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PRESSURE VESSEL:

Perancangan, Fabrikasi
dan Inspeksi

Ir. Tri Prakosa, M.Eng.

LAPI-ITB (22-25 Oktober 2009)

1
2. DESIGN OVERVIEW

2
OVERVIEW PERANCANGAN BEJANA TEKAN
(PRESSURE VESSEL), BERDASARKAN ASME
CODE SECTION VIII

ASME International

3
 Pengantar
 Material Pressure Vessel
 Perancangan (Design)
 Pertimbangam Perancangan
Lain
 Pembuatan (Fabrikasi)
 Inspeksi dan Testing
4
Definisi Pressure Vessels
Wadah fluida yang bertekanan
Digunakan di beberapa industri, antara
lain:
– Perusahaan minyak
– Perusahaan kimia
– Pembangkit tenaga
– Pabrik pulp dan kertas
– Pabrik makanan, dll

5
Jenis-jenis pressure vessel

6
Drum Horisontal
tumpuan Saddle

Gambar 2.1

7
Drum Vertikal tumpuan Kaki
1. Sebagian besar head berbentuk
kurva lengkung karena alasan
kekuatan, tipis dan ekonomi.
2. Bentuk Semi eliptik (Semi-elliptical
shape) adalah bentuk yang umum
digunakan.
3. Drum kecil vertikal biasanya
ditumpu dengan kaki.
• Perbandingan maksimum
antara panjang kaki dengan
diameter biasanya 2:1.
• Jumlah kaki, ukuram dan
detail tambahan tergantung
pada besar beban.

Gambar 2.2 8
Menara Vertikal Tinggi
1. Nozzel dihubungkan
dengan:
• Sistem perpipaan
• Koneksi instrumen
• Manways
• Sambungan instrumen
lainnya
2. Ujung nozzel biasanya
berbentuk flens.
3. Kadangkala nozzel
menjorok ke dalam vessel.

Gambar 2.3
9
Reaktor Vertikal

Gambar 2.4

10
Tangki Bola
Penyimpan (bertekanan)

Gambar 2.5 11
Vertical Vessel on Lug Supports
1 – 10 ft diameter

2:1 to 5:1 height/diameter ratio

Gambar 2.6 12
Ruang Lingkup
ASME Code Section VIII

Section VIII digunakan di seluruh dunia


Tujuan: Penyajian syarat minimal untuk
keamanan konstruksi dan operasi
Terdiri dari tiga divisi: 1, 2, dan 3

13
Section VIII Division 1
15 psig < P ≤ 3000 psig
Berlaku sampai dengan koneksi pertama ke pipa
Pengecualian lain
– Peralatan internal (kecuali yang dilas ke vessel)
– Pemanas proses yang menggunakan api
– Bejana tekan yang bersatu dengan mesin
– Sistem perpipaan

14
Section VIII, Division 2,
Aturan Alternatif
Ruang lingkup identik dengan divisi 1 tetapi
berbeda persyaratan dalam hal:
– Tegangan yang diijinkan
– Perhitungan tegangan
– Perancangan
– Kontrol kualitas
–Fabrikasi dan inspeksi
Pemilihan antara divisi 1 dan 2 tergantung
pertimbangan ekonomi
15
Division 3, Alternative Rules
High Pressure Vessels
Applications over 10,000 psi
Pressure from external source, process
reaction, application of heat, combination
of these
Does not establish maximum pressure
limits of Division 1 or 2 or minimum limits
for Division 3.

16
Structure of Section VIII,
Division 1
Subsection A
– Part UG applies to all vessels
Subsection B
– Requirements based on fabrication method
– Parts UW (weld), UF (Forged), UB (brazed)
Subsection C
– Requirements based on material class
– Parts UCS, UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD (Cast
Ductile Iron), UHT (heat treatment),
ULW (layered construction), ULT (low temperature)
Mandatory and Nonmandatory Appendices

17
Contoh Mandatory (Wajib)
Rumus-rumus Rancangan tambahan
Aturan untuk sambungan flens baut,
dengan gasket tipe ring
Vessel yang penampangnya bukan
lingkaran
Aturan rancangan untuk sambungan
clamp

