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SEISMIC RESTRAINT DESIGN ............................................. 53. I Seisrnic Snu
Tciwinolog~~ 53.2 E.rtrriiples ..................................
Ctiloiltrrion.~............................................................................ 53.2 Instullotiort
Applying S!crtic Anci1~wi.sUsing I994 UBC ............................. 53.3 WIND RESTRAINT DESIGN ...
Anclror B o l t s ........................................................................... 53.8 Terminology ................................................ 53.13
W d d Gl/"iciric.s ...........!........................................... __ 53.8 Calcfhrion

A LMOST all inhabited areas of the world are susceptible to tlie

tla~nngingeffects of either eaitliquakes or wind. Restraints that
are designed to resist one may not be adequate to resist the other.
Most seismic requirements adopted by local jurisdictions in
Consequently. when exposure to either earthquake or wind loading North America are based on model codes developed by the Interna-
is a possibility. strength of equipnient and attachments should be tional Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). Building Officials
evaluated for both conditions. and Code Administrators International (BOCA), the Southern
Earthquake tlamage to inatlequately restrained HVAC&R equip- Building Code Conference, Inc. (SBCCI). and the National Build-
iiieiit can be extensive. Mechanical equipiiieiit that is blown off tlie ing Code of Canada (NBCC); or on the requirements of the National
support structure can become a projectile. tlveatening life and prop- Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). The model
erty. The cost of properly restraining the equipment is small com- code bodies are working through the International Code Council
Ixiretl to the high costs of replacing or repairing daniagetl (ICC) to unify their model codes into the International Building
equipment, or compared to tlie cost of building down-rim clue to Code (IBC) by the year 2000. Local building officials must be con-
tacted for specific requirements that inay be more stringent than
those presented in this chapter and to determine if the unified spec-
Design n u l installation of seismic antl wind restraints has the fol- ification has been invoAetl.
lowing primary objectives: Other sources of seismic restraint information include
* Life safety to reduce the tlveat to life Seisviie Restrciint Mnnuul: Guidelinesfor Mechanical Sysrerns,
Reduce long-term costs due to equipment tlamage antl the resulr- published by SMACNA (1998). includes seismic restraht infor-
ant down time mation for mechanical equipment subjected to seismic forces of
up to 4.7 m/s2 (0.48~).
This chapter covers tlie design of restraints to limit the niove- The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has developed
ineiii of equipnient and to keep tlie equipment captive tluring an staotlartls on restraint design for f i e protection systems.
eanhquake or [luring extreme wind loading. Seisinic restraints and US.Department of Energy DOE f~430.1Aand ASME AG-1
seismic isolators do not reduce the forces transmitted to tlie equip- cover restraint design for nuclear facilities.
nieiit to be restrained. Ingteatl, properly designed and installed seis- Terlinicol Mwucil TM 5-809-10, published by the United States
inic restraints antl seismic isolators have tlie necessary strength to Army. Navy, and Air Force (1992). also provides guidance for
withstand tlie iiiiposetl forces. However, equipment that is to be seismic restraint design.
restrained niust also have the necessary strength to remain attached In seisinicallv active areas where -governmental agencies
to the restraint. Ec~uipnieiitiiianufacturers slioultl review structural - regu-
late tlie earthquake-resistive design of buildings (e.g., California),
aspects of tlie design i n tlie areas of atrachinent to ensure the equip- the HVAC engineer usually does not prepare the code-required seis-
ment will remain attached to the restraint. mic restraint calculations. The HVAC engineer selects all the heat-
For ineclianical systems. analysis of seisiiiic and wind loading ing and cooling equipiiient and, with the assistance of the acoustical
conditions is typically a static analysis, and conservative safety fac- engineer (if tlie project has one), selects the required vibration iso-
rors Lire applied to reduce the complexity of earthquake antl wind lation devices. The HVAC engineer specifies these devices and calls
loading response anal rid evnluatioii. T h e e aspects are consitl- for shop drawing submittals from the contractors, but the manufac-
eretl i n ;I properly designed restraint system. turer employs a registered engineer to design and detail the iostal-
lation. The HVAC engineer reviews the shop design and details the
1 . Arr(icliiiwnr of cqiiipti~t~nt
ro re,srrtririt. The equipiiieiit must be installation, reviews the shop drawings and calculations, and
positively attached to the restraint, and must have sufficient obtains tlie approval of the architect and structural engineer before
strength to withstand tlie imposed forces, and to transfer tlie issuance to tlie contractors for installation.
forces to the restraint. Anchors for tanks, brackets. and other equipment supports that
3. R m r r i i n r tksign. Strength of
the restraint must also be sufficient do not require vibration isolation are designed by the building's
to withstand tlie imposed forces. This should be tleterinioed by structural engineer, or by the supplier of the seismic restraints,
the ni:inufacturer by tests a n t h analyses. based on layout drawings prepared by the HVAC engineer. The
3 . Att(ic1iiiwnt of rcsrrciinr to .siihstrir(:fnrt,.Attachment inay be by building officials maintain the code-required quality control over
n i e m of bolts, welds or concrete anchors. The sub structure the tlesigii by requiring that all building design professionals are
wust be capable of surviving tlie iniposetl forces. registered (licensed) engineers. Upon completion of installation, the
supplier of the seismic restraints. or a qualified representative,
The prepnl-nrion of rhis chnprer is nssignetl 10 TC 2.7. Seismic Restraint should inspect the installation antl verify that all restraints are
Design. installed properly and in compliance with specifications.
53.2 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)

