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MALAYSIA

POLYTECHNICS
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

MODULE E 2004
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

IDRIS BIN KAMARUDDIN (PSA)


SHALIZA BT SHAHRIL (PSA)
BIODATA OF MODULE WRITERS
E2004 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN

Name : Idris Bin Kamaruddin


Address : Electrical Engineering Department
Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul
Aziz Shah, Persiaran Usahawan,
Seksyen U1, 40150 Shah Alam,
Selangor.
Telephone No. : 03-55691901 ext.6020
e-mail : idris@jke.psa.edu.my /
sirdi75@hotmail.com
Qualifications : B.Eng Electrical ( Mechatronic ) (UTM)
Position : Lecturer

Name : Shaliza Bt Shahril


Address : Electrical Engineering Department
Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul
Aziz Shah, Persiaran Usahawan,
Seksyen U, 40150 Shah Alam,
Selangor.
Telephone No. : 03-55691901 ext.6020
e-mail : Lieza@mailcity.com
Qualifications : Diploma Electrical Engineering &
Education.( ITTHO- UTM )
Position : Polytechnic Lecturer

PROOF READER
Name : Khairul Bariah Bt Takrim
Address : No.2, Lorong Sungai Isap Damai 8,
2515, Kuantan, Pahang.
( Politeknik Sultan Ahmad Shah )
Telephone No. : 019-9672922
e-mail :
Qualifications : MA TESL, BA Linguistics
Position : Lecturer
What Do You Think Of This Module?

Title of Module: _______________________ Module Code : ___________

Students Name: _______________________ Registration No. : ___________

Course : ____________________________________

Module Writers: ______________________________

Please use the following scale for your evaluation:

4 Strongly Agree
3 Agree
2 Disagree
1 Strongly Disagree

Instruction : Please on the space provided.

No. How much do you agree with the following statements? SCALE
A. FORMAT 1 2 3 4
1 The pages are organized in an interesting manner.
2 The font size makes it easy for me to read the module.
The size and types of pictures and charts used are suitable for
3
the input.
4 The pictures and charts are easy to read and understand.
5 The tables used are well-organised and easy to understand.
6 The arrangement of the Input makes it easy for me to follow.
7 All the instructions are displayed clearly.
B. CONTENTS 1 2 3 4
8 I understand all the objectives clearly.
9 I understand the ideas conveyed.
10 The ideas are presented in an interesting manner.
11 All the instructions are easy to understand.
12 I can carry out the instructions in this module.
13 I can answer the questions in the activities easily.
14 I can answer the questions in the self-assessment.
15 The feedback section can help me identify my mistakes.
16 The language used is easy to understand.
17 The way the module is written makes it interesting to read.
18 I can follow this module easily.
19 Each unit helps me understand the topic better.
I have become more interested in the subject after using this
20
module.
CURRICULUM GRID

The curriculum grid of this module is based on the curriculum used by Malaysian
polytechnics.

No. TOPIC UNIT Total


Hours

Introduction To
1 CAD 1 3

Methods to
Entering
Command and 2
2 6
Data Input

Drawing Aids,
Drawing Limits
3 and Display 3 3
Control

Draw
4
4 Command 9

Modify
5 5 6
Command

Text,Dtext and
6 6 6
Textstyles
7 Dimensioning 7 3
Linetype, Layer
8 8 3
and Block
9 Printing 9 3
UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO CAD

1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 CAD Definition
1.1.2 Systems requirement
1.1.3 The list of other CAD packages
1.1.4 Advantages of using CAD

1.2 Getting started


1.2.1 Introducing CAD for windows.

UNIT 2 METHODS TO ENTERING COMMAND AND DATA INPUT

1.1 How to begin command


1.2 Creating drawing by using Coordinate Entry.

UNIT 3 DRAWING AIDS, DRAWING LIMITS AND DISPLAY


CONTROL

3.1 Describing drawing aids command:


3.1.1 Snap
3.1.2 Ortho
3.1.3 Grid
3.1.4 Object Snap

3.2 Drawing Limits setup.


3.3 Explaining display control and others display commands
3.3.1 Zoom
3.3.2 Pan
3.3.3 Redraw
3.3.4 Regen

UNIT 4 DRAW COMMANDS

4.1 Identifying the specification of draw commands.


4.1. 1 Lines
4.1. 2 Arc
4.1. 3 Circles
4.1. 4 Ellipse
4.1. 5 Polygon
4.1. 6 Point
4.1. 7 Polyline
4.1. 8 Solid
4.1. 9 Donut

4.2 Drawing simple electronics component, schematic and PCB diagram by


using draw commands.

UNIT 5 MODIFY COMMANDS

5.1 Describing the using of edit commands


5.1.1 Erase
5.1.2 Move
5.1.3 Rotate
5.1.4 Trim
5.1.5 Scale
5.1.6 Mirror
5.1.7 Array
5.1.8 Stretch
5.1.9 Extend
5.1.10 Fillet
5.1.11 Chamfer
5.1.12 Offset
5.1.13 Divide
5.1.14 Measure
5.1.15 Change
5.1.16 Pedit

UNIT 6 TEXT, DTEXT AND TEXTSTYLES

6.1 Describing TEXT and DTEXT command.


6.1.1 Justify Text
6.1.2 Font
6.1.3 Textstyle Operations.
UNIT 7 DIMENSIONING

7.1 Benefit of using dimension.


7.2 Describing of Dim Style and Dimupdate
7.3 Types of dimension.
7.3.1 Linear
7.3.2 Aligned
7.3.3 Angular
7.3.4 Diameter
7.3.5 Radius

UNIT 8 LINETYPE, LAYER AND BLOCK

8.1 Type of line regarding with drawing needed.


8.1.1 Load and setting type of lines

8.2 Layer
8.2.1 Introduction of Layer
8.2.2 Layer Commands
8.2.3 Layer Control by using dialog box
8.2.4 Create a drawing after layer setting.

8.3 Block and Wblock


8.3.1 Describing of block and Wblock, insert, Minsert, explode, and
attribute.

UNIT 9 PRINTING

9.1 Printing Command


9.2 Print / Plot Configuration

.
MODULE GUIDELINES

To achieve maximum benefits in using this module, students must follow the
instructions carefully and complete all the activities.

1. This module is divided into 16 units.


2. Each page is numbered according to the subject code, unit and page number.

E2004 / UNIT 1 / 5

Subject Unit 1 Page Number 5

3. The general and specific objectives are given at the beginning of each unit.
4. The activities in each unit are arranged in a sequential order and the
following symbols are given:

OBJECTIVES
The general and specific objectives for each learning topic are stated
in this section.

INPUT
This section introduces the subject matter that you are going to learn.

ACTIVITIES
The activities in this section test your understanding of the
subject matter. You have to complete this section by following
the instructions

FEEDBACK
Answers to the questions in the activity section are given here
SELF-ASSESSMENT
Self-assessment evaluates your understanding of each unit.

FEEDBACK OF SELF-ASSESSMENT
This section contains answers to the activities in the self-assessment.
.

5. You have to follow the units in sequence.


6. You may proceed to the next unit after successfully completing the unit and
you are confident of your achievement.
GENERAL AIMS
This module is prepared for students in the second semester who are following the
Certificate/Diploma programmes in Malaysian Polytechnics. It aims to expose
students to the Computer Aided Design concept in each unit and to lead them
towards self-directed learning or with guidance from their lecturers.

PREREQUISITE SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE

The prerequisites of this module is at least a pass in SPM.

GENERAL OBJECTIVES
At the end of this module, students should be able to:

1. Describe the CAD definition, system requirement and advantage of using CAD.
2. Get started with AutoCAD.
3. Enter command and data input
4. Use draw command to make simple drawing.
5. Use draw aids command to make drawing easier.
6. Learn to use draw limits.
7. Learn to use important editing command.
8. Use display control.
9. Learn how to place text on a drawing.
10. Learn how to use dimensioning.
11. Use linetype in the drawing.
12. Learn how to use layer to control display of the drawing.
13. Learn to make and insert blocks.
14. Set the printing to print drawing.

TEACHING AIDS AND RESOURCES NEEDED

1. Computer
2. AutoCAD ( R14, R2000 or 2002 ) Software.
REFERENCES

1. James A.Leach ( 1998 ) AutoCAD 14 Instructor; McGraw Hill Company.

2. KnowledgeworksTM ( 1998 ) AutoCAD R14 Fundamentals; Autodesk


Press

3. Alan J.Kalameja ( 1995 ) The Autocad Tutor For Engineering


Graphics-Release 12 and 13; Autodesk Press.

4. Bill Burehard, David Pitzer, Francis Soen ( 1998 ) Inside Autocad 14, Limited
Edition; New Rider Publishing, Indianapolis, Indiana.

5. Alan T.H Khoo ( 2002 ) Step by Step AutoCADLT, Volume 1: The


Basic; Federal Publications Sdn. Bhd, Shah Alam.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO CAD

OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand the function of CAD and how to begin using
AutoCAD

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to:

Explain CAD.

Identify system requirement needed to run the CAD program.

List other CAD packages.

Explain the advantages of using CAD compared to


conventional drawing.

Start AutoCAD to begin drawing.

Use menus, dialog box and toolbars.

Save and exit from AutoCAD drawing.


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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

INPUT 1a

1.0 DEFINITION OF CAD

CAD is an acronym for Computer Aided Design or Computer Aided


Drafting. CAD allows you to accomplish design and drafting activities using a
computer. We can use CAD to draw a building plan, circuit diagram, chart, 3D
object and more.

Design is a broad field involving the process of making ideas into a real
product or system. The design process requires repeated refinement of ideas until a
solution results a manufactured product or constructed system. Traditionally,
design involves the use of sketches, drawings, renderings, 2-dimensional and 3-
dimensional models, prototypes, testing, analysis, and documentation. Drafting is
generally known as the production of drawing that is used to document a design for
manufacturing or construction or to archive the design.

CAD is a tool that can be used to design and draft activities. CAD can be
used to make rough ideas drawing, although it is more suited to create accurate
finished drawing and rendering. CAD can be used to create a 2-dimensional or 3-
dimensional computer model or system for further analysis and testing by other
computer programs. In addition, CAD can be used to supply manufacturing
equipment such as lathes, mills, laser cutter, or rapid prototyping equipment with
numerical data to manufacture a product. CAD is also used to create the 2-
dimensional documentation drawing for communicating and archiving the design.

The tangible result of CAD activity is usually a drawing generated by a


plotter or printer but can be a rendering of a model or numeric data in binary usually
saved to magnetic or optical device such as a diskette, hard disk, tape or CD.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

1.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENT.

The following list consists of recommended hardware and software required


for proper operation using CAD software.

Windows NT 3.51 or 4.0 or Windows 95 and the latest version.


32 MB of RAM.
50 MB of hard disk space.
10 MB additional RAM for each concurrent CAD session.

1.2 THE LIST OF OTHER CAD PACKAGE

There are many CAD packages that we can use to make a drawing. Each
CAD package has an advantage to make drawing easier. Example of the
packages are listed below;

AutoCAD
Catiar
AutoCADLT
MasterCAM
PSPICE
AutoSketch

However, with the advancement of technology, CAD program has undergone


changes and updated to meet the need of users.

1.3 ADVANTAGES OF USING AUTOCAD

Although there are many methods used to design and draft activities, CAD
offers the following advantages over other methods in many cases:
Improving productivity, capability and accuracy.
Faster editing, reviewing and designing.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Improving quality of end product.


Save storage for drawing.

1.3.1 Improving productivity, capability and accuracy.

Simple drawing created manually requires lesser time than larger and
more complex drawings, particularly those involving similar shapes
or repetitive operations. It may take some time to set up the first
drawing and create some of the initial geometry, but any of the
existing geometry or drawing setup can be easily duplicated in the
current or for new drawings.

As CAD and the associated technology advance and software


are becoming more interconnected, more productive developments
are available. For example, it is possible to make a change to a 3-
dimensional model that automatically causes a related change in the
linked 2-dimensional engineering drawing. One of the main
advantages of these technological advances is productivity.

When you draw with CAD system, the graphical elements,


such as lines, arc, and circles are stored in the Cad file as a numeric
data. CAD systems store that numeric data with great precision. For
example, AutoCAD stores values with fourteen signification digits.
The value 1 for example, is stored in scientific notation as the
equivalent of 1.0000000000000. This precision provides you with the
ability to create design and drawing that are 100% accurate for almost
every case.

1.3.2 Faster editing, reviewing and designing.

Making changes to a CAD file known as editing is generally much


faster than making changes to a traditional manual drawing. Since all
the graphics elements in a CAD drawing are stored, only the affected
components of the design or drawing need to be altered, and the
drawing can be plotted or printed again or converted to other formats.
It can save our time to produce a new drawing.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

1.3.3 Improving quality of end product.

The quality of end product is improved because during the


development, we use accurate measurement without any confusion.

1.3.4 Save of storage


With conventional method we use drawing paper as a media to save
our file. If we have lot of drawing, more space is needed. This storage
problem can be solved by using CAD drawing. We just need an
electronic storage element such as hard disk or diskette to save a
thousand drawing file.

As a student, learning AutoCAD, as opposed to learning another CAD


software product, give you a higher probability of using your skills in industry.
Likewise, there are employers who use AutoCAD than any other single CAD
system. In addition, learning AutoCAD is a first CAD system gives you a good
foundation for learning other CAD packages because many concepts and
commands introduced by AutoCAD are utilized by other systems. In some cases, an
AutoCAD feature becomes industry standards. The .DXF file format, for example,
was introduced by AutoDesk and has become an industry standard for CAD file
conversion between systems.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

ACTIVITY 1a

FILL IN THE BLANK.

1.1 What is the definition of CAD? List its main function.


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

1.2 List all the CAD packages that you know of.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

1.3 List the advantages of using CAD compared to conventional methods.


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 1a

ANSWERS.

1.1 CAD is an acronym for Computer Aided Design or Computer Aided Drafting. CAD
allows you to accomplish design and drafting activities using a computer. We can
use CAD to draw a building plan, circuit diagram, chart, 3D object and more. (Refer
to input 1a page 2 )

1.2 There are many CAD packages that we can use to make a
drawing. Each CAD package has an advantage to make drawing easier. Example of
the packages are listed below;

a. AutoCAD
b. Catiar
c. AutoCADLT
d. MasterCAM
e. PSPICE
f. AutoSketch

1.3. Although there are many methods used to design and draft activities, CAD offers the
following advantages over other methods in many cases:
Improving productivity, capability and accuracy.
Faster editing, reviewing and designing.
Improving quality of end product.
Save storage for drawing.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

INPUT 1b

1.4 STARTING AUTOCAD

In this module, we use AutoCAD R14 package. We can use another


AutoCAD version because the basic drawing is similar. Assuming that
AutoCAD has been installed and configured properly for your system, you
are ready to begin using AutoCAD. To start AutoCAD using any Windows,
double click on the icon on the desktop as shown below.

Figure 1.1: AutoCAD R14 Icon

If the icon does not appear on the desktop, press the Start button,
highlight Programs, and search for AutoCAD R14 in the menu. From the
list displayed, select AutoCAD R14.

Figure 1.2: Start AutoCAD from Start button


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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

1.4.1 Start Up Dialog Box

When you start AutoCAD, the Start Up dialog box appears. This dialog box
includes several tools to help you open an existing drawing or set up a new
drawing.

Figure 1.3: Start Up dialog box

The following is the content of the instructions for the Start Up dialog box
as it explains the purpose of the first four buttons.

The button on the left determine how you begin a drawing


Use a Wizard - lead through setting up a drawing
Use a Template - start a drawing based on the template
Start from Scratch - begin drawing quickly using default
English or Metric settings
Open a Drawing - Open an existing drawing

USE A WIZARD

If you want to set up a drawing using a dialog box, choose Use a Wizard.
You can choose from two wizards: Quick Setup and Advanced Setup.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Quick Setup.

Choose the Quick Setup wizard to set up the drawing area and change
settings, such as text height and snap spacing, to an appropriate scale. With
the Quick Setup wizard, you establish basic settings that help define the units
of measure and drawing area. These settings include the basic unit type (such
as architectural, decimal, engineering, fractional, or scientific units) to be
used for display and plotting.

You also specify the width and length of the drawing area, and
thereby establish the drawing's boundaries, called limits. The area within
these limits defines the final plotted sheet size. After you accept the settings,
the drawing session will begin.

Step 1: Units

Select the format in which you want to display units of measure.


Select the format in which you want to enter and display coordinates and
measurements. Several measurement styles are available in AutoCAD. Two
of them, Engineering and Architectural, have a specific base unit (inches)
assigned to them. You can choose from other measurement styles that can
represent any convenient unit of measurement:

Decimal. - Select to display measurements in decimal notation.


Engineering. - Select to display measurements in feet and decimal
inches.
Architectural.- Select to display measurements in feet, inches, and
fractional inches.
Frictional - Select to display measurements in mixed number
(integer and fractional) notation.
Scientific. - Select to display measurements in scientific notation
(numbers expressed in the form of the product of a
decimal number between 0 and 10 and a power of 10).
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Figure 1.4 : Quick Setup box for step 1.

Step 2: Area

Enter the approximate width and length in full-scale units of what you
plan to draw. This limits the area of the drawing covered by grid dots when
the grid is turned on. It also adjusts several default settings, such as text
height, linetype scaling, and snap distance, to convenient values. You can
also adjust these settings, individually, from the Format menu later in the
drawing session.

Figure 1.5 : Quick Setup box for step 2.


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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Advanced Setup.

Choose the Advanced Setup wizard to set up the drawing area and
change settings, such as text height and snap spacing, to an appropriate scale.
You can also establish basic layout features.

Step 1: Units

Select the format in which you want to enter and display coordinates
and measurements. Several measurement styles are available in AutoCAD.
Two of them, Engineering and Architectural, have a specific base unit
assigned to them (inches). You can choose from other measurement styles
that can represent any convenient unit of measurement:

Figure 1.6: Advanced Setup box for step 1

The precision that you specify controls the number of decimal places or
fractional size to which you want linear measurements displayed.

Step 2: Angles
Select the format in which you want to enter and display angles:
Decimal Degrees. Select to enter and display partial degrees as decimals.
Deg/Min/Sec. Select to enter and display partial degrees as minutes
and seconds.
Grads. Select to enter and display angles as grads.
Radians. Select to enter and display angles as radians.
Surveyor. Select to enter and display angles in surveyor units.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Figure 1.7: Advanced Setup for step 2

Step 3: Angle Measure

Select the direction of the zero angles for the entry of angles:

Figure 1.8: Advanced Setup box for step 3.

East. Select to specify the compass direction east as the zero angle.
North. Select to specify the compass direction north as the zero angle.
West. Select to specify the compass direction west as the zero angle.
South. Select to specify the compass direction south as the zero angle.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Other. Select to specify a direction different from the points of the compass
as the zero angle.

Step 4: Angle Direction

Select the direction to enter and display positive angle values:


counterclockwise or clockwise.

Figure 1.9: Advanced Setup Box for step 4

Step 5: Area

Enter the approximate width and length of what you plan to draw in
full-scale units. This limits the area of the drawing covered by grid dots when
the grid is turned on. It also adjusts several default settings, such as text
height, linetype scaling, and snap distance, to convenient values. You can
also adjust these settings, individually, from the Format menu later in the
drawing session.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Figure 1.10 : Advanced Setup box for Step 5

Step 6: Title Block

Select the description of an AutoCAD drawing file of a title block to


insert as a symbol in your new drawing. You can add or remove drawing files
of title blocks from the list with the Add and Remove buttons.

Figure 1.11: Advanced Setup box for Step 6

Step 7: Layout
Select Yes to use advanced paper space layout capabilities in
AutoCAD. Paper space is often used to create complex multiple-view
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

drawings. Select No to use model space only. If you select Yes to use paper
space, you have three choices of where you want to begin working.

Figure 1.12: Advanced Setup box for step 7

USE A TEMPLATE.

If you want to start a drawing based on a template drawing, choose Use a


Template.

Figure 1.13 : Create New Drawing using Template

Template Drawing is a drawing file that you can use as a starting point for
new drawings. It stores all the settings for a drawing and may also include
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

predefined layers, dimension styles, and views. Template drawings are


distinguished from other drawing files by a different file extension, .dwt.
They are normally kept in the template directory. Several template drawings
are included with AutoCAD. You can make additional template drawings by
changing the extensions of drawing file names to have a .dwt extension.

START FROM SCRATCH

If you want to begin drawing quickly using default English or metric settings,
choose Start from Scratch.

Figure 1.14 : Create New Drawing box using Start From Scratch

From the Select Default setting field, we can choose either English or Metric
setting.

English - Unit measurement is in traditional setting ( Inches )


Metric - Unit measurement is in standard setting ( MM )

1.5 AUTOCAD R14 DRAWING SCREEN

Below are the standard screens for AutoCAD R14. We can adjust the screen
weather to add or remove some toolbar or change the toolbar or resize the screen
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

arrangement. In a standard AutoCAD R14, we can see the Menu Bar,


Toolbar, Layer Status Windows, Command Line, Status Line, Drawing
Area and Cursor Pointing.

Layer Status Window Menu Bar

Crosshair
Cursor
Toolbars

Drawing Area

Command Line
Status Line

Figure 1.15 : AutoCAD Drawing Screen

Toolbars
AutoCAD R14 provides a variety of toolbars. Each toolbar contains a
number of icon buttons that can be selected to invoke command.

