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Mashilo Nkgoeng

mashilonk@gmail.com
mashilo.nkgoeng@debeersgroup.com

Thick-Walled Cylinder and Compound Cylinder Theory


October 2, 2008

1 Lame’ Equations For Thick Walled Cylinders


a2 Pi − b2 Po (Pi − Po )a2 b2
σr = − (1)
b 2 − a2 (b2 − a2 )r2
a2 Pi − b2 Po (Pi − Po )a2 b2
σθ = + (2)
b 2 − a2 (b2 − a2 )r2
The above equations can also be written as follows, even though I will not get into the
derivation of them:
B
σr = A − 2 (3)
r
B
σθ = A + 2 (4)
r
The radial displacement u is determined as follows:
" # " #
1 − ν (a2 Pi − b2 Po )r 1 + ν (Pi − Po )a2 b2
u= +
E b 2 − a2 E (b2 − a2 )r

2 Compound Cylinders
Compound cylilnders are used to increase the pressure that can be contained in cylinders.
The inside diameter of cylinder 2 is undersized by a small amount (interference) and
must be heated to fit over cylinder 1. This is often referred to as a shrink fit.

1
(a) Compound Cylinder (b) Inner Cylinder (c) Outer Cylinder

Figure 1: Compound Cylinders

Figure 2: Sectioned Compound Cylinder

2.1 Interference Equations


The radial displacement for the inner cylinder is:
P b b 2 + a2
 
u1 = − νi
Ei b2 − a2
The radial displacement for the outer cylinder is:
P b b2 + c 2
 
u2 = + νo
E0 c2 − b2
The interference pressure is directly proportional to the interference as it can be seen below
P b b2 + c2 P b b 2 + a2
   
δ= + νo + − νi
E0 c2 − b2 Ei b2 − a2

2
2.2 Interference Pressure
The interference pressure is that pressure needed to compress the inner cylinder and expand
the outer cylinder so that the two cylinders can be assembled.

P b b2 + c2 P b b 2 + a2
   
δ= + νo + − νi
E0 c2 − b2 Ei b2 − a2

For the same material the interface pressure is:

Eδ (b2 − a2 )(c2 − b2 )
P =
b 2b2 (c2 − a2 )

3 Excercise
3.1 Problems
Pb. 1. A bronze bush of 25mm wall thickness is to be shrunk onto a steel shaft 100mm in
diameter. If an interference pressure of 69MPa is required, determine the interference
between bush and shaft. Es = 207GP a, νs = 0.28, Eb = 100GP a and νb = 0.29

Pb. 2. A compound cylinder is formed by shrinking a tube of 250mm internal diameter and
25mm wall thickness onto another tube of 250mm external diameter and 25mm wall
thickness, both tubes being made of the same material. The stress set up at the
junction owin to shrinkage is 10M P a. The compound tube is subjected to an internal
pressure of 80M P a. Compare the hoop stress distribution now obtained with that of
a single cylinder of 300mm external diameter and 50mm thickness subjected to the
same internal pressure.

3.2 Solutions
The diagrams Fig. 2, 1(b) and 1(c) can be used as referenced diangrams.

Problem No 1.

Using constants A and B for the shaft and C and D for the bush, then the radial stress for
the shaft is
B
σrs = A − 2
r
At the centre of the shaft r = 0 and this might imply that σrs was infinite, but we know
that it is not possible, so B = 0; hence the radial stress for the shaft is σrs = A. This also
means that σθs = A, at all points in the shaft. The boundary conditions are as follows:
At the interface

3
σrs = A = −69 × 106
D
At rm = 50, σrb = −69 × 106 = C − = C − 400D
0.0025
D
At ro = 75, σrb = 0 = C − = C − 178.57D
0.0056
From which D = 312 × 103 and C = 55.5 × 106 . So at rm , we have got σrb = −69M P a and
σθb = 180M P a.

It has to be mentioned that at the interface that radial stresses in both cylinders are equal.

Now, the interference is

δ = ub − us = rm (εθb − εθs )
" #
(180 − 0.29(−69)) (−69 − 0.28(−69))
δ = 0.05 − = 0.112mm
100 207
This is therefore the interference required at the nominal interference radius of 50mm be-
tween the shaft and the bush.

Problem No 2.

In this one we are going to approach it a little different, i.e. by considering the effects of of
shrinkage and internal pressure separately and combining the results algebraically.

Shrinkage only in the outer cylinder:

At r = 0.15: σr = 0 and at r = 0.125: σr = −10M P a


B
0=A− = A − 44.5B (5)
0.152
B
−10 = A − = A − 64B (6)
0.1252
We therefore get the value for A = 22.85 and B = 0.514.

σθ|r=0.15m = A + 44.5B = 45.7M P a


σθ|r=0.125m = A + 64B = 55.75M P a
Shrinkage only in the inner cylinder:

4
At r = 0.10: σr = 0 and at r = 0.125: σr = −10M P a
B
0=A− = A − 100B (7)
0.102
B
−10 = A − = A − 64B (8)
0.1252
We therefore get the value for A = −27.8 and B = −0.278.

σθ|r=0.125m = A + 64B = −45.6M P a


σθ|r=0.10m = A + 100B = −55.6M P a
Now we consider internal pressure only–on complete cylinder. We treat the cylinder as
a one thick cylinder.

At r = 0.15: σr = 0 and at r = 0.10: σr = −80M P a.

0 = A − 44.5B (9)
−80 = A − 100B (10)
We therefore get the value for A = 64.2 and B = 1.44.

σθ|r=0.15m = A + 44.5B = 128.4M P a


σθ|r=0.125m = A + 64B = 156.4M P a
σθ|r=0.1m = A + 100B = 208.2M P a
The resultant stresses for the combined shrinkage and internal pressure are then:

Outer
σθ|r=0.15m = 128.4 + 45.7 = 174.1M P a
σθ|r=0.125m = 156.4 + 55.75 = 212.15M P a
Inner Cylinder
σθ|r=0.125m = 156.4 − 45.6 = 110.8M P a
σθ|r=0.1m = 208.2 − 55.6 = 152.6M P a