Anda di halaman 1dari 23

DUBNA, AUGUST 2015

JERZY LUKIERSKI

QUANTUM-DEFORMED COVARIANT PHASE


SPACES AS HOPF ALGEBROIDS
1. Quantum spaces, Hopf algebras and Heisenberg algebra
2. From Hopf algebras to Hopf algebroids
3. Covariant quantum phase spaces as Heisenberg doubles
4. Example: -deformed D=4 covariant quantum phase space
i) generalized -deformed quantum phase space H(10,10)
ii) standard -deformed quantum phase space H(4,4)
5. Target maps, antipodes and coproduct gauges for H(4,4)
6. Discussion
(in collaboration with M. Woronowicz and Z .Skoda; arXiv:1507.02612[hep-th])

1. QUANTUM SPACES, HOPF ALGEBRAS


AND HEISENBERG ALGEBRA
Let us consider symmetries in three basic physical theories
Classical
mechanics

h0

QM +QFT
without QG effects

quantum

deformation

QM+QFT
with QG effects

classical Lie groups F(G)


dual (Fourier)
classical Lie algebras U (
g)

usually matrix
realizations

usually differential
realizations

Quantum Lie group F (Gq )


dual (Hopf )
Quantum Lie algebras Uq (
g)

realizations on noncommutative Hopf


algebra modules

Hopf algebras describe quantum (algebraic) generalization of notion of groups


(noncommutative group parameters) and quantum generalization of Lie algebras.

2/23

H = (A, m, ,
, ) bialgebra (A, m, , ) algebra(A, m)

Hopf algebra

Basic property: coalgebra defined by coproducts A A A which describe


homomorphisms of algebra A
primitive ((0)(
1+1 g
),
Coproducts for classical Lie algebra generators g
g )= g
for quantum Lie algebras noncocommutative (T (
g ) (
g ))
Coproducts for classical and quantum groups are chosen in Woronowicz Faddeev
quantum deformation scheme the same in classical and quantum cases

(Gij ) = Gik Gkj (G) = GG

ij matrix reali(G
zation of groups )

Quantum space algebra V noncommutative vector space as generators of V


In standard physics commutative representation spaces for classical Lie groups
and Lie algebras (vector spaces, classical functions)
In quantum-deformed case noncommutative Hopf algebra modules with the
Hopf-algebraic action h x V (h A, x V ) with property
h (x y) = (h(1) x) (h(2) y)

3/23

Hopf algebra modules important class of quantum spaces described by noncommutative algebra V with defined Hopf-algebraic action (Hopf-algebraic symmetry
properties buildt-in).
For physics (in theories with QG effects) important deformations of D=4 spacetime symmetries, i.e. pairs of dual deformed Poincar
e Hopf algebras H = Uq (
p3,1),
= Gq (P3,1) (q deformation parameter, not necessarily DrinfeldJimbo!)
H
Most popular examples: canonical -deformation and -deformation (in applications, e.g. in DSR theories, one postulates mp)
Problem: How to describe in this framework QM phase space (Heisenberg algebra) and its quantum deformations?
):
Standard (nondeformed) relativistic Heisenberg algebra with generators (
x , p
] = [
] = 0
[
x , x
p, p

g 1
] = ih
[
x , p

is c-number; g = diag(1, 1, 1, 1). h


as universal constant, a number, is required
h
by postulates of QM the same value for all QM states (Hilbert space vectors).

4/23

Canonical phase space contains a pair of Abelian Hopf algebras with


1 + 1 x

Hx (
x ) = x

1 + 1 p

Hp (
p ) = p

Unfortunately it is easy to check that


g 1 1 lack of homomorphism!
[(
x), (p )] = 2ih
i.e. Heisenberg algebra is not a Hopf algebra.
Two ways out:
1 by a central charge h
c with coproduct
i) We replace h
c = c 1 + 1 c. But
for different quantum states, e.g. h
nh
for
it leads to various values of h
c)1 > 2 >= 2h1
> 2 >) unphysical!
n-particle states (for n=2 (h
ii) Homomorphism of coalgebra is cured if we can postulate e.g.

(
x ) = 1 x

1 + 1 p

(
p ) = p

Mathematical justification of introducing such coproduct: replace bialgebras


by bialgebroids.