Menu Bars
These menus provide an alternative method of accessing command and
dialog boxes other than the Command Prompt or a toolbars button. They are
termed pull-down menus because when you choose one with your left mouse
button, the menu is displayed beneath its title, as if you were pulling the
menu down from its title.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Pull-Down
Menu

Figure 1.16: Pull-Down Menu

Command Line
The command line is a docked or floating window where you can enter
names or command and where AutoCAD displays prompts and messages.

Layer Status Window


Layer status window shows the current layer setting.

Status Line
The status line is a set of informative words or symbols that gives the status
of the drawing aids. The following drawing aids can be toggled on or off by
double-clicking on the desired word or by using Function keys or Ctrl key
sequences.

1.6 GETTING TOOLBARS FROM PULL DOWN MENU


We can use toolbars to perform the desired command like line, circles and
other. By default there are four toolbars that appear in the AutoCAD screen.
To display another toolbar, we can access the Toolbars dialog box in the
following ways;

Toolbar : Right clicking any currently visible toolbar


Menu : View>Toolbar
Command : toolbar
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

The toolbar dialog box is displayed, as shown in the following figure:

Figure 1.17: Toolbar Setting Box

Choose any of the toolbar checkboxes displays the toolbar. The toolbar can
then be moved anywhere in the application window by selecting the title bar
and dragging the toolbar to a location.

1.7 SAVING FILE AND EXIT FROM AUTOCAD


AutoCAD uses different file saving command that protect your work by
storing the existing drawing status to a named file in a directory. Saving your
work is very important because if there is a power failure, all of your work
saved prior to the problem will be usable.
Various file saving commands are used to store drawing information. These
command include SAVE, SAVE AS and QSAVE.

The SAVE command saves the drawing with the current filename or a
specified name when saved the first time. We can get the command with the
following ways

Menu : File>Save
Command : SAVE

The SAVE AS command saves unnamed drawings with a filename, or saves


the current drawing with a different name.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

The QSAVE command saves currently named drawing one at a time without
requesting a filename

Toolbar :
Menu : File > Save
Command : QSAVE

Use the following steps to save unnamed drawing

1. Toolbars : ( If we click this button for the first time, the


Save Drawing As box will appear )
Menu : File> Save
Command : SAVE

2. When the Save Drawing As appears, enter the name of the drawing in
file name field. ( the file extension is not required)

Figure 1.18: Save Drawing As box

After saving the file we can continue or exit the AutoCAD application. To
exit from AutoCAD, use the following method;
1. Click at the very right upper button of the screen
Menu : File>Exit
Command : EXIT
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

ACTIVITY 1b

EXERCISES.

1.4 Starting AutoCAD by clicking the AutoCAD R14 shortcut icon or


AutoCAD R14 from the programs menu. If the start up dialog box
appears, select start from scratch. Choose English as the default setting,
and click the OK button. At the AutoCAD screen, name toolbars and
menus when we moved the cursor around the screen without clicking.

1.5 Draw a line by typing L at the command line. Click the cursor at the
drawing area and move it to other point. Save your drawing and name it
exercise1.

1.6 Exit AutoCAD by selecting the exit option from the pull down menu or
click the upper right button on the screen. Repeat the open and exit steps until
you are confident with the procedure.

1.7 Try to start a new drawing with another set up use a wizard and use a
template

1.8 Using the Toolbars Dialog Box

At the Command prompt enter toolbar. The toolbars dialog box is


displayed, as shown in the figure 1.17
In the Toolbars list box, check the modify 11 checkbox. The Modify
11 toolbar is displayed in the drawing windows as a floating toolbar
Now you will change the Modify 11 toolbar from a floating toolbar to
a docked toolbar. To do this, place the cursor on the title bar on the
toolbar, then press and hold the left mouse button
Drag the modify 11 toolbar to the docking region under the Object
Properties toolbar, then release the left mouse button. When the
toolbar is docked, the title bar name is no longer displayed.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

In the Toolbar dialog box, clear the Modify 11 Checkbox. The


Modify 11 toolbar is no longer displayed.
Choose Close to close the Toolbars dialog box.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 1b

Once you have completed this activity, please refer to your


lecturer for further comments.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW

QUESTION 1-1
a) How many ways can you start an AutoCAD drawing session? What
are they?

b) How can you disable and reactivate the display of the Start Up dialog
box?

c) Describe the AutoCAD application window and explain each window


area.

Layer Status Menu Bar


Wi d

Crosshair
Toolbars
Cursor

Command Line
Status Line
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

d) How many way provided by AutoCAD to begin drawing. Explain.

e) What is the purpose of Advanced Setup and list all the steps to draw
by using Advanced Setup format.
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESSMENT

ANSWERS

QUESTION 1-1
a) Two ways to start AutoCAD
i. Click on icon AutoCAD R14 on the Desktop
ii. Press Start>Programs>AutoCAD R14

b) We can activate using the following ways


Pull-down menu : File>New

Toolbar :
We can disable by clicking cancel button at start up dialog box
and upper right click at the start up dialog box.
c)

Layer Status Window Menu Bar

Crosshair
Cursor
Toolbars

Drawing Area

Command Line
Status Line
E2004/1/28
INTRODUCTION TO CAD

Toolbars
AutoCAD R14 provides a variety of toolbars. Each toolbar contains a
number of icon buttons that can be selected to invoke command.

Menu Bars
These menus provide an alternative method of accessing command and
dialog boxes other than the Command Prompt or a toolbars button. They are
termed pull-down menus because when you choose one with your left mouse
button, the menu is displayed beneath its title, as if you were pulling the
menu down from its title.

Command Line
The command line is a docked or floating window where you can enter
names or command and where AutoCAD displays prompts and messages.

Layer Status Window


Layer status window shows the current layer setting.

Status Line
The status line is a set of informative words or symbols that gives the status
of the drawing aids. The following drawing aids can be toggled on or off by
double-clicking on the desired word or by using Function keys or Ctrl key
sequences.

d) There are 4 ways to begin the drawing. They are:


Use a Wizard - lead through setting up a drawing
Use a Template - start a drawing based on the template
Start from Scratch - begin drawing quickly using default
English or Metric settings
Open a Drawing - Open an existing drawing
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INTRODUCTION TO CAD

e) Advanced Setup.

Choose the Advanced Setup wizard to set up the drawing area and
change settings, such as text height and snap spacing, to an appropriate scale.
You can also establish basic layout features.
Step 1 : Units
Step 2 : Angles
Step 3 : Angle Measure
Step 4 : Angle Direction
Step 5 : Area
Step 6 : Title Block
Step 7 : Layout
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Entering Command and Data Input

UNIT 2

ENTERING COMMAND AND


DATA INPUT

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand and use the methods of entering command and data
input

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to :

Enter command by three different methods.


Create drawing by coordinate entry.
Use Direct Distance Input to create drawing.
Create a drawing by using Absolute Cartesian Coordinate.
Create a drawing by using Relative Coordinate.
Create a drawing by using Polar Input.
Explain the deferential four methods coordinate entry.
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Entering Command and Data Input

INPUT 2a

2.1 HOW TO BEGIN A COMMAND


There are three possible methods for entering commands in AutoCAD depending on
your preferences setting ( for the screen menu ). Generally any one of the three
methods can be used to invoke a particular command.

1. Keyboard Type the command name, command alias, or


accelerator ( Ctrl ) keys at the keyboard
2. Pull-Down Menu Select the command or dialog box from a pull-down
menu.
3. Toolbars Select the command or dialog box by PICKing an icon
( tool ) from a toolbar

2.1.1 Keyboard.
When you enter a command in a command window, AutoCAD either displays a
dialog box or prompts you for further information. This line of Command text is
termed the Command Prompt. The Command prompt asks you to specify coordinate
value, command options, or any other data needed to complete the command. The
following text is an example of the Command prompt for the PLINE command.
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Entering Command and Data Input

Figure 2.1 : Example of the Command prompt.

Once you are comfortable entering commands at the Command prompt, you can
learn the command aliases, which are basic one- or two- or three- letter abbreviations
of the commands. Many commands have an aliases, and learning these can help you
work faster and more productively. A list of all the command aliases is located in the
Help menu.

2.1.2 Pull Down Menu


When you perform a Typical installation of AutoCad, you are presented with a menu
bar containing 10 menus:

Figure 2.2 : Menu Bar with 10 menus.

These menus provide an alternate method of accessing command and dialog


boxes other than the command prompt or toolbar button. They are term pull down
menu because when you choose one with your left mouse button, the menu is
display beneath its title, as if you were pulling the menu down from its title. The
menu remains present until you click anyway outside of it.

2.1.3 Toolbars
Another method of performing commands is through the various toolbar
tools. There are many tools in the 21 toolbars, but those most frequently used,
relating to file, edit and view, are found in the Standard toolbar, shown in the
following figure:
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Entering Command and Data Input

Figure 2.3 : Standard Toolbars

To display other toolbars, you can access the Toolbar dialog box in the following
ways:
Toolbar : Right click any currently visible toolbar
Menu : View > Toolbars
Command : TOOLBAR

The Toolbars dialog box is displayed as shown in figure below:

Figure 2.4 : Toolbars dialog box


Clik on the box to choose any toolbars you need to use. Then, clik Close button to end the
session.
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Entering Command and Data Input

ACTIVITY 2a

FILL IN THE BLANK.

2.1 List three methods for entering command in AutoCAD R14. Explain.
i.
ii.
iii.

2.2 Give the steps to access the line command to draw a line by using the pull
down menu.

2.3 How can we display the toolbar box?


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Entering Command and Data Input

Feedback To Activity 2a

ANSWERS.
2.1.
1. Keyboard Type the command name, command alias, or
accelerator ( Ctrl ) keys at the keyboard
2. Pull-Down Menu Select the command or dialog box from a pull-down
menu.
3. Toolbars Select the command or dialog box by PICKing an icon
( tool ) from a toolbar

2.2. Pull Down Menu : Draw > Line

2.3. Toolbar : Right click any currently visible toolbar


Menu : View > Toolbars
Command : TOOLBAR
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Entering Command and Data Input

INPUT 2b

2.2 CREATING DRAWING BY USING COORDINATE ENTRY


AutoCAD provides various commands that you use to locate points in the drawing
plane. You can create a drawing by using Direct Distance entry, Absolute
Coordinates, Relative Coordinates, and Polar entry methods.

2.2.1 Direct Distance Entry.


To enter point you can use a feature called direct distance entry. With direct
distance entry, you can specify a relative coordinate by moving the cursor in the
desired direction and then entering a distance.
Coordinate value are specified by moving the cursor to indicate a direction
and then entering the distance from the first point. This is useful when you need to
quickly specify a length. An efficient way to create object constrained to the current
axes is to use direct distance entry combined with Ortho mode turned on.
Direct distance entry can used with all commands except those that prompt
you to enter real values. This commands include ARRAY, MEASURE, and
DIVIDE.

2.2.2 Absolute Cartesian Coordinate Input.


Absolute coordinate system can be used when you know the exact X and Y
values of the point you want to place in the drawing window. The absolute
coordinates method uses the Cartesian coordinate system to locate points in the
drawing window. All points are measure from origin (0,0).
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Entering Command and Data Input

The Cartesian coordinate system has three axes X, Y, and Z that are used to
locate points and create objects. The Cartesian coordinate system uses distances ( in
unit ) to locate points along intersecting axes, the horizontal X axes and the vertical
Y axes. The intersection of these axes called the origin, where X = 0 and Y = 0
denoted as ( 0,0). These axes divide the coordinate system into four quadrant each
having positive, negative or positive and negative X and Y values.

You can draw a line by starting at the 0,0 and end at the point 3,4

Figure 2.5 : Two dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.

World Coordinate System ( WCS )


When start a new session, by default you enter the World Coordinate System (WCS).
This system consist of a horizontal X displacement, a vertical Y displacement, and a
Z displacement that is perpendicular to the XY plane. The Z displacement is used for
3D drawing. All X,Y and Z coordinate values are measured from the origin. The
origin is located at the intersection of X, and Y axes (0,0). The origin is originally
located in the lower left corner of a drawing. The WCS cannot be redefined, and all
other user coordinate system are based on the WCS.
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Entering Command and Data Input

User Coordinate System ( UCS )


The User Coordinate System ( UCS ) lets you establish your own coordinate
origin. The UCS is movable, meaning that the origin can be moved to any desired
orientation and its axes can be rotated. The UCS icon is displayed by default in the
lower left corner of the drawing window. The icon is used to help better
understanding the location and orientation of the movable UCS. The X and Y arrows
point in the positive direction of the axis. The W in the following figure indicates the
WCS is current. The UCS icon is shown in the following figure:

Figure 2.6 : UCS icon

Method for invoking the UCS command include:


Toolbar : Standard
Menu : Tools > UCS
Command : UCS

Relative Cartesian Coordinate Input.


A relative Cartesian coordinate is entered as the X and Y distance from the
last point you specified. Use relative X,Y coordinate when you know the position of
a point in relation to the previous point. For example, to locate a point at a relative
direction of 4,5 from the first point specified, precede the next coordinate with the @
symbol. The following example demonstrate how to enter a relative coordinate:
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Entering Command and Data Input

At the command prompt, enter line.


In response to the From point command prompt, enter 0,0
In response to the To point command prompt, enter @4,5.

Figure 2.7 : example to entering relative coordinate

Polar Input

A polar coordinate is entered as a relative distance and angle from an absolute


coordinate or the last point specified.
To enter a polar coordinate, enter a distance and an angle, separated by an
angle bracket (<). For example to specify a point that is at a distance of 2.5 units
from the previous point and an angle of 45 degree, enter @ 2.5 < 45.
By default, angles increase in the counterclockwise direction and decrease in
the clockwise direction. To move clockwise, enter a negative value for the angle. For
example, entering @3<-45 is the same as entering @3<315.
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Entering Command and Data Input

Figure 2.8 : Polar coordinate angles


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ACTIVITY 2a

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.


2.4

figure 3.7

a) Refer to the figure 3.7, determine


1) the polar coordinate of Point E from Point D
2) the absolute coordinate of the center of circle I
3) the polar coordinate of Point A from Point H
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Entering Command and Data Input

b. Supply the appropriate absolute, relative and/or Polar coordinates for these
`figure in the matrix below each object.

4 5

3
2 6 7

15 11
14
10
13 12

1/17 16 9 8
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Entering Command and Data Input

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 2b

ANSWERS
2.4
a)
1. @4 < 90
2. 6,10
3. @12 < 270 / @12 < -90

b)

0.5,5.0 @ 0, 5.0 @5 <90


2.5 , 5.0 @ 2.0, 0 @ 2<0
2.5 , 7.0 @ 0, 2.0 @ 2 < 90
9.5 , 7.0 @ 7.0 , 0 @7<0
9.5 , 5.0 @ 0 , -2.0 @ 2 < 270
11.5 , 5.0 @ 2.0 , 0 @2<0
11.5 , 0.5 @ 0 , -5.0 @ 5 < 270
10.0 , 0.5 @ -1.5 , 0 @ 1.5 < 180
10.0 , 3.5 @ 0 , 3.5 @ 3.5 < 90
6.8 , 3.5 @ -3.3 , 0 @ 3.3 < 180
6.8 , 2.5 @ 0 , -1.0 @ 1 < -90
5.0 , 2.5 @ -1.5 , 0 @ 1.5 < 180
5.0 , 3.5 @ 0 , 1.0 @ 1 < 90
2.0 , 3.5 @ -3.3 , 0 @ 3.3 < 180
2.0 , 0.5 @ 0 , 3.5 @ 3.5 < 270
0.5 , 0.5 @ -1.5 , 0 @ 1.5 < 180
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Entering Command and Data Input

SELF- ASSESSMENT

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW

QUESTION 2-1

a) List all the way to create the drawing by coordinate entry.

b) Explain the methods to entering command.

QUESTION 2-2

a) Construct one-view drawings of the following figure using the LINE command
along with coordinate or direct distance modes.
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Entering Command and Data Input

b) Complete the table below with Absolute and Relative Coordinate according to
figure below.
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Entering Command and Data Input

FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESSMENT

ANSWERS.

QUESTION 2-1.
a) CREATING DRAWING BY USING COORDINATE ENTRY
AutoCAD provides various commands that you use to locate points in the drawing
plane. You can create a drawing by using Direct Distance entry, Absolute
Coordinates, Relative Coordinates, and Polar entry methods.

b) There are three possible methods for entering commands in AutoCAD depending on
your preferences setting ( for the screen menu ). Generally any one of the three
methods can be used to invoke a particular command.

1. Keyboard Type the command name, command alias, or


accelerator ( Ctrl ) keys at the keyboard
2. Pull-Down Menu Select the command or dialog box from a pull-down
menu.
3. Toolbars Select the command or dialog box by PICKing an icon
( tool ) from a toolbar
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Entering Command and Data Input

2-2
b)

2.0 , 3.75 @ 0 , 1.75


2.5 , 3.75 @ 0.5 , 0
2.5 , 4.50 @ 0 , 0.5
4.5 , 4.5 @ 2.0 , 0
5.5 , 4.0 @ 1 , -0.5
5.5 , 3.0 @ 0 , -1
4.5 , 0 @ -1 , -1
2.0 , 2.0 @ 2.5 , 0

3.65 , 3.25 3.65 , 3.25


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DRAWING AIDS , DRAWING LIMITS & DISPLAY CONTROL

UNIT 3

DRAWING AIDS,
DRAWING LIMITS AND DISPLAY CONTROL

OBJECTIVES

General Objective :To understand and apply the concept of drawing aids, drawing
limits and display control

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to :

Specify the Snap and Grid increment.


Use the Setup and Create New Drawing dialog boxes
to accomplish basic drawing setup.
Use the various OSNAP command options.
Use the various ZOOM command options.

Adjust the display using Realtime ZOOM and PAN


modes.

Use the Ariel View feature to Zoom and Pan different


parts of a drawing.

Create and restore views with the View Control dialog


box.

Use and distinguish the REDRAW, REGEN, and


REDRAWALL commands.
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INPUT 3a

DRAWING AIDS

3.0 INTRODUCTION

When placing a line, arc or circle in a drawing, the easiest method is to enter point
by selecting a point in the drawing windows. The problem with these methods is that
it is inaccurate. To assist you in selecting points in the drawing windows, you can
setup the drawing aids to suit the design requirements of your current project.

AutoCAD provides with a number of features that will increase your efficiency and
make more productive. Many of these features are contained in the Drawing Aids
dialog box. They include Snap, Grid and Ortho as shown in the Figure 3.1

Figure 3.1 : Drawing Aids Dialog Box

Methods for opening the Drawing Aids dialog box include:

Menu : Tools> Drawing Aids


Command : DDRMODES
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The Ortho option is used to turn Ortho mode ON or OFF. By selecting Ortho command, we
can draw a line weather horizontal or vertically.

The Solid Fill mode option controls whether objects such as Polylines with widths and
Solids are displayed filled or in outline. This mode can be controlled from the command line
using the FILL command.

When Quick Text is checked, all text objects in the drawing will be displayed with empty
boundary boxes. This option is often used to increase Regen and Redraw times when the
drawing has a lot of text. This mode can also be set using the QTEXT command.

The Blips option controls whether temporary blips will be displayed when points are picked
or entered. Blips can be removed from the display using the Redraw command but they can
only be suppressed completely by turning Blip mode OFF. This mode can also be set using
the BLIPMODE system variable.

Highlight mode determines whether objects are highlighted or not when they are selected.
You can also control highlighting using the HIGHLIGHT system variable.

The Groups option turns automatic Group selection ON and OFF. When Groups mode is
turned ON, selecting an object which is a member of a previously defined group will
automatically select the whole group.

The Hatch option determines whether the hatch boundary is selected when a hatch object is
selected or not. When this mode is turned ON, the boundary is automatically selected with
the hatch.

3.1 SNAP

SNAP, when activated by pressing F9 or double-clicking on SNAP in the status line (


Figure 3.2 ) forces the cursor position to regular increments. The function can be assistance
to you by making it faster and more accurate for creating and editing objects. The default
snap setting is 0.5 The Snap command is used to set the value for these invisible snap
increments. Snap spacing can be set to any value.
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DRAWING AIDS , DRAWING LIMITS & DISPLAY CONTROL

Figure 3.2 : The Status Line

The Snap command is easily typed, displaying the options in command line format. The
command line format is as follows:

Command : Snap
Snap spacing or ON/OFF/Aspect/rotate/Style< current value ): ( value or
letter ) ( enter a value or option )

ON/OFF
Selecting ON or OFF accomplishes the same action as toggling the F9 key, pressing
Ctrl+B, or double clicking SNAP on the status line. Typically, SNAP should be ON for
drawing and editing but turned OFF to make object selection easier ( the cursor moves
smoothly to any location with SNAP OFF )

Aspect
The Aspect option allows specification of unequal X and Y spacing for SNAP. This action
can also be accomplished in the drawing Aids dialog box by entering different values for X
Spacing and Y Spacing.

Rotate
SNAP can also be rotated about any point and set to any angle. When SNAP has been
rotated, the GRID, ORTHO, and crosshairs automatically follow this alignment.

Style
The style option allows switching between a standard snap pattern ( the default square or
rectangular ) and an Isometric snap pattern. If using the dialog box, toggle Isometric
Snap/Grid On. When the SNAP Style or Rotate angle is changed, the GRID automatically
aligns with it.
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3.2 GRID

GRID is visible on the screen, whereas SNAP is invisible. GRID is only a visible display of
some regular interval. GRID and SNAP can be independent of each other. In other words,
each can have separate spacing settings and the active state of each (ON, OFF) can be
controlled independently. The GRID follows the SNAP if SNAP is rotated or changed to
Isometric Style. Although the GRID spacing can be difference than SNAP, it can also be
forced to follow SNAP by using snap option. The default GRID setting is 0.5.

