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Subject :- International Marketing

Course :- MBA(III)rd sem

Faculty :- Ms. Parul Gupta

International market segmentation and positioning


• In global marketing, market segmentation becomes especially critical because of wide divergence in
cross-border consumer needs and lifestyles.
• Most companies will identify and target the most attractive market segments that they can
effectively serve.
• Once the management has chosen its target segments, management needs to determine a competitive
positioning strategy for its products.

Bases for Global Market Segmentation

Bases for International

Bases for International
Market Segmentation
Market Segmentation

Environmental Marketing
Environmental Management
Variables Management
Variables Variables

Geographic Political Economic Cultural

Variables Political
Variables Economic
Variables Cultural
Variables Variables Variables Variables

Product Promotion Price Distribution

Variables Promotion
Variables Price
Variables Distribution
Variables Variables Variables Variables

Properties of International Market Segments

Segments ideally should possess the following set of properties:

1. Identifiable
2. Sizable
3. Accessible
4. Stable
5. Responsive
6. Actionable

Requirements for effective segmentation

1. Measurability Degree to which size, purchasing power and profits of a market segment can be

2. Accessibility Degree to which a market segment can be reached and served.
3. Substantiality Degree to which a market segment is sufficiently large or profitable.
4. Actionability Degree to which effective programmes can be designed for attracting and serving the
given market segment.

Reasons for International Market Segmentation

1. Country Screening
2. Global Market Research
3. Entry Decisions
4. Positioning Strategy
5. Resource Allocation
6. Marketing Mix Policy
7. Balance between standardization and customization

Market segmentation
Research based exercise that incorporates several stages:
1. Qualitative research Exploratory techniques to determine motivations and attitudes.
2. Quantitative research Structured questionnaire to gain information.
3. Analysis Factor and cluster analysis. Automatic Interaction Detection and conjoint analysis.
4 Validation Statistical validation.
5. Profiling Distinguishing attitudes and behaviours.

Levels of market segmentation

Mass marketing Assumes market is homogenous and uses the same product, promotion and distribution to
all consumers.
Segment marketing Adapting a company’s offerings so they more closely match the needs of one or more
Niche marketing Adapting a company’s offerings to match the needs of one or more sub-segments more
closely where there is little competition.
Micro marketing Marketing programmes tailored to narrowly defined geographic, demographic,
psychographic behavioural segments.

Micro marketing
1. Local Marketing Tailoring brands and promotions to the needs and wants of local customer groups.
2. Individual marketing Tailoring products and marketing programmes to the needs and preferences of
individual customers.
3. Mass customisation Preparing individually designed products and communication on a large scale.

Market segmentation

• There is no single way of segmenting a market.

• Different market segmentation variables to develop the most effective segmentation method.
• Major variables used are geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioural.

Corporate Insight

PEARS(HLL Product)

Selecting an undeserved segment and creating differential advantage

Brand Name :- Pears Junior

Segmentation 1
Geographic segmentation
Dividing a market into different geographical units such as countries, states, regions, towns.

Demographic segmentation
• Age and life-cycle segmentation.
• Ethnic segmentation.
• Gender segmentation.
• Income segmentation.

Study of relationship between geographical location and demographics.

Segmentation (2)
Psychographic segmentation
Social class
Young and Rubican’s Cross-Cultural Consumer characterisation:

The constrained: limited by income, can be ‘resigned poor’ or ‘struggling poor’.
The middle majority: ‘aspirers’ and ‘succeeders’.
The innovators: ‘transitionals’ and ‘reformers’.

Behavioural segmentation Markets segmented based upon consumer knowledge, attitude, use or
response to a product.
• Occasion segmentation
• Benefit segmentation
• User status
• Usage rate
• Loyalty status
• Buyer readiness stage
• Attitude towards product

Corporate Insight


Benefit based and geography based segmentation consumer market

Band Name :- The Four Stroke 106cc CRUX

Benefit segmentation of the toothpaste market

Corporate Insight


Use of behavioral segmentation in the consumer market
TNS identified six need based segments in Indian
Automotive sector
1. Potency buyers
2. Utility buyers
3. Prestige buyers
4. Adventure buyers
5. Status buyers
6. Liberation buyers

Segmenting business markets

Illustration no. 1
Recent study by Signode Corporation (industrial packaging division)revealed the following four types of
1.Programmed buyers
View products as not very important to their business. Pay full price and accept little service. Highly
2.Relationship buyers
View products as moderately important. Small discounts and good profitability. Modest amount of service.
3.Transaction buyers
View products as very important to their business. Large discounts for volume. Well informed on products
and competitor products.
4.Bargain hunters
Demand highest service and biggest discounts. Volume customers though not very profitable.

Corporate insight


Segmenting organisational market bon the basis of company size

Product :- Corporate Credit Card for SME
Brand Name :- HBFC Bank Power Plus Business Card

Multivariate segmentation

Companies generally integrate ways of segmentation in the following manner:

1.Simple multivariate segmentation
Gender and age
2.Advanced multivariate segmentation
Geodemographic, lifestyle as well as behavioural
3.Multistage segmentation
Use a combination of macro and micro segmentation.

