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Convention on the

Elimination of all forms of

Discrimination Against

Adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly
It is often described as an international bill of rights for
Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what
constitutes discrimination against women and sets up
an agenda for national action to end such

What is discrimination?


"...any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the

basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing
or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by
women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of
equality of men and women, of human rights and
fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social,
cultural, civil or any other field."
Gender-based violence is a form of discrimination that seriously inhibits
women's ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis of equality with

Gender-Based Violence
Violence that is directed against a woman because she
is a woman or that affects women disproportionately.
It includes acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual
harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and
other deprivations of liberty.
Gender-based violence may breach specific provisions
of the Convention, regardless of whether those
provisions expressly mention violence.

Basic Rights
a) The right to life;
b) The right not to be subject to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment;
c) The right to equal protection according to humanitarian norms in
time of international or internal armed conflict;
d) The right to liberty and security of person;
e) The right to equal protection under the law;

The right to equality in the family;

g) The right to the highest standard attainable of physical and

mental health;
h) The right to just and favourable conditions of work.

Responsibilities of State Parties

1. to incorporate the principle of equality of men and
women in their legal system, abolish all discriminatory
laws and adopt appropriate ones prohibiting
discrimination against women;
2. to establish tribunals and other public institutions to
ensure the effective protection of women against
discrimination; and
3. to ensure elimination of all acts of discrimination
against women by persons, organizations or

Not only personal violations but also:

To violence perpetrated by public authorities.

States may also be responsible for private acts if they fail
to act with due diligence to prevent violations of rights or
to investigate and punish acts of violence, and for
providing compensation