18
Contoh yang Non-mandatory
Saran (good practice) untuk struktur
internal
Aturan rancangan tubesheet
dll

19
Kelas Bahan
Material Covering Applicable Code Remarks
Code part stress value tables
Carbon and UCS Code Section II, Basis for establishing stress values—Code Appendix P,UG-23
low-alloy Part D, Table 1A Low-temperature service requires Pars. UCS-65,UCS-66, UCS-67,
steels UCS-68, UG-84 Code Figs. UCS-66, UCS-66.1,UCS-66.2
In high-temperature operation, creep strength is essential
Design temperature—Code Par. UG-20
Design pressure—Code Par. UG-21, Fn. 8
Temperature above 800°F may cause carbide phase of carbon steel
to convert to graphite
Pipe and tubes—Code Pars. UG-8, UG-10, UG-16, UG-31,UCS-9,
UCS-27
Creep and rupture properties—Code Par. UCS-151

20
Kelas Bahan, (sambungan)
Material Covering Applicable Code Remarks
Code part stress value tables

Nonferrous UNF Code Section II, Basis for establishing values— Code, Appendix P, UG-23
metals Part D, Table 1B Metal characteristics—Code
Par. UNF, Appendix NF, NF-1 to NF-14
Low-temperature operation— Code Par. UNF-65
Nonferrous castings—Code Par. UNF-8

High-alloy UHA Code Section II, Selection and treatment of austenitic chromium–nickel
steels Part D, Table 1A steels—Code Par. UHA-11, UHA Appendix HA, UHA-100
to UHA-109
Inspection and tests—Code Pars. UHA-34,UHA-50, UHA-
51, UHA-52
Liquid penetrant examination required if shell thickness
exceeds 3⁄4 in—all 36% nickel steel welds—Code Par. UHA-34
Low-temperature service—Code Pars. UHA-51, UG-84
High-alloy castings—Code Pars. UHA-8, UG-7 Code Par. Ug-7

Code Pars. UG-11, UG-24, UCS-8—Code Appendix 7

Castings

21
Kelas Bahan , (sambungan)
Material Covering Applicable Code Remarks
Code part stress value tables
Cast iron UCI UCI-23 Vessels not permitted to contain lethal or flammable substances —
Code Par. UCI-2
Selection of materials—Code Pars. UCI-5, UCI-12, UG-11,
UCS-10, UCS-11, UCI-3, UCI-1,UG-10
Inspection and tests—Code Pars. UCI-90, UCI-99, UCI-101,UCI-3
Repairs in cast-iron materials— Code Par. UCI-78

Code Pars. UCI-1, UCI-23, UCI 29

Dual cast iron UCI


Integrally UCL (See Code Pars. Suggest careful study of entire metal UCL section
clad plate, UCL-11, UCL 23.) Selection of materials—Code Pars. UCL-1, UCL-3, UCL 10,
weld metal UCS-5, UF-5, ULW-5, UCL-11, UCL-12, UG-10
overlay, or Qualification of welding procedure—Code Pars. UCL-40 to -46
applied Post-weld heat treatment—Code Pars. UCL-34, UCS-56 (including
linings cautionary footnote)
Inspection and test—Code Pars.UCL-50, UCL-51, UCL-52
Spot radiography required if cladding is included in computing
required thickness—Code Par. UCL-23(c)
Use of linings—Code Par. UG- 26 and Code Appendix F

22
Kelas Bahan , (sambungan)
Material Covering Applicable Code Remarks
Code part stress value tables
Welded and UCS Code Section II, Thickness under internal pressure—Code Par. UG-27
seamless pipe Part D, Table 1A
and tubes
(carbon
and low alloy
steels) Thickness under external pressure—Code Par. UG-28
Provide additional thickness when tubes are threaded and
when corrosion, erosion, or wear caused by cleaning is expected —
Code Par. UG-31
For calculating thickness required, minimum pipe wall thickness is
87.5 percent of nominal wall thickness
30-in maximum on welded pipe made by open-hearth, basic oxygen,
or electric-furnace process— Code Par. USC-27

Welded and UHA Code Table 1A


seamless pipe
(high-alloy
steels)

