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LEARN SANSKRIT ..... IN 30 DAYS· ...

Vidyavi~ arada

K. SRINIVASACHARI. P.O.L.

Siromani & Hindi Visharad

Pariksha Mantrt,

(Samskrta Bhasha Pracharini Sabha, Chittoor.]

~ BALAJIPUBLICATIONS

~ New # 235, old # 103, Pycrofts Road, /[llP", Royapettah, Chennai - 600014 . ............... Phone: 8482831,8482653.

© Rights reserved with the publishers Nineteenth Edition: 2002



Price : Rs.22.00

Printed at: Sri Janakiraman Offset Printers, 32,MirBakshiAliStreet,Chennai-14.Ph: 8482612

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!English Version of the blessings of His Holiness}

Without the knowledge of Sanskrit it is not possible to appreciate our Indian Culture and ideals treasured in the great epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata as well as Kavyas and Dramas and Poems of Mahakavi Kalidasa and other poets.

The book "LEARN SANSKRIT IN 30 DAYS" written by Kizhathur Srinivasachariar, P. O. L., Parikshamantri of Chitto or Samskrita Bhasha Pracharini Sabha, and published by Balaji Publications, Madras-14, is a valuable guide to learn the rudiments of Sanskrit language easily. It consists of four parts, dealing with alphabets, Nouns, Roots and Verbs and names of articles in daily use, stories, essays, conversations, moral passages, translations and glossary.

It is earnestly hoped that the general public will be able to study by themselves Sanskrit literature which is a veritable treasure-house in knowledge and be greatly benefited by the acquirement of sufficient knowledge in Sanskrit with the aid of this book.

May the Balaji Publications of Shri Janakiram grow from strength to strength and produce more and more useful books of this kind for the benefit of the public.

NARAYANA SMRITIH

FOREWORD

I am glad that the Balaji Publications have brought out valuable books which would enable the learning of Sanskrit through English, Tamil and Telugu. If one does not know the classical language of India, Sanskrit, he is so much the poorer for it. Those who study Sanskrit derive the benefit of our rich heritage.

"'If one does not know Sanskrit, he is so much the poorer for it "

The enterprising Balaji Publications have already produced books which facilitate to easy learning of different languages of our country. I congratulate the proprietor on his resourcefulness in doing this yeoman service for national integration in our country. He has. taken up this task in collaboration with a learned author Sri Kizhathur K. Srinivasachariar, who is a distinguished multi-linguistic scholar. The fact that even soon after the anti-Hindi agitation there was growing demand from students, for these publications which would amply demonstrate that the Tamilian student knows what is his need; he is eager to learn the lingua franca to better his own prospects. The Tamilian enjoys a reputation that he has a genious for learning other languages.

The people of other countries like Germany began to appreciate the usefulness of the study of Sanskrit long time ago. Even for enjoying the beautiful poetry of classical Sanskrit literature it is worth while to acquaint oneself with that language.

These books provide the easy way of learning Sanskrit through English, Tamil and Telugu, I have no doubt that students in India and abroad would take good advantage of this facility that has been offered by Mis. Balaji Publications. I do hope that there will be a large demand for these books. I offer the publishers and the author my warmest felicitations and best wishes.

The Balaji Publications have also brought out useful publications for the benefit of students belonging to other non-Tamil States. There is now great urge in the States like U [tar Pradesh and Rajasthan to learn Tamil. The book enabling the Hindi student to Learn Tamil in 30 days is a wonderful facility that should be taken advantage of by students of these States.

(Sd.) M. BHAKTAVATSALAM. B.A., B.L. (Ex-Chief Minister of T amilnadu]

PUBLISHERS' NOTE

AUTHOR'S PREFACE

The Indian constitution recognised the eternal merit of Sanskrit when it approved this language as one of our fifteen National languages. The unique merit of Sanskrit lies in its outstanding achievement of the cultural unity of our great country.

India is revered and respected because of her spiritual and cultural greatness endowed by the valuable Sanskrit scriptures like Vedas, Puranas, and Smritis, It is clear therefore that Sanskrit has been recognised on its special merit. It matters little though millions do noc speak and write it. The other fourteen Indian languages have been accepted as national languages as millions speak and write them.

The public are well acquainted with our venture in the specialised line of publishing books in all the fifteen National languages as well as inter-state languages in a phased programme which come under the general title of "The National Integration Language Series'" This book is one of the series whose author Vidyavisarada Sri K. Srinivasachari P.O.L., Siromani, Hindi Visarad is an erudite scholar. He has spared no effort in this book to make the learning of Sanskrit far easier than one would imagine.

We earnestly hope that the pains we have taken will have their due reward through the ready response from the learned public.

The term 'Sanskrit' as used now means ' well done' or rectified, ', The Vedas, the universally accepted first scripture of humanity were written in this language. The rituals and modes of worship mentioned in the Vedas are directly related to the gods (Devas). There is also a deep rooted faith among the Indian public that Sanskrit is the language of Devas. Hence this language was rightly called Daivi vak (Deva Bhasha] during the vedic neriod.

Panini, the great grammarian endowed this language

\

with his famous grammar in the 7th century B.C. From

then on, this language was known as "Samskrtam",

-BALAJI PUBLICATIONS.

A number of great works of eternal value like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Darsanas and equally valuable poetic and dramatic works of Kalidasa, Bhasa. Magha, Bhsravi and the like were written in Sanskrit language. Besides, the great sciences indispensable to the life and progress of humanity like Astronomy, Astrology, Medicine, Architecture, Physical sciences and other branches of knowledge were for the first time written in Sanskrit alone.

Even a layman of the olden days was quite able to

understand and appreciate these great works though unable to speak in Sanskrit. But the Sanskrit Scholars of

olden days acquired th'e rare ability to speak fluently in this language. Even in the modern days we know of several eminent Scholars in India and abroad having the ability to speak fluently in this language. It is therefore needless to say that Sanskrit was ever a living language. It will continue to be so as long as civilisation exists.

People all over the world thirsting for knowledge had been evincing great interest to study Sanskrit from the days of distant past. The interest has gathered momentum in the modern times. The old method of learning the script and the grammar at the initial stage was indeed a difficult and tedious process. We have therefore evolved a novel method to help people to lea.n Sanskrit with the aid of their own script. The knowledge of Nagari script and a tutor are not necessary. The novel method is nothing but the transliteration of alphabets and words which we have adopted as we have done in the other books of our Integration Series.

This book consists of FIVE parts: The FIRST PART (pages 17-32) contains all kinds of Sanskrit alphabets of Devanagari character i.e, the vowels and consonants and conjunct consonants etc. with their usage in words. How to write the vowels and consonants have also been shown with diagrams at the beginninz -f the book.

\

The SECOND PART (pages 33-89) deals with uhe nouns and verbs in their various forms. This is more like the method of Sabdamanjari and Dhatumanjari. They insist on the memorization of some nouns and verbs with all cases, persons and numbers. Therefore students should practise them orally and in writing.

The THIRD PART (pages 90-10S)gives information about some Pronouns as well as some indeclinables used very often.

The FOURTH PART (pages 106'-145) consists of excercises such as stories. essays, conversations, some moral passages Translations. etc. etc.

THE FIFTH PART (Pages 147-212) gives full information about Sanskrit Roots, verbs & verbal derivatives with their usage in sentences. The classified nouns and the glossary given at the end will help the students to translate English into Sanskrit and vice-versa.

-AU1HOR.

CONTENTS

How to wrrte Vowels How to write Consonants

First Part. (Alphabets)

Vowels Consonants

Identify the correct letter The signs of vowels Consonants with all vowels Conjunct consonants

Second Part (Nouns & Verbs) The Masculine noun (U'f) ending in Sf Some nouns ending jn Sf

Some Roots (I conjugation)

Some verbal roots in Present-tense

Sentences

Nouns- Verbs-Sentences- Translation (Nominative

& Accusative cases (Instrumental case) {Dative case}

(Genitive & Locative cases)

"

. ,

' .

"

..

"

" " "

Nominative dual, Accusative dual

Inst. . 'mental dual, Dative dual

Ablative dual, Genitive & Locative dual Verbs HI Person dual

" Plural

I Person Singular

" dual

,.

Plural

Page 15 16

17 18 19 20 21 28

33 34 34 35 36

37 41 44 47 49 50 51 53 53 55 56 57

II Person Singular

" dual

" Plural

The .Masculine noun t[f{ ending in ~

., ,,~~ " ~

Verbs (6th Conjugation)

The Masculine nouns ending in IU~-~

The Feminine nouns ~m-i1f%-.ih:'t-~~-~ Neuter nouns ~l'f -tnt{

Special nouns ~fur-u:;r~-;n'f~-3m'fi1:. - i1ii~

Third Part (Pronouns) Pronouns &: Indiclinables

Indefinite pronouns

Some Indeclinables used very often Indeclinables ending in Sf

Fourth Part (Exercises)

Lessons

Stories

Conversation Ramayana

Bhagavatha Mahabharatha Translation (Passages) Some Moral Passages Words of Wisdom

PAGE 59 60 61 63

67 69 72

75 83 85

90 98 100

103

106 109 113 120 122 126 130 138 143

PAGE Fifth-Part (Roots and Verbal Derivatives)

Personal Terminations Parasmaipada Terminations Atmanepada Terminations Ubhayapada Terminations Voice

Indeclinables

Sentences with Present Participles

,. Infinitive purpose (!lq,)

., Past Participle ending in

..

"

"

" Present Participle ending in (~<iQ)

" Past Passive Participle ending in (a)- ..

• ' Potential Participle ending in (~s<r)

Prepositions

Command & Prohibition Some Classified nouns Numerals

Ordinals

Glossary

149 150 152 154 158

162 163 165

166 168 169 171 173 174 177 179 192 194 198

HOW TO WRITE VOWELS

HOW TO WRTl'E CDNSONENTS

«JTV

:rIVUf C S

fftT. ~1tFGf l:fT~q

."" "" T • "

FIRST·PART ( Alphabets ) VOWELS ~n (~:)

~ A

~ X

~ I

i I

~ U

~ U

SR E-

~ ~'O

~ ~

~ E

~ AI

an 0

ali AU

3r AM

an AH

18
19
CONSONANTS CORRECT I,ETTER
oti~;:nR 11 )ENTIF'Y THE
(~:) m .::,
31 an ~ \3l ~n ~
1. ~ ~ if ~ ~
-v -v
k kh g gh il 3{ OT :q
2. :q ~ \i $J 01 G ~ ~ ~
-, " .... '"'
e eh jh n
r-
3. ~ ~ .~ ~ ur s :s ~ ~ ~
.... ....
Ih Q <;Ih I} r.r If !If
4. ~ ~T ~ ~ W{
th d dh :{ ~ :q
n
5. q ~ ij ~ i{ 'fZ ~ ~
..... -v
P ph b bh m
:tf ~
6. tr ~ ~ ~ ~
"' ... "
y r 1 v Ii ·tT l{ +r
7. ~ f.J, ;:r ~ at. ~ ~ ~
<t '"
~ s h 1 k§
.~ ~
Note: These consonants are generally used
~
in combination of vowels for the convenience of ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
pronunciation as shown on the next pages.
Example: ~ + aT = $ etc. THE SIGNS OF VOWEL:s (~~~f;{)

..
Vowel Sign Usage Vowel Sign Usage
3t .~ .. ~ ~ K~~
A L
31l T ~Ht: ~ "\ ifi$J:
A RAMAH E KES'AH
~ f fuq: '" ~~
~ ~
I SIVAH AI DAIVAM
~ "t ;ful m ') it~:
I GiTAM 0 LOKAH
~ ~~: m r mu
'=' BUDHAH GAURi
U AU
\Ji ~: ~ . ~Q':
-,
0 , DOTAH A~ KAMSAH
~ ~ 31: • ¥{~:
e; •
~ N~TTAM NARAH
I fq~llTTi{
~ <.
e,
~r P1T~U~AM Note: 1. All the consonants in combination of all vowels are given in the next few pages.

2, The words ending in ~ and ~ are very few and therefore they are left in these series.