5/23

2. FROM HOPF ALGEBRAS TO HOPF ALGEBROIDS


Algebraic part of Hopf algebroid has a particular structure:
total algebra A and base subalgebra B A (h A, b B).
The algebroid structure is characterized by two important maps:
source algebra
homomorphic map B A

b h = s(b)h

s(b) h

target antialgebra
antihomomorphic map B AT

h b = t(b)h

t(b) h

It appears that quantum phase space has the structure of Hopf bialgebroid
, )
H = (A, m ; B, s, t ; ,

algebra base algebra antipode

Hopf algebra
bialgebroid with

antipode

coproduct

Assignements in relativistic physics:


) B = (
Heisenberg algebra: A = (
x , p
x) (spinless dynamics)
, p
, m
)
Heisenberg double of Poincar
e algebra: A = (
x ,
) (spin 0)
B = (
x ,
6/23

Important feature: source and target maps commute


[s(b), t(b)] = 0
b, b B
and introduce the algebra A as (B,B)-module (leftright B-module)
b h b = s(b)t(b)h
The new tensor product A A over noncommutative ring B introduced by Takeuchi
B
(1977) has a (B,B) bimodule structure and can be obtained from standard tensor
products if we factorize standard tensor product A A by left ideal (we choose
right bialgebroid)
IL = s(b) 1 1 t(b)
bB
i.e. A A defined by the equivalence classes of coproducts in A A using the rule
B

h h h h iff IL (h h) = s(b)h h h t(b)h = 0

b B

The ideal generates nonuniqueness in terms of standard tensor product A A


consistent with the homomorphism property of the map A A A. Such freedom
defines for bialgebroid the choice of coproduct gauges.

7/23

is an antialgebra map
h1h2 = (
Antipode
h2)(
h1) with the condition
s(b) = t(b)

One can choose natural inclusion for the source map: s(b) = b. In such a case
b. Further we can put consistently
one gets t(b) =
(h) = 1 h B
(h) = 0 h B
Besides we have coproduct / antipode consistency relations
) = t
m(
1) = s
m(1

where in general case one should introduce a particular projection of


coproducts within the gauge freedom described by ideal IL.
Remark: For the pair of algebras (A,B) one can introduce a left and right
bialgebroid HL, HR. Left bialgebroids HL require the presence of right ideal
IR = t(b) 11 s(b). HR requires opposite antialgebra multiplication rule (mR(a b)
= ba) and left ideal IL = s(b) 11 t(b) effectively obtained from IR by the replacement s t. From calculational reasons we choose HR.

8/23

3. COVARIANT QUANTUM PHASE SPACES AS HEISENBERG DOUBLES


Standard Heisenberg algebra can be obtained as Hopf-algebraic semi-direct
product Hp Hx of two dual Abelian Hopf algebras of momenta and positions

Hp H
Hx H
Heisenberg double is the generalization of such construction to any dual pair
of Hopf algebras (H generalized momenta, H
generalized coordinates)
(H, H)
= (A,
m,
s
,
, )
H = (A, m, , s, )
H
Duality requires existence of bilinear nongenerate map:
C < a, a

> C a A a
A
AA
Duality provides links which are known from Hopf-algebraic framework

multiplication in H

comultiplication in H

comultiplication in H
multiplication in H
one can calculate by duality relations H
(H).
i.e. having H (H)

9/23

is a H-module with the action of H


the algebra A
H
In the construction H H
=a
(1) < a, a
(2) >
aa

consistent with

Hopf-algebraic action in A

If we introduce Heisenberg double algebra A

A=AA
one can derive the cross-multiplication rules using the formula
(a 1)(1 a
) = a
(1) < a(1), a
(2) > a(2)
aa
which completes the multiplication in A.
Important theorem (Lu, 1996): Heisenberg double algebra is endowed with Hopf
algebroid structure.
Physical application: Important class of quantum-deformed generalized covariant
phase spaces are defined as Heisenberg doubles of quantum Poincar
eHopf algebras (in D=4 ten generalized momenta) and quantum Poincar
e groups (in D=4
ten generalized coordinates). Advantage of such definition: buildt-in quantum
covariance, rigorous mathematical Hopf algebroid framework.