23
Kelas Bahan , (sambungan)
Material Covering Applicable Code Remarks
Code part stress value tables
Forgings UF Code Section II, Materials—Code Pars. UG-6, UG-7, UG-11, UF-6, UCS-7 and
Part D, Table 1A Section II, Part D, Table 1A
Welding—Code Par. UF-32 (see also Section IX Code Par. QW- 250
and Variables, Code Pars. QW-404.12, QW-406.3, QW- 407.2, QW-
409.1 when welding forgings)

Operation at very low temperatures, requires use of notch


tough materials
Low- ULT ULT-23
temperature
materials

Vessels having a shell and/or heads made up of two or more


Layered separate layers—Code Par. ULW-2
Construction ULW Scope—Code Par. UHT-1
Marking on plate or stamping, use “low-stress” stamps—Code Par.
Ferritic steels UHT Code Table 1A
with tensile UHT-86
properties
enhanced by
Hea-
ttreatment

24
Material Selection Factors
Strength
Corrosion Resistance
Resistance to Hydrogen Attack
Fracture Toughness
Fabricability

25
Strength
Determines required component thickness
Overall strength determined by:
– Yield Strength
– Ultimate Tensile Strength
– Creep Strength
– Rupture Strength

26
Corrosion Resistance
Deterioration of metal by chemical action
Most important factor to consider
Corrosion allowance supplies additional
thickness
Alloying elements provide additional
resistance to corrosion

27
Resistance to
Hydrogen Attack
At 300 - 400°F, monoatomic hydrogen
forms molecular hydrogen in voids
Pressure buildup can cause steel to crack
Above 600°F, hydrogen attack causes
irreparable damage through component
thickness

28
Serangan Hidrogen
Hydrogen permeated into the steel can react with
carbon, resulting in the formation of methane: C(Fe) +
2H2 <==> CH4.
The methane is more or less trapped in the metal
structure and will accumulate in voids in the metal
matrix. The gas pressure in these voids can generate
an internal stress high enough to fissure, crack or
blister the steel.
As the reaction that forms methane consumes the
carbon that is present in the steel, hydrogen attack is
also called "internal decarburization".
Hydrogen attack will result in degradation of
mechanical properties, as tensile strength and
ductility drop dramatically, and can lead to failure due
to crack formation.

29
Brittle Fracture
and Fracture Toughness
Fracture toughness: Ability of material to
withstand conditions that could cause
brittle fracture
Brittle fracture
– Typically at “low” temperature
– Can occur below design pressure
– No yielding before complete failure

30
Brittle Fracture and
Fracture Toughness, cont’d
Conditions required for brittle fracture
– High enough stress for crack initiation
and growth
– Low enough material fracture toughness
at temperature
– Critical size defect to act as stress
concentration

31
Factors That Influence
Fracture Toughness
Fracture toughness varies with:
- Temperature
- Type and chemistry of steel
- Manufacturing and fabrication processes

Other factors that influence fracture toughness:


- Arc strikes, especially if over repaired area
- Stress raisers or scratches in cold formed thick
plate

32
Setup Uji Charpy V-Notch

http://www.twi.co.uk/j32k/twiimages/jk71f2.gif

33
ASME Code and
Brittle Fracture Evaluation
Components to consider
– Shells – Nozzles
– Manways – Tubesheets
– Heads – Flanges
– Reinforcing pads – Flat cover plates
– Backing strips – Attachments essential
that remain in to structural integrity
place that are welded to
pressure parts (contoh:
pressure support)

34
Temperatures to Consider
Minimum Design Metal Temperature
(MDMT)
– Lowest temperature at which component
has adequate fracture toughness
Critical Exposure Temperature (CET)
– Minimum temperature at which significant
membrane stress will occur

35
Simplified ASME
Evaluation Approach
Material specifications classified into
Material Groups A through D
Impact test exemption curves
– For each Material Group
– Acceptable MDMT vs. thickness where impact
testing not required
If combination of Material Group and
thickness not exempt, then must impact test at
CET

36
Material Groups
MATERIAL
APPLICABLE MATERIALS
GROUP

•All carbon and low alloy steel plates, structural shapes, and bars not listed in Curves
B, C & D
Curve A
•SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC, SA-217 Gr. WC6, if normalized and tempered or water-
quenched and tempered
•SA-216 Gr. WCA, if normalized and tempered or water-quenched and tempered
•SA-216 Gr. WCB & WCC for maximum thickness of 2 in., if produced to fine grain
practice and water-quenched and tempered
•SA-285 Gr. A & B
•SA-414 Gr. A
Curve B •SA-515 Gr. 60
•SA-516 Gr. 65 & 70, if not normalized
•Except for cast steels, all materials of Curve A if produced to fine grain practice and
normalized which are not included in Curves C & D
•All pipe, fittings, forging, and tubing which are not included in Curves C & D

