pressure vessel
Nickel steel
8018-C3
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
A204
A & B
Pressure vessel
C/Mo
7018-A1
80S-D2
110T5-K4

C
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
10018-M
A209
Tubes
Steel
7018
80S-D2, 70S-6
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
A210
A-1
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
80S-D2, 70S-6
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M

C
Tubes
Steel
7018
71T-8
A211
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A213
T2, T11, T12, T17
Tubes
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

T3b, T22
Tubes
Cr/Mo
9018-B3

TP304, TP304H
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L
308LT-1

TP304L
Tubes
Stainless
308L
308L
308LT-1

TP310
Tubes
Stainless
310

TP316, TP316H
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L
316LT-1

TP316L
Tubes
Stainless
316L
316L
316LT-1

TP347, TP347H,
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP348, TP348H
A214
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
A216
WCA
Castings
Steel
6013, 7014, 7024, 7018
70S-3, 70S-6
71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7,

70C-3C, 70C-6M

WCB, WCC
Castings
Steel
7024, 7018
70S-3, 70S-6,
71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,

80S-D2
70C-3C, 70C-6M

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

118

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A217
WC1
Castings
Cr/Mo
7024, 7018
70S-3, 70S-6,

80S-D2

WC4, WC5, WC6
Castings
Cr/Mo
8018-B2
80S-D2

WC9
Castings
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A225
C
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
11018-M, 12018-M

D
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
8018-C3
80S-D2
A226
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
A234
WPA, WPB, WPC
Fittings
Steel
Same as A53

WP1
Fittings
Cr/Mo
8018-B2
80S-D2

WP11, WP12
Fittings
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

WP22
Fittings
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A236
C, D, E, F, G
Forgings
Low alloy
9018-M

H
Forgings
Low alloy
12018-M
A240
302, 304, 304H
Pressure vessel
Stainless
308
308L

305
Pressure vessel
Stainless
308L
308L

304L
Pressure vessel
Stainless
309
309

309S
Pressure vessel
Stainless
310

310S
Pressure vessel
Stainless
316
316L

316H
Pressure vessel
Stainless
316L
316L

316L, 317L
Pressure vessel
Stainless
317L

317
Pressure vessel
Stainless
347

347, 347H
Pressure vessel
Stainless
347

348, 348H
Pressure vessel
Stainless
310
310
A242
Types 1 & 2
Structural
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

FCAW
71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M

110T5-K4
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1

110T5-K4
308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8,


70C-3C, 70C-6M

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

119

A249
304, 304H, 305
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

304L
Tubes
Stainless
308L
308L

309
Tubes
Stainless
309
309

310
Tubes
Stainless
310

316, 316H
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L

316L
Tubes
Stainless
316L
316L

317
Tubes
Stainless
317L

321, 321H, 347, 347H
Tubes
Stainless
347
A250
Tubes
Mo
7018-A1
80S-D2
A252
1, 2
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53

3
Pipe
Steel
80S-D2
A266
1, 2, 3, 4
Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A268
TP329
Tubes
Stainless
309
309
A269
TP304
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

TP304L
Tubes
Stainless
308L
308L

TP316
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L

TP316L
Tubes
Stainless
316L
316L

TP317
Tubes
Stainless
317L

TP321, TP347
Tubes
Stainless
347
A270
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L
A271
TP304
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

TP304H
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

TP321
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP321H
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP347
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP347H
Tubes
Stainless
347

FCAW
308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,


70C-3C, 70C-6M
309LT-1
308LT-1
308LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

308LT-1
308LT-1
308LT-1

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

120

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A273 C1010 thru C1020


Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A276 302, 304, 305, 302B
Bars
Stainless
308
308L

304L
Bars
Stainless
308L
308L

309, 309S
Bars
Stainless
309
309

310, 310S
Bars
Stainless
310

316
Bars
Stainless
316
316L

316L
Bars
Stainless
316L
316L

317
Bars
Stainless
317L

321, 347, 348
Bars
Stainless
347

TP446
Bars
Stainless
309, 310
A283
A, B, C, D
Structural
Steel
Same as A36
A284
C, D
Structural
Steel
Same as A36
A285
A, B, C
Pressure vessel
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6, 80S-D2
A288
1
Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


2
Forgings
Low alloy
9018-M

3
Forgings
Low alloy
11018-M
A289
A & B
Forgings
Stainless
308
308L
A297
HF
Castings
Stainless
308, 308L

HH
Castings
Stainless
309
308L

HI, HK
Castings
Stainless
310
309

HE
Castings
Stainless
312
A299
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
9018-M
A302
A, B, C, D
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
9018-M

FCAW
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M


71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
110T5-K4
308LT-1
308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

FCAW

A312
TP304, TP304H
Pipe
Stainless
308
308L
308LT-1

TP304L
Pipe
Stainless
308L
308L
308LT-1

TP309
Pipe
Stainless
309
309
309LT-1

TP310
Pipe
Stainless
310

TP316, TP316H
Pipe
Stainless
316
316L
316LT-1

TP316L
Pipe
Stainless
316L
316L
316LT-1

TP317
Pipe
Stainless
317L

TP321, TP321H, TP347,
Pipe
Stainless
347
TP347H, TP348, TP348H
A328
Piling
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6
71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,