10/23

4. EXAMPLE: -DEFORMED D=4 COVARIANT QUANTUM PHASE SPACES


i) Generalized -deformed quantum phase space H(10+10)
We shall consider quantum -Poincar
e algebra in bicrossproduct (MajidRuegg)
basis. Bicrossproduct consistent crossproduct structures of algebra and coalgebra with right action U (so(1; 3))< T 4 and left coaction U (so(1; 3))>T 4
H = U (so(1; 3)) T 4

duality

= T4 L6,
H


where L6 is the algebra of functions of Lorentz parameters
T4
momenta

duality

T4
Minkowski
space coordi
nates x

duality

U (so(3, 1))
nondeformed
Lorentz

algebra m

)
f (

Abelian
Lorentz group
parameters

determined by duality relations of generators


The duality of H and H

, m
, p
>=
<
<x
>= i( g g )
defining generalized phase space H(10,10)
We consider the Heisenberg double H H

) degrees of freedom
which contains translational (
x) and spin (

11/23

Such nondeformed phase spaces were used earlier to introduce the dynamics on
generalized coordinate space given by Poincar
e group or its cosets (Lurcat 1968;
Souriau 1970; Balachandran, Stern 198085, Bette, Zakrzewski 1997).
Hopf algebra H: -deformed Poincar
e algebra in MajidRuegg basis (1994)
algebra sector:

, m
] = i (g m
+ gm
gm
g m
)
[m
ij , p
]
j gjp
i)
[m
= i (gip
i0, p
0]
] = 0
[m
= i
pi
,
[
p , p

p
2
0
p
1
0

) i p
ip
j
[mi0, pj ]
= iij ( sinh( )e + 2 p

coalgebra sector:

ij )
(m
k0)
(m
(
p0)

counits and antipodes:

ij I + I m
ij
= m

p
0

k0 e
k0 +
+ I m
= m
0 I + I p
0
= p

(
pk )

k e
= p

ij )
S(m

ij
= m

S(
pi)
(
p )

p
0

1
kl
m

l
p

k
+ I p
i0) = m
i0 +
S(m

3i

p
2 i

0
p

i,
= e p
S(
p0) =
p0
) = 0.
= (m

12/23


By Hopfalgebraic duality one gets the -Poincar
e quantum group H
algebra sector:

,
] = 0
0 x
] = i (0x
),
[
x , x
[

0
0

,x
[
] = ((0 0 ) + ( )g )

coalgebra sector:

x
+ x
I
(
x ) =
) =


(

) =

x

S(
S(
x ) =
) =
(
x )
= 0
(
One can further calculate using Heisenberg double formulae the cross relations
;
for generalized -deformed phase space algebra H(10,10) with the basis (
p, m
) which supplement the algebra sectors of H and H:

,
x

l ]
0] = h
cross relations:
[
pk , x
= ikl
[
p0 , x
antipodes and counits:

k
l ] = 0
0]
[
p0, x
[
pk , x
= i p
] = i (

] = 0
,
[
p,
[m
) ,

, x
] = i (x
x
) + i (0 m
0 m
)
[m
)).
In bialgebroid framework A = H(10,10) and B = U(
g ) (
g = (
p , m
13/23

ii) Standard covariant -deformed phase space H(4,4)


= , i.e remove spin degrees of freedom
a) In H(10,10) one can put consistently

from quantum Poincar


e group. One gets
H(10,4) = H T4 = (so(3, 1) T 4) T4 -deformed DSR algebra
From the above structure one gets -Poincar
e covariance of -deformed Minkowski
space (Majid, Ruegg 1994).
b) Subsequently one can remove Lorentz sector so(3,1) as well from H.
)
One gets standard -deformed quantum phase space H(4,4) = (
x , p
] =
[
x , x

(
x
0

[p, p ] = 0
l ] = ikl
[
pk , x
0]
[
pk , x

k
= i p

)
0 x
0] = i
[
p0, x
l ] = 0.
[
p0 , x

These algebra relations can be lifted to coalgebraic sector only in Hopf algebroid
framework, but not as Hopfalgebra.
14/23

5. TARGET MAPS, ANTIPODES AND COPRODUCT GAUGES


FOR H(4,4)
We shall present explicite formulae for Hopf algebroid H(4,4)
a) Target map and the ideal defining tensor product H(4,4) H(4,4)
T4

.
We shall consider the canonical choice s(
x ) = x
calculated from
[
x, t(
x )] = 0
One gets the unique formulae
i e
t(
xi ) = x