TERMINOLOGY Dynamic Analysis I

Base plate thickness. Thickness of the equipment bracket fas- A dynamic analysis is based on site-specific ground motions
tened to the floor. developed by a geotechnical or soils engineer. A coiniiio~iapproach
assumes an elastic response spectrum. The results of the tlynainic
Effective shear force (Ve& Maximum shear force of one seis-
analysis are then scaled up or down :IS a percentage of the total lat-
mic restraint or tie-down bolt.
eral force obtained from the static analysis performed on the builtl-
Effective tension force (T,II). Maximum tension force or pullout ing. The scaling coefficient is established by the UBC or by the
force on one seismic restraint or tie-down bolt. governing building official. The scaled acceleration calculntetl by
Equipment. Any HVAC&R component that must be restrained the structural engineer at any level in the structure c:in be tleter-
from movement during an earthquake. mined and compared to the force calculated in Equation ( I ) . The
Fragility level. Maximum lateral acceleration force that the greater of the two should be used in the anchor design. The horizon-
equipment is able to withstand. This data may be available from the tal force factor CIJshould be iiiultiplietl by a factor of two in either
equipment manufacturer and is generally on the order of four times case, as shown in Table 5 .
the acceleration of gravity ( 4 ~ for
) mechanical equipment.
Resilient support. An active seismic device (such as a spring Static Analysis as Defined in the
with a bumper) to prevent equipment from moving more than :I International Building Code
specified amount. The final tlrafi of the International Building Code (ICC 19YB)
Response spectra. Relationship between the acceleration specifies a design lateral force Fl) for iioiistructur:iI coniponents ;IS
response of the ground and the peak acceleration of the earthquake
in a damped single degree of freedom at various frequencies. The
ground motion response spectrum varies with soil conditions. iIj
Rigid support. Passive seismic device used to restrict any move-
but FI, need not be greater than F], = l.6SD,yfI,WI, ( 2)
Shear force (V). Force generated at the plane of the seismic
restraints, acting to cut the restraint at the base.
Seismic restraint. Device designed to withstand an earthquake. nor less than FI' = 0.3SS,,sII,W, i3j
Seismic zones. The geographical location of a facility tleter-
A vertical force is specified as
mines its seismic zone, as given in the Uniform Building Code or
International Building Code.
Fpv = ".2SDSwp (4)
Snubber. Device made of steel-housed resilient bushings
ananged to prevent equipment from moving beyond an established where
Tension force (0.Force generated by overturning moments at
up = component amplification f i 'Lt or i n accordance with Table I
SD,s = design spectral response acceleration at short periods as deter-
the plane of the seismic restraints, acting to pull out the bolt. mined by SD,s = 2FUS,,/3.S,$is the mapped spectral acceleratiuiis
from Fignre I and 0 . X C F , 5 2 . 5 . F,, is a fiinction of the site soil
CALCULATIONS characteristics and tiiiisl be determined i n consultntion wirh either
the project geotechnical (soils) or strnctiirnl engineer. Valnes for
The calculations presented here assume that the equipment sup- F, are given i n Table 2.
port is an integrated resilient support and restraint device. When the K = component response motlilication factor in accordance wirh
two functions of resilient support and motion restraint are separate Table I . Nore: If expansive anchors, chemical aiichon. ur s h a l l u ~
or act separately, additional spring loads may need to be added to the eiiihedtled cast-in-place anchors are used. then K,,= 1.25.
anchor load calculation for the restraint device. Internal loads 'I = component importance factor in accordance with Table 3.
within integrated devices are not addressed in this chapter. Such I + 22Jh = height amplification factor where :is the height of attachment in
the structnre and h is the average height of the roof ahove grade.
devices must be designed to withstand the full anchorage loads plus
The value of: should not be taken as less than 0.
any internal spring loads. W = mass of eqnipmeiit. which incliides all items attached or con-
Both static and dynamic analyses reduce the force generated by ' tained in the equipment
an earthquake to an equivalent static force, which acts in a horizon-
tal direction at the component's center of mass. The resulting over- Table 2 Values of Site Coefficient F, as Function of Site Class
turning moment is resisted by shear and tension (pullout) forces on and Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration at 1 s Period (S,)
the tie-down bolts. Static analysis is used for both rigid-mounted
and resilient-mounted equipment. Mapped Spectral Response
Acceleration At Short Periods"
Site Soil Profie
Table 1 Coefficients for Mechanical Components Class Name S,yC 0.25 S, = 0.50 S, = 0.75 S,<= 1.1111 S , 2 1.15

Mechanical and Electrical Component or Element a, R, A Hardrock 0,s 0.8 0.4 (1.8 0.8

General Mechanical B Rock I .(I I.(I I .o I .o I.(I

Boilers and furnaces 1.0 2.5 c Very dense soil 1.2 1.2 1 1.1 1.0 1.0
Piping nnd soft rock
High deformability elements and attachments 1.0 3.5 D Stiff soil profile 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0
Limited deformability elements and attachments I.(I 2.5 E Soft soil profile 2.5 1.7 I.2 0.9 n
Low deformability elements or attachments I.o I .25
F See IBC Table I 6 15. I.I and Note b
HVAC Equipment
Vibration isolated 2.5 2.5
Non-vibration isolated 1.0 2.5
Mounted in line with ductwork 1.0 2.5
Seisiiiic and Wind Restraint Design 53.3

Table 3 Seisniic Group and Occupancy Iniportance Factor

Seismic Importance
Group Factor Nature of Occupancy
I I.o All occnpancies excepr rhose listed helow
II 1.25 I.Assemhly Group A i n which 300 or more people congregate in one area
2. E~lircarionnlGroup E with an occupant load greater than 250
3. Day care centers i n Educational Group E with a capacity greater than 150
4 , Insrinirioiial Group 1-2 (medical. etc.) with an occiipanr load greater than 50, no1 olherwise designated
a Seismic Group 111 structure
5 . Instinitional Group 1-3 inhahired hy more [hail live persons who are under resrraint or security
6 . Any other occupnncy with an occripanl load greater than 5000
7. Power generating stations and orher puhlic utility lac es nor inclutlerl in Seismic Group 111
and required for continued operation
8. Water treatment facilities reqniretl for primary trearment antl disinfecrion for potable water
9. Was~ewater ~reatiiientfaciliries required for primary treatment.
111 1.5 I.Fire, rescue. and police starioiis
2. Insriniiional Group I-? facilities that are hospitals
3. Designated lnsrirrrrional Group 1-2 faciliries having surgery or emergency rrenrmeiif facilities
3. Iksignared emergency preparedness ceiirers
5 . Desigiiared emergency operation centers
h. Designared emergency shelters
7. Power generating stations or other utilities required as emergency hackup facilities for seismic group 111 fnc
8. Emergency vehicle garages antl emergency aircraft hangars
9. Designated commiinicatiuii cenrers
10. Avialion control lowers and air rraflic conrrol centers
II . Slriictiires containing highly toxic materials
I?. Water treatmenr facilities required 10 niainraiti warer pressure for fire suppression

Table 4 Seisniic Zone Factor 2 The importance factor from the UBC (ICBO 1994) ranges
Zone z from 1 to 1.5. depentling on the building occupancy and hazard
level. For equipinent. f I , should be conservatively set at 1.5.
I 0.075
The horizontal force factor C, is determined from Table 5 based
2A 0 .I 5 011 tlie type of equipment, the tie-down configuration, and the type
28 0.20 of base.
3 0.30 The weight WI, of the equipment should include all the items
4 0.40 attached or coiitaiiied in the equipment.

Table 5 Horizontal Force Factor Cp APPLYING STATIC ANALYSIS USING 1994 UBC
Eqiiipnienr or Nonsrriicniral Components I The forces acting on tlie equipment are the lateral and vertical
Mechaiiical equipment. phimhing. alld electrical equipmenr alld 0.75 forces resulting froill the earthquake. the force of gravity. and the
assucinred piping rigidly moiiiited forces of the restraint holding tlie equipment in place. The analysis
All eqiiipiiient resilienlly moiinred (maximiim 2.0) 2 assumes the equipment does not move during an earthquake, thus,
the sum of the forces and iiioii~eiitsmust be zero. When calculating
h6m: S1:iok:. :lid t:inkr rllollld he c\~ahl;rIrdfol cul1lp~i:llicewith Ihr :ipplic;lbk c d r ? , the ovenurlling lllolllellt,the vertical colnponentF ~the , ~ ~ ~
hy :I q i ~ i l i t i e dellgilleel:
mass is given as
Static Aiialysis as Defined in
1994 Uniform Building Code
The forces of the restraint holding the equipment in position
The total design lateral seistiiic force is given as
include shear and tension forces. It is important to determine the
number of bolts that are affected by the earthquake forces. The
direction of the lateral force should be evaluated in both horizontal
directions as shown in Figure 3. All bolts or as few as a single bolt
Idfl~ro may be affected.
F,, = total desigil laieral seismic force Figure 3 shows a typical rigid floor mount installation of a piece
z =seismic
.' . zone facror of equipment. To calculate tlie shear force, the sum of the forces in
f,, = importance factor (set eqiial 10 I.5 for equipment) the horizontal plane is
C,, = horizontal force factor
W,, = weight of equipment i n newruns = maxs i n kilognms times stan- 0 = F,,- v (7)
dard acceleration of gravity (9.8(17 lids')
Figure 2 and Table 6 may be used to tleterniine the seismic zone. The effective shear force V , i s
The seisniic zone factor 2 can then be tletermined from Table 4.
"cf = Fp"/J,,/r (8)
r l ~ , s Navy. and Air Force 1997) can
Scisirric n c . . \ . i g r r ~ ~ r . B i ~ i / t l i(Army,
also be used tu tleterniine the seisniic zone. where N!,,,,, = the number of bolts in shear.
53.4 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)