70C-3C, 70C-6M
A333
1 & 6
Pipe
Low alloy
8018-C3
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1

3, 4, 7, 9
Pipe
Low alloy
8018-C2
A334
1 & 6
Tubes
Low alloy
8018-C3
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1

3, 7, 9
Tubes
Low alloy
8018-C2
A335
P1, P15
Pipe
C/Mo
7018-A1
80S-D2

P2, P11 P12
Pipe
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

P22
Pipe
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A336
F1
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
7018-A1

F22, F22a
Pressure vessel
Cr/Mo
9018-B3

F30
Pressure vessel
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

F31
Pressure vessel
Nickel steel
8018-C2
A336
F8, F82, F84
Pressure vessel
Stainless
308
308L
308LT-1

F8M
Pressure vessel
Stainless
316
316L
316LT-1

F10, F25
Pressure vessel
Stainless
310

121

122

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A350
LF1, LF2
Fittings
Nickel steel
8018-C3

LF3, LF4
Fittings
Nickel steel
8018-C2
A351
CF8, CF8A, CF8C
Castings
Stainless
308
308L

CF3, CF3A
Castings
Stainless
308L
308L

CF8M, CF10MC, CF3M,
Castings
Stainless
316L
316L

CF3MA

CH8, CH10, CH20
Castings
Stainless
309
309

CK20, HK30, HK40
Castings
Stainless
310
A352
LC2
Castings
Nickel steel
8018-C1

LC3
Castings
Nickel steel
8018-C2
A356
1
Castings
Steel
Same as A27

2
Castings
C/Mo
7018-A1
80S-D2

5, 6, 8
Castings
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

10
Castings
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A358
304
Pipe
Stainless
308
308L

309
Pipe
Stainless
309
309

310
Pipe
Stainless
310

316
Pipe
Stainless
316
316L

321, 347, 348
Pipe
Stainless
347
A361
Sheet
Steel
7018
70S-6
A369
FP1
Pipe
Low alloy
7018-A1
80S-D2

FP2, FP11, FP12
Pipe
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

FP22, FP3B
Pipe
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A369
FPA, FPB
Pipe
Low alloy
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

FCAW
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
308LT-1
308LT-1
316LT-1
309LT-1
81T1-Ni2

308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
71T-11, 71T-GS, 70T-1, 71T-8, 71T-1

70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,


70C-3C, 70C-6M

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

123

A372
I
Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


II, III
Forgings
Low alloy
9018-M

IV
Forgings
Low alloy
11018-M

V
Forgings
Alloy steel
12018-M

VI
Forgings
Alloy steel
10018-D2
A376
TP304, TP304H,
Pipe
Stainless
308
308L

TP304N
TP316, TP316H, TP316N
Pipe
Stainless
316
316L

TP321, TP321H, TP347,
Pipe
Stainless
347

TP347H, TP348
A381
Y35 thru Y50
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53

Y52, Y56
Pipe
Steel
7010, 7018
80S-D2

Y60, Y65
Pipe
Low alloy
9018-M
A387
A, B, C
Pressure vessel
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

D, E
Pressure vessel
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A389
C23
Castings
Cr/Mo
8018-B2
A403
WP304, WP304H
Fittings
Stainless
308
308L

WP304L
Fittings
Stainless
308L
308L

WP309
Fittings
Stainless
309
309

WP310
Fittings
Stainless
310

WP316, WP316H
Fittings
Stainless
316
316L

WP317
Fittings
Stainless
317L

WP321, WP321H,
Fittings
Stainless
347

WP347H, WP348
A405
P24
Pipe
Cr/Mo
9018-B3

FCAW
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M, 110T5- K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
308LT-1
316LT-1

71T8-K6, 71T-8

308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

124

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A409
TP304, TP304L
Pipe
Stainless
308
308L

TP309
Pipe
Stainless
309
309

TP310
Pipe
Stainless
310

TP316, TP316L
Pipe
Stainless
316
316L

TP317
Pipe
Stainless
317L

TP321, TP347, TP348
Pipe
Stainless
347
A412
201, 202
Sheet, strip
Stainless
308
308L
A413
PC, BBB
Chain
Steel
7018
70S-3

A414
A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Sheet
Steel
6012, 6013, 7014,
70S-3, 70S-6

7024-1
A420
WPL6
Fittings
Steel
8018-C3

WPL9
Fittings
Nickel steel
8018-C1

WPL3
Fittings
Nickel steel
8018-C2
A423
1
Tubes
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

2
Tubes
Nickel steel
8018-C3
A426
CP1, CP15
Pipe
Cr/Mo
7018-A1
80S-D2

CP2, CP11, CP12
Pipe
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

CP21, CP22
Pipe
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A430
FP304, FP304H,
Pipe
Stainless
308
308L