37
Material Groups, cont’d
MATERIAL GROUP APPLICABLE MATERIALS

•SA-182 Gr. 21 & 22, if normalized and tempered


•SA-302 Gr. C & D
•SA-336 Gr. F21 & F22, if normalized and tempered
•SA-387 Gr. 21 & 22, if normalized and tempered
Curve C •SA-516 Gr. 55 & 60, if not normalized
•SA-533 Gr. B & C
•SA-662 Gr. A
•All material of Curve B if produced to fine grain practice and normalized which are not included in
Curve D
•SA-203 • SA-537 Cl. 1, 2 & 3
SA-508 Cl. 1 • SA-612, if normalized
Curve D
• SA-516, if normalized • SA-662, if normalized
• SA-524 Cl. 1 & 2 • SA-738 Gr. A
See Gambar UCS-66 of the ASME Code Section VIII, Div. 1, for impact
test exemption temperatures for specified material specifications
Bolting and Nuts

Table 3.1 (Excerpt)


38
Impact Test Exemption Curves
for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel

Gambar 3.1

39
Additional ASME Code Impact
Test Requirements
Required for welded construction over 4
in. thick, or nonwelded construction over 6
in. thick, if MDMT < 120°F
Not required for flanges if temperature
≥ -20°F
Required if SMYS > 65 ksi unless
specifically exempt

40
Additional ASME Code
Impact Test Requirements, cont’d
Not required for impact tested low
temperature steel specifications
– May use at impact test temperature
30°F MDMT reduction if PWHT P-1 steel
and not required by code
MDMT reduction if calculated stress <
allowable stress

41
Fabricability
Ease of construction
Any required special fabrication practices
Material must be weldable

42
Maximum Allowable Stress
Stress: Force per unit area that resists loads
induced by external forces
Pressure vessel components designed to
keep stress within safe operational limits
Maximum allowable stress:
– Includes safety margin
– Varies with temperature and material
ASME maximum allowable stress tables for
permitted material specifications

43
Maximum Allowable
Stress, cont’d

ASME Maximum Allowable Stress (Table 1A Excerpt)


44
Gambar 3.2
Maximum Allowable
Stress, cont’d

ASME Maximum Allowable Stress (Excerpt), cont'd


Gambar 3.2, cont'd 45
Material Selection Based
on Fracture Toughness
Exercise 1
New horizontal vessel
CET = - 2°F
Shell and heads: SA-516 Gr. 70
Heads hemispherical: ½ in. thick
Cylindrical shell: 1.0 in. thick
No impact testing specified
Is this correct?
If not correct, what should be done?

46
Exercise 1 - Solution
Must assume SA-516 Gr. 70 not normalized.
Therefore, Curve B material (Ref. Table 3.1).
Refer to Curve B in Gambar 3.1.
– ½ in. thick plate for heads: MDMT = -7°F
– ½ in. thick plate exempt from impact testing
since MDMT < CET
1 in. shell plate: MDMT = +31°F
– Not exempt from impact testing

47
Exercise 1 - Solution, cont’d
One approach to correct: Impact test 1 in. plate
at -2°F. If passes, material acceptable.
Another approach: Order 1 in. plate normalized
– Table 3.1: normalized SA-516 is Curve D
material
– Gambar 3.1: 1 in. thick Curve D, MDMT =
-30°F
– Normalized 1 in. thick plate exempt from
impact testing

48
Exercise 1 - Solution, cont’d
Choice of option based on cost, material
availability, whether likely that 1 in. thick
non-normalized plate would pass impact
testing

49
Design Conditions
and Loadings
Determine vessel mechanical design
Design pressure and temperature, other
loadings
Possibly multiple operating scenarios to
consider
Consider startup, normal operation,
anticipated deviations, shutdown