~ ~ 11' ~ ~
KA KHA GA GHA 1ilA
~ ~ ttT ~, ~
KA KHA- GX GHA 1ilX
f?ri m ! m ~ M
KI KHI GI GHI I'll
tT ~ iff I fr if
KI KHI 01 GHl ~I
i ~ ~ I ~ ~
KU KHU GU I GHU lIiU
~ ~ il GhO ~
KO KHO GO 1ilu
~ ~ ;Z ~ ~
'C.
K~ KH~ G~ GHJ3_ 1il~
~ it it "\
~ :f
KE KHE GE GHE 1ilE
~ ~ ~ ""
~ ~
~ 11' ~
KAI KHAI GAl GHAI ]\fAI
it ~ m ~ if
KO KHO GO GHO NO
~ ~r ~ ~ ~
~T ff1 m ~
KAU KHAU GAU GHAU t'lAU
. . . ~ 1i
~ ~ iT
KAlVi KHA~ GAlVi GHA};i NAl';t
qi: ~: ~: ~: 1ft
KAH KHAH GAll GHAH I NAR
i -- ~ ~ ~ ~ Of
CA CHA .fA lHA 'i'fA
~T ~r ~T I ~r ~r
CA CKi\. 11\ lH,i\. 1'1 A
f~ re fir 00- r-:
Tot
CI CH[ JI JHI NI
~ ~r ~T ~1 "
5Jf
CI CHI rt JHi NI
I
~ ~ ~ ~ )~
CU CHU nJ JHU NU
Y{ ~ ~ ~ ~
co CHO .10 JHO NO
~ ~ a ~ i1
c~ e, e,
CH~ J~ JH~ N~
~ ~ ~ "" "'
CE CHE I ~ or
JE JHE NE
"" ~. I "'" ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ""
51
CAl CHAI JAI JHAI NAI
~ m * ~ aU
CO CHO .TO JHO NO
~ ~ ~ ~.
~T ~T ~T ~T ~.
5IT
CAU CHAU lAU JHAD NAU
~ ~ ~ ~ 51
CAM CHAM JAM JHAM NAM
:;:,r: ~: :jf: ~: 51!
CAtl CHAH JAH JHAH NAH
J ~ 6
TA TRA
cf ~i
TA THA
fG "
f'2;
II THI
~T ;s"t
Ii THi
~ :§
TU TriU
, ~ ~
TO THO
~ ~
T~ TH~
t ~ ~
TE THE
~ -~
~ ;s
e
M TAl THAI
!! if it
TO THO
~ ~
GT i51
TAU THAU
t ~
TAM TRAM
e: 6:
TAH THAH ~ i Of
QA QHA ~A
~T if IJfT
QA QHA ~A
~ " for
1ft
Q1 .QHI ~I
~r ~r IlTT
.QI I)HI ~I
~ ~ ~
I)U I)HU ~u
t ~ 0[
I)O I)HO ~o
~ ~ OJ
""
I)~ .QH~ ~~
~ ~ TIT
I)E I)HE ~E
~ ~. -':\
il i1f
QA[ I;>HAI J;-lAI
it ~ orr
QO QHO ~o
~\ ~, ~,
is! it rIff
QAU QHAU ~AU
. t .
~ IJ1'
QA:NI: QHA:tVi ~A1\1
~: i: 1Jf:
I QAH DHAH ~AH ~ ~ ~ I
TA THA DA
'Jf ~T ~
TA THA DA
fij fit ft:
TI THI DI
~1 ~r ~
TI THI D1
ij ?I ~
TU THU DU
~ V t
TV THO DO
tl ~ ~
~
TR. THF- D~
€t ~ ~
TE THE DE
~ ~ ~
ij ~ ~
TAL THAI DAI
ffi' ~ ~
~TO THO DO
~ ~ ~
ijT ~T ~T
TAU THAU DAu
.
ij ~ G:
TAlYI THAM DA1'V1
ij: ~: ~:
TAH THAH DHAH ~ 'I if
DHA I NA
~ ;n
DHA NA
N f;r
DHI NI
m ;ft
DR! Ni
s ~
DHU NU
"'1 wt
DHD NU
~ "l
DH~ N~
~ it
DHE NE
~ ~
~ ;r
DHAI NAI
~Tf ;It
DHO NO
~ ;ft
~
DHAU NAU
.
~ ;r
DHAM NAM
~: ~:
DHAH NAH q ~ ~ 'if if
PA PHA BA BHA MA
'iT 'fir iiT m 1R
PA PHA BA BHA MA
fq f'f4 fir ftf iii
PI PHI BI BHI MI
qT 'liT iil' lit ~ft
PI PHi BI BHI MI
~ ~ ~ ~ i
PU PHU BU BHU MU
'{ 'fi t ~ ~
pO PHD BU BHU MV
'l ~ ~ ~ ~
p~ PHF- B~ BHR Ml.t
q '"' ~ ~ it
q;;
PE PHE BE BHE ME
~ ~ it ~ ~i
q If; '=l
PAl PHAI BAI BHAI MAt
tIT it ~ m ~1!
PO PHO BO BHO MO
~ ~ ~ liT ~
'n 'tT iff liT
PAU PHAU BAU BHAU MAU
. ~ . li
q' ii l{
PAlYI PHAM BAM BHAM MAM
q: 't! ii: +H ~!
PAH PHAH .. 1 .. BAH ! BHAH I MAH
.. ".~"-" .. 1.( , ~ I q I ~
YA RA LA VA S'A
lfT ~T ~r qr ~n
YA RA I LA VA SA
" R ~ f;r f?J
p:r I
YI RI LI VI Sl
~T ~ tT q't I ~
YI RI LI VI si
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
YU RU LU VU SU
,_ ~ ~ 1: i ~
YO RU LV VO SO
~ ~ SIl
Go - - VR S'R
YR
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
YE RE LE VE S'E
~ ~ ~ ~ ~.
'tf ~ ~ q
YAI RAT LAl VAl SAl
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
YO RO LO VO SO
~ ~ ~ ~ .l:.I
'tfT U ~ qT m
YAU RAU LAU VAU SAU
. . • .
tf ~ ~ q !J
YA~ RAM LA~ VA~ SA~
'tft ~: ~: q: !J:
lAH RAH LAH VAH S'AH -
" « ~ (1; tJ
$A SA HA LLA K~A
'fT m ~T (bT ~T
$A SA HA LLA K$A
M- fu ~ W; f~
$1 SI HI LLI K$l
q-'t qr tf fJ5't aft
$1 S1 HI LLI K$I
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
$U SU RU LLU K$U
,_ ~ a ~- at
$0 sO HO LLV K$D
~ ~ ~ - ~
~-
$~ SR. HR K$~
, '" ~ ~ aJ
~
$E SE HE LLE K$E
~ ~ { ~ ~
" ij' fE ~
~AI SAl HAl LLAI K$AI
tiT m it ~ ail
$0 SO HO LLO KSO
~ '"'" ~ ~, ~
'iT qT U fJ5T ~T
$AU SAU HAU LLAU K$AU
. • i .
'f « ~ ~
$AM SA~ HANI LLAM K$AM
,,: ~n ~: fE: ~~
$AH SAH EAR LLAH KSAH
._ 29
THE CONJUNCT CONSONANTS ~ + tr ~"tf ~~
"'
k~ ya ksya Laksyam Aim
(_aJ~rfUr) ~ 7.f ~ «~q~
+
~ + ~ ~ ~~i kh ya khya sakhyam Friendship"
k ka kka Akka Mother ~~ ;nt:
rr + ~
"'
~ + ij' ~ ~: g dha gdha mugdhah Fool
k ta kta bhaktah Devotee ~ ~m{
if + if
"' Sunk
Eli + 1{ ~ij ~ij~ g na gna magnam
"'
k rna kma rukmam Gold ~ J.( \i!J'{.
~ +
~ + ~ ~('f ~~~4{ g ra gra ugram Cruel
k ya kya vakyam Sentence ij il f~:
'f( +
~ + ~ ~ ~ gh na ghna vighnah Obstacle
k fa kra vakram Crooked ~ ~i ~m(
~ +
~ + ~ m ~ gb ra ghra srghram Quickly
k Ia kia suklam White , ~:
'i + ~
q:; + ~ \'Ii q~ n ka nka atikah Number
"'
k va kva pakvam Ripe iij \iif!:
~ + :q
~ + 'f ~ ((aJ: c ca cca uccah High
k ~a k~a daksah Expert ~ ~:
:q + ~
~~:ur: ....
~ + or ~ c cha ccha gucchah Bunch
k~ lJa ksna Tik~nah Sharp tr ~ ~f{
::q + =
~ If ~" "' Meaning
+ ~~~~ c ya cya vacyam
k~ rna ksma Snaksmam Minute 30 31
\If_ + 3f = ~ m~ ~ + ~ ::: ~ i~
ajffa Order Mudra Seal
fia jffa d ra dra
~ + ~ = ~~ ~~~ <t !+~= ~~ (\'~~
+
j jya raiyam Kingdom -.; daridryam Poverty
ya d r ya dry a
G + ~ ~~ ;rrc~ ~ q i ti{tfwl
"' -j =
t ya tya nstyam Dance <, vidvan Scholar
d va dva
~ + ~ == ~~ f{f~~ ~ 71 == ~:q ~~:
'" +
th ya thya pathyam Lesson dhya madhyah Middle
dh ya
"
~ + ij = ~ r~~~ ;:'ij ~:
~ + ~
ta tta chittam Mind santah Great people
n ta nta
~ + ;; = ~ ~\if~ ~ + wr = 'if ~i(
t na tna ratnam Jewel nna annam Food
n na
~ t ~ = 51' ij;r~ ~ ~ !I ~T
+ ==
ra Ira netram Eye pratima Idol
p ra pra
.~ + ~ = ~tf ~~'Q': ~~ ~:
of{ + t.( :::
th ya thya rathyah Horse abdah Year
b da bda
<!. + ~ == ~ ~~: ,_ ~ := if fit
+
d dha ddha Buddhah Buddha brahms Creator
b ra bra
~ + ~ = ~ ~ ll. if ~ ~t
+ = Mother
d rna dma sadrna House mba amba
m ba
~ + tf = ~ ~ :~ + ~ ~~ ~~~~:
d ya dya padyam Poem bl1a mbha stambhah Pillar
m 32 SECOND PART
(Nouns and Verbs)
~ + , ;t ~ The Masculine noun' Rarna ' ending in 3f (a)
m ra mra tamram Copper 3fifiHFo: ~fi?w: «U'f l8';;;~:
!. It if ~~ (Case) (Singular) (Dual) (Plural)
+ ~
1. "q: ,~t ~Tt{n
r rna rma karma Duty
Ramah Ramau Ramah
t e ~: 2. ,,4 ~ "llFl
+ e{ ::: q "ill
r va rva parvatah Mountain R1imam Ramau Raman
~titar • ~
3. ~Tm'P·:rT ,tt{:
~ + trt ~ ~~f1ll'{ R1imeI.1a Ramabhyam Ramaih
ya lya kalyanam Happiness -4. ~rm1.J 'tl11;:~ ~Tlt+tt:
~ + ~ :::: ~ ffr~: Ramaya Ramabhyam Ramebhyah
. ,tit+~:
s ra sra misrah Mixed 5, "Qlq_ ~lm+1.Jr
Ramat Ramabhyam Ramebhyah
~ + ~+~= ~ ~~ 6. ~tll~ ~l~: ~H{(IllI~
"'
s t ra stra siistram Science Ramasya Rnmayoh Ramal,).am
~ + ~ ;:;: ~lt ~: 7. ~lif ,rf{~: 'lit'!
s rna sma vismayah Wonder Rame Ramayoh Rame~u
8. t '(If{ t ~Tli' ~ ,flU:
'" + , ::: ~ 3Wll{ He Rahla He Ramau He Ramah
...
s ra sra asram Tear Weaning of the Singular form:
1. Rama (subject in a sentence) 2. Rama (object
~ + ;{ ::: I ~ in a sentence) 3, By /withjthrough Rama 4. for/to Ram;]
h na hna cihnam Symbol 5. from/than Rama 6. of/among Rama 7. In/on/at
.among Rama 8. oh/ye Rama !
3 34 35
SqME NOUNS ENDING IN VOWEL ~ (A) H()M Il: VERBAL ROOTS IN PRESEN'r-TENSE
~Ht: 1. ~ to read
It ~'f: Singular Dual Plural
Ramah Rama Nrpah King ~ ~
III Person tR;~n
~ijn ~qtf,: Pathati Pathtah Pathanti
Krshnah Krishna Sevakah Servant II P. q-efu' qo~: ~
~~: ~: Pathasi Pathathah Pathatha
I P. q6tfu q-oN: Wl1:
Balan Boy Dl1tah Messenger
Pathami Pathavah Pathamah
~t qr;:~: 2. iP'{ to salute
Putrah Son Panthah Traveller III 1'. ;r+mr ;yqf;ij
;.yll~t:
~'=l: {{: namati namatah namanti
Budhah Scholar Harah Siva II P. Wfilm ;Y!1~: W{~~
SOME ROOTS (1 CONJUGATION) namasi namathah namatha
I P. ~mf;{ Vfm~: ;rilnt:
q~ (q~) q~ namarui namavah namsmah
Path to read (gam) gacch to go 3. ~ to speak
;.y~ (ql) fq~ III P. ~~ ~: ~
Nam to salute (Pa) Pib to drink Vadati Vadatah Vadanti
(it) ·~tT 11 P. ~ ~~: ~~
.... ~'t Vadasi Vadathah Vadatha
(.Ii) Jay to conquer Khad to eat I P. wfli ~q: ~l~:
(~r) ijt{ ~ Vadami Vadavah Vadamah
(NI) Nay to lead Vad to speak Conjugate the following Roots: \jf~. lfi~. f~, if't{. -m" 36
37
SENTENCES
~ NOUNS (Animals)
(T;r: ~:
Ramah Pathati Rama reads .lfl
it lllh Goat bidalah Cat
~Qf: ~ IflJ: ~:
KrshQ-ah Vasati Krishna dwells I'lIlnh Elephant vrkah Wolf
~rw: ~ IIJQ": ~:
Balah namati The boy salutes lillvnlt Horse gardabhah Donkey
~: ;r~J~ 'fmn mIlT:
Putrah Vadati The son speaks vurnhah Boar harinah Deer
~: e-;
i(~ '4lil~: ~:
Budhah gacchati The scholar goes vnunrah Monkey srga1ah Jackal
~q: '" VERBS (I Conj.)
~rij'
Nrpah Jayati The king conquers 'fl'~ (~) ~~
.....
l rhuv to run (hr) har to take away
EXERCISE
Translate into Sanskrit_ (~)~ crer
""
(Drti) pasy to see pach to cook
(1) The boy eats (5) A traveller goes
(2) Krshna drinks (6) Tbe servant speaks (~JI) ~l{t ~~
(3) Rama salutes :~ . (1lIHr) smar to remember tyaj to abandon
(7) The messenger con-quers
(4) A scholar dwells (8) Hara reads '1{ to carry or (~) ~
Vah to bear (bud~') bodh to know 38 39
SENTENCES Translate into Sanskrit:-
( Subject) (Object) (Verb)
~nn . ~~ 1. Rama salutes Krishna;
tfSt
Ramah gajam pasyati 2. The scholar reads the lesson
Rama sees the elephant. 3. The king remembers the elephant,
3lJll: eR:rt ~~ 4. The goat conquers the boar.
asvah varaham smarati 5. The donkey drinks the water.
The horse remembers the boar. 6, The servant cooks the food.
~: ~ftot {~ 7. The horse bears the king.
gajah harinam harati 8. The boy takes away the cat.
The elephant takes away the deer. 9 . The messenger knows the traveller.
~: .
'-M! ~ 10. The wolf bears the jackal.
vana.rah phalam khadati
11, The monkey knows the cat.
The monkey eats the fruit 12. The horse sees the king.
'ifl~: 'lIi ~
balah 13. The elephant salutes the deer.
parham pathati
The boy reads the lesson 14. The scholar knows the lesson.
~'.fi: ~ IS. Hara remembers krishna.
q:qfij
sevakah annam 16. The Jackal carries away the goat.
pachati
The servant cooks the food 17. The boy remembers the lesson,
e ~ 18. The travallor eats the food.
~ll: ~Rr
gardabhah bidalam bodhati 19. Rama knows Krishna.
The donkey knows the cat. 20, The Elephant bears the King, ~:

desah

ml{:

gramah

it~:

gehah ~: utajah

3U~:

asramah

40

NOUNS (Places) ~~Ie:

Country

kavatah

ilq(a}":

gavakshah

iFri:

lokah

tl'q-:

dvipah

ij'~:

Hermitage samudrah

VERBS (I Conj.)

Village

House

Cottage

(~) ~

(bhU) bhav to be

~')i(

krIg to play

:q~

char to go, move

pato

(~)~

(da) yacch

\T~

jval

(stha )tishtl1 to stand

nind

Door

Window

World

Island

Sea

to fall

to give

to shine

to blame. to censure

Note.-s-The root ~'-I'T (stha) with the preposition ~?{ (ud) gives the meaning of ' stand up'.

e.g, i!f~fa' (uttishthati) etc.

41

SENTENCES

(Subject in the (Word in the

nominative Instrumental

Case) Case)

''If: prr;;,

Ramah Krsnena

(Verb in Present Tense)

:qmr

Charati

if\n: gajah

Rama moves with Krsna

3{~ ~Ffffl

asvena

dhsvati

The elephant runs with a horse

~V{~:

vanarah

vjkena ti~hlhati

The monkey stands with a wolf

~: balah

vanarena krldati

The boy plays with a monkey

~~ct RWr

srgalena tisthati

The deer stands with a Jackal

~~ct ~1:;;WRr

sevakena gacchati

The king goes with a servant

NOTE :- The incliclinable ~ may be used along with the word in instrumental case to give clear sence of 'with '. eg: "l'H ~ .. iti"' ~~ fl'i~ftr I

harinah

nrpah

44

DATIVE CASE

~r:r: ~~(1f ~ ~m

nrpah sevaksya phalam yacchati

The king gives fruit to the servant

il~: ~P.f m4 ~~

balah annaya gramam gacchati

The boy goes to the village for food

cn~~: ~P.f 3lJ~4 ~~

vanarah phalaya asramam gacchati

The monkey goes to the hermitage for fruit

UJf: q-(;:~r?l ~~ ~ffi'

Ramah panthaya phalam yacchati

Rama gives the fruit to the traveller ABLATIVE CASE

~: 3¥Hf~l~ ~~

budhah asanat uttisthti

The scholar rises up from the seat'

g taJ~ ~

phalam vrk~at patati

'The fruit falls from the tree

~Jf:

Ramah

m~

gramat gacchati

Rama goes from the village

~~ ~

nrpah gajat patati

The king falls rrom the elephant

45

panthah

dvlpat

dvtpam charati

The traveller moves from one island to another island

Translate into Sanskrit:-

1. Krishna goes for a fruit.

2. The boy comes for food.

3. The king goes to the hermitage for a fruit.

4. Rama gives food to the servant.

S, The traveller goes to the village for a cock.

6. Krishna protects the deer from a jackal.

7. A king comes from the country.

8. A boar runs from one hermitage to another hermitage.

9. A traveller goes from one country to another country.

10. A deer runs from an island.

11. A horse goes from the sea.

12. A messenger carries away a deer from the hermitage.

13. A servant gets up from the seat.

14. A son takes away a fruit for the king.

l1'~~:

mastakah

~~:

dehah

~: kaQ.thah

~~:

karah

karnah

arj

~

.....

arh

46

NOUNS (Limbs of the body)

head

~: padah

foot

body

~: dantah

tooth

neck

;ror: nakhah

nail

~~:

hand kesah

hair

~:

ear bhujah

shoulder

VERB (6h Conjugation)

to wander

n

kr§ to plough

to earn

(m) ftTEi

...

[ghra] jighr to smell

to worship

(q) ~

(tr) tar

to cross

to hum

(~)~

das damS to bite

, 41

GENITIVE & LOCATIVE (cases) t(~t{ ~: mir t{~

Ramasya putrah grarnam gacchati Rama's son goes to the village.

~tf~P.fi:31~~

Kr~Q.asya sevakah asvam pasyati Krishna's servant sees the horse.

Vl~tf ~: tl~ 'ltfftr

nrpasya Q,utah gajam nayati

The king's messenger leads the elephant

~~: 3t~tf ~ ~aJN

vs narah asvasya karnam raksati

The monkey protects the ear of the horse-

~: ~~ ~fij

gajah samudre charati

The elephant moves in the sea

~ ~q': qqfij

nagare nrpah vasati

The king dwells in the town.

mif ~(~: ~Ii( ~re

grame ramah KnQam archati

Rama worships Kr~l}.a in the village,

ffl ff.r~: ~ij

dvlpe simhah garjati

The lion roars in the island.

48

'Translate into Sanskrit :-

1. Krishna's servant goes to the cottage.

2. Rama's son conquers the elephant.

3. The king's servant leads the horse.

4. The servant salutes the foot of the messenger.

5. The monkey remembers the body of a goat.

(i. The scholar gives the food of (his) Son to the

traveller.

7. The jackal smells the hand of the monkey.

8. The Son takes away the horse of the traveller.

9. The boy Sees a peacock in the hermitage.

10. A cuckoo sings in the island.

11. A boy reads a lesson in the village.

12. A jackal wanders in the country.

13. The scholars abandon the boy in the cottage.

14. There is a fruit in the house.

15. An elephant carries the king to the country.

ROOT

Agreement of the noun with the verb

In Sanskrit there are three numbers both in tho noun and in the verb-the singular, dual and the plural. When the noun is in the singular number the verb is also in the Singular number. When the verb is in the dual number the corresponding dual number of the verb should be used. Similarly for a noun in the plural number the verb in the plural number should be used.