Fig. 1 Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion for the United States
0.2 s spectral response acceleration (‘70g) (S% of critical clamping) Sire Class B
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design 53.5

Fig. 1 Masiniuni Considered Eartkquake Ground Motion for the United States (Corzh'rzued)
0.2 s spectral response nccelerarioii (% s) (S% ofcriIical tlnniping) Site Class B
53.6 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)

Table 6 International Seismic Zones


Seismic Seismic Seismic

Conntrv citv Zone Zone Coiintry City Zime
Albania Tirana 3 Getm:iny (Ginrinired) Duaaeldot I I Oalo 28
Algeria Alrien 4 Fr:inktiiit I
orin 4 Hiiiiibiitg (1
Angola Luanda 0 Municli I
Antigua and Barbuda SI. lohns 3 Sning:tit 2B
Argentina Buenos Aiies 0 Ghana Accr:t 3
Armenia Yerevan 3 Greece Athens 3 P:iit:iina
Australia Brisbane I Theaa;tloniki 4 P:ipii:i New Ciuiiiea
Canberra 1 Gi.rn:id:t St. Geuige’s 3 P:uilgll:ly
Melbourne I Guatemala Gu;item:il:t City 4 Peru
Pellh I Guinm Conakry 0 Philippines
Sydney I Guinea-Biss;iu Biaa:iu 0
Austria Salzburg ZB guy an^ Grorgetown 0
Vienna 2n Haiti Pon-:iii-Prince 3 Pol:lnd
Azerbaijan Baku 3 Hondura Teguci g:ilpn 3
Bahamas Nassau (1 Hung Kong Hung Kong 2B
Bahrain Manama (1 Hungary Biid;ipeat ?n
Bangladesh Dhaka 3 Iceland Reyk;:ivik 4
Barbados Bridgetuwn 3 1ndi:i Boinb:iy 3
Belams Minsk I C:dcun:i 2B
Belgium Antwerp 1 M;idr:is I
Brussels I New Delhi 2B
Belize Belize City I 1ndonesi:i Jak~It1;l 3
Benin Cotonou 0 Med;in 3
Bennuda Hamilton 0 Suiah:ty:i 3
Boliuia La Paz 3 Itaq Bzighd:id 211
Botswana Gaborone 0 Ireland Dublin 0 Rw:inda
Brazil Belo Horizonte 0 Israel Jeiuaalem 3 Siiuili Ai;ihin
BriLdia 0 TeI Aviv I
Pono Alegre 0 Itilly Flot ence 3
Recife 0 Genoa 2B
Rio de Janeiro 0 Milm 2B
si0 Paul0 1 N:iples 2B
Bmnei Bandar Seri Begawm I Palermu 4
Bulgaria Sofia 3 Rome zn
Burkina Fasu Ouagadougou 0 Ivoly Coast AbiiIj:iii 3
Burma Mandalay 3 1:im:iic;i Killguun 3
Rangoon 2B Japan Fukuoka 3
Bumndi B uj umbu t a 3 Kube 3
Camerwn Douala 0 N‘lllil 3
Yaounde (1 0kin:iw:i 3 Spiiiii
Can& Calgary 1 0aak:i 3
Halifax I s:lppoto 3
Montreal 2A Tokyo 4 Sii Liitik:~
Ottawa 2A lorilan Ammm 3 Sutlm
Quebec 3 K:lz;ikhstm Almi-At:) 4 Surin:inte
Toronto I Kenya Nairobi 2B Sw;izil;ind
Vanwuvei 3 Kotea Seoul 2A Swedert
Cape Verde Praia 0 Kuwait Kuwait I Switzer1:ind
Central African Republic Bangui (1 Kyrgyzstan Bislikek 4
Chad Republic N’Diamena 0 Los Vienti:ine I
Chile Santiago 4 Latvia Rig:) I
China Beijing (Peking!) 3 Lebzinun Beiiut 3
Chengdu 3 Lesotho Maseiu 2n
Guanrnhou (Canton) 2B Liberia Mont w i : i I
Shanihai zn Lithuania Vilnius I
Shenyang (Mukden) 4 Luxembourg Luxenibuuig I
Colombia Barranquilla 2B Madagascar Anfaniinaiivu 0
Bogota 3 Malawi Lilungwe 3
Congo Branaville 0 Malaysia Kuel:i Luitipur I Togo
Costa Rica San Jose 3 Mali Republic Barnako 0 Trinidad :ind Tob;igo
Cuba HavaIU 1 Miilta V:lllert:l 213 Tiiniai:,
CypNS Nicosia 3 Martinique M:titiniipe 3 nllkey
Czech Republic Prague 1 M;iuritani;i Nou:ikcliun 0
Denmark Copenhagen I Mauritius Putt Louis 0
Djibouti Djibouti 3 Mexico 2B
Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 3 3 TiirLiiienist:iii
EcUdddOr Guay aquil 3 3 Ug:llLd:l
Quito 4 M:it:inioi us (1 Uki:iiiw
Egypt Alexandda ZB Meild:i 0 United Arab Emii:rtea
Cairo 2B Mexico City 3
El Salvador San Salvador 4 Monterrey 0 United Kingdotii
Equatorial Guinea Malabo 0 Nuevo L:~redo 0
Ewnia Tallinn 2A Tijii:iti:i 3
Ethiopia Addis Ababa 3 Moldo\,a Kishinev 2B u1ugu:ty
Asmura 3 Morocco C:isabl;inc:i 2B Uzbekisr;ai
Fiji L\lantL\ Suva 3 R:ibat 2n Vaticm City
Finland Helsinki I Moz;imbique Mtiputu 2B Vellezue1;l
France Bordeaux 2B Nep:il K;rhm;lnlhl 3
Lyon I Netherlands Ainateid:tm (1 Metn:im
Mai>eille 2B The Hague 0 Yeitten Acib Repiibli~
Pails 0 Netherhds Antillea Ctir:ic:io 3
Strasbourg 2B New Zeal:ind Aiickl:tnd 2n Yugual;wi;i
Gabon Libreville 0 Wellinyuii 4
Gambia Banjul 0 Nicaragua M:in:igu:t 4 Zjire
Georgia Tbilisi 3 Niger Republic Ni:iiney 0
Germany Berlin 0 Nigeiia K:idun:i 0 Zimhi:i
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design 53.7

Fig. 1 Seisniic Zone M a p of the United States

(Krpiudiiced from the 1994 edition of the L/it$mii Briildiiig Coik with permission of the puhlisher. rhe Iiileriinlionnl Conference of Building Ofticinls.)