Figure 3.3 : The GRID is ON in the drawing area

The GRID cannot be plotted. It is not comprised of point object and therefore is not part of
the current drawing. GRID is only visual aids.

Grid can be accessed by command line format ( shown below ) or set via the Drawing Aids
dialog box ( Figure 3.2 ).

Command : grid
Gridspacing ( X ) or ON/OFF/Snap/Aspect<current value>: (value or letter)
( enter a value or option )

Grid spacing ( X )
If you supply a value for the grid spacing, GRID is displayed at the spacing regardless of
SNAP spacing. If you key in an X as a suffix to the value ( for example, 2X ), the GRID is
displayed as that value times the SNAP spacing ( for example, 2 times SNAP )
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ON/OFF
The ON and OFF options simply make the grid visible or not ( like toggling the F7 key,
pressing Ctrl+G or double clicking GRID on the status line.

Snap
The snap option of the grid command forces the GRID spacing to equal that of SNAP, even
if SNAP is subsequently changed.

Aspect
The aspect option of Grid allows difference X and Y spacing ( causing a rectangular rather
than a square GRID )

3.3 THE FUNCTION KEYS


Many of the modes described above can be controlled quickly using the keyboard function
keys. In most cases this is quicker than using a pull-down or the command line. The
function keys are arranged along the top of your keyboard. AutoCAD uses function keys F1
to F10. Their use is described below.

The F1 key on your keyboard brings up the "Help Topics: AutoCAD Help" dialogue box.
You can use this dialogue box to search for help on any AutoCAD command or topic.
Simply follow the instructions in the dialogue box and when you have found the item you
wish to view, click on the "Display" button. You will usually be given a list of options in the
"Topics Found" dialogue box, select the most appropriate and click the "Display" button to
see the item.
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Figure 3.4: Help Topic Box

The F2 key is used to toggle (turn ON and OFF) the AutoCAD text window. This is a
floating version of the command window which can be resized to suit your requirements.
The text window contains the whole command history from the beginning of the drawing
session. If you wish, you can scroll back to see which commands you have used. The text
window is also useful for viewing the results of commands like LIST which report to the
command line on a number of lines which may scroll off the command window and make
them difficult to view.

Figure 3.5: AutoCAD Text Windows

The F3 key displays the "Osnap Settings" dialogue box.

The F4 key on your keyboard toggles tablet mode ON and OFF. This only has an effect if a
digitizing tablet has been calibrated.
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The F5 key cycles through the Isoplanes, this only has an effect if "Isometric Snap/Grid"
mode is ON. The options are Left, Top and Right. The different options describe the plane
in which Ortho mode works. It also affects the orientation of Isocircles drawn with the
Ellipse command. The illustration on Figure 3.6 shows a cube with isocircles drawn on the
top, left and right faces. Each isocircle was drawn using the corresponding isoplane.

Figure 3.6

The F6 key is a three way toggle which changes the co-ordinate reading in the status bar. By
default the status bar shows co-ordinates using the Cartesian system. You can use the F6 key
to turn the co-ordinate readout OFF and to change to the polar system when you are in pick
mode.

The F7 key is used to toggle grid mode ON and OFF. When grid mode is ON a grid of dots
is shown on the screen as a drawing aid. You can set the grid spacing by using "Drawing
Aids" from the "Tools" pull-down. The grid points do not necessarily reflect the Snap
setting, they can be set independently, and however, you can force the grid to reflect the
snap setting by giving the grid setting a value of zero. The word "GRID" is highlighted in
the status bar when grid is set ON.
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The F8 key on your keyboard can be used to toggle Ortho (orthogonal) mode ON and OFF.
When Ortho mode is ON AutoCAD will only allow you to draw either vertical or horizontal
lines. You can think of it as being a computer version of the parallel motion on your
drawing board. You can see if Ortho mode is ON by looking at the status bar. The word
"ORTHO" is highlighted when Ortho is turned ON.

The F9 key can be used to toggle Snap mode ON and OFF. Snap makes the crosshairs jump
to points on a defined grid. The snap spacing can be set using the "Drawing Aids" dialogue
box from the "Tools" pull-down menu. You can also see if Snap mode is ON by looking at
the status bar.

The F10 key is used to control the display of the status bar, the display can be toggled OFF
and ON.

3.4 OBJECT SNAP

The Object Snaps (Osnaps for short) are drawing aids which are used in conjunction with
other commands to help you draw accurately. Osnaps allow you to snap onto a specific
object location when you are picking a point. For example, using Osnaps you can accurately
pick the end point of a line or the center of a circle. Osnaps in AutoCAD are so important
that you cannot draw accurately without them. For this reason, you must develop a good
understanding of what the Osnaps are and how they work.
This simple example is to give you an idea how Osnaps work. Follow the command
sequence below to draw a circle and then to draw a line from the center point of the circle to
a point on the circle's circumference at the 12 o'clock position.

To Draw the Circle


Command: CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center point>:
(pick a point in the middle of the drawing window)
Diameter/<Radius>:
(pick another point to draw the circle, the size is not important)

Figure 3.7
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To Draw the Line using Osnaps


Command: LINE
From point: CEN (this is the short-cut for the Center Osnap)
_cen of (pick a point on the circumference of the circle, P1 in the illustration)
To point: QUA (this is the short-cut for the Quadrant Osnap)
_qua of (pick a point on the circumference of the circle, P2 in the illustration)
To point: (to end)

When you use Osnaps you need only pick a point which is near to the point required
because AutoCAD automatically snaps to the object location implied by the particular
Osnap you use. Notice that when you move the cursor close enough to an Osnap location, it
is highlighted with an Osnap marker. Each Osnap has a different marker. As you have
already seen, the Center Osnap marker is a circle and the Quadrant Osnap marker is a
diamond. Notice also that when you move the cursor over a snap point the cursor jumps to
the snap location. This feature is known as Magnet.

One thing that often catches new users out is that when you want to snap to the centre of a
circle, the pick point should be on the circle's circumference. This is because the circle has
no solidity, it is only an outline.

Although you can get quite close to the result above by picking freehand you will never be
able to pick as accurately as you can using Osnaps. Many AutoCAD
commands rely upon the fact that objects have been drawn accurately
and so you should always use Osnaps when you need to pick a point at a
particular location.

There are four basic methods of accessing the Osnaps:

The Osnaps are available from a flyout button on the Standard


toolbar, see illustration on Figure 3.8

Figure 3.8
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The Osnaps are also available on their own Object Snap toolbar. If this toolbar is not
already displayed, you can display it using the TOOLBAR command, View
Toolbars from the pull-down menu. When the Toolbar dialogue box appears,
simply check the box next to "Object Snap" in the toolbars list. Many AutoCAD
users work with the Object Snap toolbar permanently docked on their screen because
it gives one-click access to all of the Osnaps, making drawing much more efficient.

You can also access the Osnaps from the cursor menu. Hold the Shift key down on
the keyboard and right-click the mouse to bring up the cursor menu. The menu
appears at the current cursor position.

Finally, you can also access the Osnaps from the keyboard by typing their
abbreviated name.

There are eleven Osnaps in all and although they are all useful in certain situations you will
probably find yourself using about half of them on a regular basis and the other half in
special circumstances. However, it's a good idea to get to know all of the Osnaps so that you
can plan your drawing, knowing all of the tools at your disposal. A sensible use of Osnaps is
the best way to improve your drawing efficiency.

Each of the sections below is accompanied by a small screen-shot illustrating the Osnap in
use. In each case, drawing objects are shown in pale blue (cyan), the Osnap marker is shown
in red and the cursor cross-hairs in white. The corresponding Snap Tip is also shown. Snap
tips appear if you let the cursor hover over an Osnap location for a second or so and have a
similar function to the toolbar Tool Tips.

Endpoint

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Endpoint
Keyboard : END (when selecting objects)
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The Endpoint Osnap snaps to the end points of lines and arcs and to polyline vertices. This
is one of the most useful and commonly used Osnaps.

Midpoint

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Midpoint
Keyboard : MID (when picking)

The Midpoint Osnap snaps to the mid poins of lines and arcs and to the mid point of
polyline segments.

Intersection

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Intersection
Keyboard : INT (when picking)

The Intersection Osnap snaps to the physical intersection of any two drawing objects (i.e.
where lines, arcs or circles etc. cross each other) and to Polyline vertices. However, this
osnap can also be used to snap to intersection points which do not physically exist. This
feature is called the Extended Intersection (see the illustration above). To use the apparent
intersection feature, you must pick two points to indicate which two objects should be used.

Apparent Intersect

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Apparent Intersect
Keyboard : APP or APPINT (when picking)

Apparent Intersection snaps to the point where objects appear to intersect in the current
view. For example, you may be looking at a drawing in plan view where two line cross, as
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in the illustration. However, since AutoCAD is a 3 dimensional drawing environment, the


two lines may not physically intersect. One line may be at ground level and the other may be
10 meters or more above or below ground level. As with the Intersection Osnap, Apparent
Intersection also has an "Extended" mode.

Center

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Center
Keyboard : CEN (when picking)

The Center Osnap snaps to the centre of a circle, however, the pick point used to pick the
centre must be on the circumference of the circle. This often causes some confusion for new
users.

Quadrant

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Quadrant
Keyboard : QUA or QUAD (when picking)

The Quadrant Osnap snaps to one of the four circle quadrant points located at north, south,
east and west or 90, 270, 0 and 180 degrees respectively.

Tangent

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Tangent
Keyboard : TAN (when picking)
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The Tangent Osnap snaps to a tangent point on a circle. This osnap works in two ways. You
can either draw a line from a point to the tangent point (see illustration) or you can draw a
line from a tangent point, the latter is reffered to as the "Deffered Tangent" snap mode.

Perpendicular

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Perpendicular
Keyboard : PER or PERP (when picking)

The Perpendicular Osnap snaps to a point which forms a perpendicular with the selected
object. As with the Tangent Osnap, Perpendicular can be used to draw a line to a
perpendicular point, as in the illustration or from a perpendicular point, known as the
"Deffered Perpendicular" snap mode

Insert

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Insert
Keyboard : INS (when picking)

The Insert Osnap snaps to the insertion point of a block, text or an image.

Node

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Node
Keyboard : NODE (when picking)

The Node Osnap snaps to the center of a Point object. This osnap can be useful if you have
created a number of Points with the Measure or Divide commands. You could, for
example insert a number of regularly spaced tree symbols (blocks) along a line by using the
Node Osnap for the insertion point of each block.
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Figure 3.9

The image above shows a Spline (cyan). The Measure command has been used to set Points
(red) at regular intervals and a tree symbol has been inserted with the Insert command at
each Point location using the Node Osnap.

Nearest

Toolbar :
Pull-down : Shift + Right Click Nearest
Keyboard : NEA or NEAR (when picking)

The Nearest Osnap snaps to the nearest point on a drawing object. This Osnap is useful if
you want to make sure that a pick point lies on a drawing object but you don't necessarily
mind exactly where it is located.

From
The From Object Snap is a little more complicated than the other object snaps but it is well
worth getting to know because it can be very useful.

Toolbars :
Pull Down : Shift + Right Click From
Keyboard : FROM ( When Picking )
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The From Osnap can be used in conjunction with other osnaps or ordinary pick points and
relative co-ordinates to pick offset points. The From Osnap does not snap to object snap
locations, rather it can be used to snap to points at some distance or offset from an object
snap location. Consider the following example.

Look at the illustration on the right. It shows a circle drawn on top of a line. It is
quite difficult to see how this circle could have been drawn accurately without the use of
construction lines. However, the From Osnap can be used to draw the circle without any
construction lines. Follow the command sequence below to discover how this is done.

To draw the Line


Command: LINE
From point: (pick a point in the lower half of the screen)
To point: @0,30
(this is a relative co-ordinate, 30 units above the first point)
To point: (to end)

To draw the Circle


Command: CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center point>: FROM
_from Base point: END ( click at the top of line )
_endp of <Offset>: @0,10
(this co-ordinate is a point 10 units from the endpoint in the Y direction)Diameter/<Radius>
<10.0000>: 10
(a radius value of 10 ensures that the southern point on the circle will just touch the top of
the line)

Your drawing should now look like the illustration above. Practice using the From Osnap
until you are quite sure how it works. Don't forget to prefix all co-ordinates with the @
symbol to let AutoCAD know that you are entering a relative co-ordinate. The North Point
exercise below demonstrates more uses of the From Osnap.
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3.5 DRAWING LIMITS

The limits command allows you to set the size of the drawing area by specifying the lower
left and upper right corners in X,Y coordinates values. Methods for invoking the limits
command include :

Pull-down menu : Format>Drawing Limits


Command : Limits

When using command line, we can get the following step

Command : limits
Reset Model space limits
ON/OFF/<Lower left corner><0,0 or current values>: x,y or Enter ( Enter an X,Y
value or accept the 0,0 default-normally use 0,0 as lower left corner. )
Upper right corner < 19,9>:x,y ( Enter new values to change upper-right corner to
allow adequate drawing area.)

The default Limits values in AutoCAD are 12 and 9; that is, 12 units in the X direction and
9 unit in the Y direction ( figure 3.10 ). Starting a drawing by any of the following methods
( of the setup or create new Drawing dialog boxes ) results in limits of 12 X 9

Figure 3.10
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If the GRID is turned ON, the dots are displayed only over the Limits. The AutoCAD screen
( default configuration ) displays additional area on the right past the Limits the units are
generic decimal units that can be used to represent inches, feet, millimeters, miles, or
whatever is appropriate for the intended drawing. Typically, however, decimal units are
used to represent inches or millimeters. If the default units are used to represent inches, the
default drawing size would be 12 by 9 inches.

Remember that when a CAD system is used to create a drawing, the geometry should be
drawn full size by specifying dimensions of object in real world units. A completed CAD
drawing or model is virtually an exact dimensional replica of the actual object. Scaling of
the drawing occurs only when plotting or printing the file to an actual fixed-size sheet of
paper.

Before beginning to create an AutoCAD drawing, determine the size of the drawing area
needed for the intended geometry. After setting Units, appropriate Limits should be set in
order to draw the object or geometry to the real-world size in the actual units. There are no
practical maximum or minimum settings for Limits.

The X,Y values you enter as Limits are understood by AutoCAD as values in the units
specified by the Units command. For example, if you previously specified Architectural
units, then the values entered are understood as inches unless the notation for feet ( ` ) is
given ( 240,180 or 20,15 would define the same coordinate). Remember, you can type in
explicit feet and inch values only if Architectural or Engineering units have been specified
as the drawing units

If the ON option of Limits is used, limits checking is activated. Limits checking prevents
you from drawing objects outside of the limits by issuing an outside-limits error. This is
similar to drawing off the paper. Limits checking is OFF by default.
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Limits also defines the display area for GRID as well as the minimum area displayed when
Zoom All is used. Zoom All forces the full display of the limits. Zoom All can be invoked
by typing Z ( command alias ) then A for the all option

Changing Limits does not automatically change the display. As a general rule, you should
make a habit of invoking a Zoom All immediately following a change in Limits to display
the area defined by the new limits ( Figure 3.11 )

Figure 3.11
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ACTIVITY 3a

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.

3.1 What is the function of Snap and Grid?. How to adjust the Snap 1.5 (X and
Y) spacing and Grid to 2.0 ( X and Y) spacing?

3.2 Complete the steps for the drawing setup below:

Begin a New Drawing. When the Start Up or Create New Drawing dialog
box appears, select Start from Scratch. Select the English default settings.
Set the GRID to 1.
Set SNAP to 0.125
Save this drawing.

3.3 Give the method for accessing the Osnaps and list all the Osnaps.
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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 3a

ANSWERS

3.1 The function of Snap and Grid is making faster and accurate for creating and editing
object. It also functions as a guidance for creating objects.

We can adjust the Snap and Grid by using Drawing Aids Dialog Box and set the X
to 1.5 and Y to 2.0 or by type snap / grid and then set the X and Y.

3.4 There are four basic methods of accessing the Osnaps:


From flyout button on the Standard toolbar

From TOOLBAR command, View Toolbars from the pull-down menu.


From the cursor menu. Hold the Shift key down on the keyboard and right-click
the mouse to bring up the cursor menu. The menu appears at the current cursor
position.
From the keyboard by typing their abbreviated name.

Osnaps List
1. Endpoint
2. Midpoint
3. Intersection
4. Apparent Intersect
5. Center
6. Quadrant
7. Tangent
8. Perpendicular
9. Insert
10. Node
11. Nearest
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INPUT 3b

3.6 DISPLAY CONTROL

The accepted CAD practice is to draw full size using actual units. Since the drawing
is a virtual dimensional replica of the actual object, a drawing could represent a vast
area (several hundred feet or even miles) or a small area (only millimeters). The
drawing is created full size with the actual units, but it can be displayed at any size
on the screen. Consider also that CAD systems provide for a very high degree of
dimensional precision, which permits the generation of drawings with great detail
and accuracy.

Display commands provide you with different options for changing the view
of your drawing while it is being created. These commands make it easier to work
with your drawing, and see the overall effects of changes. the commands that
facilitate viewing different areas of a drawing are ZOOM, PAN, and View.

When you use drawing or editing commands, you can utilize the transparent
PAN command and ZOOM command options to change the view and magnification
of a drawing. You can also use display commands for saving and restoring specific
views, or to display several views.

The Viewing commands are found in the View pull-down menu (Figure 3.12 ).
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Figure 3.12: View pull-down


menu

Aerial View
Zoom Previous
Pan Realtime
Zoom Realtime

Figure 3.13: Standard toolbar button


for viewing

The Standard toolbar contains a group of tools (icon buttons) for the Figure 3.12
Viewing commands located near the right end of the toolbar ( Figure. 3.12 ). The
Realtime options of Pan and Zoom, Zoom Previous, and Aerial View each has an
icon permanently displayed on the toolbar, whereas the other Zoom options are
located on flyouts.
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3.7 USING ZOOM COMMAND


When you create a drawing, you may need to change the way objects are viewed in
the drawing window. To achieve this, the orientation, magnification, or position of
the drawing may have to be adjusted. The ZOOM command options let you change
the view by increasing or decreasing the size of displayed images. You zoom in to
magnify objects so you can see more details. You zoom out to reduce objects in the
drawing window and view a larger portion of the drawing.

Zooming does not change the true size of a drawing or object. It only changes the
size of the view in your drawing window. You can view the entire drawing, specify a
display window, or zoom to re a specific scale. We can get Zoom All Toolbar from
Flyout toolbar.

3.7.1 Zoom Window

The Zoom Window option lets you zoom in on an area of your drawing by using a
window to specify the viewing boundaries. When you enter the Zoom Window
option, AutoCAD displays a rectangular window in the drawing window. Select a
point to specify where you want your view to start, then move the window to cover
the area or section you want to magnify ( Figure 3.14 )

START

END After
Before

Figure 3.14: Using Zoom Window


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Methods for invoking the zoom window option include:

Toolbar :

Pull Down Menu : View> Zoom > Window

Command : ZOOM> Window

3.7.2 Zoom Previous

The Zoom Previous option displays the last view of your drawing. This option lets
you restore as many as ten previous views.

Methods for invoking the Zoom Previous option include:

Toolbar:

Menu: View> Zoom> Previous

Command: ZOOM> Previous

3.7.3 Zoom All

The Zoom All option lets you view the entire drawing in the current viewport. The
display shows the drawing limits and all objects even if the objects extend outside of
the drawing limits.

Methods for invoking the Zoom All option include:

Toolbar :

Menu : View> Zoom > All

Command : ZOOM> All


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3.7.4 Zoom Extents

The Zoom Extents option displays the region of the drawing where all objects you
draw are located. The display is based just on drawing objects, the drawing limits are
not considered to recalculate the display.

Methods for invoking the Zoom Extents option include:

Toolbar :

Menu : View > Zoom> Extents

Command : ZOOM> Extents

3.7.5 Zoom Center

The Zoom Center option lets you change the displayed size of an object and locate it
in the center of the viewport. When you enter the Zoom Center option, you are
prompted to locate a center point on the drawing plane. The next command prompt
lets you enter a magnification value or a height. The magnification value is followed
by an x which is the relative magnification factor. For the Height option, enter
smaller numbers for the height to enlarge the image size, and enter larger numbers
for the height to decrease the size.

Methods for invoking the Zoom Center option include:

Toolbar:

Menu: View > Zoom > Center

Command: ZOOM> Center

3.7.6 Dynamic

The Zoom Dynamic option uses a viewbox to adjust the display. The view box
represents your viewport. This means that the region of your drawing that you select
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with the view box will be displayed in the entire drawing window. You can enlarge,
reduce, and move the viewbox around your drawing to select the desired view.

Methods for invoking the Zoom Dynamic option include:

Toolbar :

Menu : View > Zoom> Dynamic

Command : ZOOM> Dynamic

3.7.7 Zoom Scale

The Zoom Scale option uses a scale factor to adjust the display. The value you enter
should correspond to the limits of the drawing.

The Scale (X) option requires you to use positive numbers to change the
magnification factor. When you enter the X option, the current display can be
enlarged or reduced by a certain multiple. For example, entering 2 at the Zoom Scale
Command prompt will display your drawing at twice its size, relative to its full view.
However, entering 2x at the Zoom Scale Command prompt will display your
drawing at twice the size as displayed in the current view.