FP304N
FP316, FP316H, FP316N
Pipe
Stainless
316
316L

FP321, FP321H,
Pipe
Stainless
347

FP347, FP347H
A441
Structural
Steel
Same as A36

FCAW
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1

308LT-1
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4,70T-7,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
81T1-Ni2

81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1

308LT-1
316LT-1

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Product

Type of Metal

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

SMAW

A442
55, 60
Pressure vessel
A447
Castings
A451
CPF8, CPF8C
Pipe

CPH8, CPH20
Pipe

CPK20
Pipe
A452
TP304H
Pipe

TP316H
Pipe

TP347H
Pipe
A455
Pressure vessel
A457
761
Sheet, strip
A469
1, 2
Forgings
A470
1, 2
Forgings
A479
302, 304, 304H
Bars

304L
Bars

310, 310S
Bars

316, 316H
Bars

316L
Bars

321, 321H, 347, 347H,
Bars

348, 348H
A486
70
Castings

90
Castings

120
Castings
A487
1N, 2N, 4N, 8N, 9N, 1Q, 2Q
Castings

3Q, 4Q, 5Q, 4QA, 7Q,
Castings

8Q, 9Q, 10Q, 5N, 6N, 10N

Nickel steel
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Low alloy
Stainless
Nickel steel
Nickel steel
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless

8018-C3
309
309
308
308L
309
309
310
308
308L
316
316L
347
9018-M
347
8018-C2
8018-C2
308
308L
308L
308L
310
316
316L
316L
316L
347

81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
309LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1

Steel
Low alloy
Alloy steel
Low alloy
Alloy steel

7014, 7024, 7018 70S-3, 70S-6


9018-M
12018-M
9018-M
12018-M

70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 70C-3C, 70C-6M


110T5-K4

125

GMAW

FCAW

308LT-1
316LT-1

308LT-1
308LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

110T5-K4

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

126

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A493
302, 304, 305
Bar
Stainless
308
308

316
Bar
Stainless
316
316

321-347
Bar
Stainless
347
A496
Reinforcing
Low alloy
9018-M
A497
Reinforcing
Low alloy
9018-M
A500
A, B, C
Tubes
Steel
Same as A36
A501
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
A508
1, 1a
Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

2, 3
Forgings
Low alloy
9018-M

4, 5
Forgings
Low alloy
11018-M

5a, 4a
Forgings
Low alloy
12018-M
A511 MT302, MT304, MT305
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

MT304L
Tubes
Stainless
308L
308L

MT309, MT309S
Tubes
Stainless
309
309

MT310, MT310S
Tubes
Stainless
310
310

MT316
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L

MT316L
Tubes
Stainless
316L
316L

MT317
Tubes
Stainless
317L

MT321, MT347
Tubes
Stainless
347
A512 MT1010 thru MT1020
Tubes
Steel
Same as A216
A513
1008 thru 1022
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
A514
Plates
Low alloy 11018-M, 12018-M
A515
Pressure vessel
Steel
7018
70S-3
A516
Pressure vessel
Steel
7018
70S-3

A517
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
11018-M

FCAW
308LT-1
316LT-1

70T1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M


110T5-K4
110T5-K4
308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
81T1-Ni2, 70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4,
71T-8, 70T-7, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
110T5-K4

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A519
1008 thru 4130
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
A521
CA, CC, CC1
Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6



AA, AB, CE, CF, AC,
Forgings
Low alloy
9018-M

AD, CF1, CG

AE
Forgings
Low alloy
11018-M
A523
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A524
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A526
Sheet
Galvanized
7018
70S-6
A527
Sheet
Galvanized
7018
70S-6
A528
Sheet
Galvanized
7018
70S-6
A529
Structural
Steel
Same as A36
A533
A1, B1, C1, D1
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
9018-M

A2, B2, C2, D2, A3, B3,
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
10018-M

C3, D3
A537
1
Pressure vessel
Steel
7018
70S-3

2
Pressure vessel
Nickel steel
8018-C3
A539
Tubes
Steel
Same as A161
A541
1, 1a
Forgings
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Forgings
Cr/Mo
8018-B2

6A, 7, 7A, 8, 8A
Forgings
Low alloy
12018-M
A542
1, 2
Pressure vessel
Cr/Mo
9018-B3
A543
A, B
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
12018-M

FCAW
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
110T5-K4
110T5-K4

71T-11, 71T-GS
71T-11, 71T-GS
71T-11, 71T-GS
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M

127

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

128

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A554
MT301, MT302,
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

MT304, MT305

MT304L
Tubes
Stainless
308L
308L

MT309, MT309S
Tubes
Stainless
309
309

MT310, MT310S
Tubes
Stainless
310

MT316
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L

MT316L
Tubes
Stainless
316L
316L

MT317
Tubes
Stainless
317L

MT321, MT347
Tubes
Stainless
347
A556
A2, B2
Tubes
Stainless
Same as A161

C2
Tubes
Steel
7018
70S-6, 80S-D2
A557
Tubes
Steel
Same as A556
A562
Pressure vessel
Steel
7018
70S-3
A569
Sheet, strip
Steel
6012, 6022, 6013, 7014
70S-3, 70S-6