For example. if three bolts were installed on each side, the lateral
force applied as shown i n tlie side view affect six bolts in shear and
a minimum of two i n tension. The lateral force applied as shown on
the front view results in six bolts affected in shear and three in ten-
sion. Also. Dl and D? are different for each axis.
Equatioiis (6).(7). and (X) may be applied to ceiling-mounted
equipment. Equation (9) must be modified to Equation (1 1) because
the mass of the equipment adds to the overturning moment. Sum-
Ji ming the moineiit~determines the effective tension force as
T -+ D1


Fig. 3 Ecluipntent with Rigidly Mounted Structural Bases

The restraints shown in Figure 3 have two bolts on each side, so Interaction Formula. To evaluate the combined effective ten-
t11at four bolts are in shear. To c:dculate the tension force, the sum of sion ancl shear forces that act simultaiieously on the bolt. the follow-
the I I I U I I I ~ I for
~ ~ Soverturning are as follows:
ing equation applies:

Fl,h,,, - ( Wll - F1,/3)(D 112) - T D I = 0

The allowable forces TIII,,,,,and y,//,,H,

are the generic allowable
capacities given in Table 7 for wedge-type anchor bolts.
For the exainple shown i n Figure 3 . two bolts are i n tension.
The effective tension force Tfl, where overturning affects only one Tahle 7 Typical Allowable Loads for Wedge-Type Anchors
side. is
Diameter, m m Tfl//ow. kN V h w kN
13 2.6 5.3
16 4.0 9.8
The shear and tension forces (Vaiiil T ) should be calculated intle- 19 6.0 13.3
pentlenrly for both axes as shown in the front and side views. The No:e.v:
I . The :illowable tensile IUICA ;W For imiall;ttions without speciill inxpeLrion (torque
worst case governs seismic restraint design; however, the direction lest) nnd inay be doubled i t tlie imt;illation is inxpected.
of seisinic loading that governs the design in not always obvious. 2. Addition;il tension :ind slie:ir v:iIue\ inay be obtained from published ICBO repona.
53.8 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (Sl)

Several types of anchor bolts for insertion in concrete are manu-
factured. Wedge and sleeve anchors perform better than self-drilling
or drop-in types. Epoxy-type anchors are stronger than other
anchors, but lose their strength at elevated temperatures (i.e., on
rooftops and in areas damaged by fire). Several types of siiubbers are manufiicturetl or field fabricated.
Wedge-type anchors have a wedge on the end with a small clip All siiubber assemblies should iiieet the following minimuin
around the wedge. After a hole is drilled, the bolt is inserted aiid the requirements to avoid imparting excessive accelerations ro rhe
external nut tightened. The wedge expands the small clip, which HVACRrR equipment:
bites into the concrete. Iinpact surface should have ;I high-quality elastuineric surface
A self-drilling anchor is basically a hollow drill bit. The anchor that is not cemented i n place
is used to drill the hole and is then removed. A wedge is then Resilient material should be easy ru inspect fur damage ant1 be
inserted on the end of the anchor, and the assembly is drilled back replaceable if necessary
into place; the drill twists the assembly fully in place. The self-(lrill- Assembly must provide restraint in :ill directions
ing anchor is weaker than other types because it forms a rough hole. Siiubbers should be tested by an intlepentlent test laboratory (antl
Drop-in expansion anchors are hollow cylinders with a tapered analyzed by a registered engineer to ensure the stated load capac-
end. After they are inserted in a hole, a small rod is driven through ity and) to avoid serious design flaws.
the hollow portion, expanding the tapered end. These anchors are
only for shallow installations because they have no reserve expaii- Typical snubbers are classified as Types A through J (see Figure
sion capacity. 4). Many devices are presently approved with Office of Statewide
Health Planning Development (OSHPD) ratings.
A sleeve anchor is a bolt covered by a threaded, thin-wall, split
tube. As the bolt is tightened, the thin wall expands. Additional load Type A. Snubber built into :I resilient mounting. All-directional,
tends to further expand the thin wall. The bolt must be properly pre- inoltletl bridge-bearing quality neoprene element is ;I ininiinuin of
loaded or friction force will not develop the required holding force. 3.2 nini thick. Mounting must have :I minimum of two anchor bolt
Adhesive anchors may be in glass capsules or installed with var- holes.
ious tools. Pure epoxy, polyester, or vinyl ester resin adhesives are Type B. IsolatorRestraint. Stable isolation spring bears on the
used with a threaded rod supplied by the contractor or the adhesive base plate of the fixed restraining member. Earthquake motion of
manufacturer. Some adhesives have a problem with shrinkage; oth- the isolated equipment is restrained close to the base plate, ininimiz-
ers are degraded by heat. However, some adhesives have been tested ing pullout force tu the base plate anchorage.
without protection to 590°C before they fail (all mechanical anchors ‘Qpe C. Spring isolator with built-in all directional resrraints.
will fail at this temperature). Where required. or if there is a con- Restraints have inoldeil neoprene eleinents with a miniinuin thick-
cern. anchors should be protected with fire retardants similar to ness of 3.2 min. A neoprene sound pad should be iiisralletl between
those applied to steel decks in high-rise buildings the spring antl the base plate. Sountl pads below the base plnte :ire
The manufacturer’s instructions for installing the anchor bolts not recommentletl fur seismic installarions. The base plate shoultl
should be followed. Performance test data published by manufac- have a minimum of four anchor bolt holes.
turers should include shock, fatigue, antl seismic resistance. IBCO Type D. Integral all directional snubber/restrainetl spring isola-
reports have further information on allowable forces for design. tor with AASHTO quality rep1 ible neoprene element. The all
Add a safety factor of two if the installation has not been inspected weltled housing has a miniinum of two nndhor bolt holes fur attach-
by a qualified firm or individual. ment to the structure.
Type E. Fully bonded neoprene mount capable of withstanding
WELD CAPACITIES seismic loads in a11 directions with nu metal-to-mete1 cuiit:ict. Outer
hosing must be ductile iron and have a minimum of two nnchor bolt
Weld capacities may be calculated to determine the size of holes.
welds needed to attach equipment to a steel plate or to evaluate Type F. All-directional with muliletl, replaceable neoprene ele-
raised support legs and attachments. A static analysis provides the nieiit. Neoprene element of bridge-bearing quality is ii ininiinuin of
effective tension and shear forces. The capacity of a weld is given 4.8 nim. Snubber must have a inininium of two anchor bvlt hvles.
per unit length of weld based on the shear strength of the weld Type G All-directional lateral siiubber. Reinforced AASHTO
material. For steel welds, the allowable shear strength capacity if quality neoprene element is a minimum of 6.4 i n i n thick. Upper
110 MPa on the throat section of the weld. The section length is bracket is weltled to the equipment antl the base plate has :I inini-
0.707 times the specified weld size. mum of two anchor bolt holes.
For a 1.5 mm weld. the length of shear in the weld is 0.707 x 1.5 = Type H. Restraint for fluor mounted equipment consisting of
1.06 mm. ’Theallowable weld force (FJollmw fur a 1.5 inin weld is interlocking steel assemblies lined with resilient elastomer. Bolt to
equipment antl anchored to structure through slotted holes tu allow
= 1.06 x 110 = 117 N per millimetre of weld
(Fw)ullow field adjustment of restraint fur 6.4 i n i n clearance i n the hurizontnl
aiid vertical directions. After final adjustment. weld anchor to floor
bracket antl angle clip tu equipment to assure nu slip caii occur.
For a 3 mm weld, the capacity is 233 Nhnm. Alternately, fill slots with epoxy grout tu prevent slip. The restraint
The effective weld force is the sum of the vectors calculated in assembly rating is certified by intlepentlent laboratory test.
Equations (8) and (10). Because the vectors are perpendicular, they Type I. Single axis, single direction lateral snubber, ribbed
are added by the method of the square root of the sum of the squares AASHTO quality neoprene element is a minimuni of 6.4 inin thick.
(SRSS), or: Minimum fluor mounting is with two anchor bolts. Must be useil in
sets of 4 or more.
Type J. Prestretcheil aircraft wire rope with galvanized end
connections that avoid bending the wire rope across sharp edges.
This type of snubber is mainly used with suspended pipe duct and
The length of weld required is given by the following equation: equipment.
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design 53.9








Fig. 4 Seismic Snubbers

The following exainples are provided to assist in the design of
equipineiit :iiiciior:ige to resist seisinic forces. Assume seismic zone
4 Tor all ex;iinples.