50
Design Pressure

Gambar 4.1 51
Zones Temperature
pada Vessels Tinggi

Gambar 4.2 52
Additional Loadings
Weight of vessel and normal contents
under operating or test conditions
Superimposed static reactions from weight
of attached items (e.g., motors, machinery,
other vessels, piping, linings, insulation)
Loads at attached internal components or
vessel supports
Wind, snow, seismic reactions

53
Additional Loadings, cont’d
Cyclic and dynamic reactions caused by
pressure or thermal variations, equipment
mounted on vessel, and mechanical loadings
Test pressure combined with hydrostatic weight
Impact reactions (e.g., from fluid shock)
Temperature gradients within vessel component
and differential thermal expansion between
vessel components

54
55
Weld Joint Categories

Gambar 4.3

A : Menahan hoop stress (tegangan keliling/tegak lurus sumbu)


B : Menahan longitudinal stress (tegangan searah sumbu)
C : sambungan flange
D : sambungan nozzle - shell

56
Weld Types

Gambar 4.4 57
Weld Joint Efficiencies

Gambar 4.5

58
Summary of
ASME Code Equations

Gambar 4.6 59
60
61
Typical
Formed Closure Heads

Gambar 4.7
62
Hemispherical
Head to Shell Transition

Gambar 4.8
63
Sample Problem 1

Gambar 4.9
64
Sample Problem 1 - Solution
Required thickness for internal pressure of
cylindrical shell (Gambar 4.6):

Welds spot radiographed, E = 0.85 (Gambar


4.5)
S = 14,400 psi for SA- 515/Gr. 60 at 700°F
(Gambar 3.2)
P = 250 psig
65
Sample Problem 1
Solution, cont’d
For 6 ft. - 0 in. shell
r = 0.5D + C = 0.5 x 72 + 0.125 = 36.125 in.

t = tp + c = 0.747 + 0.125
t = 0.872 in., including corrosion allowance

66
Sample Problem 1
Solution, cont’d
For 4 ft. - 0 in. shell
r = 0.5 x 48 + 0.125 = 24.125 in.

t = 0.499 + 0.125
t = 0.624 in., including corrosion allowance

67
Sample Problem 1
Solution, cont’d
Both heads are seamless, E = 1.0.
Top Head - Hemispherical (Gambar 4.6)
r = 24 + 0.125 = 24.125 in.

t = tp + c = 0.21 + 0.125
t = 0.335 in., including corrosion allowance

68
Sample Problem 1
Solution, cont’d
Bottom Head - 2:1 Semi-Elliptical (Gambar
4.6)

D = 72 + 2 x 0.125 = 72.25 in.


t = 0.628 + 0.125
t = 0.753 in., including corrosion allowance

69
Design For External Pressure
and Compressive Stresses

Compressive forces caused by dead


weight, wind, earthquake, internal vacuum
Can cause elastic instability
(buckling`/tekukan)
Vessel must have adequate stiffness
– Extra thickness
– Circumferential stiffening rings

70
Design For External Pressure and
Compressive Stresses, cont’d

ASME procedures for cylindrical shells,


heads, conical sections, as function of:

– Material – Temperature
– Diameter – Thickness
– Unstiffened length

71
Stiffener Rings

Gambar 4.10
72
Sample Problem 2 - Solution
A tall cylindrical tower is being
supplied. The geometry and
design conditions are
specified in Figure 4.11. The
vendor has proposed that the
wall thickness of this tower be
7/16 in., and no stiffener rings
have been specified. Is the
7/16 in. thickness acceptable
for external pressure? If it is
not acceptable, what minimum
thickness is required? Round
your answer upward to the
nearest 1/16 in.

Gambar 4.11
73
L : tangent to tangent
Seam

Seam

74
Sample Problem 2 - Solution
Calculate L and Do of cylindrical shell.

L = Tangent Length + 2 x 1/3 (Head Depth)


L = 150 x 12 + 2/3 x (48/4) = 1,808 in.
Do = 48 + 2 x 7/16 = 48.875 in. (48 : ID)

Determine L/Do and Do/t


Account for corrosion allowance: (CA=0,0625”=1/16)

t = 7/16 – 1/16 = 6/16 = 0.375 in.


Do/t = 48.875 / 0.375 = 130
L/Do = 1808 / 48.875 = 37

75
Sample Problem 2
Solution, cont’d
Determine A.
Use Gambar 4.12, Do/t, and L/Do.

Note: If L/Do > 50, use L/Do = 50.