49

three different sets for the three There are also

d son and third

namely first person, secon per

persons, person-

In the previous exercises all the nouns used were in the singular number and so also the verbs. In the following exercises the dual number aad the plural number are going to be used.

NOMINATIVE DUAL

~nu qOij:

Ramau pajhatah

Two Ramas read

~

~IJ{T 'lll'q:

Krshnau namatah

Two Krishnas salute

balau vasatah

Two boys dwell

ACCUSATIVE DUAL

~i+n ttit ~~

Ramah gajau pasyati

Rama seeS two elephants.

t(\1l: ~un ~~ffi

gajah harinau smarati

The elephant remembers the two deer.

50

"

~~+r: ~~1 q~rn

gardabhah sevakau vahati

The donkey bears the two servants. rNSTRUM~NTAL DUAL

~RfIf: ~m~r+1:ft ~gfu

hannah srgalabhyiim tjshthati

The deer stands with two Jackals.

~:j'f: 3T~iPlt ~r~rn

gajah asviibhyiim dhiiVati

The elephant runs with two horses

~r.r: i:t~~r+trt ~ffi

n rpah sevakabhyam gacchati

The, king goes with two servants.

DATIVE DUAL ~r.r: itCJ~r+qt ~~ ~:;~Rf

nrpah sevakiibhyiim phalam yacchati

The king gives fruit for two servants.

~r;r: ;rr~~H<ri 3FSi ~~Rr

Ramah viinarabhyam annam yacchati.

Rama gives food for two monkeys.

~FH: q:;~r+1:ft 31r~4 ~~RI

Vanarah phala:bhyam asramam gacchatj

The monkey goes to the hermitage for two fruits.

51

ABLATIVE DUAL ·lJl{: Miji+Q't 3lTf{~Rr

Ramah gramabhyam agacchati

Rama comes from two villages.

~Vl~: mT~~ ~ ~dij

Vanarah bidalabhyam phalam harati,

~~: 31T~"f+~t i3"Rlgfu

budhah asanabhyam uttisjhati

The scholar rises from two seats.

GENiTIVE DUAL

ij-~<it: ~ ~ lt~fij-

sevakayoh grhe phalam bhavati

There is fruit in the house of two servants-

~ft:I1pl): 31f~it W~(~! ~ijM

harinayoh iisrame bidalah vasati

The cat is dwelling in the hermitage of two deer.

~r~qr: ~~ ~RIlT: +i~rn

balayoh grhe harinah bhavati

There is a deer in the house of two boys.

LOCA TlVE CASE 3lfSS{+(it: ~RlJrn ~f;:ij

a:sramayoh harinah bhavanti

There are deer in two hermitages.

52

§:'fq~: f(~r: 3T~~

dvipayoh gajah atanti

The elephants wander in two islands.

~~: 3l~r: ~~A

samudrayoh asvah charanti

The horses move in two oceans

Translate into Sanskrit :-

1. The two servants of Krishna go to the two villages.

2. Rama conquers the two elephants.

3. The king goes with two horses.

4. The servant goes to the house for the two houses.

5. The scholar gives food to the two travellers.

{1. The fruit falls from the two hands of the monkey.

7. The messenger takes away the two horses of the two travellers.

8. A boy sees two pea-cocks of the hermitage.

9. A scho lar abandons two boys of the two cottages.

53

VERBS-Ill PERSON DUAL ;Om ~:

R;lmau pathatah

~ ~~:

hudhau gacchatah

~

~1=41 q~<i:

putrau vadatah

~

~""o:r<l q{~:

scvakau vahatah

~

q(;:~ q~ij:

Two Ramas read

Two scholars go

Two sons speak

Two servants carry away

panthau namatah VERBS-III PERSON PLURAL

Two travellers salute

~T<f(: RmR

balah tisthanti

~

~t: ~'Mt

gajah charanti

:l(~: ~T~

jambukah dhsvanti

r-;

~~: ;{'lT~

putrah namanti ~

{~n: t4'4§~

datah yacchanti

The boys stand.

The elephants move.

The jackals run.

The sons salute.

The messengers give.

54 55
Translate into Sanskrit :_
J PERSON SINGULAR
1. Two boys run :
" 2. Two scholars read ~l6{T fiJ
3. Two servants salute bhavami (I) arn
4. Two messengers speak ~~N
5. Two kings conquer kh1i da mi (I) eat
6. Two goats see q' ~ fit
7. Two horses remember pa sya mi (1) see
8, Two elephants take away ;r ~ fij
9. The horses run va da mi (1) speak
10, The elephants carry ~mflr
11. The boys play ji ' ghra mi (1) smell
12. The boars drink ij ~{ fij
13. The kings conquer ta ra mi (1) cross
14. The travellers speak ~;) ~T fir
IS. The messengers go ya ccha mi a) give
i
16. The horses see ~~fu
17. The jackals take away, da ha mi (1) b~rn
~~fir
bo dha mi (I) know
Vftflnr
na ya .mi (I) lead /:, 57
JO
I PERSON DUAL I PERSON PLURAL
;:r;: ~ er: <~i{ ~ 11:
nandavah (we) two rejoice smaramah (we) remember
ttt Yflfrq: ~ ij'T 1I:
namavah .. two salute hasamah " laugh
q'~q: ~mi{:
pathavah " two read sarnsamah " praise
q '6f q: R ;:({T i{:
patsvah two fall nindamah .' abuse
"
N iff q: en s ~T 1{:
pibavah two drink viii'lchamah " wish
"
Jr i{f q: ~ all lit
bhramavah " two roam rakshsmah '. protect
~ aJT er: ('
·at:;:n if:
rakshavah two protect archamah " worship
"
;r ~l q: ~ 'if;r:
vadavah " two speak karshamah " plough
Jf~q: stlis(1{:
vrajsvah " two go krlQiimah " play
ftr sr er: ·~{T1{:
ti~th~vah two stand khiidiimah .. eat
" 59
58
II PERSON SINGULA~
Translate into Sanskrit:-
3{~fu
(I p. Sing.) (1 Per_ Dual) (I Per. PI.) archasi (Thou) worship
i
I worship we two smell we stand V{;{ fu
namasi " salute
I conquer we two conquer we see ~iift.t
bhramasi " roam
I sing we two eat we eat ~~m
vrajasi .. go
I play we two abandon we drink err;:~m
vafichasi .. wish
I go We two burn we go ~T ({ fu
khadasi .. eat
I roar we two give we run ftulm
tishthasi " stand
I hide we two See we give ~~fu
cross
tarasi "
I run we two run We speak
~~m laugh
I see We two earp we praise. hasasi "
({~m speak
I burn we two stand we censure vadasi " 6b 6.
II PERSON filiAL II PERSON PLVRAL
f( ~ %1: ~r::~
garjathah (Yoh two) roar khadatha (you) eat
~q~: ~ij"~
dhsvathah " run samsatha " praise
'f ~ %1: ffl~%T
paeyatheh " see tishthatha " stand
{'
31 :q %1: qf.\~
archathah worship vadatha " speak
"
{'
~ 'f %1: ~&:%1
karshathah " plough dahatha " burn
~ aJ %1: q ~tf %1
rakshathah protect pasyatha " see
"
~ l{ %1: ~r tf %1
bhramathah '. roam dhavatha " run
er ~ %1: ~ aJ %1
vadathah speak rakshatha " protect
"
. Poi ~ %T
~~1J:
samsathah praise nindatha " censure
"
fq il1J: {'
~"%l
pibathah drink karshatha .. plough
. " 62
Translate into Sans.lt,l'it :-
Sing. Dual Plural
Thou go You two plough You conquer
Thou protect You two play You sing
Thou play You two read You go
Thou drink You two salute You roam
Thou run You two fall You burn
Thou speak You two laugh You see
Thou censure You two roam You earn Thou praise

You two remember You eat

Thou worship

You two protect

You drink

Thou roam

You two speak

You stand

63

The Masculine noun 'Hari' ending in ~ (i) ~'iH.T;:a: ~jf: c i{ft 1 ~sG;:

Case Singular Dual Plural

1.

m:

Harih

~

Had

2.

N

~H

Harim

~1

Harl

3.

~R()H

Harina

~\~

Haraye

f". •

~T~~?:(t

Haribhysm

~R+tft

Haribhyam

I"'. •

l[R:+~

Haribhyam

~1;fl:

Haryoh

~1l1:

Haryoh

~ ~1

He Harl

4.

5.

~:

Hareh

6.

Hareh

7.

~

~~T

Haran

8.

~ i[~

He Hare

~:q-:

Harayah

~r~

Harlu

~Rfin

Haribhih

WtJ:

Haribhyah

"

m+~:

Haribhyah

l[fj-Olt~

HarIl)iil11

{R!

Harisu

~ {~?f:

He Harayah

Meaning of the Singular form:

1. Hari (subject) 2. Hari (object) 3. By/with/ through Hari 4. for/to Hari 5. from/than Harl 6. off among Hari 7. In/on/at/among Had 8. oh/ye Hari I

NOTE: The declensions of the words in the next

page are to be written as per the above noun ij"R.

65
64
SENTENCES
Some Masculine nouns ending in ~ (i) ·31RfN: il~re
to be declined like ~ft.
" atithih gacchati
~R: ~: The guest goeS.
?P;ftr: ". e-;
Harih Had MaJ;lih Gem ~H ;ri1Fi
.,", 31m-: rshih harim namati
m: The sage salutes Hari.
Kavih Poet Agnih Fire ~R: r-; fijgfu
~: ~TrIf~T
~: kavih manina tisjhati
Ravih Sun Alih Bee The poet stands with a gem.
~: 4I,'i~: ~re: '" q~ r-:
3lWl ~~Tij
Munih Ascetic Bhnpatih King yatih agnaye balim yacchati
ffrR: ~f~: The ascetic gives oblation to ! he lire.
Girih Mountain Atithih Guest qief~n ;r.q1or ~~~Q
e-; fitiR;! kavayah kapin samsanti
~re: Poets praise the monkey".
KaUh War Kitih Bear ~T~11: r-;
~N: q~: ~TQ1.n ~\T;:ij
jnatayah -" haranti
rasin
Kapih Monkey Patatrih Bird Kinsmen take away the heaps
'" q'rfllT: ~~:ft~ ;r~f;a:
~: 3l\~:
Yatih Saint Panih hand arayah nidhin nayanti
3lR: "'ret The enemies lead the treasure
r-; " qQ~
Arih Enemy Balih oblation qTIJf~: +iTu{T+{:
~nftn AA: pal!ayah manibhih patanti
The hands fall with gems .
.Tiiiitih Kins111110 Vidhih creator 5 66

Translate into Sanskrit :-

(Singular)

I salute the master. I protect the sage. I know a poet.

I remember the fire. I lead a guest.

Thou see a bee.

Thou worship a king. Thou salute a saint. Thou praise an ascetic, Thou take away a heap.

He cooks the food. He salutes the poet, He sees a monkey. He gives an oblation. He leads a bird.

(Plural)

We worship a sage. We abandon a heap, We give a gem.

We see a mountain. We prot.ect a poet.

You protect a guest.

You know an ascetic. You worship a mountaill~. You abandon a war,

You see a bear,

They give a heap.

They know an ascetic. They remember the king., They salute a poet.

They conquer an enemy e-

67
The Masculine noun' Guru' ending in ::! (D)
~~T~~n ~: '~, ~:
( ':lSI.: Singular Dual Plural
L ~: ~~ g~:
Guruh Gun} Guravah
2. !!~ ~ !!~
Gurum Guru Gurun
3. · ~~f+1:
~T ~~~r
Guruua Gurubhy am Gurubhih
4 ~~~ ·
. !!~+qr ~~p·n
Gurave Gurubhyam Gurubhyah
5, ~~: •
!!~+1.fr rI~+:q:
....;;
Guroh Gurubhyam Gurubhyah
6. W£! ~~tt !X~l1fl~
Guroh Gurvoh Gurunam
7. ~ !left:
~U ~~~
Gurau Gurvoh Gurusu
8. ~ ~U ~ ~~ ~ ~~q:
He Guro He Guru He Guravah Meaning of the Singular form:

10 Teacher (subject in a sentence) 2, Teacher (object) 3. By/through with Teacher 4. for/t\» Teacher 5. from/than Teacher 6, of I among Teacher 7. In/on I at I among Teacher 8. oh I ye Teacher.

68 69
Some Masculine nouns ending in ~ (U) VERBS
(to be declined as per the example in the opposite page) (6th conjugation)
~: ~: (~~ (~)~
Guruh Teacher Isuh Arrow (ish) icch to wish (sad) sid to sink
~1: ~: (~)~ ~
Sambhuh Siva Induh Moon (pracchj prch to ask srj to create
• (~~~) lfiN{ ~
m!1: t(Tij: to touch
(masj) majj to bathe SPfs
Bhanuh Sun Pamsuh Dust
~~ ft~
~: tTr~: ., '" to enter
likh to write VIS
Vi~I]uh Vishnu Vayuh Air PRESENT-TENSE
;r~: N;:~: (f?t~ to enter)
Bandhuh Relative Binduh Drop R~ffi N~nn fcr~fkf
ifiQ;: vi sa ti vi sa tah vi sa nti
(f~: ft~m f?f~ ~: Fr~~
Taruh Tree Kratuh Sacrifice
vi sa si vi sa thah vi sa tha
~~: 31~: ft ~nfu f?r ~r q! r.r sr If:
Sadhuh Ascetic Anuh Atom vi sa mi vi sa vah vi sa mah
~: ;r~: (~ to write)
Maruh Desert Bahuh Hand ~~ffi ~~ij: ~~~
~Q;: Ii kha ti li kha tah li kha nti
~~: ~~f~ ~~~n ~~~
Ik§uh Sugercane Setuh Bridge
li kba si li kha thah li kha tha
Q: ~: ~mfii re~I~: re~T~n
Sunuh Son Jantuh Living being li khii mi li kb'i yah li kha mah 70 71
Translate the following sentences into EngUsb:-
Translate into Sanskrit :-
!1~: ~~ ~~ A teacher wants.
guruh ssdhum ppcchati
The sun asks.
ft;:~: ~ ~iij're Vishnu writes.
binduh setum sprsati The goodman enters the village,
~~: ~ ~fij The desert touches the mountain.
jantuh tarum visati
Sugarcane bathes.
e-; RRctM
'f.f~: ~1lTl the dust takes away.
vishnuh i~uI).a likhati The wind carries the dust .
. 1l~~:
~r'{ ~;~I The drops stand on the tree.
sadhn bandhum pjchhatah The living beings enter the sea.
~~: m"'{'f_ ;{~~ The drops touch the hand.
guravah sadhnn namanti The hands enter.
~n~~n ffi ~~ The elephants want sugar-canes.
bahavah ishan sprsanti The deserts ask rain.
~er: ~ ~~fkT The good people bathe if, the ocean.
bandhavah ikshun icchanti I
72
The Masculine noun' Dhatr ' ending in o;r; (n,' ,'I
~n];:q: ~~: '~nr' ~;~:
.ase Singular Dual Plural
~ ~'HfT~:
1 ~r~n ~t~T~T
OhaLl Dhatarau Dhatarah
~r~nt ~
2 ~tm~T ~rfl
Ohataram Dhatarau Dhatrun
3 · ~Rrfu:
~i?iT ~T~
Dhatrj. Dhatrbhyam Dhatrbhih
4 '" · ~Hr+q:
~r~ ~(~p·n
Dhatre Dhatrbhyam OM trbhyah.
5 ·
~H!: ~T~~~T ~~Pl:
Dhatuh Dhatrbhyam Dhatrbhyah
6 ~iQ;: 'tJT:;fl: ~r~IJfT~
Ohatuh Dhatroh Dhatrunam
7 ~Tffll ~r;it: ~Ht~
Dhatari Dhatroh Dhatr§u
'" -, ~. '"
8 ~ ~i~: ~ ~l(lHT ~ ~IijH:
He Dhiitah He Dhatarau He DhiHarah Meaning of the Singular form:

1. Creator (subject) 2. Creator (c~ject) 3. By ,. with / through Creator 4. for/to Creator 5. from/than Creator 6. of/among Creator 7. In / on / at I among C rea tor 8. oh / ye Creator

NOTE: The declension of the other nouns ~l~, !;£~, ~<i, <f1fQ:, ~tQ:, ~TQ:, ~r1fQ: etc. are to be formed as above.

73
The Masculine noun ' Pitr ' ending in 71; (r)
Wfir,~: ~~: + ft«l ' ~~~:
Case singular Dual Plural
1 fq~l Nro fq~:
Pita Pitarau Pitarah
2 f"'.. • futu f'fTl
Tqij~
Pitaram Pitarau Pit run
3 fq;rr fq~~ f~ftn
Pitra Pitrbhyam Pitrbhih
4 f~ fq~-qf ffffl.:+tf :
Pitre Pitrbhyam Pitrbhyah
5 fq~: fq~+tft fq~+tf:
Pituh Pitrbhyam Pitrbhyah
6 fu!: f~: mtllTT~
Pituh Pitroh Pitrunam
7 mR fq~: ~
Pitari Pitroh Pitrsu
8 ~ Ttrij: ~ firqU ~ firq~:
He Pitah He Pitarau He Pitarah Meaning of the Singular form:

1. father (subject) 2. father (object) 3. by jwith/ through father 4. for I to father 5. from I than father fi. of / among father 7. in / at I on / among father 3. oh / ye father!

NOTE: Write declensions for the nouns ~{Q: and ~FtTQ: as per the above noun firQ:. Also note the difference between 'I:lr~ and ftrQ: in the forms of nominative and accusative Cases.

14
75
FEMININE GENDER The Feminine noun' Rania ' ending in 6(T (ii)
Some Feminine nouns ending in 61T (a) 3lT~1~~H Wf~: '~"1' ~~J
(to be declined like ~'H on the opposite page.) Case Singular Dual Plural
~lIT ij'¥1T 1 ~;rr ~~ ~l(t:
Rama Laksml Sen a Army Rama Rame Ramah
~ i''lT 2 W ~ ~iiT:
Srta Slta Krpa Pity Ramam Rame Ramah
mill f;{.~ 3 ~q~l • ~~:
~t:tr;tff
Bhama Bhsma Nisa Night Ramaya Ramsbhyam Ramabhih
:tfm ~r{(cn 4: ~~ ,+rT~"td ~11(~tn
Padma Padma Sakhii Branch Ramayai Ramabhyam Ramabhyah
.~~ 3i~ 5 ~~Ttrn ~l1r~~ ~m~tr:
Kanya Maiden Ajfia Order Ramayah Ramabhyam Ramabhyah
trWf ~~T 6 ~f;tqn ~~~: ~+rltjll~
Ganga Ganges Katha Story Ramayah Ramayoh Ramanam
7 • ~rit:
~i ~ (lU<f( ~~
Mala Garland Kala Art Ramayam Ramayoh Ramasu
m sr~ 8 t ~iT t ~it ~ ~iiT:
Lata Creeper Praja Subject He Rame He Rame He Ramah
., f' Meaning of the Singular forms:
l(l~
Krlga Play Bharya Wife 1. Lakshmi (subject in a sentence) 2. 4-kshnti
~m ~<.i\ifl (object) 3. By I with I through Lakshmi 4. for / t~
Devata Deity Lajja Shame Lakshmi 5. from I than Lakshmi 6. of I among Lakh~
7, In I on I at I among Lakshmi 8. oh / ye Lakshmi.
I
\ 76

Some Feminine nouns ending in ~ (i)

(to be declined like Ilfer on the opposite page)

~:

Rucih

ttm:

Klrtih