You use the Scale (XP) option for scaling the display in floating viewports created in
paper space. This is useful when you are plotting layouts of scaled multiview
drawings.

Methods for invoking the Zoom Scale option include:

Toolbar :

Menu : View> Zoom> Scale

Command : ZOOM> Scale


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3.8 REALTIME DISPLAY

3.8.1 Zoom Realtime

When working with complex drawings, you spend significant time using the ZOOM
and PAN commands. After you invoke the command, the Realtime Zoom cursor is
displayed, drag the cursor down to decrease or up to increase the image. To activate
the Realtime ZOOM / PAN menu right-click the mouse.

The ZOOM/PAN cursor menu options include:

Exit - cancels the Realtime option and returns you to the Command prompt

Pan - Switches from Realtime ZOOM to PAN

Zoom - Switches from PAN to Realtime ZOOM

Zoom window - Displays a specified window and returns to REALTIME ZOOM

Zoom Previous - Restores the previous view and returns to the Realtime option

Zoom Extents - Displays the drawing extents and returns to the Realtime option

Methods for invoking the Realtime ZOOM command include:

Toolbar :

Menu : View> Zoom> Realtime

Commands : ZOOM

The Zoom/Pan Cursor menu is shown in the following figure:

Figure 3.15: The ZOOM/PAN Cursor Menu


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3.8.2 PAN REALTIME

With the PAN command, you can move the drawing around the drawing window
without changing the magnification. The two options that let you change the display
are Realtime and Point.

Methods for invoking the PAN command include:

Toolbar :

Menu : View> Pan> Realtime

Command : PAN

When you select the Realtime PAN option, the cursor changes into a hand cursor. To
change the location of your drawing, press the left mouse button. This locks the
cursor into its current location relative to the coordinate system used in the current
viewport. As you move the mouse, the drawing image pans to a new location. The
view of the objects in the drawing window shift in the same direction as the cursor.

The PAN Point option lets you specify a single point. AutoCAD then uses the
selected point and the current view orientation to displace the image. You also can
specify two points, AutoCAD computes the displacement between the two points
then moves the image in the drawing window. You can also pan by entering absolute
or relative coordinates at the Displacement prompt. To invoke the Pan Point option,
select Pan from the View menu, then choose Point.

The PAN command also has preset options that move the drawing in the specified
direction. You can access these options from the View menu. They include Left,
Right, Up, and Down. A view of the Pan cascading menu is shown in the following
figure:
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Figure 3.16: Pan cascading menu options

3.9 The Aerial View Zoom Feature

The Aerial View feature is a viewing aid that saves drawing time by displaying your entire
drawing in a separate window. You can then use the ZOOM and PAN command options
within the window to change the view of your drawing on the drawing window. If you keep
the Aerial View window open while you work, you can pan and zoom around your drawing
without entering commands at the Command prompt, or accessing them from the View
menu.

Methods for invoking the Aerial View window include:

Toolbar : Standard

Menu : View> Aerial View

Command : DSVIEWER

Figure 3.17: Realtime Pan and Zoom cursor menu


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When you enter the Aerial View window, AutoCAD displays the Aerial View window by
default, in the same location and with the same size as it was located in the last drawing
session. This means that you may have to move or change the size of the Aerial View
window so that you can have a better view of the display window. To do so, use the left
mouse button to select the title bar. Drag the window to a desired location and release the
left mouse button. To change the size of the window, move your cursor to one of the four
corners. When you see the doubled-pointed arrow, drag the cursor to change the window
size.

The Aerial View window contains the following four menus labeled View, Mode, Options,
and Help.

The View menu lets you select three zoom options to change the magnification of the Aerial
View. These include Zoom In, Zoom Out, and Global.

Zoom In - Increases the magnification of the drawing in the Aerial View by

zooming in by a factor of 2, centered on the current view box.

Zoom Out - Decreases the magnification of the drawing in the Aerial View by

zooming out by a factor of 2, centered on the current view box.

Global - Displays the entire drawing and the current view in the Aerial View

window.

3.10 USING REDRAW, REGEN AND REGEN ALL

3.10.1 REDRAW
The REDRAW command quickly refreshes the display of the current viewport by
removing all blips and any marks left from the use of editing commands. Blips are
small crosses left on the drawing window after a point is selected. REDRAW is also a
transparent command.
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Methods for invoking the REDRAW command include:

Menu : View > Redraw

Command : REDRAW

3.10.2 REGEN and REGENALL


The REGEN command refreshes the drawing window and recalculates all of the
objects in the drawing. When using the REGEN command, it will take AutoCAD a
longer time to redisplay your drawing than if the REDRAW command was used. This
is a major consideration when working with large drawings. The REGEN command
re-indexes the drawing database, re-computes drawing window coordinates for all
objects, and smoothes out all circles, arcs. ellipses, and splines. You may need to use
REGEN after changes in text styles, layer and linetype properties, and other changes
to properties.

Methods for invoking the REGEN command include:

Menu : View > Regen

Command : REGEN

The REGEN command only affects the current viewport. If you are working with
multiple viewports that need to be updated, use the REGENAL, command. The
REGENALL, command works the same way as REGEN except it regenerates all
viewports, and recalculates the drawing window coordinates and view resolution for
all objects in each of the active viewports.

Methods for invoking the REGENALL command include:


Menu :View > Regen All
Command : REGENALL
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Example using REGEN ALL

Create the circle with diameter 10mm ( Start new drawing with metric setting ).
Then zoom the circle. The figure below shown that the circle before zoom, after
zoom and after using regen command

Original Drawing After Zoom Windows After Regen All

Figure 3.18 Using Regen All to smoother the display of object


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ACTIVITY 3 b

EXERCISES.

3.5 Controlling the Display

You often use the ZOOM command options to change the view in the drawing
window. In this activity, you use the ZOOM options to display new drawing views.

A. Using the Zoom Command

1. Open the file C:\Program files\AutoCAD R14\Sample\campus.dwg. The drawing


looks like the following figure:

Figure 3.19 : Campus.dwg

2. From the View menu, choose Zoom, then choose Window.

3. In response to the First corner: prompt, select A. For the Other corner: select B.
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The following figure shows the result of using zoom window:

Figure 3.20: Result of using ZOOM Window

4. To recall a previous display, you can use the Zoom command option Previous. At
the Command prompt, enter the command alias z.

5. Enter p at the Command prompt. The previous display is now displayed again.

6. To display all visible objects in the whole drawing, you can use the Zoom Extents
option.

7. From the View menu, choose Zoom, then choose Extents. All visible objects in the
drawings are now displayed.

8. To center an object in the middle of the drawing window, use the Zoom Center
option. At the Command prompt, enter z. Then enter c for the center option.
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B. Using Realtime ZOOM and PAN

1. The REALTIME PAN and ZOOM commands let you quickly obtain the display you
want. Open Campus.dwg file and use REALTIME ZOOM

2. To use the REALTIME ZOOM command, enter z and accept the default command
option <realtime> by pressing ENTER.

3. The Realtime Zoom cursor is now displayed as a magnifying glass with plus and
minus signs. Press the left mouse and drag the Realtime Zoom cursor up and down
the drawing window. When the desired view is displayed in the drawing window,
release the left mouse button.

4. Press the right mouse button. The Pan/Zoom cursor menu is displayed. Select the
Pan option, as shown in the following figure:

Figure 3.21: Realtime Pan and Zoom cursor menu

5. The Realtime Pan cursor is now displayed as a hand in the drawing window. Position
the Realtime Pan cursor over the office building. Drag the cursor around the drawing
window, and when the desired view is displayed in the drawing window, release the
left mouse button and press ENTER.

6. This concludes the ZOOM Command exercise. You are encouraged to explore the
other Zoom command options and command entry methods.

7. Try another ZOOM command ( All, Extents, Center, Dynamics, Scale )


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C. Using REDRAW, REGEN and REGEN ALL

Start New drawing. Start From Stractch > Metric. Create a circle with diameter 5
mm. Then zoom the circle using ZOOM Windows commands. What happen with this
circle? Using Regen All to make the circle smoothes

.
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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 3b

Please discuss with your lecturer


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FOLLOW THE ENTIRE STEP BELOW AND ANSWER THE QUESTION.

QUESTION 3-1
a) Begin a New drawing. When the Start Up or Create New Drawing dialog box
appears, select Start From Scratch. Select the English default settings. Set Limits in
order to draw full size. Make the lower-left corner 0,0 and the upper-right at 24,18.
Set the grid to 1 and snap to 1. Draw the T character as shown below. Save your
drawing.

Figure 3.22
Then, set the Grid to 0.5 What happened with the grid and snap? Discuss with your lecturer.
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b) Draw the marker of each Osnap below

Osnap Marker

i. Endpoint

ii. Midpoint

iii. Center

iv. Quadrant

v. Intersection

vi. Perpendicular

vii. Tangent

c) Follow this exercise to demonstrate the use of some of the most commonly used
Osnaps.

To Draw the Triangle


Command: LINE
From point: (pick a point in the middle of the drawing area)
To point: @15,0
To point: FROM
_from Base point: MID
_mid of : (pick a point near the middle of the line)
<Offset>: @0,75
To point: C (to close)

To Draw the Vertical Line


Command: LINE

Figure 3.24
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From point: MID


_mid of : (pick point near the middle of the triangle base)
To point: @0,-100
To point:

To Draw the Horizontal Line


Command: LINE
From point: FROM
_from Base point: MID
_mid of : (pick a point near the middle of the vertical line)
<Offset>: @-25,0
To point: @50,0
To point:

To Draw the Circle


Command: CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center point>: INT
_int of :(pick a point near the intersection of the two lines)
Diameter/<Radius> <12.5000>: 12.5

To Trim the Lines within the Circle


Command: TRIM
Select cutting edges: (Projmode = UCS, Edgemode = No extend)
Select objects: (pick the circle on its circumference)
Select objects:
<Select object to trim>/Project/Edge/Undo: (pick one of the two lines within the
circle)
<Select object to trim>/Project/Edge/Undo: (pick the other line within the circle)
<Select object to trim>/Project/Edge/Undo:

To Draw the Text


Command: DTEXT
Justify/Style/<Start point>: J
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Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/TL/TC/TR/ML/MC/MR/BL/BC/BR: M
Middle point: CEN
_cen of : (pick a point on the circumference of the circle)
Height <15.0000>: 15
Rotation angle <0>: 0
Text: N
Text:
Command:

d) Follow the step carefully


i. Begin a New drawing. Turn ON the Snap ( F9 ) and Grid ( F7 ). Draw
two circles, each with a 1.5 unit radius. The circle centers are at 3,5 and
5,5 See Figure 3.24

Figure 3.24

ii. Use Zoom All. Does the display change? Now use Zoom Extents. What
happens? Now use Zoom All again. Which option always showns all the
limits?
iii. Draw a circle with the center at 10,10 and with a radius of 5. now use
Zoom All. Notice the Grid only appears on the area defined by the limits.
Can you move the cursor to 0,0? Now use Zoom Extents. What happens?
Can you move the cursor to 0,0?
iv. Erase the large circle. Use Zoom All. Can you move the cursor 0,0? Use
Zoom Extents. Can you find point 0,0?
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e) Open the file C:\Program files\AutoCAD R14\Sample\azimuth.dwg. The drawing


looks like the following figure

Figure 3.25: Azimuth.dwg File

Using Zoom and Pan command, please show how the figures below look.

Figure 3.26

Figure 3.27

Figure 3.28
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DRAWING AIDS , DRAWING LIMITS & DISPLAY CONTROL

FEEDBACK TO SELF ASSESSMENT

Discuss your answers with your lecturer


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DRAW COMMANDS

UNIT 4

DRAW COMMAND

OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of draw commands

Specific Objectives : At the end of this chapter you should be able to:

Use and invoke the draw commands.

Draw Lines by the Line command.

Make Arc by using Arc command with 10 different method.

Draw Circles by five options method.

Makes Polylines by using Pline command.

Create an ellipse with three methods.

Draw Polygon, Donut and Solid by using Draw Comand.


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DRAW COMMANDS

INPUT 4a

4.0 INTRODUCTION

Draw commands create objects. An object is the smallest component of a drawing. The
draw commands listed immediately below create simple objects and are discussed in this
unit. Simple objects appear as one entity.

Line, Circle, Arc, Point

Other draw commands create more complex shapes. Complex shapes appear to be
composed of several components, but each shape is usually one object. An example of an
object that is one entity but usually appears as several segment is listed below;

Pline

Other draw commands are combination of simple and complex shapes:

Xline, Polygon, Rectangle, Donut, Spline, Ellipse, Divide, Mline, Solid

Normally, there are three methods that can be used to access draw commands. We can use
either draw toolbar, keyboard entry of the command or pull-down menu ( Figure 4.1 ).
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DRAW COMMANDS

Draw Pull-Down
Toolbar Menu

Keyboard
Entry

Figure 4.1: Three methods of using draw commands entry

DRAW COMMANDS

4.1 Line

This is the fundamental drawing command. Use the line command to construct a line
from one endpoint to the other. One or several line segments can be drawn with the line
command. You can specify the endpoints of lines using two-dimensional or three-
dimensional coordinates.

Draw toolbar :
Menu : Draw > Line
Command line : line or type L

From point: Specify a point or press ENTER to continue from the last line or arc
To point: Specify a point
To point: Specify a point, enter u or undo, enter c or close, or press ENTER

AutoCAD draws a line segment and continues to prompt for points. You can draw a
continuing series of line segments, but each line segment is a separate object. Press ENTER
to end the command.
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DRAW COMMANDS

For example, the following command sequence draws a single line segment ( figure 4.2 ).

Command : line
From point : Specify a point (1)
To point : Specify a point (2)
To point : Press ENTER

Figure 4.2

4.2 ARC

An arc is part of a circle; it is a regular curve of less than 360 degrees. The arc
command in AutoCAD provides eleven options for creating arcs. An arc is one object. Arcs
are always drawn by default in a counter-clockwise direction. An arc command can be
reached by the following way

Draw toolbar :
Pull-down menu : Draw > arc
Command : arc
There are a number of ways to create arcs. The 3 points arc option is the default for the ARC
command.

3 point arc
This command option identifies the location of the 3 points of the arc. We can use
the keyboard and specify the coordinates or we may use the mouse to point the coordinates.
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.3

Start, Center, End


The radius is defined by the first two points that you specify.

Figure 4.4
Start, center, angle
The angle is the included angle between the sides from the center to the endpoints. A
negative angle can be entered to generate an Arc in a clockwise direction.

Figure 4.5 :
Start, Center, Length
Length means length of chord. The length of chord is between the start and the other point
specified. A negative chord length can be entered to generate an arc of 180+ degrees.
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.6

Start, end, angle


The included angle is between the sides from the center to the endpoints. Negative angles
generate clockwise arcs. The angle for figure below is 70 degrees.

Figure 4.7

Start, end, radius


The radius can be picked or entered as a value. A negative radius value generates arcs of
180+ degrees.

Figure 4.8
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DRAW COMMANDS

Start, end, direction


The direction is tangent to the start point.

end

direction

start

Figure 4.9

Center, start, end


The option is like start, center, end but in a different order.

start end

center

Figure 4.10

Center, start, angle


This option is like start, center, angle but in a difference order.

angle

start
center
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.11
Center, start, length
This is similar to the start, center, length option but in a different order. Length means length
of chord.

center

start

Length

Figure 4.12

Continue
The new Arc continues from and is tangent to the last point. The only other point required is
the endpoint of the arc. This method allows drawing arcs tangent to the preceding Line or
Arc.

4.3 Circle

The CIRCLE command has many options, these include center, radius; center, diameter;
two points, three points; tangent, tangent, radius; tangent, tangent, tangent.

Draw toolbar :
Menu : Draw > Circle
Command line : circle

Circle by Radius Mode:


Use the Circle command and the Radius mode to construct a circle by a radius value
specified by the user. After selecting a center point for the circle, the user is prompted to
enter a radius for the desired circle. Study the prompt below and illustration for constricting
a circle using the Radius mode.
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DRAW COMMANDS

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : ( Mark the center at A )
Diameter/<Radius> : 1.50

Figure 4.13

Circle by Diameter Mode


Use the Circle command and the Diameter mode to construct a circle by a diameter value
specified by the user. After selecting a center point for the circle, the user is prompted to
enter a diameter for the desired circle. Study the prompt and illustration below for
constructing a circle by using Diameter mode.

Figure 4.14

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : ( Mark the center at A )
Diameter/<Radius>: Diameter
Diameter : 3.00
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DRAW COMMANDS

3 Point Circle Mode:

Use the CIRCLE command and the 3 Point mode to construct a circle by 3 points identified
by user. No center point is required when entering the 3 Point mode. Simply select three
points and the circle is drawn. Study the prompt and illustration below for constructing a
circle using the 3 Point mode.

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : 3P
First Point : ( Select the Point at A )
Second point : ( Select the Point at B )
Third point : ( Select the Point at C )

(B)

(C) (A)

Figure 4.15

2 Point Circle mode:


Use the Circle command and the 2 Point mode to construct a circle by selecting 2 points.
These points will form the diameter of the circle. No center point is required after entering
the 2 point mode. Study the prompt and illustration below for constructing a circle by using
the 2 Point mode.

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : 2P
First Point : ( Select the Point at A )
Second point : ( Select the Point at B )
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DRAW COMMANDS

B A

Figure 4.16

Tangent-Tangent-Radius Mode - Method # 1:


This mode is very powerful when constructing a circle tangent to two entities. Illustrated
below is an application of using the TTR mode to construct a circle tangent to two line
segments. Study the prompt below to create this type of circle.

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : TTR
Enter tangent spec : ( Select the line at A )
Enter second tangent spec : ( Select the line at B )
Radius : 1.4

(B)

(A)

Figure 4.17

Tangent-Tangent-Radius Mode : Method # 2:


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DRAW COMMANDS

Illustrated below is an application of using the Circle TTR mode to construct a circle tangent
to the line segment on another circle. Study the prompt below to create this type of circle.

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : TTR
Enter tangent spec : ( Select the line at A )
Enter second tangent spec : ( Select the circle at B )
Radius : 1.3

(B )
(A)

Figure 4.18

Tangent-Tangent-Radius Mode : Method # 3:


Illustrated below is an application of using the Circle TTR mode to construct a circle tangent
to another two circle. Study the prompt below to creating this type of circle.

Command : CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center Point> : TTR
Enter tangent spec : ( Select the circle at A )
Enter second tangent spec : ( Select the circle at B )
Radius : 1.00
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DRAW COMMANDS

(A)

(B)

Figure 4.19

4.5 POINT
Use the point command to identify the location of a point on a drawing. This point may be
used for reference purposes. The Osnap-Node or Nearest options are used to snap to points.
By default, a point is displayed as a dot on the screen. This dot may be confused with the
existing grid dots already on the screen. To distinguish point entities from grid dots, use the
chart at the right to assign a new point type; this is accomplished through the Pdmode
system variable. Entering a value of 3 for Pdmode display the point as an X. The Pdsize
system variable controls size of the point. Use the prompts below for changing the point
mode to a value of 3.

Command : Pdmode
New value for variable PDMODE <0> : 3

Command : Point
Point : ( Mark the new position of a point using the cursor or one of the many
coordinate systems )

Use the DDPTYPE dialog box below for dynamically selecting a new point mode and point
size.
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.20 : Point Style dialog box


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DRAW COMMANDS

ACTIVITY 4a

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.

4.1 Draw the figure below with line, arc and circle command.

Figure 4.21

Figure 4.22
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DRAW COMMANDS

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 4a
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DRAW COMMANDS

INPUT 4b

4.4 POLYLINE

Polilyne is similarly to individual line segment except that a polyline may consists of
numerous segments and still be considered as a single entity. Width may also be assigned to
a polyline compared to regular line segment, which makes polylines perfect for drawing
border and title block. Study both command sequences below for using the Pline command.

Command : Pline
From point : ( Select a point at A )
Current line-width is 0.0000
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
( Mark a point at A )
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
Width
Starting width <0.0000>: 0.10
Ending width < 0.0000> : ( Strike Enter to accept default )
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
( Mark a point at B)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
( Mark a point at C)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
( Mark a point at D)
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DRAW COMMANDS

Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
( Mark a point at E)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
( Strike Enter to exit this command)

C
D
B

A E

Four segment are representing one


polyline entity.

Figure 4.22

Command : Pline
From point : ( Select a point at A )
Current line-width is 0.0000
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
@1.00<0( to B )
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
@2.00<90 ( to C)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
@0.50<0( to D)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
@0.75<90( to E)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
@0.75<180( to F)
Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<endpoint of line>:
Close
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.23

4.6 ELLIPSE
An Ellipse is one object. There are three methods of creating Ellipse In AutoCAD.:
Specify one axis and the end of the second.
Specify the center and the ends of each axis.
Create an ellipse arc.

Each option also permits supplying a rotation angle than the second axis length.

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : DRAW > ELLIPSE
Command : ELLPISE

Command : ellipse
Arc/Center/<Axis Point1> : PICK or (coordinates) (This is the first
endpoint
of either the major or minor axis.)
<Other axis distance>/Rotation: PICK or (coordinates) ( This distance is
measured perpendicularly from the established axis )
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DRAW COMMANDS

Axis End

This default option requires Picking three points as indicated in the command
sequence above.