A570
30, 36, 40, 45
Sheet, strip
Steel
Any E60 or E70 electrode
70S-3, 70S-6

50
Sheet, strip
Steel
7018, 7024
70S-3, 70S-6

A572
42 thru 55
Structural
Steel
Same as A36

60 thru 65
Structural
Low alloy
8018-C2
A573
Structural
Steel
Same as A36
A587
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A588
Structural
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6
A589
Pipe
Steel
Same as A53
A591
Sheet
Galvanized
7018
70S-6
A592
A, E, F
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
12018-M
A595
A, B, C
Tubes
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

FCAW
308LT-1
308LT-1
309LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M, 70T-1


71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8, 71T-11, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
71T-11, 71T-GS, 71T-1, 70T-1,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
70T-4, 70T-7, 70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M

71T-8
71T8-K6
71T-11, 71T-GS
71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A606
Sheet
Low alloy
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A607
45
Sheet
Low alloy
6010, 6011, 6012,
70S-3, 70S-6,

6013, 7014, 7024, 7018
80S-D2

50
Sheet
Low alloy
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


60
Sheet
Low alloy
8018-C3

70
Sheet
Low alloy
9018-M
80S-D2
A611
A, B, C, D
Sheet
Steel
Any E60 or E70
70S-3, 70S-6

electrode
A611
E
Sheet
Steel
9018-M
80S-D2
A612
Pressure vessel
Steel
9018-M
80S-D2
A615
40
Reinforcing
Steel
Same as A82

60
Reinforcing
Low alloy
9018-M
80S-D2

75
Reinforcing
Low alloy
10018-M
80S-D2
A616
50, 60
Reinforcing
Low alloy
9018-M
80S-D2
A617
40
Reinforcing
Steel
Same as A82

60
Reinforcing
Low alloy
9018-M
80S-D2
A618
1, 2, 3
Tubes
Steel
7018
80S-D2
A620
Sheet
Steel
7014, 7024
70S-3
A621
Sheet, strip
Steel
7018
70S-6

FCAW
71T-1, 70T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-11,
71T-GS, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-11, 71T-GS
71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 71T-11, 71T-GS
81T2-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
110T5-K4
71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
71T-8
71T-11, 71T-GS, 71T-1
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8

129

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

130

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A632
TP304
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

TP304L
Tubes
Stainless
308L
308L

TP310
Tubes
Stainless
310
310

TP316
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L

TP316L
Tubes
Stainless
316L
316L

TP317
Tubes
Stainless
317L

TP321
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP347
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP348
Tubes
Stainless
347
A633
A, B, C, D
Structural
High strength,
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

Low alloy
A642
Sheet
Galvanized
7018
70S-6
A643
A
Castings
Steel
7018, 7024
70S-3, 70S-6,

80S-D2

B
Castings
Steel
10018-D2

C
Castings
Steel
9018-B3
A651
TPXM8
Tubes
Stainless
347

TP304
Tubes
Stainless
308
308L

TP316
Tubes
Stainless
316
316L
A656
1, 2
Structural
Low alloy
10018-D2
A659
1015, 1016, 1017, 1018, Sheet strip
Steel
Same as A607
70S-3, 70S-6,

1020, 1023
80S-D2
A660
WCC, WCA, WCB
Pipe
Carbon steel pipe
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A662
A, B
Pressure vessel
C-Mn
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

FCAW
308LT-1
308LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1

71T-1, 70T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,


71T-11, 71T-GS, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
71T-11, 71T-GS, 71T-8
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
110T5-K4

308LT-1
316LT-1
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M,70T-470T-7

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

131

A666
TP301
Sheet, strip
Stainless
308
308L

TP316
Sheet, strip
Stainless
316
316L
A669
Tubes
Alloy steel
316L
316L
A672
B65
Pipe
Steel
7018
70S-3

D80, E55, E60
Pipe
Steel
8018-C3

H75, H80, J80, J90
Pipe
Steel
9018-M

J100
Pipe
Steel
10018-M

K75, K85
Pipe
Steel
9018-M

L65, L70
Pipe
Steel
7018-A1
80S-D2

L75
Pipe
Steel
10018-M

M70, M75, N75
Pipe
Steel
9018-M
A678
A
Structural
Carbon steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A678
B
Structural
Carbon steel
9018-M

C
Structural
Carbon steel
10018-M
A688
TP304
Tubes
Stainless steel
308
308L

TP304L
Tubes
Stainless steel
308L
308L

TP316
Tubes
Stainless steel
316
316L

TP316L
Tubes
Stainless steel
316L
316L
A691
CM65, CM70
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
7018-A1
80S-D2

CM75
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
10018-M

CMSH70
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
7018
70S-3

CMS75
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
9018-M

CMSH80
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
8018-C3

1/2CR
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
8018-B2

1CR, 1-1/4CR
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
8018-B2

2-1/4CR
Pipe
C & Alloy steel
9018-B3

FCAW
308LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
110T5-K4
308LT-1
308LT-1
316LT-1
316LT-1
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
110T5-K4
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