Esatnplc 1. Aiichurnge tlesigii I’ur eqiiipmenr rigidly muiinretl I U rhe striic-

r i m (see Figure 5 ) .
Froin Equations ( 5 ) niid ( 6 ) .cnlciilare the lateral seismic force nntl
its vertical cuinputieiir:

F,, = 0.4 x I .5 x 0.75 x 4500 = 2025 N

F,,,, = F , / 3 = 7-015/3 = 675 N
C‘nlciilale ihe overniriiitig iiiuiiietii (OTM):

0 T M = F p h C g = ( 1 0 2 5 X I .U) = 2025 N , 111 (14) Fig. 5 Eqtiipnient Rigidly Mounted to Structure (Example 1)
53.10 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)

Calculate the resisting moment (RM): Table 8 Allowable Loads for A307 Bolts
RM = (WP+Fp)dmi,/2 Diameter, m m T,,ttnw,.kN v,,rt,>w,. jt b . m m 2
= (4500f675)0.70/2 = 1811 or 1339N . m (15) 13 17.3 8.7 I2h
I6 27. I 13.8 19s
Calculate the tension force T, using RM,”, to determine the maxi-
19 39. I 19.6 2s5
mum tension force:
25 69.8 3.5. I 506
T = (OTM- RMmin)/dmin= (2025 - 1339)/0.70 = 980 N (16)
The interaction formula given in Equation (12) does iiut apply ru
This force is the same as that obtained using Equation (9). steel-to-steel connections. Instead, rhe allowahle tension load intist he
Calculate Te8per bolt from Equation ( 10): modified as i n the following equation:
Tc/, = 980/2 = 490 N/holt ( 7 ; l / t , d,,,,,,, = F, A,
Calculate shear force per bolt from Equarion (8): where
k&, = 2025/4 = SO6 N/holr F, = 116- I.X(V/N,,,,/,ArJ5140(4/3) = 187

Case 1. Equipment ottuched t~ (I riniher .structure V/Nr,,,/,is i n kiluiiewlons and F, is i n kilopnscals. The 33%; stress
From the National Design Specification f o r W ~ o dCr~nsrrrrction incrense(4/3) is allowed for short-term loads such as witid or earthquakes.
W S ) (AFPA 1997). Selected fasteners must he secured to solid Ium-
her, not to plywood or other similar material. The following cnlcula- Example 2. Anchorage design for eqiiipment supported hy exlernal spring
tions are made to determine whether a 13 mm diameter, I00 mm long mounts (see Figure 6).
lag screw will hold the required load. A mechanical or acotrslical consultant should choose the type of
isolator or sniihher or cotnhination of the two. Then the product v e n h r
From Table 8.IA in the NDS, which is inch-pound units, for Group should selecr the acnial spring snuhher.
IV (mixed species), G = 0.35, and from Tahle 8.6A the allowable with-
drawal load is 203 Ib/in. X 4.45 N/lh/(2.5.4 iniiilinj = 35.6 N/rnni, and in Assume that the center of mass, which is ahhreviared cg (center u t
the NDS, gravity) i n this chapter, (cg) of the equipment coincides with the ceiiler
of mass of the isolator group.
= (35.6N/mm x 88 mm penerration)U3 = 2090 N
If T = maximum tensioti on isolator.
where the factor 2/3 accounts for rhe facr that ahout one-third o f rhe C = mnximiim compression on isolator, and
length of a lag screw or bolt has no threads on the shank.
From Table 8.6C in the NDS, Fp,, = Fp /3. then

VollOw= 800 N

Other types of wood may he used with appropriate factors from

Table 8 andor other reductions as specified in Part I1 of the NDS.
In timber construction, the interaction formula given i n Equation
(12) does not apply per Section 8.6.8 of the NDS. The ratios of the cal- To find maximum Tor C, set dT/dq = 0:
culated shear and tension values ro the allowable values should each he
less than 1 . 0

T/T = 490/2090 = 0.23 < 1.0,

v/ Vorr”w = 506/XOO = 0.63 < I.o

?herefore, a 13 m m diameter, 100 mni long lag screw can he used at

each corner of the equipment.
Case 2. Equipment artuched tu concrete with p o s r insrulled onchor.~.
It is good design practice to specify a minimum of 13 mm diameter
bolts to attach roof or floor-mounted equipmenr tu the strucnlre. Derer-
mine whether 13 mm wedge anchors withour special inspection provi-
sions will hold the required load.
From Table 7, Tu,,, = 2600 N and l$l,,,v= 5300 N
From Equation ( 12).

Therefore, 13 mm diameter, IOU mm long post drill-in anchors can he
If special inspection of the anchor installation is provided by quali-
fied personnel, TUlbwonly may he increased hy a factor of 2.
Case 3. Equipment attached ~ I Jsteel
For the case where equipment is attached directly to a steel mern-
her, the analysis is the same as that shown i n Case I ahove. The EXTERNAL VIBRATION
allowable values for the attaching holrs are given in the Manrid c!f W, = 4500 N ISOLATOR/SNUBBER
Steel Construction (AISC 1989). Values for A307 bolts are given i n
Table 8. Fig. 6 Equipnient Supported by Esternal Spring Mounts
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design 53.11

f TorC
r--+-t--v HOLE (2)
Height =


Fig. 7 Spring Mount Detail (Esaniple 2)

From Eqnations ( 5 ) and ( 6 ) .

F , = 0 . 4 x l . 5 x 2 x U . 7 5 ~ 1 2= 10.8 IrN Wp = 11 kN B = 0.51 m e, = 0.20 m

,, = 1 . 0 m
h L = 0.76 m ey = 0.10 m
F,,>, = F,,/3 = 10.8/3 = 3.6 k N
Fig. 8 Equipnient with Different Center of Mass
From Eqiiations (I8) and (19). than Isolator Group (in Plan View)
T= -2.IO+X.93 = 6.83 kN

c = -3.90- s.93 = - 1 2 . ~ 3ICN

Calciilate the shear force per isolator:

v = F / , / N i > , , = IO.X/J = 2.70 kN (20)

This shear force is applied at the operating height of the isolator.

Uplilt teiisioii Toil the vihration isulatiir is the worst conditioii for !he LI L .
design u l he anchor holts. The cumpressiuii force C niust he evalnxteil T,,, = 5, cos+ + - sin+)
1 I? '
10 check the acleqlracy of h e striicttire to resist the loads (Figure 7).

Vertical reaction h e to eccentricity:

(T,&( perhqlt = T / 2 = h.R3/2 = 3.42 IrN

The valne uf(T2)<.tper bolt h e to overturning on the isolator is

V x Optimum height Vertical reaction tlue to Wt;

(Tr Lff = 0.85dN,,,,,
( ' L ) r n m /min = ( )mux/min '4
where d = distance from edge of isolator hase plate to center of hull
Tmw = Tm + (T, + ('w)mo,

T,,,i, = T,,+(T.),,,i, +(T,+,),,,in(tensioaiPpositive)

Horizoirtd rccictioiis:
Horizontal reaction due to rotation:
y,fl = 2.70/2 = 1.35 kN

Delermine whether I 6 inni post drill-in anchors with .spi&il

handle this load. From Equation (12) and Tahle 7.