For L/Do < 0.05, use L/Do = 0.05

76
Sample Problem 2
Solution, cont’d

Factor A
Gambar 4.12
77
Sample Problem 2
Solution, cont’d

Factor B
Gambar 4.13 78
Sample Problem 2
Solution, cont’d
Calculate maximum allowable external
pressure
Karena Factor A terletak di sebelah kiri kurva,
maka tidak Faktor B tidak ada, sehingga untuk
menghitung Pressure, digunakan rumus di
samping
Where:
E = Young's modulus of elasticity
E = 27 x 106 psi (Gambar 4.13) at T = 500°F
Pa = 9 psi

79
Sample Problem 2
Solution, cont’d
Since Pa < 15 psi, 7/16 in. thickness not
sufficient
Assume new thickness = 9/16 in.,
corroded thickness = 1/2 in.

80
Exercise 2 - Required
Thickness for Internal Pressure
Inside Diameter : 10’ - 6”
Design Pressure : 650 psig
Design Temperature : 750°F
Shell & Head Material : SA-516 Gr. 70
Corrosion Allowance : 0.125 in.
2:1 Semi-Elliptical heads, seamless
100% radiography
Vessel in vapor service (no liquid loading)

81
Exercise 2 - Solution
For shell

P = 650 psig
r = 0.5 x D + CA
= (0.5 x 126) + 0.125 = 63.125 in.

S = 16,600 psi, Gambar 3.3 for SA-516 Gr. 70


E = 1.0, Gambar 4.8 for 100% radiography

82
Exercise 2 - Solution, cont’d
Add corrosion allowance
tp = 2.53 + 0.125 = 2.655 in.

 For the heads

Add corrosion allowance


tp = 2.23 + 0.125 = 2.355 in.

83
Reinforcement of Openings
Simplified ASME rules - Area replacement
Metal used to replace that removed:
- Must be equivalent in metal area
- Must be adjacent to opening

84
Kompensasi (Compensation)
Compensation, or reinforcement, is the
provision of extra stress-transmitting area
in the wall of a cylinder or shell when
some area is removed by boring a hole for
branch attachment.
The principle is sketched.

85
Kompensasi (Compensation)
The left sketch shows part of a cylinder's
longitudinal section; the major circumferential
stress acts across the critical longitudinal plane.
The nominal thickness is   T, and a hole of
diameter   Db is bored - dimensions being
reckoned in the fully corroded condition. The
stress-transmitting area removed is   A = Dbt
where the calculation thickness   t is given by
( 1).

86
Kompensasi (Compensation)
The figure on the right demonstrates
compensation for area removal by providing
equal area for alternate force paths in otherwise
unused material of cylinder and branch. Not all
the branch wall can be devoted to compensation
since the internally pressurised branch is a
cylinder in its own right, with calculation and
nominal thicknesses,   tb and   Tb, determined in
a manner identical to the main shell.

87
Kompensasi (Compensation)
Provided that the longitudinal welds in both shell
and branch do not lie in the critical longitudinal
plane, then - from a compensation point of view - both   t
and   tb would be reckoned from ( 1) with   η = 1. The
thickness differences   ( T - t ) and   ( Tb - tb ) contribute
to compensation - though reinforcement is ineffective
beyond the limits   Ln normal to the vessel wall, and   Lp
from the branch centreline parallel to the wall, as shown
below for a set-in branch :-

88
Kompensasi (Compensation)

89
Kompensasi (Compensation)
AS 1210 gives the limits as :-
Ln   =   maximum [ 0.8 ( DbTb )1/2 + Tr ,   minimum
( 2.5T,   2.5Tb + Tr ) ]
or   ( DbT )1/2 for a flanged-in head
Lp   =   maximum [ Db ,   Db/2 + T + Tb + 2c ]

90
Kompensasi (Compensation)
Usually the first of the   Lp limits,   Db, controls.
However a compensating area cannot
contribute to more than one branch, so if the
spacing of two branches   Db1 and   Db2 is less
than   ( Db1+ Db2 ), then by proportion   Lp1 = Db1 .
spacing/( Db1+ Db2 ).