132

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

A692
Tubes
Cr/Mo
7018-A1
80S-D2
A694
F42, F46, R48
Fittings
C & Alloy steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


F56, F50, F52
Fittings
C & Alloy steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


F60, F65
Fittings
C & Alloy steel
8018-C3
80S-D2
A696
B, C
Bars
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A699
1, 2, 3, 4
Plates, bars
Low alloy
10018-D2
A704
40
Reinforcing
Steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


60
Reinforcing
Steel
9018-M
80S-D2
A706
Reinforcing
Low alloy
8018-C3
80S-D2
A707
L1, L2, L3
Flanges
C & Alloy steel
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


L4
Flanges
C & Alloy steel
8018-C1
80S-D2

L5, L6
Flanges
C & Alloy steel
8018-C3
80S-D2

L7, L8
Flanges
C & Alloy steel
8018-C2
80S-D2
A709
36
Structural
High strength, Low alloy
6012, 6013, 7014,
70S-3, 70S-6

7024, 7018

50, 50W
Structural
High strength, Low alloy
7018
70S-3, 70S-6


100, 100W
Structural
High strength, Low alloy
11018-M
A714
I, II, III, IV
Pipe
Low alloy
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

V
Pipe
Low alloy
8018-C1

VI
Pipe
Low alloy
8018-C3

FCAW
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 71T-11, 71T-GS
110T5-K4
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8
81T1-Ni2
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8, 71T-11, 71T-GS
E70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C,
70C-6M, 70T-4, 70T-7
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
81T1-Ni2
81T1-Ni2, 81T1-Ni1

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

133

A715
50
Sheet, strip
Steel
6012, 6013, 7024, 7018
70S-3, 70S-6

80S-D2

60
Sheet, strip
Steel
7018, 7024, 7014
70S-3, 70S-6

70
Sheet, strip
Steel
7018
80S-D2


80
Sheet, strip
Steel
9018-M
80S-D2
A724
A
Pressure vessel
Q & T steel
9018-M
A732
1A, 2A, 3A
Castings
Steel
6012, 6013, 7024,
70S-3, 70S-6

7014, 7018

4A
Castings
Steel
9018-M

5N, 6N
Castings
Steel
7024, 7018
70S-3, 80S-D2

A734
A
Pressure vessel
Alloy & Low alloy
8018-B2

B
Pressure vessel
Alloy & Low alloy
9018-M
80S-D2
A735
1, 2, 3
Pressure vessel
Low C & Alloy steel
9018-M
80S-D2

4
Pressure vessel
Low C & Alloy steel
10018-D2
A736
2
Pressure vessel
Alloy
8018-B2

3
Pressure vessel
Alloy
9018-M
80S-D2

B
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
7018
70S-3, 70S-6

A737
C
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
9018-M
80S-D2
A738
Pressure vessel
Alloy
9018-M
80S-D2
A744
CF-8
Castings
Stainless
308
308

CF-8M
Castings
Stainless
316
316

CF-8C
Castings
Stainless
347

CF-3
Castings
Stainless
308L
308L

CG-8M
Castings
Stainless
316L, 317L
316L

FCAW
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7
70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 70C-3C, 70C-6M,
70T-4, 70T-7
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
110T5-K4
70T-1, 71T-1, 70T-4, 70T-7, 71T-8,
70C-3C, 70C-6M
110T5-K4
110T5-K4

308LT-1
316LT-1

ASTM No.

Grade

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels

Product

Type of Metal

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

SMAW

A757
A2Q
Castings
Alloy steel

B2N, B2Q
Castings
Alloy steel

B3N, B3Q
Castings
Alloy steel

C1Q
Castings
Alloy steel

DNDQ
Castings
Alloy steel

E1Q
Castings
Alloy steel
A765
1
Pressure vessel
Low alloy

2
Pressure vessel
Low alloy
A771
Tubing
Stainless
A782
Class 1
Pressure vessel
High strength,

Mn-Cr-Mo

Class 2
Pressure vessel
High Strength,

Mn-Cr-Mo

Class 3
Pressure vessel
High strength,

Mn-Cr-Mo
A808
Steel plate
High strength, low alloy
A812
65
Sheet
High strength, low alloy

8
Sheet
High strength, low alloy

7018
8018-C1
8018-C2
10018-M
9018-B3
11018-M
7018
7018-1
316H
9018-M
80S-D2

134

GMAW

11018-M

FCAW
71T-8
81T1-Ni2

71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8


71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
110T5-K4
110T5-K4

12018-M
7018-1
9018-M
80S-D2
11018-M, 10018-M

71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8


110T5-K4
110T5-K4

ASTM No.