Figure 4.24

Rotation

If the rotation option is used with the Axis End method, the following syntax is used:

<Other axis distance>/Rotation : R


Rotation around major axis : PICK or (value)

Rotation = 45

Figure 4.25

The specified angle is the number of degrees the shape is rotated from the circular
position.

Center
With many practical applications, the center point of the ellipse is known, and
therefore the center option should be used.
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DRAW COMMANDS

Command : ellipse
Arc/Center/<Axis endpoint1> : C
Center of ellipse : PICK or (coordinates)
Axis endpoint : PICK or (coordinates)
<Other axis distance>/Rotation : PICK or (coordinates) ( This distance is
measured perpendicularly from the established axis )

The Rotation option appear and can be invoked after specifying the Center first Axix
endpoint.

Figure 4.26

Arc
Use this option to construct an elliptical arc ( partial ellipse ). The procedure is
identical to the Center option with the addition of specifying the start and endpoint
for the arc.
Command : ellipse
Arc/Center/<Axis endpoint 1>: a
<Axis endpoint 1>/center: PICK or (coordinates)
Axis endpoint 2 : PICK or (coordinates)
<Other axis distance>/Rotation : PICK or (coordinates)
Parameter/<start angle>: PICK or (angular value)
Parameter/Included/<end angle> :PICK or (angular value )
Command :
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.27

4.7 POLYGON

The polygon command is used to construct a regular polygon. Polygons are


defined by the radius of circle which classifies the polygon as either being inscribed
or circumscribed. Polygons consist of a closed polyline entity with width set to zero.
The following prompt sequence is used to construct an inscribed polygon with the
illustration as a guide.

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : Draw > polygon
Command : POLYGON

Command : Polygon
Number of sides : 6
Edge/<Center of polygon>: ( Select a point at A )
Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle ( I/C ) : Inscribed
Radius of circle : 1.00
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DRAW COMMANDS

Figure 4.28

The following prompt sequence is used to construct a circumscribed polygon with


the illustration as a guide.

Command : Polygon
Number of sides : 6
Edge/<Center of polygon>: ( Select a point at A )
Inscribed in circle/Circumscribed about circle ( I/C ) : Circumscribed
Radius of circle : 1.00

Figure 4.29

Polygon may be specified by locating the endpoints of one of its edges. The polygon
is then drawn in a counterclockwise direction. Study the illustration at the right and
the prompt sequence below for constructing a polygon by one of its edges.
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DRAW COMMANDS

Command : Polygon
Number of sides : 6
Edge/<Center of polygon>: Edge
First endpoint of edge : ( Select a point at A)
Second endpoint of edge : ( Select a point at B )

Figure 4.30

4.7 DONUT
Use the Donut command to construct a filled-in circle. This entity actually
resembles a polyline. The illustration below is an examples of a donut with an inside
diameter of 0.50 units and an outside diameter of 1.00 units. When placing Donut in
a drawing, the multiple option is automatically invoked. This means you can place as
many donuts as you like until another command is selected from one of the three
menu areas or a Cancel or CTRL-C is issued.

Command : Donut
Inside Diameter<0.50>: ( Strike Enter to accept the default )
Outside Diameter<1.00>: ( Strike Enter to accept the default )
Center of donut : ( Select a point to place the donut )
Center of donut : ( Select a point to place the donut or strike Enter to exit this
command )
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DRAW COMMANDS

0.50

1.00

Figure 4.31

Set the inside diameter of a donut to a value of zero ( 0 ) and an outside diameter to
any other values to constructs a donut representing a dot.

Command : Donut
Inside Diameter<0.50>: 0
Outside Diameter<1.00>: 0.25
Center of donut : ( Select a point to place the donut )
Center of donut : ( Select a point to place the donut or strike Enter to exit this
command )

4.8 SOLID
The Solid command allows the user to create a fill in area of quadrilateral or
triangular shapes. Two endpoints or intersections are picked as a starting edge of the
solid. Two additional endpoints or intersections complete the opposite edge of the
solid. Study the following prompt sequence and the illustration for creating a solid.

Command : Solid
First point : ( Select the intersection at A )
Second point : (Select the intersection at B )
Third point : ( Select the intersection at C )
Fourth point : ( Select the intersection at D )
Third point : ( Strike Enter to exit this command )
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DRAW COMMANDS

(A) (B)

(C) (D)

Figure 4.32

It is important how the second solid edge is selected. Instead of the third point being
selected diagonally from the second point as in the illustration, it was selected
adjacent to the second point. This created the hourglass shape familiar to first-time
users of the Solid Command.

Command : Solid
First point : ( Select the intersection at A )
Second point : (Select the intersection at B )
Third point : ( Select the intersection at C )
Fourth point : ( Select the intersection at D )
Third point : ( Strike Enter to exit this command )

(B)
(A)

(D) (C)

Figure 4.33
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DRAW COMMANDS

Solid edges may be continuously selected as in the illustration below. The key is that
the third point is picked opposite or diagonally from the second point. Follow the
prompt sequence below to create this type of multiple solid.

Command : Solid
First point : ( Select the intersection at A )
Second point : (Select the intersection at B )
Third point : ( Select the intersection at C )
Fourth point : ( Select the intersection at D )
Third point : ( Select the intersection at E )
Fourth point : ( Select the intersection at F )
Third point : ( Select the intersection at G )
Fourth point : ( Select the intersection at H )
Third point : ( Strike Enter to exit this command )

(C) (E)

(D) (F)

(A) (B) (H) (G)

Figure 4.34
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DRAW COMMANDS

ACTIVITY 4b

EXERSICE.

4.2 In this exercise, you use the POLYGON, RECTANGULAR, DONUT, and
ELLIPSE command to draw whirlpool fixture. Try this following step to
complete your exercise.

A) Creating rectangular
1. From the File menu, choose New.
2. Choose the Start From Scratch button, under the Select Default Setting
list, select Metric, then choose OK.
3. From the Draw menu, choose Rectangular
4. Enter 0,0 at the First corner : Command Prompt. Then press ENTER
5. Enter 96,60 at the Other corner : Command prompt
6. Enter 2,29 at the First corner : Command Prompt
7. Enter 10,31 at the Other corner : Command Prompt. Then press ENTER
8. From the View menu, choose Zoom, then choose Extents

B) Using the ELLIPSE command


1. To draw an Ellipse, enter el at the command prompt.
2. Enter 5,30 at the Arc/Center/<Axis endpoint 1>: Command prompt. Then
press ENTER.
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DRAW COMMANDS

3. Enter 91,30 at the Axis endpoint 2 : Command prompt, then press enter.
4. Enter 25 at the <Other axis distance>/Rotation : Command prompt. Then
press ENTER.

C) Using the POLYGON command


1. From the Draw menu, choose POLYGON.
2. At the Number of sides <4> : Command prompt, enter 6, then enter 3,24
at the Edge/<Center of Polygon> : Command prompt.
3. Enter i for inscribed, then enter 2 for radius. Press ENTER twice.
4. At the Number of sides <4> : Command prompt enter 6, then enter 3,36
at the Edge/<Center of Polygon> : Command prompt.
5. Enter i for inscribed, then enter 2 for radius. Then press ENTER.

D) Using the DONUT command


1. From the Draw menu, choose DONUT
2. At the Inside Diameter : Command prompt, enter 2.5
3. Enter 10 at the Outside diameter : Command prompt.
4. At the Center of doughnut : Command prompt, enter 48,30. Then press
ENTER.
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DRAW COMMANDS

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 4b

ANSWERS

4.2

Figure 4.35
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DRAW COMMANDS

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.

QUESTION 4-1 :

a) List all the options to draw an arc under the Arc Command.

b) Give the suitable method to construct a circle tangent to the line segment on
another circle.

c) Give the options to draw a polygon and what is the different between it?

QUESTION 4-2 :
a) Draw the figure below with suitable command.
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DRAW COMMANDS

b) Draw the circuit as in figure in Schematic diagram without scale with the
suitable command

Figure 4.37
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DRAW COMMANDS

FEEDBACK TO SELF ASSESSMENT

ANSWER 4-1

a) There are 11 options to draw an Arc under Arc Command:


* 3 point arc
* Start, Center, End
* Start, center, angle
* Start, Center, Length
* Start, end, angle
* Start, end, radius
* Start, end, direction
* Center, start, end
* Center, start, angle
* Center, start, length
* Continue

b) TTT Tangent - Tangent Radius Mode

c) They are 3 options to draw a polygon


Inscribe of Circle
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DRAW COMMANDS

Circumscribed about a Circle

A Polygon by edge
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MODIFY COMMANDS

UNIT 5

MODIFY COMMAND

OBJECTIVES
General Objective : To understand the concept of Modify commands

Specific Objectives : At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

Locate and invoke the Modify command


Erase objects from the drawing.
Move objects from a base point to a second point
of a displacement.
Rotate objects about a basepoint.
Enlarge or reduce objects with scale.
Make mirror images of selected objects.
Make rectangular and polar arrays of existing objects
Stretch selected object.
Trim away parts of objects at cutting edges.
Extend objects to selected boundary edges.
Create a fillet between two objects.
Create a Chamfer between two objects.
Create parallel copies of objects with offset.
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MODIFY COMMANDS

INPUT 5a

5.0 INTRODUCTION

Draw commands are used to create new objects. Modify commands or edit
commands are used to change existing objects or to use existing objects to create new and
similar objects. The commands listed below are covered in this unit:

5.1 Erase
5.2 Move
5.3 Rotate
5.4 Trim
5.5 Scale
5.6 Mirror
5.7 Array
5.8 Stretch
5.9 Extend
5.10 Fillet
5.11 Chamfer
5.12 Offset
5.13 Divide
5.14 Measure
5.15 Change
5.16 Pedit
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MODIFY COMMANDS

5.1 ERASE

The erase command deletes the objects you select from the drawing. Any of the object
selection methods can be used to highlight the object to erase. The only other required
action is press Enter to cause the erase to take effect.

Methods for invoking the ERASE command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down Menu : Modify > Erase
Command : Erase

An example of the erase command prompt is as follows:

Command: Erase
Select Objects: PICK (Use any object selection method.)
Select Objects: PICK (Continue to select desired objects)
Select objects: Enter (Confirm the object selection process and causes Erase
to take effect. )
Command:

If objects are erased accidentally, U or Undo command can be used immediately following
the mistake to undo one step, or oops can be used to bring back into the drawing whatever
was erased the last time erase was used.

5.2 MOVE

Move allows you to relocate one or more objects from the existing position in the
drawing to any other position you specify. After selecting the objects to move, you must
specify the base point and second point of displacement.
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MODIFY COMMANDS

Methods for invoking the MOVE command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : Modify > Move
Command : Move

The prompts for the MOVE command are as follows:

Command: move
Select objects: ( Select objects you want to move )
Select objects: ( Press ENTER )
Base point or displacement: ( Select a point )
Second point of displacement: ( Select a point )

Example
In the following figure, you want to put a corner of the rectangle at the center of the
circle.

Command: move
Select objects: 1 found ( select the rectangle )
Select objects: ( Press ENTER )
Base point or displacement: end of ( Select the corner of the rectangle )
Second point of displacement: center of ( Select any point on the circle
circumference )
Command:
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MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.1 : Using MOVE Command to put the rectangle at the center of the circle

5.3 ROTATE

Selected object can be rotated to any position with this command. After selecting
object to rotate, you select a basepoint ( a point to rotate about ) then specify an
angle for rotation.

Methods for invoking the ROTATE command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : Modify>rotate
Command : Rotate

An example of the ROTATE command prompt is as follows:


Command: rotate
Select Object: ( Specify the objects to rotate )
Base Point : end of ( Specify the basepoint )
< Rotation angle>/Reference:
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MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.2: Using the ROTATE command to rotate the rectangle about 900 from
basepoint

5.4 TRIM

The Trim command allows you to trim ( shorten ) the end of end object back
to the intersection of another object ( figure ). The middle section of an object can
also be trimmed between two intersection objects. There are two steps to this
command;

1. PICK one or more cutting edge ( existing object )


2. Then PICK the object or objects to trim ( portion to remove )

The cutting edges are highlighted after selection. Cutting edges themselves can be
trimmed if they intersect with other cutting edges, but lose their highlight when
trimmed.

Methods for invoking the TRIM command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > TRIM
Command : TRIM
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MODIFY COMMANDS

An example of the erase command prompt is as follows:

Command: trim
Select cutting edges: ( Projmode = UCS, Edgemode = No Extend)
Select Objects: PICK ( Select an object to use as a cutting edge )
Select Objects: PICK
Select Objects: Enter
< Select object to trim >/Project/Edge/Undo:PICK ( select the end of and object to
trim )
< Select object to trim >/Project/Edge/Undo: PICK
< Select object to trim >/Project/Edge/Undo:Enter
Command:

Figure 5.3: Using TRIM command to trim the objects.


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MODIFY COMMANDS

ACTIVITY 5a

EXERCISES.

5.1 Begin a New drawing and create the geometry in Figure 5.4 using Lines and Circles.
If desired, set SNAP to .25 to make drawing easy and accurate.

For practice, turn SNAP OFF ( F9 ). Use the Move command to move the circles and
lines into the position shown in illustration B. OSNAPs are required to Move the
geometry accurately. Save the drawing as MOVE1.

Figure 5.4
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MODIFY COMMANDS

5.2 Begin a New drawing and create the geometry in Figure 5.5 Rotate the shape into
position shown in step B. Save As ROTATE1.

Use the reference option to Rotate the box to align with the diagonal Line as shown
in C. Save As ROTATE2.

Figure 5.5
5.3 Trim command
i. Create the shape shown in figure 5.6 A Save As TRIM-EX
ii. Use Trim to alter the shape as shown in B Save As TRIM1
iii. Open TRIM-EX to create the shapes shown in C and D using Trim. Save As
TRIM2 and TRIM3.

Figure 5.6
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MODIFY COMMANDS

Feedback To Activity 5a

Answers

5.1 Step to Modify Figure 5.4 (A) to get the geometry Figure 5.14 (B) using
Move command

Command: MOVE ( to move the lines )


Select objects: 1 found ( select a line )
Select objects: 1 found ( select b line )
Select objects: ( enter to finished the selection)
Base point or displacement: end of ( select end of right horizontal line )
Second point of displacement: mid of ( select mid of right horizontal line )
Command: MOVE ( to move the first circle )
Select objects: 1 found ( select first circle )
Select objects: ( enter )
Base point or displacement: qua of ( select 90 degree quadrant for circle 1.5
diameter )
Second point of displacement: mid of ( select mid point of a line )
Command: MOVE ( to Move second line )
Select objects: 1 found
Select objects: ( enter )
Base point or displacement: cen of ( center of the 1.0 diameter circle )
Second point of displacement: int of ( center of b line )
Command: ( enter )
5.2 Draw carefully and after that discuss with your lecturer.
5.3 Draw carefully and after that discuss with your lecturer
E2004/5/11
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INPUT 5b

5.5 SCALE

The scale command is used to increase or decrease the size of objects in a drawing. The
scale command does not normally have any relation to plotting a drawing to scale.

Methods for invoking the SCALE command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > SCALE
Command : SCALE

An example of the scale command prompt is as follows:

Command : scale
Select Object : PICK or ( coordinates) ( Select the object to scale )
Select Object : ENTER ( Indicates completion of the object selection )
Base point : PICK or ( coordinates ) ( Select the stationary point)
Scale factor <Reference>: PICK or (value) or (coordinates) ( Enter a value for the
scale factor or interactively scale the set of object)
Command :
E2004/5/12
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.7 : Using SCALE Command to enlarge the rectangle with scale factor;2

5.6 MIRROR

This command creates a mirror image of selected existing objects. You can retain or delete
the original objects ( old object ). After selecting objects, you create two points specifying
a rubberband line, or mirror line, about which to mirror.

Methods for invoking the MIRROR command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > MIRROR
Command : MIRROR

An example of the scale command prompt is as follows:

Command : mirror
Select Object : PICK ( Select object or group of object to mirror )
Select Object : Enter ( Press Enter to indicate completion of object selection. )
First point of mirror line : PICK or (coordinates) (Draw first endpoint of line to
represent mirror axis by PICKing or entering coordinates)
Second point of mirror : PICK or (coordinates) (Draw second point of line by
PICKing or entering coordinates)
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MODIFY COMMANDS

Delete old objects ? <N> Enter or Y ( Press Enter to yield both sets of objects or
enter Y to keep only the mirrored set.)
Command :

5.7 ARRAY

The array command creates either a Rectangular or Polar ( circular ) pattern of


existing object that you select. The pattern could be created from a single or from a group of
objects. Array copies a duplicate set of objects for each item in the array.

Methods for invoking the ARRAY command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > ARRAY
Command : Array

Rectangular
This option creates an Array of the selection set in a pattern composed of rows and
columns. The command syntax for a rectangular is given next:

Command : Array
Select Objects : PICK ( Select object to be arrayed )
Select Objects : Enter ( Indicates completion of object selection)
Rectangular or Polar array (<R>/P) : R (indicates rectangular )
Number of rows (---)<1> : (value) ( enter value for number of rows)
Number of columns (lll)<1> : (value) (enter value for number of columns)
Unit cell or distance between rows (---): ( value) ( enter a value for the
distance from any of one object to the same point on an object in the adjacent
row.
Distance between columns (lll) : (value ) (enter a value for the distance from
any point on one object to the same point on an object in the adjacent
column.
E2004/5/14
MODIFY COMMANDS

Command :

Figure 5.8: Using Array with Rectangular option

Polar
This option creates a circular pattern of the selection set with any number of copies
or items. The number of item specified includes the original selection set. You also
specify the center of the array, angle to generate the array through and orientation of
item.

Command : Array
Select Object : PICK ( select object to be arrayed)
Select Object : Enter
Rectangular or Polar array ( <R>/P ) : P (indicates Polar array)
Center point of array : PICK ( select point from array to be generated around)
Number of items : ( value ) ( enter value for number of copies including
original selection set )
Angle to fill (+=ccw,-=cw) <360>: Enter or (value) (press enter for full
circular array, enter value for less than 360 degree array; enter negative value
for clockwise generation array)
Rotate object as they are copied? <Y> Enter or N (Press Enter for rotation of
copies object about center, N for keeping objects in original orientation.)
E2004/5/15
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.9 : Using ARRAY Command with polar option

5.8 STRETCH

Object can be made longer or shorter with STRETCH. When Stretched,Line and Plines
become longer or shorter and Arc change radius to become longer or shorter. Circle do not
stretch; rather, they move if the circle is selected within the Crossing Window.

Methods for invoking the STRETCH command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > STRETCH
Command : STRETCH

An example of the stretch command prompt is as follows:

Command : STRETCH
Select Object(s) : to stretch by crossing-window or polygon
Select Object :
First Corner : PICK
Other Corner : PICK
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Select Object : Enter


Base point or displacement : PICK or (coordinates ) ( Select a point to use as the
point to stretch from. )
Second point of displacement : PICK or (coordinates) (Select a point to use as the
point to stretch to)
Command :

Figure 5.10 : Stretching the drawing


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ACTIVITY 7b

EXERCISES.
5.4 Begin a New drawing and create the geometry in Figure 5.11 (A). Then Scale the
shape by a factor of 1.5. Now the geometry look like Figure 5.11 (B)

Figure 5.11
5.5 A manufacturing cell is displayed in Figure 5.12 The view is from above, showing a
robot centered in a work station. The production line requires 4 cells. Begin by
starting a New drawing, setting Units to Engineering and Limits to 40 x 30. Draw
one cell to the dimensions indicated. Begin at the indicated coordinates of the lower-
left corner of the cell. SaveAs ROBOT1.

Figure 5.12
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Use Mirror to create the other three manufacturing cells as shown in Figure 5.13
Ensure that there is sufficient space between the cells as indicated. Draw the two
horizontal Lines representing the walkway as shown. Save the drawing.

Figure 5.13

5.6 A design change has been requested. Open ROBOT1 drawing and make the
following changes

The top of the workstation ( work area for the robot ) must be move upward. This
design change will add 3 inches to the total height of the workstation. Use Stretch to
accomplish the change. Then save the drawing as ROBOCHANGE. The figure
below shown the new workstation

Figure 5.14
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5.7 Begin a New drawing. Select Start from Scratch, English defaults. Create the start -
ing geometry for a Flange Plate as shown in Figure 5.15 Save As ARRAY.

Figure 5.15

i. Create the Polar Array as shown in Figure 5.16 A. Save As ARRAY1

ii. Open ARRAY. Create the Polar Array as shown in Figure 5.16 B. SaveAs
ARRAY2. (HINT: Use a negative angle to generate the Array in a clockwise
direction.)

Figure 5.16
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5.8 Using Array with Rectangular option

i. Begin a New drawing. Select Start from Scratch, Metric setting. Use Save and
assign the name LIBDESKS.
ii. Create the Array of study carrels (desks) for the library as shown in Figure 5.17
Draw the first carrel Each carrel is 30 x 42. Design your own chair.
iii. Create the Rectangular Array so that the carrels touch side to side and allow a 25
aisle for walking between carrels (not including chairs).

Figure 5.17
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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 7b

Please discuss with your lecturer if you have any problem.


E2004/5/22
MODIFY COMMANDS

INPUT 5C

5.9 EXTEND

Extend can be thought of as the opposite of Trim. Objects such as Lines, Arc, and
Pline can be extended until intersecting another object called a boundary edge as in Figure
5.18. The command first requires selection of existing object to serve as boundary edge(s),
which become highlighted, then the objects to extend are selected. Objects extend until, and
only if, they eventually intersects boundary edge. An Extended object acquires a new
endpoint at the boundary edge intersection.