~~~n

Kiintih

rltih

Knowledge

Way, Path

Veda

Work

Creation

Knowledge

Taste

Fame

Shining

Caste

Kindness

Bhaktih

~:

Bhnmih

~fm:

Muktih

~:

Murtih

Ratrih

Ratih

~~:

Stutih

~:

Vrittih

4{RH

Bhiitih

~~:

Smrtih

;fTRn

Nltih

Devotion

Earth

Salvation

Idol

Night

Love

Praise

Profession

Wealth

Remembrance

Guidance

77

The Feminine noun ' Mati • ending in ~ (i)

~~l~: ~'fR;iit ' ~, ~:

Mat yam, Matau Matyoh

~ ~~ft

He Mate He Mati

Meaning of the Singular form:

1. knowledge (subject) 2. knowledge (object) 3, By/ with/through knowledge 4. for/to knowledge 5. from / than knowledge 6. of/among knowledge 7. in/on / at among knowledge 8. oh / ye knowledge!

NOTE: 1. There are two forms in singulars of Dat.

Abl. Gen. and Loc. Cases

2. Declensions of nouns in the left hand page have to be written as per the above noun i1Rr.

Case Singular

1 ilfij:

Matih

M

ijfij

Matim

a ~~f Matya

ij~q., i{(1~

Matyai, Mataye

~T:, i{ij:

Matyah, Mateh

1I ~tTn , iffl':

Matyah, Mateh

4

5

8

Dual

~

MatI

t«f'T

Mat]

.tTt

Matibhysm

i{re.~t

Matibhyam

~~t

Matibhyam

~:

Matyoh

~~:

Plural q~:

Matayah

tRfi:

Matih

i{Rifir:

Matibhih

ilRI+tr:

Matibhyah

ilRf+1.J:

Matibhyah

f{ij'T;:rrq

Matinam

\

\

Mati~u

t i{~tr:

He Matayah

78

Some Feminine nouns ending in ~ (1)

cnt{r Vap]

Gaur!

;r~T

Nadl

Patnl

~1

Sakhi

~

Purl

Natl

~T

MahI

~l~

Kumar!

Janant

Parvathi

Sarasvati

River

Woman

Wife

Friend (F)

Town

Actress

Earth

Young girl

Mother

Dasl

Dev!

ll~~T

Bhaglratht

iTlTiT

Sre1)i

finrr

Simhl

Harin]

Sarvart

Ve1)l

~~

Rajant

Well

Servant (F)

Goddess

Ganges

Line

Lioness

Deer (F)

Night

Hair

Deer (F)

Night

79

Plural

~:

Gauryah

mu:

Gaurlh

;{RrM:

Gaurlbhih

tfrop·:n

Gaurlbhyah

qRr;~:

Gaurlbhyah

;UUIJfffl_

Gaurlnam

m~

Gaurlsu

( m~:

III

!II

II

11

II

!, !

The Feminine noun' Gaud' ending in ~ (I)

~~~r;ij: ~)f~ , mfT' ~:

Case Singular

1 ;fur

Gauri

2 ~{f

Gaurim

3

~ "

qPU

Gaurya ~~

~TP.f

Gauryai

5

~~ ('

~Tf~n Gauryah

mtTT:

Gauryah ~ ~

~qT

Gauryam

~ ;rTR

6

'1

8

Dual

tW:n

Gauryau

~

Gauryau

~T+"7.Tt

Gaurlbhyam

ifRr+~

Gaurlbhyam

m-U+"tJt

Gaur'iahyam ~:-t:

;rrJtfl:

Gauryoh

~thfl:

Gauryoh

t~

He Gauri He Gauryau He Gauryah

Meaning of the Singular form:

1. Parvati (subject) 2. Parvati (object) 3. By I with I through Parvati 4. for/to Parvati 5. from! than Parvati 6. of/among Parvati 7. InIon/at/among Parvati . 8, oh/ye Parvati !

NOTE: The declensions of the nouns in the left hand side page have to be written as per the above noun iftt\'.

~;O
The Feminine noun' Dhenu' ending in i3' (U)
~~l~: ~T~: '~~, ~:
Case Singular Dual Pluml
1 ~: ~ ~'ltl:
dhenuh dhenn dhenavah
2 ~ \t~ "
~
dhenum dhenu dhenuh
3 ~;;U ~~+7.ft ~~:
dhenva denubhyam dhenubhih
4 ~~, ~'l~ ~+qt ~~Pl:
dhenvai, dhenave dnenubhyarn dhenubhyah
5 ~~:, ~;iT: ~~+trt ~+tr:
dhenvah, dhenoh dhenubhyam dhenubhyah
Q it~n,~~: ~;;r): ~~'i(~
dhenvah, dhenoh dhenvoh dhennnam
7 ~~, ~T ~;eIT: ~~'I
dhenvam, dhenau dhenvoh dhenusu
8 ( ~;iT ~ ~il ~ ~'l;r:
he dheno ! he dhenu he dhenavah Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. Cow (subject) 2. Cow (object) 3. by/with/

through Cow 4. for/to Cow 5. from/than Cow 6. of! among Cow 7. inion/at/among Cow 8. oh/ye Cow.

NOTE: There are two forms in dative, ablative

Genitive and locative singulars in the above noun.

81

The Feminine noun' Matr • ending in ~ (r)

~~T~: ~Tf~: 'ijl~' fU~:

Plural

ill~:

Matarah

Matroh

8 ~ m~t: ( ~iTro

He Miltah He Matarau

Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. Mother (subject) 2. Mother (object) 3. by/ with/through Mother 4. for/to Mother 5. from/than Mother 6. of/among Mother 7. inion/at/among Mother 8. oh/ye Mother.

Case Singular Dual
1 ~
~ iimT
Mata Matarau
2 If(~ ijl~
Mataram Matarau
:3 •
~l5ft ~l~+tft
Matra Matjbhyam
4 " ~+~
"'51'
matre Matrbhyam
5 •
mQ: ;n~+~
Matuh Matrbhyam
6 ¥U{!: ~:
Mi'ituh Matroh
7 mijft i{T;Tt: Matari

iiH[~

(.

Matruh

m~N:

Matrbhih

iffit~~:

Matrbhyah

m~~'tf:

Miitrbhyah

~'~Ui'i~

e,

MatplJ;l.am

~Hi!!

Matr§u

t l{t(f(!

He Matarah

NOTE: The declensions of ~or'I, ~~Q:, .,<rT~ etc. are to be written like qHI. Note the noun mQ: is alike fqq: in all cases excepting the plural form of the Accusative case.

6

82

NOUNS OF NEUTER GENDER some neuter nouns ending in ·31 (a)

to be ,declined as per ~l'" in, the opposite pjjge

~T;.l etfo:t~~

J nanam Knowledge Vakyam Sentance

~~ ~q~

Jalam Water Tattvam Fact

q-;r?i ~Ff~

Phalam Fruit Danam Gift

~~ ~~~

Dhanam Wealth Punyam Virtue

CT~ q'iq-~

Vanam Forest Papam Sin

q~ ~

Padmam Lotus Annam Food

~* ~;'l~

Netram Eye Dravyam Wealth

~n~ ~lf~

gatram Body Subham Happiness

{-Rtf ~

Satyam Truth Bhayam Fear

.

~~~ ~

N rtyam Dance Bhadram Safe

83

The neuter noun 'JiUina' ending in Sf (a)

3FfiT~~ ;JW~ '~, ~1\:

Case Singular

1 ~r;t

Hanam

.

2 ~

Jfianam

3 ~Wf

Jfianena

4 i1JI~N'

Jfianaya

5 ~lif'~

Jnanat

6 ~~~

Jfianasya

7~

Jnane

8 ~~!

He Jffana I

Dual

~

Jffane

~

Jffane

~qf

Jffanabhyilm

~~

Jffanabhyam



"ijl';q{

Jffanabhyam

ijT~:

Jilanayoh

,~:

Jffanayoh

~ ~T~!

He JUane!

Plural

,,;nt;r

Jiianani

lll1'f(f;(

Jiianani ~

~:

Jiianaih

~tn

Jfianebhyah

~~n

Jiianebhyah

~(Vfrorif¥{

Jfiananiim

t "'~!

He Jfianani!

Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. knowledge (subject) 2. knowledge (object)

3, by with/through knowledge 4. for/to knowledge

5. from/than knowledge 6. of/among knowledge

7. in/on/at knowledge 8. oh/ye knowledge .

NOTE: The nominative and accusative cases will be alike in neuter gender.

84
The neuter noun <Vari ' ending in '~' (i)
~Ht~ Vi~~: 'en~ t ~~:
Case Singular Dual Plural
1 i:Td~ qJRuft oofUr
Vari Varh}.l Varl:Q.i
2 " ~rRoft t{f~
tTrR
Var] Vari:Q.l Varlij,i
3 ~{ROTT qrR+~ tnRftn
VariJ;l1i Varibhyam Varibhih
4 tuftir qrR;:qf t{fm.(f:
Varine Varibhyam Varibhyah
ttlRon " . en~+~n
5 tn'T~+t{T
VarilJ.ah Varibhyam Vsribhyah
6 cTTRIJf: ~rftoTI: t{f~
Varinah V1iriQ.oh VarlJ;lam
7 tU~ q(RaITt trrR!!
VarilJi Varinoh Vari~u
8 t ~ftt ~ q:fR ~ qfRuft ~ cnftfQr
He Vare, He Vliri He Vari!}l He Varl1).i Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. water (subject) 2. water (object) 3. by/with!

through water 4 for/to water 5. from/than water

6, of/among water 7. in/at water 8. oh water!

NOTE: The neuter nouns ending in ~, :a-, and !ifr; have

two forms in Vocative Singular.

2. Decline 13l&r. <iiUf~, qJ~qrfOr. ~~l[ft etc. as the above,

8S

SPECIAL NOUNS

in '11!" (I")

The masculine noun 'Salehi' ending '(

~t~F6: ~: '~fuT' ~c:::

Case Singular Dual Plural

~:

Sakhyoh

~rit:

Sakhyoh

~~~M

He sakhe He Sakhayau

Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. friend (subject) 2. friend (object) 3. by/with

friends 4. for/to friend 5. from/than friend 6. of/

among friend 7, in/on/at friend 8. oh friend!

NOTE: The noun ~m at the end of Tatpurusha com-

pound, changes as ~@ \i,e: it ends in ar instead of ~) eg ; ~~>rur~<a: =: Lakshmana's friend.

~
1 ~T ~Tl:fT
Sakha Sakhayau
2 . ~T~
«~T~
Sakhayam Sakhayau
3 ~trf ~fun:qt
Sakhya Sakhibhyam
4 ~it ~+"1lf
Sakhye Sakhibhyam
5 ~: ~-trt
Sakhyuh Sakhibhyam 6

~:

Sakhyuh ~

ij~T

Sakhyau

8

~p;n Sakhayah

~

Sakhln

~:

Sakhibhih

ij'rot"+l1:

Sakhibhyah

ij'fuR"~:

Sakhibhyah

f](cfhu,{

Sakhlnam

-

Sakhisu

~ ~~r~:

He Sakhayah

86

The masculine noun <Rajan ' ending in Of (, n ' )

¥(~~~: ~~: '~~, ~;~:

RajabhYam

~:

Rajfioh

~~):

Rajfioh

{~f

He Rajan He Rajanau

Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. king (subject) 2. king (object) 3. king 4. for/to king 5. from/than king among king 7. in/at king 8. oh king.

Case Singular

1 ~ Raja

2 ~T~~

Rajanam

5

~ij:

Rajfiah

6

~T~:

Rajfiah

~&r, ~~R Rajfii, Rajani

7

8

Dual

~i~;rT

Riijanau

~T~T~T

Rajanau

~l\lf+~ Rajabhyam

~T~~<rl Rajabhyam

~(Jf

Plural ~~tw{:

Rajanah

~~:

Rajfiah

~~:

Rajabhih

~~'P.:f:

Rajabhyah

,~:

Rajabhyah

~

Rajfiam

'I\lf~ Rajasu

He Rajanah

by/with 6 • .of /

NOTE: The word ~T~ ending in ~ will end in <3i when it is used in karmadharaya and Tatpurusha compounds. Eg ; i'f~{i'SI':, ~T~: etc.

I

tt: .•

87

The neuter noun <Naman ' ending in Of (n)

~~IW:ij 'Cli«!ft.rew: ',{T~' ~~:

C,he Singular

Dual

,{Tm, ,{Tq~'T

Namni, Namanl

Plural

,{TqTR

Namani

1

i1Ttt

Nama

~Tm, ;rr~'T

Namnl, Namani

"l~Tf.1

Namani

;rTqfu:

Namabhih

8

~Tq+(Jf

Namabhyam

i{Ti{+qi

Namabhyam

'lTi{+-qT

Namabhyam

,{Tm:

Namnoh

,{ft:yl.--q:

Narnabhyah

;rIm

Narnnam

'lTm

N1imnli

4

'"

v;n~

Narnne

.,Tll+({:

Namabhyah

5 i1tif:

Namnah

6 ;:rT~:

Narnnah

Namni, Namani Namnoh

Namasu

8 ~ "T+r-l~ i{Tij ~ ;nm-~ i{T~'T

He naman, He NamnI,

He nama He namanl

Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. name (subject) 2. name (object) name 4. for/to name 5. from/than name name 7. in/at name.

~ i{T¥trR

He namani

3. by/with 6. of /among

NOTE: There are two forms in nominative and accusative duals and also in locative singular. Vocative

singular and dual are having two forms each.

88 89
The masculine noun ' Atman , ending in Of (n)
The neuter noun • Manas • ending in 1!J (s)
'i~l~i~: ~~: '~T~~ t ~: ~~T~ ;V~~: 'l(~~ t ~:
13ii(;11::::: Soul iI':tf: ::: Mind
Case Singular Dual Plural Case Singular Dual Plural
1 3'ffiifr 3lR~T 311HnTl: 1 ;r;r: iR~ ~
Atma Atmanau Atmanah Manah Manasl Manamsi
2 ~Ri( 3ffiifTt:1T' 31R~;r: 2 lAf ~ij'1 ~tft.t
Atmanam Atmanau Atmanah Mariah Manas] Mansmsi
3 3l.~i{f 3lR~~ ~R~fu: 3 +(;mT ~~~ ~:
Atmana Atmabhyam Atmabhih Manasa Manobhyam Manobhih
4 ~~ ~~q+~ 31Rij+~: 4: t{~ f{;i1+1.TT it;f)+~:
Atmane Atmabhyam Atmabhyah Manase Manobhyam Manobhyah
5 ~~~V{: ~i{+"lft 3TiHI+~: 5 1i;fij: lRT+~ ~+<ft
Atmanah Atmabhyam Atmabhyah Manasah Manobhyam Manobhyah
6 ~1t;r: m~f{;l): ~~ii~Tt:t 6 l'Rij': ~: ~m
Atmanah Atmanoh Atmanam Manasah Manasoh Manassm
7 3lR~ an~: 3l~ijij '1 ~ ~: ~ij
Xtmani Atmanoh Atmasu Manasi Manasoh Manassu
8 (~ ~3lmrr.it t ~ijR: 8 t t{Cf: ~~~ t~m
He atman He atmanau He atmanah He manah He manasl He manamsi
NOTE: Write declensions for a{'ECfw{. If'.i'<ii!., ~~~, ~q ~vr. , NOTE: The declensions of cr'i~. lf~ I ~lfa.. etc, are to
etc. as above, be formed as above. THIRD PART (Prrnouns & Indiclinables]

r'he Pronoun <asmad ' (equal in three genders) ending in q;_ 'd '

~~: (f,r! ~ ijl{(ct:) '31~;rf!.' ~: a;i = I

Singular Dual Plural
• ~U
3l~ q~
aham svam vayam
I we two we
• 3l1qf, q"T
tlT, 4iT ~~'A_, ctt
mam rna svam, nau asmari, nah
,
me us (two) us
+p·n anqT+tlT ~lfTfu:
maya avabhysm asmabhih
by me by us (two) by us
~~,it ~lt({+qf, ;r'l ~~.ir, ~:
mahyam, me avabnvam, nau asmabhyam, nah
for me for us (twO) for us
lf~ ~qT+'tfi 31~~
mat aViibhyam asmat
fromme from us (two) from us
if", it ~:, ;ft ~Ttt, ";(:
mama, me avayoh, nau asmakam, nah
to me to us (twO) to us
lfN ~: ~
mayi avayoh asmasu
in me in us (two) in us NOTE: The declension forms of the above noun should be by-hearted by every student of Sanskrit.

Plural

~1.f

ynyam

you (subject)

~l{Fl, q:

yusman, yah you (object)

~ittfl{:

yusmabhih by you

~~."tf, q:

yusmabhyam, yah for you

~~

yusmat

from you

~q~, q:

yusmakam, yah of you

~t:t1.~

91

The Pronoun • yusmad • [same in three genders) ending in • d •

~~T;~: (~ ~!I qtnctt) ~ ~~' ~~:

(if = You

Singular

~

tvam *thou

~U, ~

tvsm, tva thou

~

tvaya by thou

ij+1.f,~

tubhyam, te for thou

~

tv at

from thou

~, ~

tava, te of thou

~

tvayi in thou

Dual

~t

yuvam

you (two)

~,qf

yuvam, Yam you (two)

~~ttf

yuvabhyam by you (two)

~."1.It, en-

yuvabhyam, yam for you (two)

~

yuvabhyam

from you (two)

~:,U

yuvayoh, vsm of you (two)

~t

yuvayoh

in you (two)

NOTE:

in you

The above declensions are also to be byhearted.

*Thou is used in old form of English for second person singular.

92 93
The Masculine Pronoun • Tad • ending in <d ' The feminine pronoun ending in 4 da •
~Rr~: ~: I ~ .. ' ~~: ~~: ~,~: '~, ~:
fl: = He ~= She
Singular Dual Plural ~r ~ m:
~n ~ ~ sa te tah
sah tau te she they (two) they
He they (two) they mr{ ij- ~m
ij ijf ~ tam te tah
tam tau tan her them (two) them
him them (two) them ij~ ~T~--qf ~:
€R ijf~7.if 'ijg tays tabhyam tabhih
terra tabhysm taih by her by them (two) by them
by him by them (two) by them ~q ~~ ~~:
~?r ~~td ~~7.f:
tasyai tabhyam tabhyah
tasmai tabhyam tebhyah for her for them (twO) for them
for him for them (two) for them m~trt
~l{t~ ij1;qf €l;~: m:trT: ql+tf:
tasyah tabhyam tabhyah
tasmat tabhysm tebhyah from her from them (two) from them
from him from them two from them
m:tr qtfl: ~ ij~H ~: (JT~
tasyah tayoh tasam
tasya tayoh tell am
to him to them (twoj to them to her to them (two) to them
~~V{ ~: ~~ ~~ q~: Q'Tij
tasmin tayoh te~u tasyam tayoh tasu
in him in them (two) in them in her in them (two) in them 94 95
The Neuter noun <tad' ending in ' d , The Pronoun ' KIM' (masc.) ending in 'm e
~~ ;r~~: '~, ~~: ~(~T;:~: ": '~~, ~:
It ~f(t That I:fi: = Who
Singular Dual Plural
~ ~ ~nR Sjnglll~r Dual Plural
~ ~
tat te rani :til ~
that those (two) those hill kau ke
~
~ ij q{A m, ~T CliFt:
tat te tani k;'ll11 kau kan
CliT+~ ~
that those (two) those ::.f,;."f t1i:
ij;r ijf;qf ~ kena kabhyam kaih
~i:
... ""::., • ~~:~:
tena tabhyam taih ~Hf ~t~qr
by that by those (two) by those kasmai ksbhyam kebhyah
ij~~ ~i;tJt ~;tf: ~~ll]~ tfiI~"tff ~+q:
tasmai tabhyam tebhyah kasmat kabhyam kebhyah
for that for those (two) for those ~~ ~~: ~"t
~tq«{ • ij-;q: kayoh kesam
ijT~tn kasya
tasmat tabhyam tebhyah ~~ ~: ~
from that from those (two) from those kasmin kayoh kesu
(f~q ~: ~'" 1. who 2. whom 3. by whom 4. for whom
tasya tayoh te~am 5. from whom 6. to whom 7. in whom,
to that to those (two) to those
~~ ~: ~ NOTE: The above declensions are used in the
tasmin tayoh tesu interragative sentences in the Masculine
in that in those (two) in those Gender. 96

The Pronoun KIM (Fern) ending in • m '

~T~: ~~: ' ~,~: ~= Who (F)

Singular Dual Plural
!il ~ ~m
ka ke kah
~ ifi ~H
karn ke kah
fi~ qiT;qT ~N:
kay a kabhyam ka:bhih
~~ ~T~ ~T+tf:
kasyai kabhysm kabhyah
~~<fT: efii+<IT ~T;tf:
kasyah kabhyam ka:bhyah
~~n ~: etiHli'
kasyah kayoh kasam
~~~t ~: ~ij
kasyam kayoh kasu
1. who 2. whom 3. by whom 4. for whom
5. from whom 6. to whom 7. in whom. NOTE: The above declensions are used in the interrogative sentences in the Feminine Gender.