0
p

0
t(
x0 ) = x

In such case t(
x) can be

i x
i
p

One can check that t is a homomorphic map in T4


[t(
x0), t(
xi)] =

t(
xi )

[t(
xi), t(
xj )] = 0

One gets the following basis of IL = s(b) 1 1 t(b) (b T4)


i 1 1 xi e
Ii IL(
xi ) = x

p
0

0 1 1 (
i p
i)
I0 IL(
x0 ) = x
x0 x

15/23

b) Antipodes and counits


s(b) = t(b) that
Using the canonical choice s(b) = b one gets from
(

x) = t(
x )

pi) = e

p
0

i
p

p0) =
p0

(we use notation


h
(h))
One gets the antipodes of x
(

xi ) = e

p
0

i = t(
x
xi )

0 1 p
i = t(
(
i x

x0 ) = x
x0 )
(h h) =
(h)
(h) one obtains
Using the formulae for t(
x) and
2

i
(
xi ) = x

(
0

x0 ) = x

3i

2(

p) = p

, (1) = 1, (
Further (
x ) = x
p) = 0 i.e. the generators of base algebra B behave
as unity element in Hopfalgebraic case.
One can check the consistency relations

(s(
x)) = (t(
x)) = x

(h s(
x)) = (h t(
x))

for all h H(4,4)

16/23

c) Coproduct gauges.
In bialgebroid scheme the choice of coproducts is not unique we introduce
generating class of coproducts homomorphic to the phase space algebra
x) = (
) = x
f (
(
x) + (
x, p
p)
- basic coproduct gauge
x), (
and f should be calculated. If ((
where (
x ) = 1 x
p)) satisfy the
H(4,4) algebraic relations one calculates f in unique way

0
0
xi ) = x
i e i(
) = x
i e 1 x
i
(
x, p
0
p
1

o 1 + x
i e p
i
(
x0 ) = x

) = x
0 1 +
0(
x, p

x
i

0
p

i 1 x
o
e x

One can check that satisfies -Minkowski space algebra


1 0
()
()
[, ] = C
C = ( 0 )

and
[(
x), ] = 0
x
1 and
If (canonical Heisenberg algebra) we get (
x ) = 1 x
x ) = x
1 i.e. f = .
(
17/23

The basic coproduct gauge can be generalized in four steps:


) One can simply replace ( - arbitrary constant), one gets

0
()(
i) +

xi) = (1 )(1 x
xi e

0
()(
i)
0) + (
i e p

x0) = (1 )(1 x
x0 1 + 1 x

(
Coproducts
x) are the homomorphic maps, i.e.
()(
()(
()(
[
x),
x )] = c
x )
) One can further extend the coproducts by introducing as basis the monomials
(k)

...

= A 1 k 1... . . . k
We get (using shorthand notation)
[(k), (l)] (k+l1)

(k = 2, 3 . . .)

x), (l)] = 0
[(
Follows that the homomorphism of coproducts for k 2 remains valid only modulo
the coproduct gauge, i.e. the H(4,4) algebra is valid in the equivalence class defined
(k)
by the coproduct gauge freedom which is spanned by 2-tensors for all k 2.
18/23

) The maximal class of coproduct gauges for (


x) is spanned by the following
basis (k 1, l 0, m 0)
...k ;1 ...l ;1 ...m

k,l,m A1

x1 ) . . . (xl )
1 . . . k (

(
p1 ) . . . (
pm )
The homomorphism is satisfied again modulo coproduct gauge, i.e.
[(
x) + k,l,m
, (
x ) + k ,l ,m ] = c((
x) + k,l,m k

,l ,m

) Finally one shows that one can add the derived above general coproduct gauge
to original Hopfalgebraic fourmomenta coproducts, i.e.

p) = (
(
p) + klm k,l,m

k,l,m

klm - constants

x), (
p)) will describe the homomorphism of
and check that algebraically ((
H(4,4) algebra modulo the most general coproduct gauge.
Remark: coproduct gauge freedom describes the equivalence classes which can be
1 1 t(
as well described as generated by the left ideal IL = y
y), characterizing
= x
(f 1) of the base algebra B.
right bialgebroid, with the generators y
19/23