Methods for invoking the EXTEND command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > EXTEND
Command : Extend

Command : extend
Select boundary edges : (Projmode = UCS, Edgemode = No extend )
Select Objects : PICK
Select Objects : PICK
Select Objects : Enter
<Select object to extend>/Project/Edge/Undo: PICK ( Select object to
extend)
<Select object to extend>/Project/Edge/Undo: PICK
<Select object to extend>/Project/Edge/Undo: Enter
Command :
E2004/5/23
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.18

Edge mode/Project mode


The edge mode and Project mode switches operate identically to their function with
the Trim command. Use Edge mode with the Extend option if you want a boundary
edge object to be imaginarily extended.

Figure 5.19
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MODIFY COMMANDS

5.10 FILLET

The fillet command automatically rounds a sharp corner ( intersection of two Lines,
Arcs, Circles, or Pline vertices ) with a radius. You only specify the radius and select the
objects to be filleted. The objects to fillet do not have to completely intersect but can
overlap. You can specify whether or not the object are automatically extended or trimmed as
necessary ( Figure 5.20 )

Methods for invoking the FILLET command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > FILLET
Command : Fillet

The fillet command is used first to input the desired radius ( if other than the default 0.500
value ) and a second time to select the object to fillet.

Command: fillet
( TRIM Mode ) Current fillet radius = 0.5000
Polyline/Radius/Trim/<Select first object>: r ( Indicates the radius option )
Enter fillet radius < 0.5000>: ( value ) or PICK ( Enter a value for the desired
fillet radius or select two points to interactively specify the radius )
Command:

Figure 5.20
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5.11 CHAMFER

Chamfer is a manufacturing process used to replace a sharp corner with an angled


surface. In AutoCAD, Chamfer is commonly used to change the intersection of two Lines or
Plines by adding an angled line. The Chamfer command is similar to fillet, but rather than
rounding with a radius or fillet, an angled line is automatically drawn at the distances
( from the existing corner ) that you specify.

Methods for invoking the CHAMFER command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > CHAMFER
Command : Chamfer

Chamfer can be created by two methods: Distance ( specify two distances ) or Angle
( Specify a distance and an angle ).

Distance option is used to specify the two values applied to create the chamfer. The value
indicate the distances from the corner ( intersection of the two line ) to each chamfer
endpoint ( Figure 5.21 ). Use the chamfer command once to specify distances and again to
draw the chamfer.

Command: chamfer
(TRIM Mode ) Current chamfer Dist1 = 0.0000, Dist2 = 0.0000
Polyline/Distance/Angle/Trim/Method/<Select first line>:d ( Indicates the distance
option )
Enter first chamfer distance<0.0000>: ( value ) or PICK
Enter second chamfer distance <value of first distance>: Enter or PICK
Command:
E2004/5/26
MODIFY COMMANDS

FIRST
DISTANCE

SECOND
DISTANCE

Using Angle
Using Distance Method
method

Figure 5.21

5.12 OFFSET

Offset creates a parallel copy of selected object. Selected object can be Lines, Arcs, Circles,
Plines or other objects. Two options are available with offset; offset a specified distance and
offset through a specified point.

Methods for invoking the OFFSET command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > OFFSET
Command : Offset
E2004/5/27
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.22

5.13 DIVIDE

DIVIDE marks off a specified number of equal lengths on a selected object by placing point
objects or blocks along the length or perimeter of the object. Valid objects that can be
divided include arcs, circles, ellipses and elliptical arcs, polylines, and splines.

Methods for invoking the DIVIDE command include:


Pull-down menu : DRAW > POINT>DIVIDE
Command : Divide

1 From the Draw menu, choose Point Divide.


2 Select a line, arc, spline, circle, ellipse, or polyline.
3 Enter the number of intervals you want to represent.

AutoCAD places a point at each interval on the object.

The point objects that are added to the object can be used for subsequent
construction by allowing you to OSNAP to equally spaced intervals ( Nodes ). After using
the Divide Command, the point objects may not be visible unless the point style is changed
with the Point Style dialog box ( Format pull-down menu ). A Regen must be invoked
before the new Point style will be displayed. Figure 5.23 below shows Points displayed at
the object.
E2004/5/28
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.23

5.14 MEASURE

The Measure command will take an entity such as a line or arc and the
measurement along it depends on the length of the segment. It similar with divide
command, accomplishes this by placing a point entity at a specified distance given in
the measure command.

Methods for invoking the MEASURE command include:

Pull-down menu : DRAW > POINT>MEASURE


Command : Measure

Figure 5.24 Using Measure to divide and measure the line with 3.0 inches length.
E2004/5/29
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5.15 CHANGE

Using the change command allows the characteristics of an entity to be


modified. The Change command allows changing three options: Points, Properties
or Text

Methods for invoking the CHANGE command :

Command : Change

Figure 5.23 : Using Change Command with changing point method

This point allows changing the endpoint of an object or endpoints of several objects
to one position:
Command: Change
Select Objects :PICK
Select Object :Enter
Properties/<Change point>:PICK ( Select a point to establish as new
endpoint of all objects)
E2004/5/30
MODIFY COMMANDS

5.16 PEDIT

This command provides numerous options for editing polylines ( Plines ). The list of
options below emphasizes the great flexibility possible with polylines. The first step
after invoking Pedit is to select Pline to edit.

Methods for invoking the PEDIT command include:

Toolbar :
Pull-down menu : MODIFY > Object > Polyline
Command : Pedit.

An example of the Pedit command prompt is as follows:

Command : Pedit
Select Polyline : PICK (select the polyline for subsequent editing )
Close or Open/ Join/Width/Edit Vertex/Fit/Spline/Decurve/Ltype
gen/Undo/eXit<X>: (option) ( Select the desired option from the screen
menu or enter the capitalized letter for the desired option.

Close
Close connect the last segment with the first segment of an existing open Pline,
resulting in a closed Pline. (Figure 5.24 ). A closed Pline is one continuous object
having no specific start or endpoint, as opposed to one closed by PICKing points. A
closed Pline reacts differently to the Spline option and to some commands such as
Fillet, Pline option.
E2004/5/31
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.24
Open
Open removes the closing segment if the Close option was used previously. ( Figure
5.24 )

Join
This option join, or connect, any Pline, Lines, or Arc that have exact matching
endpoint and add them to the selected Pline ( Figure 5.25 ) Previously closed Plines
cannot be joined.

Figure 5.25
Width
Width allows specification of a uniform width for Pline segment. ( Figure 5.26 ).
Non-uniform width can be specified with the Edit Vertex option.
E2004/5/32
MODIFY COMMANDS

Figure 5.26

Another methods that available under Pedit Command are Edit vertex, fit,
Spline,Decurve, Ltype gen, Undo and Exit. Please practice that methods
E2004/5/33
MODIFY COMMANDS

ACTIVITY 5c

EXERCISES.

5.9 Open each of the drawing created as solutions for Figure 5.6 ( TRIM1, TRIM2 and
TRIM3 ). Use extend to return each of the drawing to the original form shown in
Figure 5.6 A. Save As EXTEND1, EXTEND2 and EXTEND3

5.10 Create the T Plate shown in Figure 5.27. Use Fillet to create all the fillets and
rounds as the last step. When finished, Save the drawing as T-PLATE.

Figure 5.27
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5.11 Start New Drawing with Metric setting. Then using Offset Command to draw the
entire box in Figure 5.28

Figure 5.28

5.12 Draw the figure below to learn chamfer command


i. Begin a New drawing and select Start from Scratch, English defaults.
ii. Set the Limits to 279,216. Next, type Zoom and use the All option.
iii. Create the Catch Bracket shown in Figure 5.29. Draw the shape with all vertical
and horizontal Lines ( Figure 5.29A )
iv. Use Chamfer to create the six chamfers ( Figure 5.29B ). Save the drawing as
CBRACKET.

B
A
Figure 5.29
E2004/5/35
MODIFY COMMANDS

5.13 Create the table in Figure 5.30 to be used as a bill of materials. Draw the bottom
Line ( as dimensioned ) and a vertical Line. Use Divide along the bottom Line and
Measure along vertical line to locate Points as desired. Create Offsets through the
Points.

Use Measure
command to Use Divide command to
measure with 0.5 divice with 6 segment

Figure 5.30
E2004/5/36
MODIFY COMMANDS

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 5c

Draw the figure carefully and then discuss with your lecturer
E2004/5/37
MODIFY COMMANDS

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment.

QUESTION 5-1 :

a) Draw all figures below with all draw and modify commands

i)

Figure 5.31
E2004/5/38
MODIFY COMMANDS

ii)

Figure 5.32

iii)

Figure 5.33
E2004/5/39
MODIFY COMMANDS

Feedback To Self-Assessment

Please discuss with your lecturer if you have any problem.


E2004/6/1
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

UNIT 6

TEXT, DTEXT AND


TEXTSTYLE

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand and apply the concept of creating and editing text

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

Create lines of text in a drawing using Text and Dtext.


Create and format paragraph text using Mtext.
Create text styles with the Style command.
E2004/6/2
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

INPUT 6a

6.0 INTRODUCTION

Annotating a drawing lets you present information that cannot be presented graphically.
This information can be included as text in dimensions, notes, and titles. AutoCAD provides
you with a number of techniques that let you effectively create and place text in a drawing.

Text in technical drawings is typically in the form of notes concerning information


or descriptions of the objects contained in the drawing. For example an architectural
drawing might have writing description of rooms or spaces, special instructions for
construction or notes concerning materials or furnishing. An engineering drawing may
contain in addition to the dimensions, manufacturing notes, or tables.

In AutoCAD, the commands related to creating or editing text include;


Places one line of text in a drawing, but the text is not visible until after
Text
pressing Enter
Places individual lines of text in a drawing and allow you to see each
Dtext
letter as it is typed
Places text in paragraph form ( with word wrap ) within a text boundary
Mtext
and allow many methods of formatting the appearance of the text.
Creates text styles for use with any of the text creation commands. You
Style can select from font files, specify other parameter to design the
appearance of the letters, and assign a name for each style.
E2004/6/3
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

6.1 TEXT CREATION COMMANDS

The commands for creating text are formally named Dtext, Mtext and Text ( these are the
commands used for typing ). The Draw pull-down menu provides access to the two
commonly used text commands, Multiline Text ( Mtext ) and Single-Line Text ( Dtext )
( Figure 6.1 ). Only the Mtext command has an icon button ( by default ) near the bottom of
the draw toolbar ( Figure 6.2 ). The Text command must be typed at the command line.

Mtext Toolbar

Figure 6.1 : Getting text from Pull-down menu Figure 6.2 : Mtext toolbar

6.1.1 Dtext

Dtext ( Dynamic text ) lets you insert text into an AutoCAD drawing. Dtext displays each
character in the drawing as it is typed. You can enter multiple lines of text without exiting
the Dtext Command. The lines of text do not wrap.

Methods for invoking the Dtext Command include :

Pull Down-Menu : Draw > Text > Single Line Text


Command : Dtext

If we use the type command, the options are presented below:

Command: dtext
Justify/Style/< Start point>:
E2004/6/4
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Start Point
The start point for a line of text is the left end of the baseline for the text ( Figure 6.3 ).
Height is the distance from the baseline to the top of upper case letters. Additional lines of
text are automatically spaced below and left justified. The rotation angle is the angle of the
baseline ( Figure 6.4 )

Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4

The command sequence for this option is:

Command: Dtext
Justify/Style/<Start point>; PICK or ( coordinates )
Height < 0.20 >: Enter or ( value )
Rotation Angle < 0 >: Enter or ( value )
Text: ( Type the desired line of text and press Enter. )
Text: ( Type another line of text and press Enter. )
Text: Enter
Command:

NOTE: When the Text; prompt appears, you can also PICK a new location for the next
line of text anywhere in the drawing.
E2004/6/5
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Justify

If you want to use one of the justification methods, invoking this option displays the choices
at the prompt:

Command: Dtext

Justify/Style/<Start point>: J ( Invokes the justification options.)

Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/TL/TC/TR/ML/MC/MR/BL/BC/BR: ( choice ) ( Type


capital letters)

After specifying a justification option, you can enter the desired text in response to the
Text: prompt. The text is not justified until after you press Enter.

Align

Aligns the line of text between the two points specified ( P1,P2 ). The text height is adjusted
automatically ( Figure 6.5 )

Figure 6.5

Fit

Fits ( compresses or extends ) the line of text between the two points specified (P1,P2 ). The
text height does not change ( Figure 6.5 )
E2004/6/6
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Center

Centers the baseline of the first line of text at the specified point. Additional lines of text are
centered below the first ( Figure 6.6 ).

Figure 6.6

Middle

Centers the first line of text both vertically and horizontally about the specified point.
Additional lines of text are centered below it (Figure. 6.6 ).

Right

Creates text that is right justified from the specified point ( Figure. 6.6 ).

TL

Top Left. Places the text in the drawing so the top line (of the first line of text) is at the point
specified and additional lines of text are left justified below the point. The top line is defined
by the upper case and tall lower case letters ( Figure. 6.6 ).

TC

Top Center. Places the text so the top line of text is at the point specified and the line(s) of
text are centered below the point ( Figure. 6.6 ).
E2004/6/7
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

TR

Top Right. Places the text so that the top right corner of the text is at the point specified and
additional lines of text are right justified below that point ( Figure. 6.6 ).

ML

Middle Left. Places text so that it is left justified and the middle line of the first line of text
aligns with the point specified. The middle line is half way between the top line and the
baseline, not considering the bottom (extender) line ( Figure 6.6 ).

MC

Middle Center. Centers the first line of text both vertically and horizontally about the
midpoint of the middle line. Additional lines of text are centered below that point (Figure
6.6 ).

MR

Middle Right. Justifies the first line of text at the right end of the middle line. Additional
lines of text are right justified ( Figure 6.6 ).

BL

Bottom Left. Attaches the bottom (extender) line of the first line of text to the specified
point. The bottom line is determined by the lowest point of lower case extended letters such
as y, p, q, j, and g. If only upper-case letters are used, the letters appear to be located above
the specified point. Additional lines of text are left justified ( Figure 6.6 ).
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

BC

Bottom Center. Centers the first line of text horizontally about the bottom (extender) line (
Figure 6.6 ).

BR

Bottom Right. Aligns the bottom (extender) line of the first line of text at the specified
point. Additional lines of text are right justified ( Figure 6.6 ).
E2004/6/9
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

ACTIVITY 6a

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.

6.1 What is DTEXT and how we access DTEXT Command.?

6.2 By default the justification mode used by the DTEXT command is left justified.
Study the following prompt sequence to place the text string ELECTRICAL.
Start New Drawing and select Start from scratch and select English setting. At
your drawing area mark the A and B point with the distance 2.0 inches. The
figure below shows A and B point.

Figure: 6.7: The A and B Point with a distance of 3 inches

Follow these instruction to learn about DTEXT

a. Command: DTEXT

Justify/Style/<Start point:: (Pick the point at A)

Height <0.20>: 0.40

Rotation angle <0>: (Press Enter to accept this default)

Text: ELECTRICAL

Text: (Press Enter to exit Dtext and return to the command prompt)
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

b Command: DTEXT
. Justify/Style/<Start point>: Justify ( or enter shortcut J )

Align/Fit/Center/Middle/Right/TL/TC/TR/ML/MC/MR/BL/BC/BR: TC

Top/center point: (Pick a point at A)

Height <0.20>: 0.40

Rotation angle <0>: (Press Enter to accept this default)

Text: ELECTRICAL

Text: (Press Enter to exit Dtext and return to the command prompt)

c. Command: DTEXT

Justify/Style/<Start point>: Middle

Middle point: (Pick a point at A)

Height <0.20>: 0.40

Rotation angIe <0 >: (Press Enter to accept this default)

Text: ELECTRICAL

Text: (Press Enter to exit Dtext and return to the command prompt)
E2004/6/11
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

d. Command: DTEXT

Justify/Style!<Start point>: Align

First text line point: (Pick the point at A)

Second text line point: (Pick the point at B)

Rotation angle <0>: (Press Enter to accept this default)

Text: ELECTRICAL

Text: (Press Enter to exit Dtext and return to the command prompt)

e. Command: DTEXT

Justify/Style/<Start point>: Fit

First text line point: (Pick the point at A)

Second text line point: (Pickthe point at B)

Height <0.20>: 0.40

Rotation angle <0>: (Press Enter to accept this default)

Text: ELECTRICAL

Text: (Press Enter to exit Dtext and return to the command prompt)

f. Command: DTEXT

Justify/Style/<Start point>: Right

End point: (Pick the point at A)

Height <0.20>: 0.40

Rotation angle <0>: (Press to accept this default)

Text: ELECTRICAL

Text: (Press Enter to exit Dtext and return to the command prompt)
E2004/6/12
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 6a

ANSWERS.

6.1 The DTEXT command stands for Dynamic Text mode and allows you to place text
in a drawing and view the text as you typed it in. This command can be selected by
picking Draw from the pull-down menu area followed by Text and finally
Single Line Text. Multiline

6.2

a.

Figure 6.8 : Justifying text by default

b.

Figure 6.9 :Justifying text by a center point.

c.

Figure 6.10 : Justifying text by a middle point.

d.
E2004/6/13
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Figure 6.11: Justifying text by aligning the text between two points. The text height is
automatically scaled depending on the length of the points and the number of letters that
make up the text.

e.

Figure 6.12 :Justifying text by fitting the text in between two points and specifying the text
height. Notice how the text appears compressed due to the large text height and short
distance of the text line.

f.

Figure 6.13: Justifying text by a point at the right.


E2004/6/14
Text, Dtext, Textstyle

INPUT 6b

6.1.2 TEXT

Text is essentially the same as Dtext except that the text is not dynamically displayed one
letter at a time as you type, but rather appears in the drawing only after pressing Enter. The
other difference is that Dtext repeatedly displays the Text: prompt to allow entering
multiple lines of text, whereas Text allows only one line. Otherwise, all the options and
capabilities of Text are identical to Dtext.

Command: text

Justify/Style/<Start point>: PICK

Height <0.2000>: Enter or (value)

Rotation angle <0>: Enter or (value)

Text: sample line of text. (The line of text appears in the drawing after pressing Enter.)

Command:

If you want to type another line of text below the previous line with the Text command, use
Text again, but press Enter at the first prompt. The Text command then responds with the
Text: prompt, at which time you can enter the next line of text. The new line is
automatically spaced below and uses the same height, justification, and other options as the
previous line.
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

6.1.3 MTEXT

Multiline Text ( Mtext ) has more editing options than other text commands. You can apply
underlining, color, bold, italic, font, and height changes to individual characters or words
within a paragraph or multiple paragraphs of text.

Mtext allows you to create paragraph text defined by a text boundary. The text
boundary is a reference rectangle that specifies the paragraph width. The Mtext object that
you create can be a line, one paragraph, or several paragraphs. AutoCAD references Mtext
(created with one use of the Mtext command) as one object, regardless of the amount of text
supplied. Like Text and Dtext, several justification methods are possible.

Command: Mtext

Current text style: STANDARD. Text height: 0.2000

Specify first corner: PICK

Specify opposite corner or : PICK or (option)

You can PICK two corners to invoke the Multiline Text Editor, or enter the first letter of
one of these options: Height, Justify, Rotation, Style, or Width. All of the options can also be
accessed within the Multiline Text Editor.

Using the default option the Mtext command, you supply a first corner and opposite
corner to define the diagonal corners of the text boundary (like a window). Although this
boundary confines the text on two or three sides, one or two arrows indicate the direction
text flows if it spills out of the boundary ( Figure 6.14 ).
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Figure 6.14

After you PICK the two points defining the text boundary, the Multiline Text Editor appears
ready for you to enter the text ( Figure. 6.15 ). Enter the desired text. The text wraps based
on the width you defined for the text boundary. You can right-click for a menu allowing you
to Cut, Copy, and Paste selected text. Select the OK button to have the text entered into the
drawing within the text boundary.

Figure 6.15: Multiline Text Editor

There are three tabs in the Multiline Text Editor: Character tab, Properties tab , and Find
and Replace tab. Using the options in these tabs is interactive text in the editor immediately
reflects the changes made for most options in these tabs. There is also a button to Import
Text.
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Import Text

Importing External Text into AutoCAD.

Find/Replace Tab

We can find text in multiline text editor and replace or editing the text .

Properties Tab

Use the properties tab to specify the format of the entire paragraph Although this is the
second tab, it is recommended that you format the entire paragraph(s) here before editing
individual characters using the Character tab ( Figure. 6.16 ). The following options are
available.

Figure 6.16

Style

Choose from a drop-down list of existing text styles.

Justification

This property determines how the paragraph is located and direction of flow with respect to
the text boundary.
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Width

Previous paragraph widths used are displayed in this drop-down list. You can enter a new
value in the edit box to change the width of the existing text boundary. If a Width of 0 is
entered or no wrap is selected, the lines of text will not wrap within the text boundary.

Rotation

The entire paragraph can be rotated to any angle. Changes made here are not reflected in the
text appearing in the editor but only in the drawing itself. You can type MTPROP at the
command line to directly access the Properties tab of the Multiline Text Editor.

Character Tab

After formatting the entire paragraph, use the character tab to alter individual characters in
the paragraph(s) ( Figure 6.17 ). using the option in this tab, first select ( highlight ) the
desired character or words, then set the desired options. The following options are available.