97

The Pronoun 'KIM' (Neu.) ending in • m •

~ro~ ;f~~~W: '~"" ~:

fek = What
Singular Dual Plural
Ai ~ ~R
kim ke kam
P.ii ~ ~fu
kim ke kani
~ . e;
~+tfT ~:
kena kabhyam kaih
-":, • ~+1.f:
~it ~;tfr
kasmai kabhyam kebhyah
~lffi( • ~+~:
~T+~
kasmat kabhyam kebhyah
~~ ~~): ~
kasya kayoh kessm
~lA: ~~: ~9;
kasmin kayoh kesu Meaning of the Singular forms:

1. which (subject) 2. which (object) 3. by whicl 4. for which 5. from which 6. to which 7. in which. 7

98

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Some Indefin ite pronouns used in Sanskrit are formed by adding anyone of the suffixes ~rr, '<R and

~fq- to the pronoun ; f~' in all the three gend - Th

- Cl eIS. eSe

pronouns always agree with the nouns.

Masculio e ~; + f.l:li\ = Efi'?1q 1
~; +~;:r -_ ~~~
~: -+- ~fq :;: il'sfq- )
Feminine: U". f'
1.li~ -I R1: = ::f;1RR{ J
~1 + ::;;:FT = ~l~~
::f.l + 31Jq :: ~lfq
Neuter: N ,..-.... ~f'.
T~ + rem: = 1Jr~ 1
r~ + ~~ = T<:f;?;1;r
~ If'. '" +rfq
r;r. + 3Uq=~ q Certain (man)

Certain (woman)

Certain (thing)

In Sent-ences: 1. ::r.f~t( ~~: a certain man

2. ilfir~ ~1 a certain woman

3. fefi~ ~i{ a certain forest

99
INDEFI~ITE PRONOUNS
ending in ~, ~ I atfi:r in the different numbers
Singular Dual Plural
1 ~f~ ~~ ~
2 ~ ~T~ ~tf~
3 t~~ ~1+~~ ~II"
~r~~
4 ~~~~ ~i+<1f~ ~l.7.f~
5 ~;n~:q~ ~T+~ ~f~
e ~tJ~ ~f~ ~i;fj~
7 ~~+lf~ ~~ ~ Note: 1. The word r~ with, '<i<i' forms ~l:i"', ~:q"f, ~;q-"" ~;r etc. So also with <3{fq words like <iiTsfl:i', <til<iffq, ~sfq, <fiqfq etc. are formed in masculine gender.

2. <1iT'<I'''. ~'<l;r, <1iTlIiOf, <1iT;q-<I" etc. and Ef.yflf, ~SN, <1iT m-Rr, ~;p."fq etc. in feminine gender.

3. N;~;:y. ~~;r, '61fof'<l'"f etc. and r-nq fq ~ ~Srq <!i1';:~itr etc. in neuter gender.

~:

Atah

r-:

~Rf, ~'I.