VJi, = F P / 4

yn0, = v,,;, + V , , ~ : - ~ V ~ , , c, V
0 s~~~) 0, . 5
Therefore. Ih nini post ilrill-ill anchors will carry the load
From Equations ( 5 ) and ( 6 ) ,
Esainple 3. Anchorage design tor eqiiipment with a center of niass differ-
en1 lrom that of the isolator group (see Figure 8). F,, = 0 . 4 ~ 1 . 5 ~ 2 ~ 0 . 7 5 =x9I .I9 k N

~\irr/i,rrI,n,/ierties: I, = 48': I,. = JL' F,," = 9 . 9 / 3 = 3.3 ldrl

I, = 4(0.51)' = 1.04 ni'; I, = 4(0.76)* = 2.31 m2

From Eqnations (21) throiigh (24).

e = 33.~6~5 = 63.430
p = 150.43" 0= 33.R6'
53.12 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)

From Equation (25), STRUCTURE

(Wn)mar/n,in= 14.3 or 7.7 k N
From Equation (26),

T, = 9.9(0.407 + I).IR3) = 5 3 4 kN HANGERROOS

From Equation (27). SPLAY

(Tc),rrr,min = 0.1148(Wn) ,nu,/,n in = l.64kNor0.88kN

From Equation (28),

= 3.5X kN or 1.93 kN

From Equation (29),

T,,, = 5.84 + 1.64 + 3% = II.O6 kN

From Equation (30).

Tmin = 5.84 +0.88 - 1.93 = 4.79 kN (tension)

From Equations (3 I),(32), and (33),

v,,,, = 9.9X0.061 = 0.6OkN

Vdir = 9,9/4 = 2.48 kN

V,”,, = 3.02 kN

The values of Tmin antl V,, nre used to design the anchorage of the
isolators and/or snubbers, and T, is used to verify the adequacy of the
structure to resist the vertical loads.
Example 4. Anchorage design for equipment with snpports antl bracing for Note: T h e splay braces are prestretched aircraft cables with
suspended equipment (see Figure 9). Equipment weight W,, = 2200 N. enough slack so that the isolators can fully function vertically.
Because post drill-in anchors may not withstand published allow-
able static loads when subjected to vibratory loads, vibration isolators Fig. Y Supports and Bracing for Suspended Equipment
should be used between the equipment and the strucnire to dampen
vibrations generated by the equipment.
From Equations ( 5 ) and (6), T = 2600 x 0.5 = I 3 0 0 N > T,,,;f = 7 15 N
Fp = 0.4 X 1.5 X 2 X 0.75 x 2200 = 1980 N
Therefore. a 13 mrn rod and post drill-in anchor should he u\ed :iI each
Fpv = 1980/3 = 661) N corner of the unit.
For anchors installed without special inspection.
From Equation (14).
7;,/,,,,“ = I300 x 0.5 = 650 N < TP,;,= 7 I S N
OTM = 1980 x 0.30 = 594 N . m
From Equation (10), Therefore, a lnrger anchor would have to be chosen.

RM = (2200 f 660)0.90/2 = 1287 or 693 N m Design ojspIuy broce nnd corinrcriorr ro srriicrtire
Force i l l the slack cable = 28110 N
Because RM is greater than OTM, overnrrning is not critical
Force in the connection to the strucnire:
Force to the hanger rods:
V,,,,,, = 28OO/fi = 19RON T,, ,,,, = 5, = 19RON
.ff = ( Wp + Fp,)/4 = (2200 + 6611)/4 = 7 15 N
Derertiiine whether a 19 mni wedge-type anchor will hold ihe
Force in the splay brace = f i F, = 2800 N at a I:I slope required load. From Table 7:

Due to the force being applied a1 the critical angle, as i n Example 2, = 6 0 0 0 / 2 = 3OOll N Vullmv = 13 300 I\’
only one splay brace is effective in resisting the lateral load FF If
eccentricities occur, as in Example 3, n similar method of analysis mnst From Equation (12).
be done to obtain the design forces.
Design of hanger ro&vihrurion isolutor crnd connecrion ro .striicfiir’
When installing post drill-in anchors in the underside of a concrete
beam or slab, the allowable tension loads on the anchors must be Therefore. i t is permissible to use a 19 mm anchor or mulliple anchors
reduced to account for the cracking of the concrete. A general rule is to of a smaller size holred through a clip and to the structure.
use half the allowable load. Because the cnhle forcer are relatively small. n 9.5 mm
Determine whether a 13 mm wedge anchor with special inspection cable attached to clips with cahle clamps should be used. The clips. ill
provisions will hold the required load. turn, may be attached to either the strticnire or the equipment.
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design 53.13


T \ following
~ ~ slloultl be collsitlerell wllell installillg seislnic Classification. Buildings and other structures are classified for
restraints. wind load design according to Table 9.
Basic wind sneed. The fastest metre-oer-second wind w e e d at

Anchor location affects the required strengths. Concrete anchors 10 i n above the g k u n t l of Terrain Expos& C (see Table I0)having
should be located away froin edges. stress joints, or existing frac- an annual probability of occurrence of 0.02. Data in ASCE Srun-
tures. ASTM Sfaiukird E488 should be followed as a guide for ckird 7 or regional cliniatic data may be used to determine basic
edge distances atid ceiiter-to-center spacing. wind speeds. ASCE data does not include all special wind regions
Concrete anchors shoultl nut be too close together. Epoxy-type (such as iiiountainous terrains, gorges, and Ocean promontories)
anchors can be closer together than expansioil-type anchors. where records or experience indicate that 'the wind speeds are
Expansion-type aiichors (self-drilling and drop-in) can crush the higher than what is shown in appropriate wind data tables. For
concrete where they expand ant1 impose internal stresses in the these circunistances. regional climatic data may be used provided
concrete. Spacing of all anchor bolts should be carefully that both acceptable extreme-value statistical-analysis procedures
reviewed. (See nianufacturer's recominendations.) were used in reducing the data and due regard was given to the
Suppletnent:iry steel bases and frames, concrete bases. or equip-
ment inotlificarions may void sollie inanuf;icturer's warranties. Table Y Classification of Buildings a n d
Snubbers. for example, should be properly attached to a subbase. O t h e r Structures for Wind Loads
Buiiipers niay be used with springs. Repiinral with peiiiiisaioii from A X E SIMdard 7-93.
Static :inalysis does not account for the effects of resonant contli- Nature of Occupancy Category
tions within a piece of equipment or its components. Because all
All builtlings ant1 structiires except those listed below I
equipinent has different resonant frequencies during operation
antl nonoperation, the equipiiieiit itself might fail even if the Builtlings nntl strnctures where the primary occupancy is 11
restraints do not. Equipment niouiitetl inside ii housing should be one in which more thaii 300 people congregate in one mea
seisinically restrained to iiieet tlie same criteria as the exterior Biiiltlings nntl structures tlesignntetl as essential facilities, 111
restr:iints. inclntlii~g.hut not limited to:
Snubbers uset1 with spring inuuiits should withstand motion i n a11 - Hospital ant1 other medical facilities having surgery or
ilirectiuiis. Suine snubbers are only tlesignetl for restraint in one emergency trea~mentareas
direction; sets of snubbers or snubbers tlesignetl for multitlirec- - Fire or rescue and police stations
rion:il purposes should be used. - Srriicrirres and equipment in government
- Commtinicnrion centers and other facililies required for
Equipinent iiiust be strong enough to withstand the high deceler- emergency response
ation forces developed by resilient restraints. -Power stations ant1 other iililities reyuiretl in an emergency
Flexible connections should be provided between equipinent that - Structures having critical nationnl defense capabilities
is braced and piping a n d tluctwork that need not be braced.
- Designnteil shelters for hnrricnnes
Flexible connections should be provided between isolated equip- Builtlings and structures that represent a low huard 10 IV
inetit and braced piping antl tluctwork.
human life i n the event of failore, such as agricultural build-
ings, certain temporary facilities. ant1 minor storage facilities
Bumpers iiistalletl to liiiiit horizontal iiiotioii should be outfitted
with resilient neoprene pads iu soften the potential inipact loads
of the equipinent. Table 10 Definition of Exposure Categories
Repiiinal with peiiiiisriuii hum ASCE Standard 7-93.
Anchor installations should be inspected; in inany cases. damage ~ ~~~~