Figure 6.17

Font

Choose from any font in the drop-down list. Your selection here overrides the text Style
used for the entire paragraph(s). Even though you can change the font for the entire Mtext
object (paragraph), it is recommended to set the paragraph to the desired Style (in the
Properties tab), rather than changing all characters to a different font here. See following
NOTE.
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Height

Select from the list or enter a new value for the height of selected words or letters. Your
selection overrides the text Height used globally for the paragraph.

Bold, Italic, Underline

Select (highlight) the desired letters or words then PICK the desired button. Only authentic
TrueType fonts (not the AutoCAD-supplied .SHX equivalents) can be bolded or italicized.

Stack/Unstack

If creating a stacked fraction, use a / (slash) between the numerator and denominator. If
creating stacked text, place a ^ (caret) before the bottom text. Highlight the fraction or text,
then use this option to stack or unstack the fraction or text.

Text Color

Select individual text, and then use this drop-down list to select a color for the selected text.
This selection overrides the layer color.

Symbol

Common symbols (plus/minus, diameter, degrees) can be inserted. Selecting Other...


produces a character map to select symbols ( Figure 6.18 ).
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Figure 6.18
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

ACTIVITY 6B

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS:

6.3 What is the difference between Dtext and Text.

6.4 Create a Title Block

i. Begin a New drawing and assign the name TBLOCK. Create the title block as shown in
Figure 6.19 or design your own, allowing space for eight text entries. The dimensions
are set for an A size sheet. Use Pline with 0.02 width for the boundary and Lines for the
interior divisions. ( No Lines are needed on the right side and bottom because the title
block will fit against the border lines. )

Figure 6.19

ii. Insert test similar to that shown in Figure 6.20. Examples of the fields to create are:

Company or School Name


Part Name or Project Title
Scale
Designer Name
Checker or Instructor name
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Figure 6.19

6.5 Create the text below using Multiline Text Editor with Font = RomanC and Height = 0.2
After that adjust the text as shown in Figure 6.20

RomanC

Impact
Height =
0.36

Arial Arial

Figure 6.20
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 9B

ANSWERS.
6.3 Text - Text is essentially the same as Mtext except that the text is not dynamically
displayed one letter at a time as you type, but rather appears in the drawing only
after pressing Enter.
Mtext - Multiline Text ( Mtext ) has more editing options than other text commands.
We can apply underlining, color, bold, italic, font, and height changes to individual
characters or words within a paragraph or multiple paragraphs of text.
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

QUESTION 6-1 : ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.


a)

i. Create New drawing. Use Style to create a new style using the romans.shx font.
Use whatever justification methods you need to align the text information (not
the titles) as shown in Figure 6.21.

ii. Next, type the Style command to create a new style that you name as ROMANS-
ITAL. Use the romans.shx font file and specify a 15 degree obliquing angle. Use
this style for the NO., PART NAME, and MATERIAL. SaveAs BILLMAT.

Figure 6.21
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

b) Open the CBRACKET drawing from unit 5 ( Activity 5c ). Using romans.shx font,
use Dtext to place the part name and METRIC annotation (Figure 6.22 ). Use a
Height of 5 and 4, respectively, and the Center Justification option. For the notes,
use Mtext to create the boundary as shown. Use the default Justify method (TL) and
a Height of 3. Use Ddedit or Ddmodify if necessary. SaveAs CBRACTXT.

Figure 6.22
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Text, Dtext, Textstyle

Feedback To Self-Assessment

Please discuss with your lecturer if you have any problem.


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DIMENSIONING

UNIT 7

DIMENSIONING

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand the concept of dimensioning and usage of


dimensioning tools.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to:

Create linear dimensions with DIMLINEAR,


DIMCONTINUE, DIMBASELINE, DIMALIGNED.

Create radial dimensions with DIMDIAMETER and


DIMRADIUS.

Create Angular dimensions with DIMANGULAR.

Create Ordinate dimensions with DIMORDINATE.

Create and edit the dimensions.


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DIMENSIONING

INPUT 7a

7.0 INTRODUCTION

As you know, drawings created with CAD systems should be constructed with the same
dimensions and units as the real-world objects they represent. The important of this practice is
evident when you begin applying dimensions to the drawing geometry in AutoCAD. The features
of the object that you specify for dimensioning are automatically measured, and those values are
used for the dimensioning text. If the geometry has been drawn accurately, the dimensions will be
created correctly. The correct use of AutoCAD dimension tools is the key to producing clear and
concise measured drawings.

AutoCAD provides a whole range of dimensioning tools which can be used to quickly dimension
any drawing without the need for measurement. Dimensioning in AutoCAD is automatic; lines,
arrows and text are all taken care of by the dimension commands. AutoCAD dimensions are
special blocks which can easily be edited or erased as necessary.

AutoCAD provides lots of control over the way dimensions look. Using a system similar to text
styles, dimension styles allow you to design dimensions so that they look just the way you want
them to.
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DIMENSIONING

Figure 7.1

For example, Figure 7.1 above shows two different dimension styles. The one on the left is the
default style known as STANDARD. If you do not create a style of your own or modify the
standard style, all dimensions will look like this. The dimension line has arrow heads and the
dimension text is positioned above the line and is drawn using the current text style. The
dimension on the right has been drawn using a new style. The arrows have been changed to
obliques, the vertical alignment of the text has been centered and the current text style has been
changed.

AutoCAD divides dimensions into four main categories: Linear, Radial, Ordinate and Angular.
When you create dimensions, AutoCAD automatically creates a new layer called "Defpoints".
This is a special layer which cannot be deleted or renamed. AutoCAD uses this layer to store
dimension information and you can effectively ignore it.

When working with dimensions it is very important that line origins are picked accurately so that
the resulting measurement and text are correct. Always use an Osnap to pick dimension line
origins.
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DIMENSIONING

7.1 SELECTING DIMENSION COMMANDS

Selecting and working with the dimension commands in AutoCAD R14 is much easier than in
previous versions. All commands can be accessed from the keyboard and now most commands
are also available from the Dimension pull-down menu and the Dimension toolbar. The
Dimension toolbar is particularly useful because it places all the dimension commands a single
mouse click away. Since the Dimension toolbar is not displayed by default you will need to
enable it from the Toolbars dialogue box.

To display the Toolbar dialogue box, select

Pull-down menu :View/Toolbars


Command : Toolbar

To display the Dimension toolbar, click in the


checkbox against "Dimension" in the toolbar list.

Figure 7.2: Toolbars Box

The main components of a dimension are

1. Dimension line
2. Extension lines
3. Dimension text
(usually a numeric value )
4. Arrowheads or tick marks

Figure 7.3
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DIMENSIONING

Dimensioning an object correctly requires a number of difference dimensioning methods


based on the object you are dimensioning. This includes:-

1. Linear methods for horizontal and vertical.


2. Aligned.
3. Angular method for angles.
4. Diameter and Radius methods for circles and arcs.
5. Ordinate method for datum-based.

7.2 THE LINEAR DIMENSION COMMAND

As the name suggests the Linear dimension commands are used to dimension along straight lines.
There are five linear dimension commands, namely: DIMLINEAR, DIMCONTINUE,
DIMBASELINE, DIMALIGNED and DIMROTATED. The DIMLINEAR command is
probably the most common dimension command you will use.

7.2.1 The Linear Dimension

Toolbar :
Pull-down :Dimension/Linear
Keyboard :DIMLINEAR

You can use this command to generate horizontal and vertical dimensions. Creating a linear
dimension is easy. All you have to do is start the command, specify the two points between which
you want the dimension to be drawn and pick a point to fix the position of the dimension line.
Consider the Figure 7.4 whilst working through the following examples.
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DIMENSIONING

Figure 7.4

Command Sequence

Command: DIMLINEAR
First extension line origin or press ENTER to select: (pick P1)
Second extension line origin: (pick P2)
Dimension line location (Mtext/Text/Angle/Horizontal/Vertical/Rotated): (pick a point to position
the dimension line, you will see the dimension rubber banding)

You may have noticed that the first prompt asks you to pick the first extension line origin or to
press the ENTER key. Pressing the Enter/Return key results in the following prompt:

Select object to dimension:

AutoCAD allows you to dimension an object simply by picking it. Try this out. Draw a line or a
circle and use this option rather than the two point option to see what happens.

Figure 7.5
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DIMENSIONING

Dimensions will automatically adjust themselves to accommodate most situations. For example,
the Figure 7.5 shows what happens to a dimension if the gap between the two extension lines is
too small for the dimension text.

7.2.2 The Continue Dimension

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Continue
Keyboard DIMCONTINUE

You can use the Continue command to add a string of dimensions. In the Figure 7.4 the "36mm"
dimension has been continued from the "64mm" dimension.

Command Sequence
Command: DIMCONTINUE
Specify a second extension line origin or (Undo/<Select>): (pick P3)
Specify a second extension line origin or (Undo/<Select>): (pick another or to end)

There is no prompt for the first line origin, AutoCAD automatically selects the second line origin
of the previous dimension to be the first of the new dimension.
There is also no prompt for the dimension line position, AutoCAD automatically matches up with
the previous dimension.

Figure 7.6

Using the Continue command you can very quickly generate a string of dimensions which align
perfectly. In the example above ( Figure 7.6 ), the "34.41" dimension was drawn with the
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DIMENSIONING

DIMLINEAR command; all the other dimensions were drawn using the DIMCONTINUE
command and simply picking the four points, one after the other. You can only continue a
dimension in a single direction. To generate the "26mm" dimension in Figure 7.6, you will need
to use the DIMLINEAR command and pick P3 and P4 or Enter at the first prompt and pick the
line.

7.2.3 The Baseline Dimension

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Baseline
Keyboard DIMBASELINE

You can use this command to generate a series of dimensions from a single base point. You must
already have created the first dimension in the sequence using a command such as DIMLINEAR.
The DIMBASELINE command then creates further dimensions in a similar way to the
DIMCONTINUE command. All the user has to do is pick points.

Command Sequence

Command: DIMBASELINE
Specify a second extension line origin or (Undo/<Select>): (pick next point)
Specify a second extension line origin or (Undo/<Select>): (pick another or Enter to end)
Select base dimension: (Enter again to end)
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DIMENSIONING

Figure 7.7

In the Figure 7.7, the "35.07" dimension was created using the DIMLINEAR command. The
others were created using DIMBASELINE and picking points 1 and 2.

7.2.4 The Aligned Dimension

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Aligned
Keyboard DIMALIGNED

You can use this command to generate aligned dimensions. These are dimensions along inclined
lines, which cannot be dimensioned with the DIMLINEAR dimension command because that
command will only give a measured dimension in either a horizontal or vertical direction.
However, as you can see from the command sequence below, this command works in exactly the
same way.

Command Sequence
Command: DIMALIGNED
First extension line origin or press ENTER to select:(pick P1 at Figure 7.8 )
Second extension line origin: (pick P2 at Figure 7.8 )
Dimension line location (Mtext/Text/Angle): (pick a point)
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DIMENSIONING

Figure 7.8

The DIMCONTINUE and DIMBASELINE commands can both be used in conjunction with
DIMALIGNED dimensions.

7.3 THE RADIAL ( CIRCLE / ARC ) DIMENSION COMMAND

There are two main radial dimension commands, DIMDIAMETER and DIMRADIUS. Both
commands result in a similar looking dimension so AutoCAD automatically inserts a "R" to
indicate a radius and the dimension symbol to indicate a dimension. You can get AutoCAD to
display the dimension symbol by including "%%c" in any text string. For example, in order to
draw the 40mm diameter text as it is shown in the illustration Figure 7.9, you would need to type
"%%c40mm". You can use this special character with any of the text commands.

Figure 7.9
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DIMENSIONING

The Diameter and Radius commands are supplemented by the DIMCENTER command, which
can be used to add a center mark to any circle or arc. The DIMDIAMETER and DIMRADIUS
commands do not automatically draw a center mark.

By convention it is usual to dimension full circles using a diameter and arcs (partial circles) using
radius.

7.3.1 The Diameter Dimension

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Diameter
Keyboard DIMDIAMETER

Figure 7.10

You can use the Diameter command to annotate a circle or an arc with a diameter dimension. To
achieve this simply start the command, pick a point on the circumference of the circle, pick a
second point to determine the length of the leader and then add the dimension text or Return to
accept the default.

Command Sequence

Command: DIMDIAMETER
Select arc or circle: (pick the circumference P1 in Figure 7.9)
Dimension line location (Mtext/Text/Angle): (move the cursor until you are happy with the text
position and then pick to complete the sequence)
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DIMENSIONING

7.3.2 The Radius Dimension Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Radius
Keyboard DIMRADIUS

Figure 7.11

The Radius command is identical to the Diameter command except that the dimension
measurement is a radius rather than a dimension and the resulting dimension text is prefixed with
a "R" to indicate radius.

Command Sequence

Command: DIMRADIUS
Select arc or circle: (pick the circumference P2 in Figure 7.9 )
Dimension line location (Mtext/Text/Angle): (move the cursor until you are happy with the text
position and then pick to complete the sequence)

Notice that in the Figure 7.11 the radius dimension has been positioned inside the circle. Both
diameter and radius dimensions can be positioned either inside or outside an arc or circle.

Practice with the Radial and Diameter commands until you understand how they work.
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DIMENSIONING

7.3.3 The Center Mark Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Center Mark
Keyboard DIMCENTER

Figure 7.12

You can use the Center Mark command to annotate a circle or an arc with a cross at the center.
The Figure 7.12 shows a center mark added to a circle after a diameter has been drawn.

Command Sequence

Command: DIMCENTER
Select arc or circle: (Pick the circumference of a circle or arc)

A cross is drawn at the center point.

7.4 ANGULAR DIMENSIONS


There is only one command in this section and it is used to annotate angular measurements.

The Angular Dimension Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Angular
Keyboard DIMANGULAR

Figure 7.13
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DIMENSIONING

The Angular command is amazingly flexible and can be used to indicate an angle in almost any
situation. Just like the other dimension commands, all parts of the process are rubber banded so
you can see the results of your actions before you make the final pick.

Command Sequence
Command: DIMANGULAR
Select arc, circle, line, or press ENTER: (pick a line)
Second line: (pick another line)
Dimension arc line location (Mtext/Text/Angle): (pick point)

Move the cursor position until you are happy with the result. Notice that you can move the cursor
to either side of the lines and the angular dimension will change accordingly.

Figure 7.14

You may have noticed that at the first prompt you are given the option to press ENTER. If you use
this option you will be prompted to pick the angle vertex and then the two angle endpoints. This is
quite useful if the angle you need to dimension is not defined by physical lines on the drawing.
The illustration on Figure 7.14 shows the result of this option. The centre point of circle 1 was
picked as the angle vertex and the centre points of circles 2 and 3 were picked for the two angle
endpoints.

The degree character is automatically inserted for you, however, if you ever need to type it, you
can do so by typing "%%d". This is another of AutoCADs special characters.
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DIMENSIONING

7.5 ORDINATE DIMENSIONS

Ordinate dimensions are not really dimensions at all in that they do not indicate a measurement.
Rather they annotate known co-ordinate points. The DIMORDINATE command is used to
indicate the X and Y ordinate values at any point.

The Ordinate Dimension Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Ordinate
Keyboard DIMORDINATE

The Ordinate command is used to annotate co-ordinate points with X or Y values. This may be
useful for setting-out on site plans.

Command Sequence

Command: DIMORDINATE
Select feature: (pick the point to annotate)
Leader endpoint (Xdatum/Ydatum/Mtext/Text): (pick endpoint or use one of the options)

By default a vertical leader will display the X ordinate and a horizontal one will display the Y
ordinate. However, you can use the Xdatum and Ydatum options to override this default. In the
Figure 7.15 , the building corner on the left has been annotated with X and Y ordinates using the
default method.

Figure 7.15
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DIMENSIONING

The one on the right has a Y ordinate, which has been forced to display in a vertical position
using the Ydatum option. You could also use the Text or Mtext options to clearly describe the
point you are annotating.

7.6 ANNOTATION WITH LEADERS

Ordinate dimensions are not really dimensions at all in that they do not indicate a measurement.
Rather they annotate known co-ordinate points. The DIMORDINATE command is used to
indicate the X and Y ordinate values at any point.

The Leader Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Leader
Keyboard LEADER

Figure 7.16

The Leader command can be used to annotate any point on a drawing. The command sequence
below was used to draw the leader shown in the Figure 7.16.

Command Sequence
Command: LEADER
From point: (pick the point to annotate)
To point: (pick vertex point)
To point (Format/Annotation/Undo)<Annotation>: (pick end point)
To point (Format/Annotation/Undo)<Annotation>:
Annotation (or press ENTER for options): Corner of
MText: building
MText: (to end)
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DIMENSIONING

Unlike other dimension commands the leader and annotation text are drawn as separate objects.
So, if you need to move or edit the text, you can do so without affecting the leader line.

As you can see by the command line, there are a number of options with this command including
"Format" options which include "Spline". Experiment with these options until you understand
them.
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DIMENSIONING

ACTIVITY 7a

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS.

7.1 Give FIVE ( 5 ) component of dimension?

7.2 State the technique for dimension?

7.3 Draw the figure below with dimensioning. Use Start From Scratch> English setting.
Please use all the dimensioning technique that we have learned.

Figure 7.17
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DIMENSIONING

PLATE 0.25 mm

Figure 7.18

Figure 7.19
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DIMENSIONING

FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 7a

ANSWERS.

7.1 The components of a dimension are


Dimension line
Extension lines
Dimension text (usually a numeric value )
Arrowheads or tick marks

7.2 Technique for dimensioning


Linear methods for horizontal and vertical
Aligned
Angular method for angles
Diameter and Radius methods for circles and arcs.
Ordinate method for datum-based

Another question, please draw carefully and after finished, please discuss with your own
lecture
E2004/7/21
DIMENSIONING

INPUT 7b

7.7 EDITING DIMENSIONS

The dimension edit commands, DIMEDIT and DIMTEDIT are used primarily to adjust the
position of the text part of a dimension. This is usually only necessary if the drawing is quite
complex and the dimension would read more clearly if it were in a different position.

7.7.1 The Dimension Text Edit Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Align Text/ ( Choose your options )
Keyboard DIMTEDIT

The Dimension Text Edit command is used to modify the text position of any single dimension.
The command can be used to position the text dynamically (this is the default) or one of the
options can be used for a specific type of movement. For example, the dimension shown on
Figure 7.20 has been modified by dynamically moving the position of the text and then the text
has been rotated using the Angle option.

Figure 7.20
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DIMENSIONING

Command Sequence

Command: DIMTEDIT
Select dimension: (pick the dimension you want to edit)
Enter text location (Left/Right/Home/Angle): (pick a new position or use an option)

Figure 7.21

The results of the four available options are shown in the Figure 7.21.

The Left option moves the text to a left justified position within the dimension.

The Right option moves the text to a right justified position within the dimension.

The Home option returns the text to the home position after it has been modified.

The Angle option enables the text to be rotated about its center.

7.7.2 The Dimension Edit Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Oblique (other options are duplicated in DIMTEDIT so don't appear)
Keyboard DIMEDIT

The Dimension Edit command can be used to modify and change the text of any number of
dimensions. The command could, for example, be used to add a standard prefix or suffix to a
number of dimensions.
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DIMENSIONING

Command Sequence

Command: DIMEDIT
Dimension Edit (Home/New/Rotate/Oblique) <Home>: (choose an option)
Select objects: (pick one or more dimensions)
Select objects: (pick more or end)

The command sequence will vary depending upon which option has been chosen but the results of
the various options are illustrated in Figure 7.22

Figure 7.22

The Home option returns dimensions to their home position.

The New option displays the Multiline Text Editor. The changes you make to the text will be
applied to all selected dimensions so it is important not to delete the "<>" marker from the text
string. Deleting this marker will remove the values from all selected dimensions.

The Rotate option can be used to rotate dimension text about its center point. It works in exactly
the same way as the Angle option of the DIMTEDIT command except that you can rotate any
number of dimensions at once.

The Oblique option is used to set the dimension lines at an angle. This option can be very useful
when you are dimensioning a drawing in isometric projection (see Figure 7.23 ). In this case the
drawing has been dimensioned using the Aligned command and then the oblique angle modified
to suit the dimension position. This usually means setting an angle of 30, 330 or 90 degrees
depending upon the dimension orientation. If you are creating details in isometric projection make
sure you are using the isometric snap/grid option for greater efficiency.
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DIMENSIONING

Figure 7.23

7.8 DIMENSION STYLES

Dimension styles are the main method used to control the way dimensions look. Using styles you
can change the text font, the arrow head style, the relative position of the text, the scale of
dimensions and many other parameters. Styles are created using the DIMSTYLE command.

Dimension styling is a relatively complex area of AutoCAD and the finer points are beyond the
scope of this unit. However, the main points which will enable you to create clear, good looking
styles are set out below.

7.8.1 The Dimension Style Command

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Style
Keyboard DDIM short-cut D

The Dimension Style command can be used to change the appearance of dimensions. The best
method is to create a new style before you start creating dimensions so that you can leave the
STANDARD style as a default option. Having created a new style from STANDARD, then you
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DIMENSIONING

can apply any modifications you generally require to the parent style and then more specific
modifications to the child styles in order to create a style family.