Iti, Evam

~~~

Ittham

Iva

Eva

Kintu

:q Ca

mit Tatah

100

Some Indecliaables used very often Therefore I

I

Thus, so

In this manner

Like

Alone, Only

And

Then

But

Tatha

~:

Punah

gu

Pura

~] Va

~,

Vrtha

In that manner

Again

Long ago

Waste, in vain

Well

{(

Iha Here, in this world

:qsr

Amutra

In the heaven

Or

101

SENTENCES

mama pita patram alikhat. atah gramam gacchami

My father wrote a letter. Therefore I go to the village.

~: ~ (~) 3f..r~ ,

sah evam (iti) avadat

He said thus.

I

. '"

~ ~1t ~lf'

ittham tasmai kathaya

Tell him in this manner.

11~ ~: ~ mfij ,

mukham candrah iva bhati The face shines like the moon.

~:~~:,

psrthah eva dhanurdharah

Arjuna alone is the archer.

sah dhauavan, kintu putra htnah

He is rich. but he has no issues.

~: ~: ~ 31414((.1

tatah Ramah vanam agacchat

Thence Rama went to the forest.

102

~i ~P:I ~€ll ~: Fer~iil I

tatha kathayitva sah virarama

" After telling thus he kept quiet.

~: ffi ~'"tTriff I

punah tvam draksysmi

I shall see you again.

~ ;rn': ;nq ~'~i 3l+r~ I

pura nalah nama raja abhavat

In olden days there was a king called Nala.

~ ~f tH ~r~~ I

dhanarn vidyam va arjaya

Acquire money or education.

~i ~~ ilf ~rq~ I

vrtha kalam rna yapaya

Don't waste time.

fl tift q'6ft.r I

susthu patham pathasi

You read the lesson well.

{~ itt ~ ;r,~~ I

Iha lake sukham nasti

There is no happiness in this world.

103

INDECLINABLE ENDING IN 'St (TRA)

.. ~

3lSf
Atra Here
~
Tatra There
~
Kutra? Where
t:'
~
Sarvatra Everywhere
il~
Bahutra In several places
~
Ekatra At one place
,~ (~)
Yatra (tatra) Wherever (relati\le)
~~
Anyatra In other place
r:r~
Paratra In the heaven Note: The above indeclinables ending in ';{ denote .1 place or time.

104

Sentences with indeclinables ending in ~

3l~ ~ 3l~

atra tvam. agsccha

You come here

. ~

~5f 31& ~mJll

tatra aham gaccham]

There I will go

~: i5f ~ ~

sah kutra pathati

Where does he read?

sarvatra varssh patanti

The rain falls everywhere

~ ~~5f ~:

tvam bahutra dntah

You were seen in several places

te ekatra sammilitah

They met at one place

~ ~~: ~~ ~ ~~Q': lI~~~~

yatra dhenuh gacchati tatra vatsah anusarati

Wherever the cow goes the calf follows

105

3{;~ ij 3It 3I~

anyatra tam aham apasyam

1 saw him in another place.

3iij5l' ~~ ~ ~f6

amutra siisvatam sukham bhavati

There will be eternal happiness in the heaven.

~ ~(f~ 3lmr

ektra pustakam asti

The book is at one place.

ar.:~~: ,~

anyatra balah svapiti

The boy sleaps at another place.

106

FOURTH PART

(Exercises)

The intention of giving this Fourth part is to test the knowledge of the readers by themselves through reading and doing the translations given in the exercises in the next few pages,

In this part, no transliteration in Roman script for the sanskrit portion i~ given. So, the readers should read sanskrit portion without the help of such transliteration.

Some exercises in the form of (1) stories (2) Essays (3) conversations and (4) some exercises of translation from sanskrit to English and vice versa are given in this part.

The readers should practice by reading and translating English into sanskrit and vice versa with the experience gained from a study of the previous three parts.

The glossary given at the end will help to translate the sentences both in Sanskrit and English,

107
LESSONS
~:
1. ~: m;tr:~: I
2. ~:~~~,
3. m ~, ~ot ~ ~ ~m I
4. ~t~~~'
5. ~ llf~~ ~ ~N1.f~ I
6. ~\i~: ;r~m \1fp:r« I
7. ;r'4;{)~I~ ~ ~ I

8. ~:~, a:N, ~, ~ ~ q'ltf(f;{ ~~ I
9. m~ \1f~: ~: tt.\T~ ~
10. ~~:~~~l
11. ~: ~ a:~ r~ 3l~ I
,. 12. m;l:Tn ~erR: q~n ij"f..(1 I
13. ~i(q: ~:, ~m:, ~q' ~f;ij ,
14. f~: ~llTtq' ~~~~ f'Mf';ij I
15. ~:.qft~ *lfP:{ ~ I NOTE: Translate the Sanskrit matters in page Nos. 107, 109, 111 into English and compare it with the next pages.

108

THE COW

1. The Cow is a country animal.

2. The Cow gives sweet milk.

3, It eats grains, grass and straw.

4. The milk of the Cow changes into Curd.

5. The people churn the curd and make buttermilk.

6. Butter. forms from the curd.

7. From the butter the ghee forms.

S. The Milk, . curd. butter-milk and ghee are good for health.

9. The cow is being worshipped by the people of India.

10. The cow has two horns.

11. It has one long tail.

12. It has four legs.

13. The Cows are white. black and red.

14. Children and sick men drink cow's milk.

1 S. Protection of the cow leads to prosperity.

109

STORIES

1. qo~: ifqcp~

1. ~l1f~ ~tt ~sfq- lt~: _ l

2. ~1;f ~Ni~~ ijy~ ~~ ~: ~~ ~lt I

3. ilhl€S4iiTllf ~~: ~~ ftfSr ~ I 4, ilh~~~: ~~ ~ ~l

5. ~ij ~: ~ ;r ~A'~ ~~ I

6. 3Rt: m ~7.f ~'i'ien ~er:n~ 3N~~ f

7. ~Il~: ~ ~'7"ij~tf ~mn ~~ ~q I

8. ~qrG:ij~:~: 3lN ~;r ~ ~~ ~ I 9, ~ ~ R~'li ~~ ~~ 3Rl(q~PJ: I

10. ~'l ~~ ilh~ tfo"A: 3ll~ ~~~ ~q I

11. ~: ~~qR t~m;:r ~ 3f~ I

12. ij': ~ ~((T+trf ~ 3'H!;I~ I

13. ~ !~;r ~ ~tftt::iI~: ~sfq- ~ ~ i

14. 'tift ~~ ~~: ~ I

15. ~€si!4I41~: ~f~, ~~;:r ~ ?r.ft

~l

16. ~;r ~~ ~ ~ smN"~ I

17. 3M: ~~q ?rsft " I

110 STORIES

1. THE FROG AND THE MOUSE

I. There was a frog in a tank.

2. A mouse was living on the bank of the same tank.

3. Gradually the frog and the mouse became

friends.

4. One day the mouse wanted to swim in the tank.

5. But it did not know swimming.

6. Therefore, they consulted and tied their feet together with a thread.

7. Then the frog jumped and swam hither and thither.

8. The mouse with its leg tied was floating with it on the water.

9. In this way they enjoyed the swimming in the

water.

10. At that time an eagle was flying above,

11. It saw the mouse swimming in the water, q. At once it caught it and lifted with its feet.

13. Alas! the frog tied with the mouse was also hanging with it.

14. He happilly obtained both the frog and the mouse and killed and ate them,

15. The mouse living in the land made friendship with the frog living in the water.

16. Hence both of them died together.

17. Therefore. friendship of two persons of the same line only will work.

111

2. ~~m!

1. tfi~1l~ «~~ ~U ~n ~ I

2. ij ~T q~qt €Ii~((qf{fijt 3ITG~ I

3. iJ~~i W-l~~sftr ~: R:: ~ q~~q~sr1Rr ~q-

firij 3lfi: 3l~ I

4. ~~f~~:~: +i~!"Ifij~ ~ I

5. ~5fn~;r ij~~tf~~ qi(<<~ m~ I

6. ~: ~~ ~~ m~ 'mi£;:i{ ~ 3l'Ati' ~ 3l'T~rq~ I

~ 0

7. ij: ij~e{ ~rn~~ 3TI'~ I

8. ~~: ~~ ~~ aUW:fl, "~~~ ~ ~~ " ~~:ql

9. ~~, ~rrq ij ~~ ;r ~iifV{ffll

10. mi: ~: ~:, 'ij ~T~~ ~q ~ '-ilg ~~~, ~~-q~r~~ I

it ~~ rJ:~itfq ~~~ ~mf.(i~ f~~, R;{T ~ 3l~~~1

12. ij~T ~: 3N~~, "~:! ~~ ~ii! ~~: ~+l~PH ¥{~; ~ ~,~: I

13 3lij: ~ ~l iji1+r~ I ij~T ;r ~.sN ~lfR. ;n~ij " ~fij I

14. ~ ~i ~~ ij;({: ~~ I

112

THE STRENGTH OF UNITy

1. An oldman had four sons.

2. They were quarrelling always among themselves,

3. The old man could not make them friendly to

each other however much he tried.

4. One day the old-man was on the death bed.

5. All the sons were by his bed side.

6. The old man called one of them and ordered, " Bring a bundle of sticks, "

7. Accordingly, he brought a bundle of sticks,

8. The old man called one by one from among them and said, "you break this bundle of sticks. "

9. But, nobody could break it.

1 O. Then the old man said, "You untie the bundle of sticks and break each of them separately."

11. Everyone of them took one stick and quickly broke it without difficulty.

12. Then the oldman said, = oh sons, a single stick was broken by you easily; but not the bundle of sticks.

13. Therefore you should be always united. Then nobody can trouble you."

14. Thus he explained to them the strength of unity.

113

CONVERSATION (about limbs)

~(~\1~) lfW.-~~Y

Q. What is this '1

~~-«tN~1

R. This is my body.

sr. ~7.f~: iii Y

Q.

What are the parts of the body?

~7.f ~: ftT~:, ~:, ~:, ~t ~T, qr~, ~tT: (~(U~: I

The parts of the body are head, neck, chest, belly.

-a'.

R.

hands, feet, fingers etc.

~. ~ mm Ni ~ ~ t

Q. What are the parts in your head?

~. ~ ftRftt it ~ it ~, ~ ~T, ~, ~;t, ~~: ~~7.f: ~ I

R. There are two eyes, two ears, the nose, the mouth.

a tongue, teeth etc. in the head.

1I. ~ ~~ft ~2

Q. What do you do with your eyes?

\1. ~ ~SIl.'7.ft ~7.fIfir I

R. I see with my eyes. 8

114-

$f, ~ tlilJfl+1.lf it eroN ?

Q. Wbat do you do wuh your ears?

a- . 31~ ~llTi~~t SllOfTfu I

R. I bear with my ears.

$f, ~ rrrfu~r f.t efiufrl ?

Q. What do you do with your nose?

~ . 31~ ~Tf(lefi1.ff fir~nfir I

R. I smell with my nose.

Jf. ?r q~~~ ~ ~)fq ?

Q. What do you do with your mouth ?

~. 31~ q~q 31,* +r~r.nfu I

R. I eat with my mouth.

31'. ~ ~~1.fr f~ ~UN?

Q. What do you do with your tongue 7'

\I. 3lt ~~~n ~ij1.frfij I

R. I taste with my tongue.

31' • ~ ~;:ij: fefi ~)fq- y

Q. What do you do with your teeth?

~. ~e:~: ~~ I

R. I chew with my teeth?

lIS

~. (OJ qta:T+~ rep tfiUN ~

Q. What do you do with your feet?

s. 3{~ qT~T~qt :q~f+r I

R. I move with my feet.

~. ~ &:~~~ttt ~ ~ufq ~

Q. What do you do with your hands?

~. 3{~ ~~ijf+~t q~~ ~Tfu J

R. I take things with my hands.

~. ~ lI~~~'Tnn N; ~m 1

Q. What do you do with your fingers?

\1. 3l~ 3l~~itf+r: ~oPtTfi{ I

R. I count with my fingers.

31'. ~trO: i~ ~ ~

Q. Where is the neck ?

f' t'_

~ . ~1]~: r?iH«: 3l~<f«{ ~ij(f I

R. The neck is below the head.

Sf. ~~ ~~T, f~ ~ ~ ?

Q. What are there below the neck?

~. ~~~ ~~ ~,:, ~t, ~, ~ l8 ~~ ,

R. Below the neck there are chest, belly, hands

and feet.

116

PLA Y-GROUND

~;n-~ ~~?

Q. What is this?

\1~n:i{-~ mfWOTl{ I

A. This is a play ground,

!I. $fi~fIU'r iJ~r: ~ i~ ?
Q. What do the boys do in the I
pay-ground?
i3'. ~{wUl ql~: $fi~fkf I
A. The boys play in the play-ground.
~. ;rr~n ~ ~~ ~
Q. How do the boys play?
\1- .!:>
iI1m: ~~: ~q ,
A. The boys play with balls.
'T. ij':~: it ~ 7
Q. What is that boy doing?
~. ~:r: ~: ~~~ ~~ ~~ I
A. That boy is striking the ball with the hat, 117

sr. ~: ~~~?

Q. What is the other boy doing?

s, arw=~: ~~~;r ~ ~RreoTf.[ I

A. The other boy stops the ball with his bat.

sr· am! ~~1 ~ 3lTirq:_ Y

Q. Oh l What has happened now?

s. ~~Cfi: \i'~ 3ITq t{~~r ~TN~n 1

A. The ball has escaped from both of them and run

away,

3{. 3lir ~tF: wm m~ ?

Q. Why the other boy is running?

s, aN ~~~ ~m ~rt{fij I

A. He is running to catch the ball.

~. ~: i4" ~: ~(j ~~ y

Q, Why all the boys are making claps?

6'. 3l7.fmtr ~ ~~ 'lrn~n I 3l<i: i€r ~~~ Efi{ijM ~ ~ I

A. This boy also did not catch the ball and fell down.

So, all are laughing and clappiag.

118

THE SUN

ijT~:-~n~! ~fn t1i~~t Rf~ ~~rn y

Father. Son, in which direction the sun rises?

~~:-ijrij ! «.~: ~~tff ~fu a"~fu I

Son. Father! the sun rises in the eastern direction.

ijfij:-tr: efi~1lt fu~ 3T~ij ~:;~m y

Father. In which direction he sets?

~: -~: ~'f:;qt ~fu 3T~~ iT:;~ffi I

Son. He sets out in the western direction.

ijfij: -~11f '3l~+nt feti ~~~~I{ y

father. What is the use of the sun to us?

~a: -~~: 3T~qT;f; ~tIiT~ t a"lili( ~ tf:;~ I

Son. The sun gives us light and heat.

~:-~tT~'~ ~ +reffif ~

Father. What is the effect of the sun's light?

ijQ:-~~~T~~ ~T~: 'l~~ I

Son. The darkness disappears by the sun's light.

119

Father. What does the heat of the sun do?

~~I:-ij,~~ ~11f: ~TfOT~: ~~Rr I ~ ~~: ~~~: iNl'l ~;rQRr I

Son. The sun's heat protects the living beings. And the sun creates clouds with his hot rays.

fflo:-~ ~ij: ~;n: \~tf~ ?

Father. Why do people worship the sun god?

!Jij:-~: !T~TIlTt 3TN'l! I 3lfq- ~ ~~~: ~~ ~~Rr I 3lij: ~~r: ij \~~ I

Son. The sun is the head of the planets. And also he protects the entire world. Therefore the people worship the Sun god.

Some of the names of the Sun god :-

,,~ A-- ('

~3rfl<i.~:, ~1"I'1I, ~lf:

\C1rr:, ~r, rr~~C{~~ I

120

~r~nqrJf~~

1. w:n~1.f1qf ({~~~.n ;fIJI tnTr 3Tm~ t ~. ij~~ Rm': +n~: 31R1¥{ J

3. ~: ~1Jf ~(!qr, ~1.fl, W~ :q t

!'

4. ~t=( l{P1f~ :qffi~: ii1HT: 3Tm'lt=CI r

5. ~ !f~Ti{: ~Ur: tliT~l1r~r: ~5f: I

6. mrT1.f: ~~(R ..t~t#.ln 9;31": I

7. ~1.f -:q~~T ~ijllf ~m tWrSTFm .~ r

8. ~i~: N«: 3lT~~r q-ij 31q~ I

9. ij;; Q'{ ~~ijlJT:, m-~r :q' 31~3mi{ I

10. ~r;raiT ;rrif ~'aJ«: ~ «TijT 3(~~ I 11 q:m~~~~~'1

12. ~ij: ~N~~ @lr~l1ft ~~ :q ~~ 31~ ,

13. ~~~«~ ijei''?:i ~(Itrf m~ 3T~~ I

14. qr;r~n ij~ ~ij aTq~~ I

15. ~'+r: ~(f ~r ~ ~«f'{ ~r;rrir :q ~~V{ t

16. ~:~: ij)'ij1.I'f ~~ 31~\itri 3If'f I

17. ~\i(fltrl ~T~tf '&1~: ~lfe!f{ I

121

THE STORY OF RAMAYANA

1. There was a king named Dasaratha in Ayodhya.

2. He had three consorts.

3. They were Kausalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra,

4. Four sons were born to them.

5. Rama the first among them was the son of Kausalya.

6. Bharatha the second was the son of Kaikeyi.

7. Lakshmana and Satrughna, the third and the fourth. were the sons of Sumitra,

8. By the command of his father Rama left for the forest.

9. Lakshmana and Sita followed him.

10. A Rakshasa, Ravana by name, took away Sita,

11. He kept her at Lanka.

12. Rama made friendship with Sugriva the king of monkeys and Hanuman,

13. Hanuman jumped over the sea and saw Sita at

Lanka.

14. The Monkeys built a bridge over the Sea.

15. Rama went to Lanka and killed Ravana.

16. Then he returned Ayodhya with Sita.

17. The Coronotion of Ranta was celebrated at Aycdhya.

122

+tTl1e{ij~~r

1. 1t?l~r.:m~ ~~o:r: ~fij ~T~r m~:ft~ I

2. ij~ ;t«t mr· ~:, ~q6fft ~Rr ~ :q 3T~~ I

3. ;t~: ~~:, ~T~gl1fm~~ I

4. «! ~fip.rH f?r;rf~ ;r~~o:r ij~ 3l~~~ I

5. ffl ~;'im ,~ ~m1.f qiij": ~Cfir ~~ 3F-f~~ I

6. 1t~~mq,' ~ ~«! w.t ~fir;:1.fn 31!q: if~: ~ett ~~~1.fRr' ~rn 3l~R~~ iti«: ~uIT~ I

7. ~ffit: ~ffi ~q: ~ftt;r1, q~~ :q tfir~T~ ;:1.f~q~ I

8. ~: ~A: ~iji{rSfT'l. ~ij: ~~n'l I

9. 3l~ ~Hr ~~ q~: ~~1.f'~ 'li=G\inq;Z~ ~q1.fRr ~1t I

10. ij;f ~r~~Ji{PTj ~ I

11. iti«: m ~ U~m'l_ ~ I

.'

123

THE STORY OF BHAGAVATA

1. There was a king named U grasena in the city called Mathura.

2. He had a son Kamsa by name and a daughter called Devaki.

3. Kamsa Was wicked and possessed the qualities of Demons.

4. He celebrated the marriage of his sister with Vasudeva.

5. Kamsa seated the couple in a chariot and he himself drove the chariot.

6. On the way, Kamsa heard an oracle thus 'Oh Kamsa, your sister's eighth child will kill you.'

7. Having heard this, Kamsa kept both Vasudeva and Devaki in prison.

8. Kamsa killed the sons of Devaki as and when they were born.

9. Vasudeva being afraid of Kamsa, sent the son of eighth delivery to the place of Nandagopa,

10. There Krishna grew up with Balarama.

11. Kamsa sent Rakshasas to kill both of them.

124

12.

~ta.alij~~ ~T?lQTw{ ~'l ~Tqriwn ~'1(~\'II' I

~: ~~~ ~ 3T~t«( I

q~ ~~-~~(~ iI('l ~t~m~ 3l{~ l ~~IJr: ~~~l(tfft~~t: ~~-~~t fW.r: \1~ir I

q: ~(;rt m~ ~ I ~: ~'1'~l.f ~~l.f~ ~~ I

$: llT~ ~N;JTa:r.r. ~ ~I'l 3Tfft~~~ t

13. 14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

19.

iilij(qijd ~

• (I

~T~~~I

~1~~iIW~

~ crv~ ~'i. II

'<)

125

12. Rama and Krishna killed Pntana, Sakatasura, Bakasura and other Rakshasas.

13. Sri Krishna killed Kamsa his maternal uncle.

14, Thereafter he killed a number of Rakshasas like Sisupala and Dantavaktra,

15. Sri Krishna married Rukmini, Satyabhama and thousands of women.

16. Sri Krishna helped Pandavas.

17. He even served as a charioteer to Arjuna,

18. Arjuna killed a number of wicked men like Duryodhana in the Bharatha battle.

t 9. Thus he got rid of a number of wicked persons and relieved the world of evil persons.

126

ij~+t I{tl ct4.;q I

1. ~ftq;rl~ ~ij~~: tn~: ~fijit ;(1(fU ~Qlf{ l

2.

mT~: ~;:~:, 'f(~: q'~mr I

~~: iijl:'~: ~~g'1t q{Qn ~~'~ir 3l1t~a: I ~~~~1t ~1l1~;rT~1t: ~ ~;rJ: 3l~~ I

qrqiT: ~~~~:, ~~;ri, ~;r:, ;r~(_1:, ~~~: ~fij' q~ ~;p:n: ::1lT~ I

il"qaJ qru\g;n;rf ~~~r ~'~Ta: I l#.fl~: ~ijW{ qffJ~qri=li ~l~ir 3lqr~~~ I

~ .

~'~1;f~H q{QigqJ: S::TqQl ~ q;{ 3l~~ I

ij- qij q{f;J ~lfW{ ~cr~tr.t. I tT~qq~~ ij ~ ;:~~ I

;r~~ ~ 3lij(qttRf m~~ :q~ I

3.

4.

5.

6



7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

127

THE STORY OF MAHABHARATA

1. There were two brothers Dhrtarastra and Pandu in the city called Hastinapura.

2. Dhrtarastra was blind and Pandu was a victim of leucoderma.

3. The elder brother Dhrtarastra gave half of his kingdom to his younger brother Pandu,

4. Dhrtarasjra had hundred sons named Duryodhana, Dussasana and the like.

5. P1il)!}U had five sons Dharmaraja, Bhimasena, Arjuna Nakula and Sahadeva .

6. Draupadi was the consort of the Pandavas.

7. After winning a gambling Duryodhana took the kingdom of Pandavas.

8. The Pandavas driven out from the kingdom went to forest along with Draupadi.

9. They met with a number of difficulties in the forest.

10. They spent twelve years in the forest.

11. They spent their thirteenth year in the city of Virata in disguise.

128

12. ~ ~ 'F'= ~~ SI~~qt ~ ~~

31'1"00'( I

13. ~~:'~~~I

14. ~: ~(61qI'JtcU~i lI~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I

15. \l~ itpT: qtUCClIWlf "'-.1

16. ~: ~~~ ~~iji""'?Sf ~ I

17. lftliiiitijni(~: ·~::iNWl.: ~. ~ij"(: l

18. ~~-~:~f«illi(~: ~~: r

19. ~: ~~: 'fIf~'€f4~ 31;:CWfiet( I

129

12. In the fourteenth year they demanded Duryodhana to give back the kingdom.

13. The greedy Duryodhana did not desire to return the kingdom.

14. Then, there took place a great war between the kauravas and Pandavas at Kurukshetra,

15. Lord Krishna sided to the Pandavas.

16. He served as the charioteer of Arjuna,

11. Bhishma, Drona and the like were killed by Arjuna.

18. Duryodhana, Dussasana and others were killed by Bhima.

19. Afterwards Dharmaraja enjoyed his coronation.

9

130

Translate into EngUsh:-

fqg: 31~~1 q{~:

~~T ~~~ftr;tlq iR: _ I ~~ ~~n s;:sn: ~ifq'll ~ ~;rn: q~~.Tq: I ~tf :srWfwft ~~ mz:rm .. m ~ ~itTti ffi'~ \ji¥r m ;r 31f{<t~11 ~~m +Fr)~(~ 'T~T ~~fir: m ~ ~ au~~,

(letfq WIT 4ffii{€f~ ~'if ~ ~~ ~ fij(f(;ij·rOO :srll~: q~Tii 3{if~-" tRB', ~ i[ffl~ ~ t{t~lf" ~ I ~: fq-f!~(~f fu\~:n q~, Q~ ~;r;ff m-~ ~ ~~ fq~-

~

!:{~~m

I ~aff ~+FHfl'I. I

~q~i1'Ttt I

ij;r ~~an ~Rnftm ~qa:ftf:, "tR~, ~ ~ H ~ o~:jf~J~ I ij~ ~U{h "if lfRi1, ~ ~ ~: ~Mgg;:" ~R eR q?t I 1T~~~" ~S~ij H it~f ~liij~~~~ ijF{ ~:stt\It1l.i~ I ~~,~: 3li~I$4~~.Vf q~~ H~: fq~~Tfij, ~~;rq1, ii~ :q d m8Sifi{1 3Rf:-" ~T !!~ ~:qT~ofPn I "

131

Translate into Sanskrit:-

SURPANAKHA EPISODE

Surpanakha was the younger sister of Ravana. One day Rama and Sita were sitting in their cottage. Lakshmana was cutting some woods out side of the cottage. Surpanakha came there and saw them. She wanted to become the wife of Rama,

She went near him and said, "Sir. I am Ravana's sister, My name is Surpanakha. I want to marry you. Kindly accept my request." But Rama replied, "You see, my wife is here with me. There stands my younger brother, Lakshmana. He has no wife. If you can approach him certainly he will accept you as his wife.

Then Surpanakha went to Lakshmana. She said to him, "Your brother sent me to you. I want to be your wife." Lakshmana said, = Oh innocent lady, I am the servant of Rama. Do you want to become the wife of a servant? "

Surpanakha thought for a while. She came back to Rama and requested him again to marry her. At this moment Sita laughed. Surpanakha became angry and ran towards Sita to kill her. But Lakshmana immediately cut the nose and ears of Surpanakha with his sword.

132

Translate into English:-

"q{~: ~e{~~"

efi~1.f~ ~ ~~~1.f ~ i£~~: i~~~ 31lJqijf~ t et.~tf i f+.ta:_ ~T;r ~~ :qRn ij'~1.f ~~~~1.f ~~ 3lT~'

f ' •

ffl~ ~~~~: il~~'~ ~q~1.fm¥( I ~r: +('!f1Jf ~~~;n

~off ~~ I ~ ~T if~~: 3TTfr-"fir;r, ~: ~~nfti;;{: ~~ .~~~~(( I iq: ~4 ~£lft regfu Y" mr I

iCfi (: SR1.f~.ij_: - "~~ ij tr~~ I ~ir ~ir ~;rT~'f Y ~ q<ria ~ ;r ~Rr I 3f~ q~ t.f~ ~f~1.fRr" d~r I

. ~

~~ JR9;~~ ~ij~~;r: ij' ~¥(:t ~;r{f~ :a'~T-

qrq~ ~: ~~ I ,~Wi i£~~1Jf *ffl: ~u: ~fij ~;{Tij_ ~~T~ ~f&: q~p:rU{fij: I ij(ct$: ~~: ~t«~~fcrl1T f~T~ !TT'f I ij ~~ t(~ il{ qf~: ~1.fRr ij~f ~T~ ~q ij;f RrlWr ~lt I ~: 3lRr~Wi ~~~I~CfiTRoi ~ ~Tiji{ ~ijT ~Wi &Rf« ~~~~ t ~tfij I 3(tfft~::r;urw ~ lWJf iCfi~t( ~ir

~ ~ ~ ,

. Wi ~~~1.f I t(Q: i£~l{: 3{~lt t€l~ r't_ 3RT: ~({Rr

~;:q~ I ~ij o;_;r et~~-"qwql111.J1q{:" ~ ,

133

Translate into Sanskrit:-

A WOLF AND A STORK

Once a wolf killed a goat and ate it. A bone got struck up in its throat. Crying with severe pain he wandered about in the forest. Seeing a stork, the wolf begged of him, "Friend, take away the bone in my throat with the help of your long neck. I will give you a very big reward for your help. "

Accepting the request. the stork put its long neck into the mouth of the wolf and took out the bone.

The wolf was relieved of the pain and felt happy.

The stork requested the wolf for the promised reward. but the wolf replied angrily, "what a stupid fellow you are! when your neck was with in my mouth, I did not cut it into two with my teeth. I left you alive. Is that not enough reward for you? .,

The stork went away repenting for the help he had rendered to a wicked person.

134

Translate into Engllshr->

~OUuiSJI'1i'fr ~

~~ti~ ~tfR~tT ~ ~~ ~T 3ll1'.~ t ~n JrRr~;i ~~ ~;rarTui ~;r7lffl ~q I ~~i~r Q' ~q~: ~ ~qarToi 3lrqir f?r~i(f ~<S>~~ ~'l m~V{d~mt{~T: ~~tfr ~e:+~ qrqtTi{r~ij' I

~l1M"a:AA ~ ~tfr~: ~qi{V{fu ~t(~ij~~--"31~, 3lPlT! ~~1.m 3{~c; tT~FIl~R~l f;r~~ ~rn I ;r :st;:(ftRf.f~) +renfi.r I ~f ~ +m Jfftfta:e:t ~ ~qurio~ f;r~;:r e:~Rr I ~,~tfT: \1~ ~{R 3lO~rR ~~: I tT~ ~~ 3l~~H \1~ ~T~~~ ~ ~~q ~ ~{fij ~tfllTiu~{R ~~~ I QTR ij'errfar Ni4fhl ~~c; ~~;r il'{fvr ~~~rR qu'lr~ str~tt , mf;r ~r+rf~ ~q ~'l;rFl +rfsr~<frfi.r" d~r I

~;( f;r~ ij': m ~df 3l~O:S<f~ I ~! ~tfU i3'~ Riqfq ~ Q' ;rrq1i~ I ~: ~er~<ri' ~·q~r~rq '3l~ij I

"iiQ~'~q ~t5ir ft~fq ;:r~~ I"

135

Translate into Sanskrit:-

A CLEVER TRAVELLER

On a certain day in summer, a traveller was walking through a forest. When it became noon, he grew very thirsty and tired. As all the pools and rivers were dry, he could get no water any where to quench his thirst.

At last he came to the foot of a coconut tree.

There were many coconuts on it. But the tree was very tall and the coconuts were beyond his reach.

Seeing many monkeys sitting on the tree the wise traveller hit upon a plan. He took a few stones from the ground and threw them repeatedly at the monkeys.

Thereupon the monkeys whose habit is to imitate others. plucked the coconuts and threw them at the traveller to hit him. He picked up those coconuts with great joy. He quenched his thir~t with the sweet water in them and went on his way.

Common sense is the best companion for man.

I I

136

Translate into English:-

~q~~~:

~fflT ~~~H': ij"~~ ~~~ ~~~: ~ qqTij I ~+n1: ~T~ ~~fu! ~~~ ~~: ;n~'ti_, ~n ~?T~a: ~~:ql~.r;tft (f~~ atl~~(f 3lTS{+mt ~~~

I'

3lq~1~ I

!I+lrij' ~~~~ ~ft \ff~i~ij ~ i!it' \ff~T;r I ~r .~~~ qt i{'""qT, 3l;:ij111'!l 3NO{l(~1 i!q~%lij ~

'3l~ I ~(J: UT ~~T ~ ~?T~F{ ~'"l 3l~~~ I

~ ~q~ft~mif~q ~G1'1~qr* i!+ttroT ,~:1::{T ~'G~I ~ij,~~ I .:;r~W{ ~f.li ij' ~: q'f'Sr 3Tq~ I f?r.~ ~ ~fu;mtr ~~qr~r"l !I~T~ ~1 ~+t1~1.f ~(JTRrvl~ ~~~ ijft+t~ ~~ '~lg;rq: ~~ I

ij;Y ij ~(J;rij;:~;:cr I ~;f ij;:1.fijT~ mt:n:;Y~~tf

" ~

~;r ~~ ~ 4{m 3l~(f1lrTti: I ~ ij ~of ~~ ~~T

q~q~~~ ~ ~f.tfij ~iR ~~ ~~ij ~~~ -srf~ I

137

Translate into Sanskrit:-

UNEQUAL FRIENDSHIP

A bear and a man were friends. They two were travelling through a forest. At noon, they both sat at the shade of a. tree. The man, though, oppressed by sleep, could not sleep as a fly often flew over his face.

Seeing this the bear thought, "I shall kill this fly that troubles my friend. " So thinking, he struck with his paw the fly that was on his face. The stroke did indeed kill the fly; but at the same time tore the face of the man. Therefore friendship with an unequal person is always dangerous.

LEARNING IS GREATER THAN WEALTH

A brahmin had two sons. He gave all his property to his elder son. He gave no property to the younger. But he taught him all sciences. In course of time the elder son married. He become a father of some children.

He spent all his property on his family and became poor. But the younger son earned much wealth by his learning and lived happily. It is the learned man who is always happy.

138

Some Moral Passages EDUCATION

Am ~~ ~ ~~ qtf'ij q~~ I ~ent ~m~)fij ~'l~ ~q ~: ~ "

Learning gives modesty; by modesty man attains worthiness; because of worthinesss he obtains money; with money he is able to give Charity and from that he attains happiness.

~f~l ~ ~~f;{~ Ft~pff ~ ~~q_ ~'(. ~~rNf{: ~ ferQ', ~ Nm~rr: ~ "

If you want comfort you should give up learning; if you desire to acquire learning you should abandon comfort. How can a person who wants comfort acquire learning? And how can a person enjoy comfort who wants to learn?

3Tf€it~ qt~~ q,~ ftrttf: ~mtil I ~ Q'I&(OftfR+tf: q,~ ~~1Jf ~ I'

A student gets one quarter of his learning from his teacher; one quarter through his own intellect. another quarter from his class-mates and the last quarter in course of time.

\

, I

, I

139

~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~I~W1 I ~ 't~tffl ~T~ f?m~ • '{~~ II

Scholarship and kingship can never be equal to each other. A king is honoured only in his own country while a scholar is honoured everywhere.

~m~ ~ tiT ~T ~~ :q q~~~ I ~~~ ~~q;ir Wf m ~ ;r ~;r~ II

The learning which is only in books but not brought to memory, and the money that has been lent to others will not serve their purpose at the time of need.

'lT~(\, mtTqir :q~: 'iT~tI ~qG'i{ tlf{: I ;rtful ~tqqij ~:~ ;ri~tI ~<llqqij ~~ II

There is no eye equal to learning; there is no penance equal to truth; there is no grief equal to. attachment and no happiness equal to renunciation.

ON THE WICKED

~ ~~ l{:s{ m~ ~ifTrrq~ I ~ ~tf1tit~'* m R~~nTf;r~tf611l:. I"

Abandon the company of the wicked and get into good company. Do virtuous deeds day and night. Always bear in mind the instability of things.

140

~;r: qR~otTt~se'~~ffi'sfq ~ , lTfUf~T ~: ~&:, ~t«ft " ~: It

A wicked person should be avoided thoughhe is well educated. A serpent though adorned with a gem is certainly frightful.

~~;:r ~ ~~~ " errtil' t=( CfiH~ I ~~) ~~ffl ~m~: ~r1q: ~UfT~ tW( "

Do not make either friendship or enmity with wicked persons. If the coal is hot it burns the hand and jf it is cold blackens it.

3'q"~m- f{ ~llJf ~)tn<f if ~Pij~ I tP.{:ql~ ~~~r;rt ~~~ ~~~i{q II

The advice given to fools will make them angry and does not pacify them. A drink of milk given to serpents only increases their poison.

~T~: ~OT: ~: ~: it ~t N4ifil~tIT: J ~~~ ij'¥Wlt~ ~: tIiT~: fq~: m: u

The crow is black, so also the cuckoo. There is no difference between the crow and the cuckoo. But during -the spring the crow is distinguished as a crow and the cuckoo as a cuckoo (by their respective voices).

141

ON THE VIRTUOUS ~p:nl"(~~~ i~ ~E[ti' fijg(;a· :q,~ I 'hePr'6 :q 'HT~!I ;(H~~~S(m: "

The big trees Provide shadow t~ others but them. selves stand in the sun. They bear fruits only for others not for their own sake. '

~~tft, 7.£: ~t~: ij'T~ ij~q it gIlT: I 3lq~R!I 7.£! m~: « ~: .:;tf~ I'

What is the goodness in a man If he is good to those who helped him. Only such person is considered good who is kind even to those who have done him harm.

gUf~'l~~ tiTre ;:r'FiTsfq tft~ I ~qlTT~'~Uf i.~ fu~fu ~W It

Even a mean person gets honour by the association of great people just like the fibre is worn on the head by the contact of garland.

m;re ~q ~~ qa:~Q{ ~: I 3l1~ ~~Wf: :q;:~ " R'fflla- It

Great men never change their nature though they get into contact with bad things. the sandal tree does not become poisonous though surrounded by serpents.

~R ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~«&1~ , ~~ crt ~~ R;t~ f;(tra ~ "

A wiseman should give up his wealth and life for others' sake. When the destruction of the both is sure it is better to sacrifice them for such cause.

142

~I~ij~: ~tf ~fij~: I ~~7.fT1=~ ~~'T~ fSri(ijuq. ~ I'

The association of great persons elevates all. The street water also is adored by gods if it is mixed up with ganges.

ON GOOD SON

~RPl~iQJt 3lm~RfT ijijT tR~ I G~ ~R~~~Itt1~, 3l~~ij ~ ~ I'

Among the three kinds of sons, unborn, dead and foolish, these that are unborn or dead are preferable, for the first two cause grief but once, while the last gives grief at every step.

fS{~eiT ~qft ~ ;r :q ~(f~ I ~eJi~: ~1U ~~ ;r ~ m~T'1aiTsfq :q U

A single son having good qualities is better than hundreds of fools. A single moon destroys the darkness while a group of stars cannot do so.

~fq ~~ ~~~;r ijlT~T I enfuif ij~ ij~ ij~StIJf ~ Qm II

Even with a single good tree which is full of flowers and fragrance the whole forest becomes sweet smelling, just as a whole family becomes famous by OT'.e good son.

143

Words of Wisdom

~~

Speak the truth.