International Targeting

Features Undifferentiated global Concentrated global Differentiated global

market stg. mkt. stg. mkt. stg.
No. of market Multiple Single Multiple
Marketing Mix Single Single Multiple
Niche marketing Ignored Not Applicable Detailed
Sales Moderate Limited Large


Product Positioning
Strengthen a brand’s current position in the mind of the consumers.
Search for a new unoccupied position that is valued by enough consumers and occupy that. De-position or
re-position the competition.

Choosing and implementing a positioning strategy

• Ad man Rosser Reeves states that every company should have a unique selling proposition (USP).
• The USP is the unique product benefit that a firm aggressively promotes in a consistent manner to its
target market. The benefit usually reflects functional superiority: best quality, best services, lowest
price, most advanced technology.
• Difficulty of maintaining functional superiority forces firms to attempt a more emotional influence
by developing an emotional selling proposition (ESP).

Corporate Insight

Gender oriented Positioning :- For women
Brand Name :- Honda Activa and Dia


Benefit based Positioning

Brand Name :- Clinic Plus Shampoo

Common and serious positioning errors

Under-positioning A positioning error referring to failure to position a company, its product or brand.
Over-positioning A positioning error referring to too narrow a picture of the company, its products or a
brand being communicated to target customers.
Confused positioning Leaves consumers with a confused image of the company, its product or brand.
Implausible positioning Making claims that stretch the perception of the buyers too far to be believed.

Essential criteria to accomplish a good positioning strategy

1. Features and benefits must be important to the consumer.

2. Must be distinctive from the competition.
3. Must deliver superior quality or service.
4. Difference must be communicable and visible to buyers.
5. Pre-emptive and competitors unable to replicate.
6. Affordable
7. Profitable

International Positioning Strategies

• Identify the relevant set of competing products or brands.

• Determine current perceptions held by consumers about your product/brand and the
• Develop possible positioning themes.
• Screen the positioning alternatives and select the most appealing one
• Develop a marketing mix strategy.
• Over time, monitor the effectiveness of your positioning strategy and if needed, conduct an

Corporate Insight


Building the marketing mix around the positioning plank

International Positioning Strategies

1. Uniform vs. Localized Positioning Strategies

2. Universal Positioning Appeals
3. Positioning themes:
4. Specific product features/attributes
5. Product benefit, solutions for problems
6. User application
7. Lifestyles

Global, Foreign, and Local Consumer Culture Positioning

1. Global consumer culture positioning (GCCP) Brand as a symbol of a given global consumer culture
2. Local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) Brand as an intrinsic part of the local culture.
3. Foreign consumer culture positioning (FCCP) Brand mystique built around a specific foreign culture

Four industry types

1.Volume industries An industry characterised by few opportunities to create competitive advantages.

each advantage is huge and results in a high pay-off.
2.Stalemate industries An industry that produces commodities and is characterised by few opportunities to
create competitive advantages, with each advantage being small.
3.Fragmented industries An industry characterised by many opportunities to create competitive advantages,
but each advantage is small.

4.Specialised industries An industry where there are many opportunities for firms to create competitive
advantages that are huge and give a high pay-off.

Differentiating markets Companies and their market offerings can be differentiated along the lines of
products, services, personnel or image.

Corporate Insight


Lack of differentiation leads to failure of brand extension

Band names :- Vaseline talcum powder

Fair & lovely talc
Lifeboy hand wash

Corporate Insight

Product differentiation in low involvement product category

Brand Names :- Captin Cook

Dandi and Catch
Tata Annapurna

1.Product differentiation 2.Services differentiation

1. Delivery
1. Features and benefits 2. Installation
2. Quality 3. Repair services
3. Performance 4. Customer training services
4. Innovation 5. Consulting services
5. Consistency 6. Speed of service
6. Reliability
7. Style and design 3.Personnel differentiation
8. Durability 1. Hiring
9. Repairability 2. Training
3. Customer focused

4.Image differentiation Images that reflect the ‘soul’ or ethos of the company

5.Value positioning A range of positioning alternatives based on the value an offering delivers and its

More for more Premium product and premium price, supported by a premium image. E.g. Mont Blanc
More for the same Brand offering comparable quality at a lower price. E.g. Lexus versus the Mercedes-
The same for less Value proposition e.g.
Less for much less Trade off between luxury and necessity. E.g. Five star hotel versus a budget hotel.
Lower performance for much lower cost.
More for less No-name house brands versus the big brands.

Segmentation techniques and tools:

Cluster Analysis: Collection of statistical procedures for dividing objects into groups (clusters). The
grouping is done in such a manner that members belonging to the same group are very similar to one
another but quite distinct from members of other groups.
• Regression Analysis: In regression, one assumes that there exists a relationship between a response
variable, Y, and one or more so-called predictor variables, X1, X2 and so on.
• For each of the parameter estimates, the regression analysis will also produce standard error.
• The higher the R2 value, the better the ability of the regression model to predict the data.