91
Kompensasi (Compensation)
Furthermore, if the branch is attached to a dished
end, then no compensation area is effective if it
lies outside the aforementioned 80% limits. If the
head is torispherical, the hole should lie in the
spherical portion and   t will be given by ( v). If the
head is ellipsoidal, then AS 1210 defines an
equivalent sphere for the application of ( v), since
the hole will not lie close to the rim region of sharp
curvature which dictates the thickness via the
stress concentration factor in ( vii).

92
Kompensasi (Compensation)
Within the   Ln, Lp limits, compensation requires
that :-
A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5   ≥   A   =   Dbt
The inward protrusion '3' is subjected to
corrosion on three surfaces but there is no
pressure differential across it; it will not exist for
a set-on branch. The sketch indicates that:-
A1   = ( 2Lp - Db - 2tb ) ( T - t )       ;       A2   = 2Ln (
Tb - tb )       etc.

93
Cross-Sectional View of
Nozzle Opening

Gambar 4.14

94
Nozzle Design Configurations

Gambar 4.15 95
Additional Reinforcement
Necessary if insufficient excess thickness
Must be located within reinforcement zone
Allowable stress of reinforcement pad
should be ≥ that of shell or head
Additional reinforcement sources
– Pad
– Additional thickness in shell or lower part of
nozzle

96
Sample Problem 3

Gambar 4.16

97
Sample Problem 3 - Solution
Calculate required reinforcement area, A

A = dtrF

Where:
d = Finished diameter of circular opening, or
finished dimension of nonradial opening in
plane under consideration, in.
tr = Minimum required thickness of shell using
E = 1.0
F = Correction factor, normally 1.0

98
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Calculate diameter, d.
d = Diameter of Opening – 2 (Thickness +
Corrosion Allowance)
d = 8.625 – 1.0 + .125 = 7.750 in.
Calculate required shell thickness, tr
(Gambar 4.6)
tr = 0.487 in.
Assume F = 1.0

99
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Calculate A
A = dtrF
A = (8.625 - 1.0 + 0.125) x 0.487 x 1
= 3.775 in.2

Calculate available reinforcement area in vessel


shell, A1, as larger of A11 or A12
A11 = (Elt - Ftr)d
A12 = 2 (Elt-Ftr)(t + tn)
100
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Where:

El = 1.0 when opening is in base plate away from welds,


or when opening passes through circumferential
joint in shell (excluding head to shell joints).
El = ASME Code joint efficiency when any part of
opening passes through any other welded joint.
F = 1 for all cases except integrally reinforced nozzles
inserted into a shell or cone at angle to vessel
longitudinal axis. See Fig. UG-37 for this special
case.
tn = Nominal thickness of nozzle in corroded condition,
in.

101
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
A11 = (Elt - Ftr)d
= (0.5625 - 0.0625 - 0.487) x 7.75
= 0.1 in.2

A12 = 2 (Elt - Ftr) (t + tn)


= 2(0.5625-0.0625-0.487)x(0.5625-0.0625+0.5 -0.0625)
= 0.0243 in.2

Therefore,
A1 = 0.1 in.2 available reinforcement in shell

102
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Calculate reinforcement area available in
nozzle wall, A2, as smaller of A21 or A22.

A21 = (tn-trn) 5t
A22 = 2 (tn-trn) (2.5 tn + te)

103
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Where:
trn = Required thickness of nozzle wall, in.
r = Radius of nozzle, in.
te = 0 if no reinforcing pad.
te = Reinforcing pad thickness if one installed, in.
te = Defined in Gambar UG-40 for self-reinforced
nozzles, in.

104
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Calculate required nozzle thickness, trn
(Gambar 4.6)

105
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Calculate A2.

A21 = (tn - trn)5t


= (0.5 - 0.0625 - 0.0784) x 5 (0.5625 - 0.0625)
= 0.898 in.2
A22 = 2 (tn - trn) (2.5 tn + te)
= 2 (0.5 - 0.0625 - 0.0784) [2.5 x (0.5 - 0625) + 0]
= 0.786 in.2

Therefore,

A2 = 0.786 in.2 available reinforcement in nozzle.

106
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Determine total available reinforcement area, AT;
compare to required area.
AT = A1 + A2 = 0.1 + 0.786 = 0.886 in.2
AT < A, nozzle not adequately reinforced,
reinforcement pad required.

Determine reinforcement pad diameter, Dp.