Name Edit
Box

Figure 7.24

Dimension styles are created using the Dimension Styles dialogue box. The dialogue box is
shown on Figure 7.24. As you can see from the dialogue box, a style is applied to a family of
dimensions. By default, any style changes are made to the parent. Each style parent has six child
styles. The child styles, Linear, Radial, Angular, Diameter, Ordinate and Leader can be used to
modify the parent style when that particular type of dimension is used.

For example, you may like to use a tick rather than an arrow head for your dimensions but
this isn't really appropriate for a leader, so the Leader child style can be changed so that leaders
will always be drawn with an arrow head whilst all other dimensions of the same style family are
drawn using ticks.
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DIMENSIONING

7.8.2 Creating a New Style

To create a new dimension style, make sure the STANDARD style is the current style, click in the
Name edit box and type the name of the new style you wish to create. Click the Save button. You
will see a message in the lower left corner of the dialogue box which says "Created name from
STANDARD" where name is the new style name which you typed. The new style is
automatically set as the current style. You may rename the new style if you wish, simply by
typing a new name in the Name edit box and clicking on the Rename button.

The new style which you have created is identical to the STANDARD style, so you must now
modify your new style so that it can be used to create dimensions which conform to your own
requirements. Style changes are made in three categories, Geometry, Format and Annotation
( Figure 7.25 ). As you can see from the Dimension Styles dialogue box, each category is
represented by a button which leads to a dialogue box which is used to modify the settings in that
particular category.

Figure 7.25
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7.8.3 Setting the Arrow Head Type


The style of arrow heads is set using the Geometry dialogue box, illustrated in Figure 7.26. As
you can see, the STANDARD style has Closed Filled arrow heads as a default. To change the
arrow head style for a new dimension style, make sure the style is current and that the "Parent"
radio button is selected (this assumes you are not modifying a child style), click on the
"Geometry" button and select a new arrow head type from the "1st" drop-down list. Once
selected the new arrow type is illustrated in the dialogue box. If you require different arrow heads
at each end of your dimensions you can set the other type using the "2nd" drop-down list. Click
on "OK" to return to the Dimension Styles dialogue box.

Figure 7.26
7.8.4 Dimension Scale
When you are working with drawings, which will be plotted, at different scales, you will need
some way of changing the scale of the dimension lines relative to your drawing so that they
always appear the same size, irrespective of plotting scale. You can achieve this by using the
Scale variable. This option is also available from the Geometry dialogue box. The default value is
set to 1.0. The larger the value the larger the dimension will appear.
For example, a value of 2.0 would double the text height and the arrow size. To change
the scale of dimensions, simply type the required scale in the "Overall Scale" edit box. Try
changing the scale factor and check the results. The scaling applies to individual styles, so you
could create different styles with different dimension scales to be used for different plotting
scales.
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Note that changing the scale of dimensions does not affect the dimension value, this is always
calculated in drawing units.

7.8.5 Setting the Text Location

To change the text location click on the "Format" button in the Dimension Styles dialogue box.
The Format dialogue box is shown in Figure 7.27. By default the horizontal justification is set to
"Centered" and the vertical justification to "Above". This means that the dimension text will
appear centered above a horizontal dimension line and centered left of a vertical dimension line.
To have the text cantered within the dimension line, click on the down arrow of the "Vertical
Justification" pull-down list to reveal the options and click on "Centered". The illustration
changes to reflect your choice. Click on "OK" to return to the Dimension Styles dialogue box.
You can see the result of this action by looking at the illustration below. Experiment with the
Horizontal Justification and Vertical Justification options to see what results they give.

Figure 7.27
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You can also use Text the option in this dialogue box to change the text orientation in aligned
dimensions. By default all dimension text is aligned with the dimension. This option allows you
to force text to appear horizontal, irrespective of the orientation of the dimension. You have
independent control over dimension text which appears inside and outside of the dimension lines.

The illustration on the Figure 7.28 shows a dimension with vertical justification set to "Above"
( left) and to "Centered" (right).

Figure 7.28

7.8.6 Setting Text Style and Units

Text style and units are both set using the Annotation dialogue box, illustrated in Figure
7.29 To set a text style to a dimension you must first have created the style using the Text Style
command (Format/Text Style from the pull-down menu). To assign the text style to a
dimension style, click on the "Annotation" button in the Dimension Styles dialogue box, click
on the drop-down list in the "Text" area of the Annotation dialogue and select the required text
style from the list. Click on "OK" to return to the Dimension Styles dialogue.

AutoCAD gives you the option to automatically include a unit prefix or suffix with the
dimension text. For example, you could set the dimension style in such a way that it created
dimensions with "m" to indicate meters after each dimension text. Most usually, dimensions are
drawn without units displayed but with a note on the drawing indicating the units used, such as
"All dimensions in meters". However, you may have a drawing where different units are being
used for different elements of the drawing.
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Figure 7.29

In such a case it is a good idea to include units to avoid confusion. Remember that the main idea
behind dimensioning is to give the maximum amount of information in the clearest and most
concise way. To add units to a dimension style, click on the "Annotation" button in the
Dimension Styles dialogue box and enter the required unit character(s) in the "Prefix" and/or
"Suffix" edit boxes of the "Primary Units" area of the dialogue box. For example, if you wanted to
display meters, you would type "m" in the "Suffix" edit box.
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7.9 THE DIMENSION UPDATE COMMAND

Toolbar
Pull-down Dimension/Update
Keyboard DIM UPDATE

The Dimension Update command is used to apply the current dimension style to existing
dimensions. You can use this command to change the style of a dimension. Unlike text styles,
dimension styles do not automatically update when the style is changed. The UPDATE command
must be used to force dimensions to appear in the current text style.

Command Sequence
Command: DIM
Dim: UPDATE
Select objects: (pick dimension to update)
Select objects: (pick more dimensions or to end)
Dim: (press the escape key, Esc to return to the command prompt)
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ACTIVITY 7b

ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS.

7.4 Draw the following figure using the dimension given.

Figure 7.30
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Figure 7.31
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FEEDBACK TO ACTIVITY 7b

Check the completed drawing with your lecturer.


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EXERCISES.
Question 7-1 :
a) Draw the figure below with dimension given.
i)

Figure 7.32
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ii)

Figure 7.33
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FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESSMENT

Check your drawing with your lecturer.


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UNIT 9

PRINTING AND PLOTTING

OBJECTIVES

General Objective : To understand and apply the Printing and Plotting setting.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to :

List the typical steps for printing or plotting.


Invoke and use the Print / Plot Configuration dialog box.
Select from available plotting devices and set the paper size.
Specify the area of the drawing to print or plot.
preview the print/plot before creating a plotted drawing.
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INPUT 9a

9.0 INTRODUCTION
AutoCAD display drawing in two ways, as hard copies or soft copies. A soft copies
is the view of drawing shown in the drawing window. AutoCAD uses pixels to convert into
the images seen on your monitor. A hard copy is the plotted or printed version on your
drawing on paper. AutoCAD produces hard copies by converting data into a raster or vector
image that is read by a printer or plotter. Hard copies are generally used for finalized
drawing or for drawing reviews. Hard copies can be scaled, unscaled, or real life
representation of your work.

9.1 Print / Plot Configuration


Plotting and printing are accomplished from within AutoCAD by invoking the Plot
command. Using the Plot or Print command invokes the Print/Plot Configuration dialog box
( figure 9.1 ). You have complete control of plotting and printing using the dialog box. In
AutoCAD, the term plotting can refer to plotting on a pen plotter and/or printing with a
printer.
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figure 9.1 : Print/Plot Configuration dialog box


Typical step to plotting / Printing.
Assuming the CAD system has been properly configured so the peripheral devices ( plotter
and/or printers) are functioning, the typical basic steps to printing and plotting using the
Print/Plot Configuration dialog box are listed below:

1. Use Save to ensure the drawing has been saved in its most recent form before
plotting ( just in case some problem arises while plotting).
2. Make sure the plotter or printer is turned on, has paper and pens loaded, and is ready
to accept the plot information from the computer.
3. Invoke the Print/Plot configuration dialog box.
4. Check the upper left corner of the dialog box to ensure that the intended devices
have been selected. If not, select the Devices and Default Selection tile and make the
desired choice.
5. Check the upper right corner of the dialog box to ensure the desired paper size has
been selected. If not, use the Size. tile to do so.
6. Only when necessary, change other option such as Rotation and Origin and Pen
Assignments.
7. Determine and select which area of the drawing to plot : Display, Extend, Limits,
Window or View.
8. Enter the desired scale for the print or plot. If no standard scale is needed, toggle
Scale To Fit ( so the check mark appear in the box )
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9. Always Preview the plot to ensure the drawing will be printed or plotted as you
expect. Select either a Full or Partial preview. If the preview does not display the
plot as you intended, make the appropriate changes. Otherwise, needless time and
media could be wasted.
10. If everything is OK, selecting the OK tile causes the drawing to be sent to the plotter
and printer.
11. For additional plots or prints, you can use the Preview command to preview and plot
the drawing based on the parameters previously set in the Print/Plot Configuration
dialog box.

9.2 Using the Plot / Print Command


Methods for opening the Print / Plot Configuration dialog box include:

Toolbar :
Menu : File > Print
Command : Plot

The Print / Plot Configuration dialog box will displayed as shown in figure 9.1.

Devices and Default Selection


The Devices and Default Selection option lets you review current information on the
configuration of plotters and printers. When you select the Devices and Default Selection
button, the Devices and Default selection dialog box is displayed. This section describes the
uses of the Select a Device, and the Device specific configuration areas found in the dialog
box. You cannot add a device to the dialog box at this stage. You must reconfigured
AutoCAD to recognize another plotter. The dialog box is shown below.
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Figure 9.2 : Device and default Selection Dialog Box

The show and change option in the Device Specific Configuration areas lets you review or
change the printer/plotter setting. A description of these options follows:
Show - when the show button is chosen, the Show Device
Requirements dialog box is displayed with information about the current
printing devices. This dialog box is shown in the following figure:

Figure 9.3 : Show Device Requirement Dialog Box

Change - If you want to change information about the printer/plotter,


choose the change button. The dialog box that is displayed is determined by
the type of printer/plotter currently being used. For examples, if you choose
the Change button, the Change Device Requirements dialog box may be
displayed. However, another printing device may display the Print Setup
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dialog box. Each of these dialog boxes require you to enter different
information to change the printer/plotter setting.

Figure 9.4 : Print Setup Dialog Box


Pen Parameters
The Pen Parameters areas of the Print / Plot Configuration dialog box lets you change pen
parameter settings. The Pen Assignment button, and the Optimization button are located in
this area. Choosing the Pen Assignments button opens the Pen Assignments dialog box
containing the following option:
Color - displays the AutoCAD color to which you assign a width, pen.
speed, or linetype. If you have a single pen plotter, and have chosen the
option to plot different colors with different colored pen, AutoCAD pauses
when necessary during the plot and issues a prompt let you to stop and
change the pen.
Pen - pens are used with pen plotters. This option lets you assign a
color to a pen number.
Ltype - displays the linetype number assigned to the current color. To
see the available plotter linetype, check the Feature Legend button.
Speed - this option is used to assign plotting speed to pens used with
pen plotters. Each plotting speed is assigned a color.
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Width - the width option display the line width assigned to a color.
This option generally determine the line width of lines drawn with raster
printer.

Figure 9.5 : Pen Assignment Dialog Box

The optimization button located in the Pen Parameters area, displays the Optimizing Pen
Motion dialog box. This dialog box has a list of check boxes that increase optimization, by
minimizing wasted pen motion and reducing plotting time. By default, AutoCAD minimizes
pen motion when a drawing is plotted. With the exception of the No Optimization button,
the more button are checked the higher the optimization. The printer or plotter determines if
the options in dialog box are available. The Optimizing Pen Motion dialog box is displayed
in the following Figure 9.6:

Figure 9.6 : Optimizing Pen Motion Dialog Box


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Additional Parameters.
The Additional Parameters area of the Print / Plot Configuration dialog box has a list of
options used to properly setup your drawing for printing and plotting. The following list
describes each of these options:
Display - this option prints or plots everything shown in the current
view of the drawing window.
Extents - this option plots the area of the drawing that contain objects.
Before you print or plot the drawing, use the Zoom to Drawing Extent option
to make sure include all the object you have created.
Limits - this option prints or plots everything located inside the
established drawing limits.
View - this option lets you plot an existing named view. When you
select the View button the View Name dialog box is displayed. Select the
name view you want to plot, then choose OK. The Print / Plot Configuration
dialog box is redisplayed with the view check box highlighted.
Window - this option lets you specify the rectangular you want to plot,
print or save to plot files. When this button is selected, the Window Selection
dialog box is displayed. You can enter coordinates for the first Corner and
Other Corner in the dialog box, or use the Pick button to define a window in
the drawing. After you specify the plot area choose the OK button. The
Window checkbox is now checked. The Window Selection dialog box is
shown in Figure 9.7:

Figure 9.7 : Window Selection dialog box


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Text Resolution - this option sets the resolution value for printed text.
Lower values increase the plotting speed, but decrease the resolution. Higher
values decrease the plotting speed, and increase the resolution. This also sets
the resolution, in dot-per-inch, of True Type font while plotting. This value
is stored in the TEXTQLTY system variable.
Text Fill - if selected, this option displays some text as a solid or filled
objects. If the box is unchecked the latter are plotted in an outline form.
Hide-Line - this option if checked, plots model space view with hidden
line removed when a drawing is plotted.
Adjust Area Fill - this option lets you compensate for pen-width when
plotting wide polylines, solid-filled traces or filled 2D solid. AutoCAD adjust
the boundary of filled areas inward by half a pen width. This can be
important for exacting applications like printed circuit board artwork that
require greater accuracy.
Autospool - this option lets you send a plot file to a printing device while
you continue to work. For more information check the Online Help.
Plot to file - the Plot To File option lets you create a plot file. Many
applications such as word processors can include AutoCAD plot file as
illustration. Instead of printing or plotting your drawing, you have the option
of generating files with .plt file name is the drawing name. When this button
is checked the File Name button is activated.
File name - when the File Name button is selected, the Create Plot File
dialog box is displayed. This dialog box lets you name the plot file, then save
it to a specified directory. After you assign a name and directory, choose the
Save button. The Create Plot File dialog box is displayed in the following
Figure 9.8:
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Figure 9.8 : Create Plot File Dialog Box

Paper Size and Orientation.


The Paper Size and Orientation area is used to determine the size of the paper that will be
used for plotting. You can also select the plot specification units. This is done by choosing
Inches or the MM button for millimeters. The Paper Size and Orientation area also have a
Size button, Orientation icon, and Plot Area line. These features are discussed in the
following section:

Size
The type of printing device that you use determines if the Size button is activated. If the
box is not shaded you can select the Size button. The Paper Size dialog box is then
displayed. You will find a list of standard paper size in the window on the left side of the
dialog box. To change the paper size, select one of the rows.

AutoCAD also lets you create your own paper size by entering numbers at the User lines.
This is done by selecting the Width and Height boxes and entering the desired sizes. To add
the new paper size to the window, move the cursor inside of the window and press the left
mouse button once, or press ENTER. The new paper size is then displayed. When a paper
size is selected the assigned name is displayed next to the Size button in the Paper Size and
Orientation area.
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Orientation
When a paper size is selected the Orientation icon and name are displayed in the Paper Size
dialog box. The Orientation icon is also shown in the Paper Size and Orientation area. The
icon changes depending on the plotting device configuration. The orientation can be
Landscape, which means in a horizontal position, or Portrait which is a vertical position.

Plot Area
This line displays the numbers used to create the current paper size. When you are plotting ,
the paper size ( plot area ) dimensions used by AutoCAD and the printing device may not be
consistent. This can result in plotted drawing that do not fit on the paper. For example HP
plotter have wide margins which often cut into the effective plot area.

Scale, Rotation and Origin.


The scale, Rotation and Origin area have options that are used to help you plot drawing that
meet certain specifications. The plot image is always aligned with the lower left corner of a
specified plot area, even when plot is rotated. When a plot is offset, the offset is applied to
the entire plot image, rather than the plot origin point. The plot image is offset away from
the lower left corner on the page. A description of the options are:

Rotation
If you select the Rotation and Origin button, the Plot Rotation and Origin dialog box is
displayed. The Plot and Rotation area of this dialog box lets you select the rotation angle of
the plotted drawing. The rotation angle can be set at 0, 90, 180, 270 degree.

Origin
The Plot Origin area of the Plot Rotation and Origin dialog box lets you change the origin of
the plot. Generally all drawings are printed from the 0,0 origin located in the lower left
corner of the paper. If you want your plot to start in a new location, enter the new coordinate
values at the X origin and Y origin edit boxes. This lets you place multiple plots on the same
sheet. The Plot Rotation and Origin dialog box is shown in the following Figure 9.9
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Figure 9.9 : Plot Rotation and Origin

Scale
Scale factor is used to print or plot text, dimensions, tick marks, arrow and drawings at the
proper size. After you determine your scale factor, AutoCAD lets you enter a scale in the
Plotted Inches = Drawing Units and the Plotted MM = Drawing Units edit boxes. To use
this option, make sure the Scale to Fit button is not selected.

Scale to Fit
If you do not have a scale factor, select the Scale to Fit option. AutoCAD then adjusts the
drawing to fit inside of the selected paper size boundaries. This is done by calculating the
ratio between the width and height of your specified drawing area and the width and height
of the plotted area. The scale factor set by AutoCAD will be displayed in the Plotted Inches
= Drawing Unit and the Plotted MM = Drawing Units edit boxes.

Previewing a Plot
The Plot preview area lets you review your drawing before it is printed or plotted. You can
select a Partial or Full preview by selecting an option button then choosing Preview. These
options are described in the following sections.

Partial
When the Partial button is selected the Preview Effective Plotting Area dialog box is
displayed. This dialog box lets you see your drawing in relation to the current paper size.
The paper dimensions are found below at the Paper Size line. The blue outline represents
your drawing. The dimension of your drawing are located at the Effective area line. If the
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paper size and effective area are the same dimensions, the outline will have a red and blue
dashed line around it.

If there are problems with the orientation of the drawing and the paper size, a warning is
displayed at the bottom of the Preview Effective Plotting area dialog box. The most
commonly displayed commands are:
Effective area too small.
Origin forced effective area off display.
Plotting area exceed paper maximum.

If any of these items are displayed, you may need to adjust the plot setting then preview the
drawing again. This ensures that your drawing is set up properly before it is printed or
plotted. The dialog box also has a Rotation icon located inside of the red and blue outline
areas of the dialog box. To determine the rotation angle observe the icon location. Each
angle is assigned a location which includes : 0 bottom-left corner, 90 top-left corner, 180
top-right corner, and 270 bottom-right.
The Preview Effective Plotting Area dialog box is displayed in the following Figure 9.10

Figure 9.10 : Preview Effective Plotting Area.


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Full
The full preview option lets you see the drawing as it would be displayed on paper. When
this option is selected a 0-100% meter is displayed at the bottom of the Print/Plot
Configuration dialog box. When the regeneration is complete the drawing is displayed,
while a regeneration takes place and the PLOT command process the data. To end the Full
preview option, Press ESC. ENTER, or the right mouse button to activate the Realtime PAN
and ZOOM menu. This menu lets you use the PAN and ZOOM commands to change the
view or location of the plotted image on the display screen. The following figure
demonstrates how a drawing would be displayed after a full preview.
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ACTIVITY 9a

EXERCISES.

9.1
i) Open the drawing from Program File, ( C : \ Program File \
AutoCADR14 \ Sample \ Watch ).
ii) Invoke the Print / Plot Configuration Dialog Box. Set the Additional
Parameter to Limits. Click on the Devices and Default Selection Box and
click Change at Device Requirement.
iii) When the Print Setup Dialog Box appeared, set the paper size to A4 and
Orientation to Portrait.
iv) Click OK and see the result.

9.2
i) Open the drawing from Program File, ( C : \ Program File \
AutoCADR14 \ Sample \ opera).
ii) Invoke the Print / Plot Configuration Dialog Box. Set the additional
parameter to Extents. Click on the Devices and Default Selection Box
and click Change at Device Requirement.
iii) When the Print Setup Dialog Box appeared, set the paper size to A4 and
Orientation to Portrait.
iv) Click OK and see the result
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ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS BELOW.


QUESTIONS 9-1 :

a) What is the function of Pen Parameter dialog box and what are the options
contain?

b) Open the Schematic Diagram from Draw Command unit (Figure 4.37) that you
have done before. Print the drawing to A4 size and Portrait Orientation.

c) Open the office floor plan drawing you have done in unit 8, Print the drawing to
A4 size and Landscape Orientation.
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FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESSMENT

ANSWERS
QUESTION 9-1

a) Pen Parameters
The Pen Parameters areas of the Print / Plot Configuration dialog box lets you
change pen parameter settings. The Pen Assignment button, and the Optimization
button are located in this area. Choosing the Pen Assignments button opens the Pen
Assignments dialog box containing the following option:
Color - displays the AutoCAD color to which you assign a width, pen
speed, or linetype. If you have a single pen plotter, and have chosen the
option to plot different colors with different colored pen, AutoCAD pauses
when necessary during the plot and issues a prompt let you to stop and
change the pen.
Pen - pens are used with pen plotters. This option lets you assign a
color to a pen number.
Ltype - displays the linetype number assigned to the current color. To
see the available plotter linetype, check the Feature Legend button.
Speed - this option is used to assign plotting speed to pens used with
pen plotters. Each plotting speed is assigned a color.
Width - the width option display the line width assigned to a color.
This option generally determine the line width of lines drawn with raster
printer.