occurs because bolts were not properly installed. To develop the EspGure A. Large city ceniers with at least 50% of the buildings having a
rated restraint, bolts should be installed according to maiiufac- heighl in excess of 2 I in. Use of this exposure category is limited to those
areas for which terrain represenlolive of Exposure A prevails in the upwind
turer 's recoiiiiiientlati;ns.
direction for n distance of' at lens1 ROO m or 10 times the height of the build-
Brackets in structural steel iittacliiiieiits should be matched to ing or structure, whichever is greater.
reduce bending and internal stresses at the joint. Rigid seismic Possible chnnneling effects or increased velocity pressures due to the build-
restraints should not have slotted holes. ing or striicnire being located in the wake of adjacent buildings needs to be
Exposure E.Urhnn antl snhurban areas. wooded ueas, or other terrain with
WIND RESTRAINT DESIGN ~nimero~~s closely spaced ohstrnctions having the size of single-family
dwellings or larger. Use of this exposure category shall be limited to those
Dainnge done to I-IVACkR equipinent by both sustained antl areas for which lerraiii representative of Exposure B prevails in the upwind
gusting wind forces has increased concern about the adequacy of the direclion f o r a tlislnnce ofnr lens1 450 m or 10 times the height of the huild-
eiluipineiit protection that is defined in design tlocuments. The fol- ing or structure, whichever is grenler.
lowing calculative procedure generates tlie same type of total design Esposure C. Open terrain with scntteretl obstructions having heights
lateral force that is used in the static analysis of the seismic restraint. geiiernlly less than 9 111. This cnlegory includes flat open country and
This means that the value that is tleterinined for the design wintl grasslantls.
force F,,, can be substituted for the total tlesigti lateral seismic force
F,) when evaluating antl choosing restraint devices. Exposure D. Flat. nnohslructed areas exposed to wind flowing over large
bodies of water. This exposlire shall apply only to those buildings and other
ASCE S f ~ l i l ( / ( 7-93.
~ ~ d M ~ J I ~ I IDI IOI I. ISI ~LOCIC~S
~ I I for B ~ ~ i k l i ~( tI gI , ~~ slriiclures exposed 10 the wind coming from over the water.
Odicr Sirrrcriirrs, includes design guitlelines for wind, snow. rain
antl earthquake loads. The equations. guitlelines. and data presented I . HVAC conipoiieiitr for biiildiiigr with :I i ~ i e mruuf height of I R m or Itss are
here are G.oin an earlier version o f this stantlard and only cover non- derigned on flie h:irir of Expuriire C.
structural coinponents. The cuiyeiit stantlartl includes inore coinpre- 2. HVAC conipuneiitr UII hiiildings witli ii iiieiin iuuf height grater than I 8 m a i d other
t e ~dr\igiied oil flu b:rsis ufthe exposure categolies defined in this ruble
r ~ r i i c ~ i i :ire
heiisive antl rigorous procedures for evaluating wind forces antl excepl iisrunie Exporum B fir buildiugh and u i t w situdures sited in terrain repre-
wind resiraint. reiitiiti\'e of Expitire A.
53.14 1999 ASHKAE Applications Handbook (SI)

Table 11 Importance Factor (Wind Loads) Table 12 Force Coefficients for HVAC components,
Reprinted with permission fioin ASCE S t a d i d 7-93. Tanks, and Siniilar Structures
Importance Factor I, Repriiiteil with pe~inissionfiuin A S G Srnndrritl7-93.

160 km from hurricane ocean Cffur L/DValues ol:

Category line and in other areas At hurricane ocean line Shape Q p c of Surl‘ace 1 7 15
I I.oo I.os Square All 1.3 1.J 2.0
II I.07 1.11 (wind normal to face)
111 I.07 1.11 Square All 1.0 1.1 1.5
IV 0.95 I .oo (wind along tlingonnl)
NOteS: Hexagonal or octagonal All 1.0 1.2 1.4
I . Table 9 lists the building and stmctuie classification ciitegurih.
2. Determine I , by linear interpolation for legions between the hurricane ocean h e CO,& > 2.5)
and 160 km inland.
3. Typical hurricane ocean l i n s are the Atliintic ;ind Gulf of Mexico coastiil ;iieiih. Round (D& > 2.5) Moderarely smooth 0.5 0.6 0.7
Rough ( D / D = 0.02) 0.7 0.8 0.9
length of record, averaging time, anemonleter height, data quality, Very rough ( D I D = 0.08) 0.4 I.(I I.2
and terrain exposure. One final exclusion is that tornadoes have not All 0.7 (1.4 1.2
been considered in developing the basic wind-speed distributions.
Design wind force. Equivalent static force that is assumed to act
on a component in a direction parallel to the wind and not necessar-
ily normal to the surface area of the component. This force varies
with respect to height above ground level.
Importance factor (I,,,).A factor that accounts for the degree of
hazard to human life and damage to HVAC components (see Table
11). For humcanes, the value of the importance factor can be lin-
early interpolated between the ocean line and 160 kin inland
because wind effects are assumed negligible at this distance inland.
Gust response factor (Gz).A factor that accounts for the fluctu- Table 13 Esposure Category Constants
Repriinal with peiiiiiaaioii fioiii ASCE Srn!atrn/ 7-93.
ating nature of wind and the corresponding additional loading
effects on HVAC components. Exposure
Minimum design wind load. The wind load may not be less Categury a ic n,,
than 500 Pa multiplied by the area of the HVAC component pro- A 3.0 450 U.02S
jected on a vertical plane that is normal to the wind direction. B 4.5 360 0.010
C 7.0 270 0.005
CALCULATIONS D 10.0 210 0.003
Two procedures are used to determine the design wind load on
HVAC components. The analytical procedure, which is described
here, is the most common analysis method for standard component
shapes. The second method, the wind-tunnel procedure, is incor-
porated in the analysis of complex and unusual shaped components
or equipment that are located on sites that produce wind channeling bvhrre
or buffeting due to upwind obstructions. The analytical procedure p = air mass density. At 1S”Cand 101.315 kPa the densiry u t dry air
produces design wind forces that are expected to act on HVAC coin- is I .22 kg/m3.
ponents for durations of 1 to 10 s. The various factors, pressure, and Kz = velocity pressure exposure cueflicienl evnliinted nr heighl ,: nhove
force coefficients incorporated in this procedure are based on a groiind level. The valiie of K: is determined hy the fulluwiiig
mean wind speed that corresponds to the fastest metre-per-second eqrintion that uses tlatn from Tnhle 13.
wind speed.
K; = 2.58(2/?J”U (36)
Analytical Procedure
The design wind force is determined by the following equation: Valoes for K- from 0 5 :5 150 in are given in Tnhle 14. The del-
initions of Expostire A through D calegories x e shown i n Tahle
I,, = imponance factor. Values are given i n Table I I . Detiniliuns tor
where categories I, II, 111. and IV nre found i n Tahle 9.
F, = design wind force, N V = hasic wind speed tletermined from data in ASCE Sriiiiiliirrl 7 or
Q: = velocity pressure evaluated at height .f above ground level. Pa appropriate regional darn. The hasic &incl speed used shuiild he 31
C: = gust response factor for HVAC components evaluated at height : least 3 I .3 nl/s.
h o v e ground level
Cf= force coefficient (Table 12) Gust response factor. The values of G, are deterinined by the
Af = area of HVAC component projecretl on a plane normal ro wind following equations. Table IS lists values for G, for 0 5 i 5 150 i n .
direction. m2
Certain of the above factors must be calculated from equations
GZ= 0.65 + 3.65T. (37j
that incorporate site-specific conditions that are defined as follows:
Velocity Pressure. The design wind speed must be converted to
a velocity pressure that is acting on an HVAC component at a height where (38)
z above the ground. The equation is
Seismic and Wind Restraint Design

