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ORGANIZATION

STRUCTURE, PROCESS AND


DESIGN
ORGANIZATION
STRUCTURE
The formal, established pattern of
relationships amongst the various parts of a
firm or any organization
• FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS

• INFORMAL ORGANIZATIONS
SCALAR PRINCIPLE

Authority should
flow in a straight
line from the
superior to the
subordinate in a
hierarchical manner
UNITY OF COMMAND

Ideally each subordinate


should have only one
superior
DIFFERENTIATION OF
TASKS
• Differentiation by Function
• Differentiation by Product
• Differentiation by Location
• Differentiation by Type of
Customers
MATRIX STRUCTURE
A combination of the product and functional
organizations usually created for executing
a project which requires the skilled services
of a functional man as well as the
specialized knowledge of a product man
INTEGRATION
• Authority
• Administration
• Communication Network
MANAGERIAL
COMMUNICATION
Guidelines for making verbal
communication more effective

• Use simple words and phrases


• Use short and familiar words
• Use personal pronouns
• Give illustrations and examples
• Use short sentences and paragraphs
• Use active verbs
• Economize on adjectives
• Express thoughts logically and in a direct
way
• Avoid unnecessary words
Use of Body Language
Non-verbal actions that assist
communication

• Maintaining eye contact


• Occasionally nodding the head in agreement
• Smiling and showing animation
• Leaning towards the speaker
• Speaking at a moderate rate, in a quiet tone
Non-verbal actions that impede
communication

• Looking or turning away from the speaker


• Sneering or using other contemptuous gestures
• Closing your eyes
• Using an unpleasant tone of voice
• Speaking too slow or too fast
CHANNELS OF
COMMUNICATION
• Formal channels – are intentionally
designed

• Informal channels – develop of their own


accord
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE
COMMUNICATION
• Semantic Barriers

• Psychological Barriers

• Organizational Barriers
MAKING COMMUNICATION
EFFECTIVE
• Use direct, simple language and avoid words
which can have ambiguous meanings
• Use face-to-face communication
• Use feedback
• Listen with understanding
• Create constructive environment for the
expression of ideas
• Be careful about your non-verbal
communication
• Develop and use organizational structures
which minimize the chances of filtering the
communication