Grade

Product

Filler Metal Selector Guide for Welding ASTM Steels


Type of Metal


A813
TP304

TP304H

TP304L

TP309S

TP310S

TP316

TP316H

TP316L

TP317

TP317L

TP321

TP347
A814
A822
A826
TP316
A830
A841
A851
TP304

TP304L
A873

Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Tubing
Tubes
Plates
Pressure vessel
Tubes
Tubes
Sheet, strip

Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Stainless
Steel
Stainless
Steel
Steel
Stainless
Stainless
Steel

SMAW

Recommended Filler Metals (AWS)

GMAW

308
308
308H
308L
308L
309
309
310
316
316
316H
316L
316L
317L
317L
347
347
Same as A813
6010, 6011, 6013
316H
7018
70S-3, 70S-6
7018
308, 308H
308
308L
308L
9018-B3, 9018-B3L

FCAW
308LT-1

316LT-1

70T-1, 71T-1, 71T-8, 70C-3C, 70C-6M


71T-1, 70T-1, 71T-8
308LT-1

135

Welding Terms and Definitions


AC or Alternating Current Is that kind of electricity which reverses its direction
periodically. For 60 cycle current, the current goes in one direction and then in
the other direction 60 times in the same second, so that the current changes
its direction 120 times in one second.
Arc Blow The deflection of an arc from its normal path because of magnetic
forces.
Arc Length The distance from the tip of the welding electrode to the adjacent
surface of the weld pool.
Arc Voltage The voltage across the welding arc.
As-Welded Pertaining to the condition of weld metal, welded joints, and weldments after welding, but prior to any subsequent thermal, mechanical or
chemical treatments.
Automatic Welding welding with equipment that requires only occasional or
no observation of the welding, and no manual adjustments of the equipment
controls.
Backing A material or device placed against the backside of the joint, or at both
sides of a weld in electroslag and electrogas welding, to support and retain
molten weld metal. The material may be partially fused or remain unfused
during welding and may be either metal or nonmetal.
Backstep Sequence A longitudinal sequence in which weld passes are made in
the direction opposite to the progress of welding.
Bare Electrode A filler metal electrode that has been produced as a wire, strip, or
bar with no coating or covering other than that incidental to its manufacture
or preservation.
Base Metal (material) The metal (material) that is welded, brazed, soldered, or
cut.
Butt Joint A joint between two members aligned approximately in the same
plane.
Concavity The maximum distance from the face of a concave fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes.
Convexity The maximum distance from the face of a convex fillet weld perpendicular to a line joining the weld toes.
Covered Electrode A composite filler metal electrode consisting of a core of a bare
electrode or metal cored electrode to which a covering sufficient to provide a slag
layer on the weld metal has been applied. The covering may contain materials
providing such functions as shielding from the atmosphere, deoxidation, and
arc stabilization and can serve as a source of metallic additions to the weld.
Crater A depression in the weld at the termination of a weld bead.
Depth of Fusion The distance that fusion extends into the base metal or previous
bead from the surface melted during welding.
DC or Direct Current Electric current which flows only in one direction. In welding,
an arc welding process wherein the power supply at the arc is direct current.
Fillet Weld - A weld of approximately triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each other in a lap joint, T-joint or corner joint.
136

Fillet Weld Leg The distance from the joint root to the toe of the fillet weld.
Flat Welding Position The welding position used to weld from the upper side
of the joint at a point where the weld axis is approximately horizontal, and the
weld face lies in an approximately horizontal plane.
Flux A material used to hinder or prevent the formation of oxides and other
undesirable substances in molten metal and on solid metal surfaces, and to
dissolve or otherwise facilitate the removal of such substances.
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) An arc welding process that uses an arc between
a continuous filler metal electrode and the weld pool. The process is used
with shielding gas from a flux contained within the tubular electrode, with or
without additional shielding from an externally supplied gas, and without the
application of pressure.
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) An arc welding process that uses an arc
between a continuous filler metal electrode and the weld pool. The process is
used with shielding from an externally supplied gas and without the application of pressure.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) An arc welding process that uses an arc between a tungsten electrode (nonconsumable) and the weld pool. The process
is used with shielding gas and without the application of pressure.
Groove Weld A weld made in a groove between the workpieces.
Heat-Affected Zone The portion of the base metal whose mechanical properties
or microstructure have been altered by the heat of welding, brazing, soldering,
or thermal cutting.
Horizontal Welding Position
Fillet Weld - The welding position in which the weld is on the upper side of an
approximately horizontal surface and against an approximately vertical sur
face.
Groove Weld The welding position in which the weld face lies in an
approximately vertical plane and the weld axis at the point of welding is approximately horizontal.
Joint Penetration The depth a weld extends from its face into a joint, exclusive
of reinforcement.
Lap Joint A joint between two overlapping members in parallel planes.
Machine Welding A nonstandard term when used for mechanized welding.
Manual Welding Welding with the torch, gun, or electrode holder held and
manipulated by hand. Accessory equipment, such as part motion devices and
manually controlled filler material feeders may be used.
Melting Rate The weight or length of electrode, wire, rod, powder melted in a
unit of time.
Open Circuit Voltage The voltage between the output terminals of the power
source when no current is flowing to the torch or gun.
Overhead Welding Position The welding position in which welding is performed
from the underside of the joint.
Overlap The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root.
Peening The mechanical working of metals used impact blows.
Porosity Cavity-type discontinuities formed by gas entrapment during solidification or in a thermal spray deposit.
137