~~~

Act according to virtue.

lll~~

Treat mother as god.

fq~~ ~

Treat the father as god.

~pi~~

Treat the teacher as god.

Treat the guest as god.

~;f ~ f;r;~

Have no contempt for food.

~T~

Give away with pleasure.

3l~ 3l~"

Don't give away with indifference.

~~iUr ~er 3l~: ij'

You are empowered only to do your duty.

tm~ Slr:~ ~~U~

One is honoured by giving away.

144

'= •

~q~~:~

Whatever you leave to other's control will be mere sorrow.

~ 3tr~~~ ~'{.

Whatever you have under thy control will be happiness.

~T3I'f. ~ir ;rT~ ~mqrqQ('{

There is none else than mother who can foster

mt~+t ;rT~ ~~m'tQ(i{

There is none else than worries to weaken the body.

l{p·n«~ ;rr~ij ~q~)qIJff.{

There is none else than wife who can make happy.

Rm«ir ~n~q ~'T~~'fU1l{

There is no other ornament for the body other than learning.

q~~l~'1.f ~ijf N~l.f:

The asset of noble persons is only to help others.

~~)'i~~~ ~;:f ~~q ;rP-l~

There is no other wealth than contempt.

q.;T<?i: ~Qm q.;t1.fifOI

The time alone fulfils all works.

145

sWfqft:cr~ ~

Too much familiarity breads contempt.

3RfiFi~~

Whatever is unprotected by us is being protected

by the Almighty.

~: ~l~ ~ ~ij

Do the work intended for tomorrow today itself.

ij~al~~ R~~~

Detachment arises from association with good people.

('. .-

~tJ~ 3('(u:R S(rlJfij~R:IJfT~

E,t to live.

\t~R: ~mh

Unity achieves the object.

q iJ~ll~it ~;rtT;r~'A;r'{

Live not in poverty in the midst of kinsmen.

WI q~ ~;r: ~Rit~

Good people do not talk; but act.

f~ ~Tf.r~ ~~l.f R'~1Jf

The life of an illiterate is a waste.

l(~fflit m:

People imitate each other. 10

146

~N~~ ii~f;ffir it llRf:

I consider the fate alone is all powerful.

~:ftqa- ~ ~7;fT~

Have compassion for the suffering.

«~ ~1~ ~art{_

Eloquence is an ornament at all times.

mn~: '&It

An uneducated is a beast.

irCfilr«~: ij~ ~

Mayall live happily.

~1T _ If.!~

Mayall witness prosperity.

~ ij1~~: ~f;ijt ~nf;~:

Om, Peace, peace, peace.

FIFTH PART

(Roots and Verbal Derivatives)

It is a common fact that every part of speech in a language-whether it is a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verb, an adverb or an indeclinable-derives its form from the root in that language just like the branches, leaves, fruits etc, of a tree, from its roots.

The Sanskrit language; possesses more than 2200 roots from which all the forms in Sanskrit anguage have been derived.

These roots are arranged into ten groups and they are having separate conjugational signs of their own.

In this book, a few roots which are used very com. monly, are only given. A thorough study of these roots is sufficient to enable one to handle this Language satisfactorily.

SANSKRIT VER.BS AND TERMINATIONS

The Roots are generally divided into three groups: (1) Atmanepada (2) Parasmaipada, (3) Ubhayapada.

148

Each verb has six tenses and four moods as shown below:-

S. No. Sanskrit English
terms terms
I, ~ Present tense
2. ~ Imperfect
3. .~~ Aorist
4. fCR Perfect tense
"
5. ~~ First future
6. ~ Second future
7. ~ Conditional mood
8. OO~~~ Potential mood
...
9. Benedictive mood
10. ~ Imperative mood Time

Present

}p~,

} Future

Potentiality

Benediction

Imperative

149
Personal Terminations
Parasmaipada Atmanepada
Present Tense
III. Per. f{{ ~: ~ ~ ~ aR
II. Per.' m ~: ~ , ~it q.
I. Per. fiI ~: l(t ~ ~ ~
Imperfect (past) Tense
III. Per. ~ ~T¥{ ~ ij ¢ ar.:~
u. Per. ~ ~ ij' ~: ~¥( ,,~
I. Per. ~ q li ~ ~ ~
Future Tense
III. Pers. ~ ~: ~ ~~ff ~
II. Pers. "if« ~: t1.N' ~Qfil ~~
I. Pers. ~ Qif'-f: ~1f: ~ ~~ P.fHlt
Imperative Mood NOTE: Only the forms of present-tense, imperfect- III. Per. Q'~ (fl1{ 3f.=ij
tense, second future and imperative moods are II. Per. -,~ ~ ~
given for some roots in the next few pages. Per. snfir 3lR 3ltif
I. 150 151
1st 31~'"4§¥J\ ~"'~~(et 3I"I~''1
PARSMAIPADA TERMINATIONS
'" (~) agaccham agacchava agacchama
Gam (Gaeh) = To go I went We two went We went
Present-tense Future. tense
Person Singular Person Singular Dual Plural
Dual Plural ~fiI'itffir f(fu~~n qfiI~
3rd
3rd if~fij i'~('f: ~14§f;ij gamisyati gamisyatah gamisyanti
gacchati gacchatah gacchanti He will go They two will go They will go
He goes They two go They go 2nd iffu~ ~fiI~~: t{~
2nd ;T~m gamisyasi gamisyathah gamisyatha
~5~: if~ Thou will go You two will go You will go
gacchasi gacchathah gacchatha t{fq~mr trlli~et: ilfiI~li:
Thou go You two go You go Ist
~ gamisyami gamisyavah gamisysmah
1st ·1'~~I;;r: ~~: J will go We two will go We will go
gacchami gacchavah gacchsmah Imperative mood
I go We two go We go ~~f
3rd ~, ·1"4§~
Imperfect (Past) tense q;;:;~Qt~
3rd gacchatu, gacchatsm gacchantu
~"(~ ~~~ ~.(~'t gacchatat
agacchat agacchatam agacchan Let him go Let they two go Let they go
He went They two went They went 2nd ~t ~ ~
2nd ~q~: ~l~~~4( 3(~ ~~f~ gacchata
gaccha, gacchatam
agacchah agacchatam agaeehata gacchatat
Thou went You two went You-went Let thou go Let you two go Let you go 152 153
Ist 4''4§tR ~1f ,,~ ~Cfft: ~~
~i~~lq l st ~
gacchani gacchava gacchama avarte avartavahi avartii.mahi
Let me go Let us two go Let us go- I was We two were We were
ATMANEPADA TERMINATIONS Future-tense
~ (Vrt) = to be 3rd ~~ ~ruli~ij ~~6
Present- tense vartisyate varti~yete varti~yante
Person Singular Dual Plural He will be They two will be They will be
3rd m ~ ~;:a- 2nd ~Ii~ ~~ ~~
vartate vartete vartante vartisyase vartisyethe vartisyadhve
He is They two are They are Thou will be You two will be You will be
2nd qij~ ~~ tRt\)~ ~ ilMlitflilt ~T~
1 st
vartase vartethe vartadhve vartisye varti~yavahe vartisyamahe
Tbou are You two are You arc I will be We two will be We will be
Ist ;jij Ci~f;r~ ~~ Imperative-mood
varte vartavahe vartamahe 3rd ;fflijt ~ -~
I am We two are We are vartatam vartetam vartantam
Imperfect-tense Let him be Let they two be Let they be
3rd ~ "'" . (' • ~~ ('
~ ~;.r~~ ~ 2nd q~~ff..
avartata avartetam avartanta vartasva vartetbam vartadhvam
He was They two were They were Let thou be Let you two be Let you be
2nd ~~: ~~t ~eRi~ l.st d ~rn: ,~qft
avartathah avartethsm avartadhvam varte vartavahi vartamahi
Thou were You two were You were Let me be Let us two be Let us be 154 ISS
fi (~!) = Kr (Kar) To do 1st ~ ~ 3lilT
(UBHA Y APADI) akaravam akurva akurma
I did We two did We did
Parasmaipada Terminations Future-Tense
Present-tense 3rd qi~ ~R~: ~R~
Person Singular Dual Plural karisyati karisyatah karisyanti
3rd ~UM ~: ~ He will do They two will do They will do
karoti kurutah kurvanti 2nd ~f« qiRt~: ~~
He does They two do They do karisyasi karisyathah karisyatha
2nd ~~N Thou will do You two will do You will do
m: w.T
karosi kuruthah kurutba 1 st ~fu ~~: t1iftttnll:
Thou do You two do You do karillYiimi kari~yavah karisyamah
qiUflr ~. ~: I will do We two will do We will do
l st
• Imperative-mood
karomi kurvah kurmah <:'
I do We two do We do 3rd ~~,i~~ ~Qf ~
karotu, kurutat kurutam kurvantu
Imperfect-Tense Let him do Let them two do Let them do
3rd ~ 3l~m 3l~
2nd . ~
akarot akurutam akurvan ~, fl~n~ fi«
kuru, kurutat kurutam kuruta
He did They two did They did
Let thou do Let you two do Let you do
2nd ~U: ~ ~ Ist ~~tnfiJr
~e(l~ ~«Ht
akaroh akurutam akuruta karavani karavava karavama
Thou did You two did You did Let me do Let us two do Let us do 151
156 Future-Tense
31tI_ (as) = To be 1I14tqfij \1Atq~
3rd
(PARASMAIPADI) bhavisyati bhavisyetah bhavisyanti
Present - tense He will be They two They will be
Singular Dual Plural will be
3rd ~tf ~~U ~ \fFeltqftr ~~: l1~t~~
2nd
asti stab santi bhavisyasi bhavleyathah bhavisyatha
He is They two are They are- Thou will be You two will be You will be
2nd ~ ~~: ~~ Ist ~fq \lftGqfcf: t1~tqll{:
asi sthah stha bhavisyami bhavi~yiivah bhavisyamah
Thou are You two are You are I will be We two will be We will be
l st ~q ~: ~l{: Imperative-mood
asmi svah smah
I am We two are We are 3rd ~t~~ ~ ~
Imperfect-Tense astu, stat stsm santu
Let he be Let they Let they be
3rd ~ stmrt ~ both be
lsit astam Ii san
He was They two were They were-: 2nd ~t~~ ~ ~
an~ ~(f edhi, stat stam sta
2nd ~:
Let thou be Let you two be Let you be
asih astam asta
Thou were You two were You were 1st ~ ~ ~
1st am{ ~ ~l{ assni essva asama
asva asma Let I be: Let we two be Let we be
iisam
I was We two were we were 158