Table 14 Velocity Pi-essure Exposure Coefficient Kz

HI. Ahovc
Ground. in
Krpriiiled with pemiiraiuii ftuiii ASCE Srnruluril 7-93.

Esposure A
0 13
Esposure U
0 39
Esposure C
0 83
Esposure D
I2 2
\ FW

h 0.15 0 42 0.87 1.27

8 0. I 8 0 48 0 94 1.34
I I1 0.20 11.52 1.1)l I .40
12 11.23 11.57 I.06 IA6
15 0.27 0.h3 1.13 I.s2
71) 0.32 0.7 I I.23 1.61
25 0.38 (1.79 1.31 I.h9
30 0.42 (1.86 1.38 I.75 Fig. 10 Equipnient Diniensions and Force Locations
fur Wind Exaniples 5,6,and 7
35 0.47 0.92 1.44 1.80
40 0.5I (1.97 I .so I .85 Example Calculations: Analytical Procedure
SO O.hO I .07 I .59 I .94
The following exaiiiple calculations are for a 1400 kW cooling
60 0.67 I.lh I .hX 2.01
rower with dimensions shown in Figure 10:
711 0.75 1.25 I.75 2.07
SO 0.82 1.32 1.82 2.13 Tower height = / I = 3 111
90 0.88 1.39 1.88 2.18 Tower width = D = 3 in
II)il 0.95 I.46 1.94 2.22 Tower length = I = 6 in
I10 ISI I I .52 2.~10 2.27 Tower operating mass = \Vp = 8650 kg
I20 I.07 1.58 2.05 2.3 I Tower diagonal dimension = (3* + 6*)".' = 6.71 m
130 1.13 I.h4 2.09 2.34 Area normal to wind direclion = A,= 3 X 6.71 = 20. I m2
I4 1 1.18 I.70 2.14 2.38 From Tahle 12; C,= 1.0 tor wind acting along diagonal with hlD =
I50 1.24 I .75 2.18 2.4 I 313 = I.

12sainplc 5 . Snhurhan hospital i n Omaha, Nebraska. The top of the cooling

tuwer is 30 in. ahove ground level.

Table 15 Gust Response Factor Solution:

From appropriate wind data tables. the design wind speed
Kepriiital with peiiiiissiuti fioiii ASCE Slrmnhnl 7-93,
is fo~rntl10 he 40 mls.
Heighl Aliore
Gust Response Factor GL From Tahle 9, use Caregory 111
Ground. in Espusure A Espusurc B Esposure C Esposure D From Tahle l(1, use Exposure B
J-5 2.30 I .63 1.31 1.15 From Table II,I,,,= I.07
h 2.20 I .59 1.29 1.14
From Table 14 or Equation (36), K: = 0.86
8 2.Oh 1.53 1.27 1.13
Siihstitntioii into Equation (35)yields:
Ill 1.96 I.39 1.25 1.11
12 1.88 I.J5 1.23 1.11 QI = 0.61 X 0.86( 1.07 X 40)2 = 961 Pa = 0.961 lcPn
I5 I.79 I.42 1.21 1.10
From Tahle 15 or Equations (37) and (38); G: = 1.31. Substitution
70 I.h9 1.37 1.19 I.08 into Equation (34) yields the design wind force as
25 1.61 1.33 1.17 I.1)7
1.31 I.07
F,,,= 0.96 I x I.3 I x I .I)x 20. I = 25.3 k N
30 1.56 1.16
35 I.5 I I .28 1.1s I.Oh
Esample 6. Ollice huilding in New York City. Top of tower is I80 m
411 I.47 I.27 1.14 I.05 ahove ground level.
50 I .42 1.24 1.12 I.os Solution:
hi1 I .37 1.21 1.11 I.04 From wind data iahles. the design wind speed is 54 m/s.
70 1.33 1.19 1.10 I.03 From Table 9. use Category 1.
80 I.30 1.18 I .09 I.03
From Tahle 10. use Exposure A
90 1.28 1.16 1.09 I.02
From Tahle 1 1 . Iu,= I.05
I00 1.26 1.15 I .os ISI2
Because ,: > IS0 in. use Equations (36), (37), (38). and Tahle I 5 to
I Ill I.24 1.14 I.07 I.02 cletermine KI antl G,.
I20 I2 2 1.13 I .07 I.(I I
From Tahle 13. a = 3.0. zx = 450, antl D,,= 0.025
1311 1.21 1.12 I.Oh I.o I
From Equation (36):
I40 1.19 1.12 I .Oh I.I) I
I50 1.18 1.11 I ,l)6 I.oo KI= 2.58(1801450)U3= 1.40
I. Vdiieh ut' Ci, :lie C:IIUIII:I~~~ with Eqii:itiuiis (37):lid(3X) :!id~ : I I : I huln T:iblr 13. From Eqiiaiion (35)
2. Liiieai.iitieipthtioii of r:ible \-:iIuesis :~ccepi:lhlrfur iiiteniirdi:ite wItie\ of Iiriglii .:
3. TIE \s:ilue ut'ille C;; i i n y nut b e less t h i 1.0. Ql = O.61 x I .40( I .05 x S4)* = 2746 Pa = 2.746 kPn
53.16 1999 ASHRAE Applications Handbook (SI)

Determine the gust response factor for I = 180 m using Equations BIBLIOGRAPHY
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ACI. 1995. Biiilding code requirements for striicniral concrete. Smti~lnril
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T: =
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Associate Committee on the National Biiilding Code. 1986. S i t / ) / h i i m t r o
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From Table 9, use Category II
From Table 10, use Exposure D Barts, M.E.. M.R. Cordes, L.R Russell. J.R. Shaver. ancl E. Simiu. 19SO.
FromTable Il,I:= 1 . 1 1 Hurricane wind speeds ill the United States. NBS BSS 124. Nnrionnl
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FEMA 302 & 303. NEHRP recommeiided provisions for seismic regiila-
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Commentary. Biiiltling Seismic Safety Coiincil. Washington. DC.
Q: = 0.61 x 1.52(1.1 I x h7)* = 5128 Pa = 5.128 Wa lones, R.S. 1984. N o i w uiid idwiitioii cniitml iii l m i l d i i ~ ~McGraw-Hill.
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