A5 = A - AT
A5 = (3.775 - 0.886) = 2.889 in.2

107
Sample Problem 3 -
Solution, cont’d
Calculate Dp
te = 0.5625 in. (reinforcement pad thickness)
A5 = [Dp - (d + 2 tn)] te
2.889 = [Dp - (7.75 + 2(0.5 - 0.0625)] 0.5625
Dp = 13.761 in.

Confirm Dp within shell reinforcement zone, 2d


2d = 2 x 7.75 = 15.5 in.
Therefore, Dp = 13.761 in. acceptable

108
Flange Rating
Based on ASME B16.5
Identifies acceptable pressure/temperature
combinations
Seven classes
(150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, 2,500)
Flange strength increases with class number
Material and design temperature combinations
without pressure indicated not acceptable

109
Material Specification List

ASME B16.5, Table 1a, Material Specification List (Excerpt)

Gambar 4.17

110
Pressure-Temperature Ratings

Gambar 4.18

111
Sample Problem 4
Determine Required Flange Rating
Pressure Vessel Data:
Shell and Heads : SA-516 Gr.70
Flanges : SA-105
Design Temperature: 700°F
Design Pressure : 275 psig

112
Sample Problem 4 - Solution
Identify flange material specification SA-105
From Gambar 4.17, determine Material Group
No.
Group 1.1
From Gambar 4.18 with design temperature and
Material Group No. determined in Step 3
– Intersection of design temperature with Material Group
No. is maximum allowable design pressure for the
flange Class

113
Sample Problem 4 -
Solution, cont’d
– Table 2 of ASME B16.5, design information for
all flange Classes
– Select lowest Class whose maximum
allowable design pressure ≥ required design
pressure.
At 700°F, Material Group 1.1: Lowest Class that
will accommodate 275 psig is Class 300.
At 700°F, Class 300 flange of Material Group
1.1: Maximum design pressure = 535 psig.

114
Flange Design
Bolting requirements
– During normal operation (based on design
conditions)
– During initial flange boltup (based on stress
necessary to seat gasket and form tight seal

115
Flange Loads and Moment Arms

Gambar 4.19

116
Stresses in
Flange Ring and Hub
Calculated using:
– Stress factors (from ASME code)
– Applied moments
– Flange geometry
Calculated for:
– Operating case
– Gasket seating case

117
Flange Design and
In-Service Performance
Factors affecting design and performance

ASME Code m and y parameters.

Specified gasket widths.

Flange facing and nubbin width, w

Bolt size, number, spacing

118
ASME Code m and y Factors

Gambar
4.20
119
ASME Code Gasket Widths

ASME Code Gasket Widths


(Table 2-5.2 excerpt)

Gambar 4.21

120
Gasket Materials and
Contact Facings

Gambar 4.22

121
Maximum Allowable
Working Pressure (MAWP)
Maximum permitted gauge pressure at top of
vessel in operating position for designated
temperature
 MAWP ≥ Design Pressure
 Designated Temperature = Design Temperature
 Vessel MAWP based on weakest component
– Originally based on new thickness less corrosion
allowance
– Later based on actual thickness less future corrosion
allowance needed

122
Local Loads
Piping system

Platforms, internals, attached equipment

Support attachment

123
Types of Vessel Internals
Trays
Inlet Distributor
Anti-vortex baffle
Catalyst bed grid and support beams
Outlet collector
Flow distribution grid
Cyclone and plenum chamber system

124
ASME Code and
Vessel Internals
Loads applied from internals on vessel to
be considered in design

Welding to pressure parts must meet


ASME Code

125
Corrosion Allowance
For Vessel Internals
Removable internals: CA = CA of shell
– Costs less
– Easily replaced

Non-removable internals: CA = 2 (CA of


shell)
– Corrosion occurs on both sides

126
Typical Head-to-Shell Transitions

Gambar 6.1

127
Typical Shell Transitions

Gambar 6.2

128
Nozzle Neck Attachment
to Thinner Pipe

Gambar 6.3

129
Stiffener Ring Attachment

Gambar
6.4

130
Post Weld Heat Treatment
Restores material properties
Relieves residual stresses
ASME Code PWHT requirements
– Minimum temperature and hold time
– Adequate stress relief
– Heatup and cooldown rates

131
ASME Reference Chart

132

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