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PROJECT BACKGROUND

Background of Sample
In this lab our group was given a sample as shown in Figure 1. The sample is a polymer with a
notch at the top part. We can see that our sample has the following characteristics:
Physical Appearance:
Three pieces of polymer which are white in color and have a small amount of weight relative to
its size.

FIGURE 1
From both of the figure shown above, each of the specimen have similar dimensions and the
location of the notch is also the same. The dimensions are:
Size and specification

: 75mm x 10 mm x 10mm

Short part before the notch

: 28 mm

The specimen is in a solid state and have a low density. It has a smooth, dull and non-corrosive
surface. The solid type of the specimen is opaque.

Problem Statement

The problem statement addresses the need to determine the mechanical properties of
objects assigned to us. We have to come out with at least 2 different mechanical properties
testing of the materials, which in our case is a polymer bar specimen. Limited to only 3 bars of
specimen, we have thoroughly discussed during the meeting and chose 2 suitable mechanical
properties testing according to the standard used by American Society of Testing and
Materials(ASTM).
Hence, for this lab report our problem statement includes:
What are the mechanical properties of the given sample?
What are the tests needed to identify respective mechanical properties?

Objectives of the project are:


To identify 2 mechanical properties of the given sample by conducting relevant tests
To obtain valuable information about the mechanical behavior of the material

Scope
Carry out the test according to ASTM standards
Determine the mechanical properties of sample given
Identify the procedures for Izod testing (impact test), and Flexural test

A polymer is chemical compound where molecules are bonded together in long repeating chains.
These materials, polymers, have unique properties and can be tailored depending on their
intended purpose. Polymers are both man made and are naturally occurring. For example, rubber
is a natural polymeric material that is extremely useful and has been used by man for thousands
of years. Rubber has excellent elastic properties, and this is a result of the molecular polymer
chain created by mother nature. Many common classes of polymers are composed of
hydrocarbons. These polymers are specifically made of small units bonded into long chains.
Carbon makes up the backbone of the molecule and hydrogen atoms are bonded along the
backbone. There are polymers that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Even though the basic
makeup of many polymers is carbon and hydrogen, other elements can also be involved such as
oxygen, chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur. Both manmade and natural
polymers can exhibit elastic properties, however, polymers can exhibit a wide range of additional
useful properties. Depending on the desired use, polymers can be finely tuned to leverage the
advantageous property. Engineering polymers have in the last few decades succeeded in
replacing metals in many demanding applications, however as a family of materials, polymers in
their unmodified forms have relatively low strength, modulus and specific deficiencies. Some
polymers exhibit quite low strains at break for instance the strain break for PTFE and polyacetal
is approximately 3 and 5%, respectively. Moreover, polymers are being used in increasingly
demanding applications where product engineers are designing closer-to-the-performance limits
for these materials. Thus, failure of plastic components in engineering applications, by
mechanisms such as creep and fatigue, are becoming more common. There are host of factors
can lead to brittle failure in nominally ductile polymer. The physical and mechanical testing of
polymers is a vital part of the product development and production process. Physical and
mechanical testing of polymers ensures that the material complies with industry specifications.
Physical testing can help raw material suppliers and manufacturers to determine the properties of
their products through vast range of testing methods. When a material or additive does not meet
the users specifications, expert interpretation and advice are required. It is often necessary to
understand why polymer failure occurred, so that measures can be taken to prevent its
recurrence.

http://composite.about.com/od/whatsacomposite/a/What-Is-A-Polymer.htm
https://books.google.com.my/books?
id=CfFEerBY7nEC&pg=PA326&lpg=PA326&dq=polymer+izod+impact+test&source=bl&ots=
jcqblYwI7&sig=ruKscHIA1NiN0I7amBNscKYHHhs&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=polym
er%20izod%20impact%20test&f=false
http://www.monroecounty.gov/Image/history%20of%20plastic.pdf