6. DISCUSSION
i) Important question: physical interpretation of the freedom in coproducts for
Hopf algebroids which describe quantum phase spaces.
Basic remark: coproduct gauges are not unphysical as gauge degrees of freedom
in standard gauge theories they describe model - dependent ways of composing
two-particle coordinates and momenta which provide the same quantum phase
space algebra for global coordinates and momenta for two-particle system.
We have conceptual analogy:
gauge theories
gauge-invariant
quantities

gauge degrees
of freedom

quantum phase spaces:

quantum phase space


algebra

different ways of composing


2-particle coordinates and momenta
by the homomorphic coproduct formulae
(described by coproduct gauges)
20/23

Simple example: free 2-particle nonrelativistic phase space:


The momenta have assigned the primitive coproduct, e.g. for total momentum
(i=1,2,3)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1+2)

i
p
=
p
+
p
p
=
p

1
p
=1p
i
i
i
i
i
i
i (generators of base algebra) have nonunique bialgebroid. Let
The coordinates x
us choose
i)
(xi) = (
xi 1) + (1 )(1 x
Such formula has physical interpretation in nonrelativistic quantum phase space
(a)
(a)
(xi , pi ;
1
i = 1, 2, 3, a = 1, 2), because if we put = m1m+m
we obtain correctly the formula
2
describing nonrelativistic center of mass coordinates
m1
m2
choice of parameter physical - depends
(1+2)
(1)
i
i +
(2)
=
x
x
x
on masses of considered particles
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 i
Such formula can be extended to N-particle system.
(1+2) for relativistic system (Pryce
Unfortunately the centerofmass coordinate x
1948; Newton, Wigner 1968) depends in nonpolynomial way on p which can not
be fitted to the bialgebroid coproduct formula providing relativistic centerof
mass coordinate (with fourmomenta no problem)
21/23

ii) The choice of algebra basis for Hopf bialgebroid


We used MajidRuegg basis for Poincar
e with bicrossproduct structure of
deformed Poincar
e algebra, very convenient for the general derivation of
covariance properties, and provides H(4,4) as centrally extended Lie algebra.
Bicrossproduct structure remains valid if we change the fourmomenta (basis in
T 4) in arbitrarily nonlinear way
p
= F(
p
p)
In particular one can chose F(p) in a way leading back to the classical algebra basis of -deformed Poincar
e algebra then the Liealgebraic structure of
-deformed quantum phase space is lost. Only if F(
p) is linear (F(
p) = p )
the resulting quantum phase spaces are described by 8-dimensional centrally extended Lie algebras, as in Majid-Ruegg basis.
iii) Not every Hopf algebroid (every quantum phase space) by Hopf-algebroid
duality leads to the dual Hopf algebroid. Duality property is valid only for the
subclass of socalled Frobenius bialgebroids. In general case by duality one obtains
from bialgebroids object called cobialgebroid. The self-dual Hopf algebroids describing self-dual quantum phase spaces are Frobenius bialgebroids with antipode;
self-duality would correspond to Born reciprocity in phase space.
22/23

REFERENCES:
a) Application to quantum phase spaces (standard and -deformed)
[1] S. Meljanac, A. Samsarov, R. Strajn, JHEP 1208 (2012) 127; arXiv1204.4324
[2] T. Juric, R. Strajn, S. Meljanac, Phys. Lett. A377, 2472 (2013); arXiv1303.0994
[3] T. Juric, S. Meljanac, R. Strajn, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A29 1450022 (2014); arXiv1305.3088
[4] T. Juric, D. Kovacevic, S. Meljanac , SIGMA 10, 106 (2014); arXiv1402.0397
[5] S. Meljanac, Z. Skoda; Lie algebra type noncommutative phase spaces are Hopf algebroids;
arXiv1409.8188
b) Mathematical important papers on (Hopf ) bialgebroids:
[1] M. Takeuchi, J. Math. Soc. Japan 29, 459 (1977)
[2] J. H. Lu, Intern. Journ. Math. 7, 47 (1996); q-alg/9505024
[3] P. Xu, Comm. Math. Phys. 216, 539 (2001); math.QA9905192
[4] T. Brzezinski, G. Militaru, J. Alg. 2517, 279 (2002); math.QA0012164
[5] G. B
ohm, AMS Contemp. Math. 376, 207 (2005); math.QA/0311244

23/23