Postheating The application of heat to an assembly after welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying or thermal cutting operation.
Preheat The heat applied to the base metal or substrate to attain and maintain
preheat temperature.
Radiography The use of radiant energy in the form of X-rays or gamma rays for
the non-destructive examination of metals.
Reverse Polarity A nonstandard term for direct current electrode positive.
Root Opening A separation at the joint root between the workpieces.
Root Penetration The distance the weld metal extends into the joint root.
Semiautomatic Welding Manual welding with equipment that automatically
controls one or more of the welding conditions.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) An arc welding process with an arc between
a covered electrode and the weld pool. The process is electrode and the weld
pool. The process is used with shielding from the decomposition of the electrode covering, without the application of pressure, and with filler metal from
the electrode.
Slag A nonmetallic product resulting from the mutual dissolution of flux and
nonmetallic impurities in some welding and brazing processes.
Spatter The metal particles expelled during fusion welding which do not form
a part of the weld.
Straight Polarity A nonstandard term for direct current electrode negative.
Stress Relief Heat Treatment Uniform heating of a structure or a portion thereof
to a sufficient temperature to relieve the major portion of the residual stresses,
followed by uniform cooling.
Stringer Bead A type of weld bead made with appreciable weaving motion.
Tack Weld A weld made to hold parts of a weldment in proper alignment until
the final welds are made.
Throat of a Fillet Weld
Theoretical Throat The distance from the beginning of the joint root
perpendicular to the hypotenuse of the largest right triangle that can be
inscribed within the cross section of a fillet weld. This dimension is based
on the assumption that the root opening is equal to zero.
Actual Throat The shortest distance between the weld root and the face of
a fillet weld.
Effective Throat The minimum distance minus any convexity between the
weld root and the face of a fillet weld.
Tungsten Electrode A non-filler metal electrode used in arc welding or cutting,
made principally of tungsten.
Underbead Crack A crack in the heat-affected zone generally not extending to
the surface of the base metal.
Undercut A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld
root and left unfilled by weld metal.
Vertical Welding Position The welding position in which the weld axis, at the point
of welding, is approximately vertical, and the weld face lies in an approximately
vertical plane.
138

Weave Bead A type of weld bead made with transverse oscillation.


Weld - A localized coalescence of metals or non-metals produced either by heating the materials to welding temperature, with or without the application of
pressure, or by the application of pressure alone, and with or without the use
of filler material.
Weld Face The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which welding was
done.
Weld Metal That portion of a weld which has been melted during welding.
Weld Nomenclature

Toe
Face
Throat
Toe

Leg

Leg
Root

Weld Pass A single progression of welding along a joint. The result of a pass is
a weld bead or layer.
Weld Pool The localized volume of molten metal in a weld prior to its solidification as weld metal.
Weld Root The points, as shown in cross section, at which the root surface intersects the base metal surfaces.
Weld Size
Groove Weld Size The joint penetration of a groove weld.
Fillet Weld Size For equal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest isosceles
right triangle which can be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section. For
unequal leg fillet welds, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle that can
be inscribed within the fillet weld cross section.
Weld Toe The junction of the weld face and the base metal.
Welding Procedure The detailed methods and practices involved in the
production of a weldment.
Welding Rod A form of welding filler metal, normally packaged in straight lengths,
that does not conduct the welding current.
Weldment An assembly whose component parts are joined by welding.

139

140

Metric Conversion Tables


To Convert From
lb
ton
in
in2
lb in.2
gal/hr
psi
ksi. in. 1/2
ft. lb.
lb/hr
in/min
MPG
MPG
Fo
C
o

To

Multiply By

Mass (avdp)
Mass (200 lbm)
Linear Measurement

kg
kg
mm

4.535 924 x 10-1


9.071 847 x 102
2.540 000 x10

Area Dimensions

mm2

Pressure
Flow Rate
Tensile Strength

Pa
liter/min
Pa

6.451 600 x 102


6.894 757 x 103
6.309 020 x 10-2
6.894 757 x 103

Fracture Toughness

MN m-3/2

Impact
Deposition Rate
Travel/Wire Speed
Miles per U.S. Gal.
Miles per Imp. Gal
Temperature
Temperature

J
kg/h
mm/s
km/liter
km/liter

1.098 855
1.355 818
0.45
4.233 333 x 10-1
0.425
0.3544

Co
Fo

5/9 (Fo 32o)


9/5 Co + 32o

Wire Diammeter

Inch
mm

(14SWG)(12SWG)

(10SWG)

(8SWG)

(6SWG)














(4SWG)

Fillet Sizes
in.
mm
1/8
3
5/32
4
3/16
5
1/4
6
5/16
8
3/8
10
7/16
11
1/2
13
5/8
16
3/4
19
7/8
22
1
25

Fillet Sizes
in.
mm
0.030
0.76
0.035
0.89
0.040
1.02
0.045
1.14
1/6
1.59
5/64
1.98
3/32
2.38
1/8
3.18
5/32
3.97
3/16
4.76
1/4
6.35

Weld Deposit
Lbs.
KG
Impact Values Charpy V Notch
Ft. lb.
kg. m/cm

Pressure
lbs. Inch2
KG/CM2
Weight
141

Lbs.
KG

Thickness
142

inch
mm

Travel Speed
Inch/Min.
mm/Min.

Gas Flow
Cu. ft./Hr.
Liters/Min.

Temperature
F
C

F
C

HIWT Training & Certification Services

The Hobart Institute of Welding Technology (HIWT) is a nonprofit, ACCSCT accredited


institution dedicated to excellence in welding training and education. Founded in
1930, HIWT has trained over 85,000 men and women worldwide.

Field & Specialized Training

HIWT offers field training (at your facility) & specialized training (at our facility) to
make your welders more productive and profitable. Each program is custom designed to get your people up to speed in the shortest possible time.

Complete Welding Programs & Skill Training

Looking for an exciting career that pays well and is in high demand? Consider our
36-week Combination Structural & Pipe Welding Program or our 21-week Structural Welding Program. A variety of financial aid options are available for those who
qualify. Individual skill classes are also available for hobbyists or individuals who
want to upgrade their welding skills.

Technical Training

Our preparation course for the AWS CWI/CWE Examination Is one of the best in the
country. Hobart Institute also offers a 1-week course for Welding Instructors, as well
as courses in welding inspection, quality control, NDT and weldability.

Qualification & Certification Services

HIWT qualifies welding procedures and welders to structural, pressure piping,


production and aerospace specifications on all types of ferrous and nonferrous
materials.
For more information and a free catalog, visit us at www.welding.org, or contact us at: Hobart Institute of Welding Technology,
400 Trade Square East, Troy, OH 45373;
Phone: 800 332-9448 or 937 332-5000; Fax: 937 332-5200
143

HIWT Training Materials

Put over 75 years of world-class welding training experience


from the Hobar t I nstitute of Welding Technology to work
for you.

Complete turn-key curriculum materials on all major welding processes


entry-level through advanced (plate & pipe).

Modular Design.

Close-up shots of the welding arc highlighting proper technique.

Easy-to-follow how-to student workbook design with recipes to help


students recreate each weld, and summaries of essential theory.

Based on AWS S.E.N.S.E. objectives, with standard AWS terms and definitions used throughout.

Comprehensive Instructor Guides.

Technical Guides on SMAW, GMAW, FCAW & GTAW.

Programmed Learning Courses on Welding Symbols, Blueprint Reading,


Pipe Layout, and Symbols for Nondestructive Examination.

Wall posters.

Plus a variety of useful welding texts from other publishers.

For more information, visit us at www.welding.org,


or call (800) 332-9448 Ext. 5433 (937) 332-5433
for a free catalog and preview DVD.

144

INDEX

Index Terms

Links

A
Aluminum, Filler Guide for Welding

114

C
Certification

143

Conversion Tables, Metric

140

Cost Saving Tips

54

D
Designation of Steels

115

E
Electrodes, Aluminum

114

Electrodes, Hard Surfacing

113

Electrodes, Mild Steel

79

Electrodes, Stainless Steel

92

Electrodes, Tubular Wires

99

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Electrode Selection

56

Electrode Classification

63

Essentials for Good Welding

16

F
Filler Metals, Aluminum

114

Filler Metals, Classification

63

Filler Metals, Consumption

60

Filler Metals, Hobart listing

79

Filler Metals, Selection Guide for Steel


Filler Metals, Storage and Reconditioning

115
59

G
Gases, Shielding

62

Gas metal arc welding, Short circuit transfer

74

Gas metal arc welding, Spray transfer

75

H
Hard Surfacing Electrodes
Hobart Filler Metals

113
79

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology


Certification

143

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology


Training

143

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology


Training Materials

144

J
Joints, Types

37

M
Metal Cored Wire

57

Metals, Identification

50

Metals, Welding

48

Metric Conversion Tables

109

140

MIG, Short Circuit Transfer

74

MIG, Spray Transfer

75

Mild Steel Electrodes

79

P
Positions, Welding

35

Preheating

52

Problems, Welds

30

Processes, Welding

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Q
Quality, Welding

34

S
Safety, Welding

44

Shielding Gases

62

Stainless Steel Electrodes

92

Steel

49

Steel, Filler Metal Selection Guide


Symbols, Welding

115
38

T
Terms and Definitions

136

Training

143

Training Materials

144

Troubleshooting Guide for Semiautomatic


Wire Equipment

33

Troubleshooting Guide for Wire

33

Tubular Wires

99

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

W
Weld Beads, Examples

18

Weld Quality, Checkpoints

33

Welding Positions

35

Welding Problems, Causes and Cures

30

Welding Processes

Welding Safety

44

Welding Symbols

38

Welding Terms and Definitions

136

Wire, Troubleshooting Guide for


Semiautomatic Welding
Wire, Tubular

33
99

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.