VOICE

There are three kinds of voices in Sanskrit (1) Active voice (tnaR: sPital:), (2) Passive voice (tnirfm ~iT'1':), (3) Impersonal voice (+1ret ~)rr:). Impersonal voice is rare in usage. Therefore examples for Active and Passive voices are only given below:

Voice

Subject Object Predicate
. m mfu
at~
aham patham pathami
I lesson read Active Voice

(I read the lesson)

Passive Voice

q'fo: pathab lesson

pathyate is read

maya By me

(The lesson is read by me)

NOTE: In the active voice the subject is used in Nominative case, object in Accusative case and the Predicate (verb) in active form. The verb agrees with the subject.

159

Active Voice

VOICES IN SENTENCES

Passive Voice

f~T ~nt ;ptrn

pita balam nayati

The father takes the boy

3lIQ'H ~ fq~r;ij

asvah jalam pibanti Horses drink water

q~: ~rQlt Qdij

gajah kasaram tarati Elephant crosses the tank

3lRr:~~f\~

agnih gjham dahati

The fire burns the house

att ;rt ~q(fq

aham gjham pasyami 1 see the house

~:~~~

bhatah desam tyajati The soldier . leaves the

country

fqsn ~rr~: ;fttr~

pitra balah nlyate

The boy is being taken by the father

31~: ~~ tft~

asvaih jalam ptyate

The water is drunk by horses

~Vf ~T«r~: ~

gajena kasarah tjryate

The tank is crossed by elephant

3lNifT ~ ~

agnina grham dahyate House is burnt by the fire

w.n ~ wffl

maya grham drsyate

The house is seen by me'

~~:~~~

bhatena desah tyajyate

The country is left by the soldier.

160 161
wq:mt~ ~~:- .qt (~) fqirfij ~~
bhrtyah bharam vahati bhrtyena bharah uhyate pii (pib) pibati pjyate
A Servant carries the The weight is carried by the ~ (~) EfiURr ~~~
weight servant
kr (kar) karoti kriyate
.\lm~F{~ \lm ~t: ~ii4~ ~T (~) t4~~Rr a:~
dhatci naran sjjati dhiitrii narsh srjyante
The God of creation The people are created by d~ (yacchj yacchati diyate
creates the people the God of creation ~~ q~ ~~ij
"
3Tt ~ ma:Tfit ~~~~ yah vahati uhyate
aham annam khlidiimi maya annam khadyate ~(~) q~Rf -,
~~
I eat food The food is eaten by me drs (pasy) pasyati drsyate
Some Verbs in their Active and Passive forms ~~t (Rr~) Rrgffl ~~1~
in Prasent-tense
stha (ti§~h) tiHhati sthlyate
Root Active form Passive form
~(~) ~ qt:~ ;r1 (;r~) 'ltfRr ;rr~
Di (nay) nayati
gam (gacch) gacchati gamyate njyate
~ ~ ~ ~ (W{) ~t{rn ~~~
path pathati pathyate bhU (bhav) bhavati bhuyate
~ ~fij ~\itf~ .~~ ~fij ~~
"'
tyaj tyajati tyajyate likh likhati likhya:te
~ ~ ~
dah dahati dahyate
11 SOME VERBAL DERIVATIVES INDECLIN ABLES

(a) The present participles are formed by adding ~ (at) to the roots:

e·g. ~ + 31~ = ~~ = going. gacchs-at-gaccbat

(b) The infinitive of purpose will be formed by adding g1{. (tum) to the roots:

e-g. q~ + {N = tT;:~ = to go, gamj.tumegantum

(c) The indeclinable past participles are formed by adding ~r (tva) to the roots;

e-g, ~ + ~T = ~:rf = having heard.

~ ~

sru+tva::srutva

(d) A suffix ~ (ya) is used in the place of ~r (tva) when a preposition is prefixed to the roots:

e.g, 3Ti+~ + tf=~+f"=having enjoyed. anu+bha+ya~anubhQya

(e) The present participle is formed by adding (I'~, (tavat) for parasmaipada ,'roots and ;n;r (ana) or 1111f (mana) for Atamanepada toots:

e.g. parasmaipada : "+ac«l=~ = One

who is doing. (kHtavat=krtavat)

163

Atmanepada: (i5¥l'H'TiI'=~if= labh-smanaelabhamana

one who is getting.

<f) Past passive participle is formed by adding (t" (ta] to the roots:

e.g, f§ + ~ = ~ = that which was done kr+tam-krtam

(g) Potential participle is formed by adding (tQq(tavya) .to the roots.

e.g. it + ~ = ~ot{~ = should go. gamj-ravyamegantavyam

Not e : The sentences pertaining the above verbal derivations are given in the next few poages,

(a) Sentences with Present Participles

Subject

Present participle

Verb'

-

avartata

~ ..

gacchan

Rama was going.

SUii vadati

Seetha was speaking.

~~

abhavat

164 165
Subject Present participle Verb (b) The Infinitive
purpose ending in tlJI..
iIl~: ~ i3(Q1lQ'l. Subject Infinitive purpose Verb
Balah krldan apasyat . ~ ~
The boy saw, while playing. 3l(
(' (' aham gantum icchami
~ ~ ~~~ I want Ito go.
Karma kurvan apatat
. ~ ~~
He fell down while doing work. l(f~
I:>
. t_C{(~~ ~~ Mataram drastum gacchati
~(
Aham khadan asmi He goes to see his mother.
I am eating • • '"~: m~ ~
~: ~~ ~ Madhavah pathitum icchati
Sah dba.van pibati Madhava wants to read.
He drinks when he is running. ~R$: SliTNij 3l'~~m
~ fqif1'. 3I1.'iOSRt Balah krtditum agacchati
Tvam piban sgacchasi The boy comes to play.
Y 011 come drinking. ~ qiij ~~rfTN
~~ ~ ie(f4id Tvam kartum saknosi
Pustakam pasyan likhati You are able to do.
He writes the book, looking at it. (:(: ~~ tR;Rr
W Cfi~~ ~ Sah likhitum pathati
katham kathayan asti He reads to write.
He is telling the story. ~ ~ 3f~
Rote: The words ending in present participle will agree Aham dhavitum prayate
with the gender of qualifying noun or pronoun. I try to run. 166
Subject Infinitive purpose Verb
m~: ~ ~~
Gopalah khatum gatavsn
Gopala went to eat.
~~: mt! liTRr
Ramah pathitum Yati
Rama goes to read
~~ 'ffl! ~cWf
Jalam patum dhavati
He runs to drink- water (c) Indeclinable Past participle ending in ~r (tva)

Subject

~I~f

Past participle Verb etc.

qro q'ft ~

Pathasalam gatva pajham pathati

Having gone to the school he reads the lesson.

Patham pathitva pustake likhati

Having read the lesson he writes in the book.

Annam khatva sukham nidrati

Having taken meals he sleeps happily,

167

Subject

a1rR

Past participle

st1R~q'T

Verb

~ ~,crfij

Udysne krrditva vegena dhavati

Having played in the garden he runs fast.

~;f ~ ~~.

Snsnam krtva bhojanam karoti

Having taken the bath he takes meals.

atST ~~ ~ ~7.ffir

Atra

sthitvs

snryam pasyati

Having stood here he sees the sun.

fli4 ~~ 11m

Marge dhavitva patati

Having run on the way he falls.

Candram dntva hasati

Having seen the moon he laughs.

~ 31fl<:i'.Il ~

vane atitva srlimyati

Having wandered in the forest he is tired.

~

aham

snatva

~rofu

khadsml

Having taken bath, I eat

Note] These sentences can be translated as 'after reaching the school he reads' etc.

168

(d) Indeclinable Past participles ending in (ya)

Subject Indeclinable Verb
past participle
SiS( 31HRq ~
Atra agatya vadati Having come here, he speaks.

~ ~$t( ~URr

Tam anugamya karoti

Having followed him, he does.

q'lt Rft?~1.i ~~

Patham

vilikhya

darsayati

Having written the lesson, he shows.

~

Jalam

rr~ffl

gacchati

nipiya

Having drunk tbe water, he goes.

Devam sandrsya namati

Having seen the god, be salutes.

Gramat prasthaya agacchat

. Having started from the village he went

«~{=iT

Sahasa

31~Fi1.i pradhiivya

3lq~1l~

apasyat

Having run quickly, he saw.

169

Subject

Indeclinable past participle

Verb

sarvs sambhnya tisthanti

Having assembled, they all stand.

""~~: f;r'«1l m~~

Piidayoh

nipatya

prarthayate

Having fallen on the feet, he requests.

first ~1l~1.i ~fu

mitram

santhyajya

gacchami

Having left my friend, I go

Note: In these sentences, prepositions are prefixed to the roots.

(e) Present participle ending in ~ (tavatj

Subject Object Present participle

Gopalah pathasslam gatavan

Gopala has gone to the school.

Sah grsmat iigataV1in

He has come from the village.

~~~

. '"

Ratrau samyak

He has read well in the night.

q~{f'4r.1:

pathitavnn

170
Subject Object Present participle
~: ~ iij~let
Guruh snsnam krtavan Teacher has taken bath.

Corah corayitvs dhavitavan

The thief has stolen and ran away.

Kukkurah kape patitavan

The dog has fallen into the well.

Ballvardah tpJ.ani khaditavan

The bull has eaten the grass.

~: ~ ~~

Miiyurah sarpam dr~taviin

The peacock has seen the serpent.

"'~V{

pltavsn

ausadham

The sickman has drunk medicine.

Note: These present participles can also be used as adjectives.

171

( f) Past passive participles

Subject

Object

Past passive participle

~1tOT !II": iJ(i:

Ramena gramah gatah

The village was reached by Rama.

Balena udyane krlditam

It was played by the Boy in the garden.

~

grhe

~

sthitam

i(tfI Maya

It was stayed by me in the house.

Tvaya kim

What was done by you?

~

krtam

Balena satvaram dhsvitam

It was run fast by the boy. i.e.,

The boy ran fast.

Pitre

qst

patram

~R4a"

likhitam

A letter was written to the father.

172

Subject

dTm

Object

Past participle

Sita hanumata dnta

stu was seen by Hanuman,

'" ~: a-qR!:

Vrk~e kskah upavistah

The crow perched on the tree.

Matsyah tatake patitah

The fish has fallen in the lake.

Note: These participles are used in Active sense also.

(g) Potential participle ending in oS1.f (tavya)

Subject Object Potential participle

Maya sanmarge gantavyam

I should walk in the path of good people,

~T ~ ~ijO~

Tvaya udyane k rIgitav yam

You should play in the garden.

~. ~ ~~~

Varsasu grhe sthatavyam

One should stay in the house during winter.

173

Potential participle

~

Punyam karma kartavyam.

One should do the sacred duty.

~ ~ t:::.

~~ ~: ~""'i'4""'Qo--~-~

YUdQhe as~kt,!1ih dhavitavyam

The weak persons should run away in war.

Subject

S;Qir

Object ~

~

.Suddham

khaditavyam

annam

One must eat clean food.

~

Adbhutam natakam drastavyam

A remarkable drama should be seen

q'f~

Rugnaih ausadham patavyam

The madicine should be drunk by sickmen

~: m

'4'ffioq ¥.(

Sarvaih sat yam vaktavyam

Truth should be spoken by all

~tq,'4~: ~: q~:

maaevakaih plithah pathitavyah

The lesson should be studied by students

174

PREPOSITIONS (~~i:)

Prepositions are used before verbs. (1) They stress

the original sense of the roots in some cases. (2) But they modify the sense of the roots in most cases.

1. c:tT~ (Sams) = to praise, ~; (Sastah)=praised .. ~t [Prasastah] = well praised

2. tt (~)= to take away. (The original meaning

'"

of this root is changed by prepositions as.

given below i-s-
(a) Sl'i[f{; = Prahsrah Beating
(b) ~,= Aharah Food
(c) ~R:: = Samharah Killing
(d) ~~: _ Viharah Playing
(e) q'ftCOI (; = Pariharah Remedy A sloka runs thus:

\Jq~ ~~l ~~;r ~'P.r« I

upasargena dhatvartho balad anyatra nlyate.

SI{R-3lT{,(-ij~~'m,~-qR{T~-q'~ u

prahara ahara samhsra vlhara parihara vat

The original sense of roots is changed when prepositions are prefixed to the verbs as in the words • Prahara ' etc. mentioned above. It should be noted that the original meaning of the root 'hr', is entirely changed when it is prefixed' with different prepositions.

Preposition

31fij

ati

adhi

ann

abhi

ava

~

ud

175

Meaning

goes over,

above, over, upon

after, to follow, like

near to, to, unto

down, of

from, reversing to

up, above

Example

~~~

atikramyati crosses over

adhigacchati gets or knows

~~

anuyati

follows

abhigacchati goes near to

31C1i1(Rt

avarohati descends

I:SlMt!lf(~ abalyat

from childhood

3I1'l'4§i6

agaccbati, comes

\i1\'VASPt

udgacchati goes up

176 117
~q \3'trlTRr ~~C1i-~C1i~~'n

upa upayati
near, next to, less approaches Command Prohibition
f;r firit~rn ~~ ~'"~
ui nisldati tvam gaccha tvarn ma gaccha
down, in, on sits down You go (Y ou] don't go
~~l firli~lqRt ~~ ~ m 3lttt~
DIS I niskrsmati '
-fir\. out goes out tvam agaccha tvarn rnii agaccha
nir J You come (You) don't come
~ ~~RI ~~ ~m~
prati prativadati tvam vada tvarn rnii vada
at, against answers You speak (YoU) don't speak
1I !N(tfRr ~qo ~,"qo
pra pradhavati tvam patha tvam rna patha
before, forward runs forward You read (You) don't read
N N~lRf6 ~~~
'Vi vismarati ~~
apart, separation forgets tvam likha tvam rna. likha
~'~0~ You write (Y ou) don't write
~
sam sarngacchate ~~ ~ mift!
with, together with, tvam ti~tha tvam rnii ti§tha
being conjoined with joins with You stand (You) don't stand
12 178

~~

tvam kuru

You do

~ 'fltf

tvam pasya You see

~~~

tvam ms kuru (You) don't do

~ lU 'fl~

tvam rna pasya

(You) don't see

Note: Second person imperative mood forms are used in order to denote the things to do and not to do.

SOME CLASSIFIED NOUNS 1. TIME

~:

Ksanah Muhnrtah Ahorstram Paksah Suklapaksah Krishnapaksah Masah

Rtuh

Ayanam Uttarnyanam

~ur: {'

!J[er:

SIlruS('I.

One Second Ii Hours Day and Night

'J~: ~q~: iil5arq~: 111«: ~g:

Fortnight The bright half of the Month The dark half of the Month Month Season

Dakshinayanam

Vatsarab Cf~{:
Prabhatam, P.ratah sn-mrlJ., mer:
Sayam «Tir
Niaa, Ratrih f.nn. ~TfSr:
Adya ero
Svah P,i:
Hyab 81:
Parasvah 'R'Il=
Dinaro fc(;t''I.
U§ah ~:
Adhuna et1;n Moving (of the Sun) Summer solstice (six months)

Winter solstice (six months) Year Morning Evening Night To-day To-morrow Yester-day Day-after- Tomorrow Day Dawn Now

180 181
2. SEASONS 4. WEEK-DAYS
~: ~Q:
Vasantah IN~: Spring Bhsnuvasarah ~T~V~: Sunday
Grlsmah s(\'6lf: Summer Induvasarah ~I~(: Monday
Vareah ~f: Rainy-season Bhaumavssarah ~'fCI'H:f{ : Tuesday
8arat ~Q Autumn Saumyavasarah ~~<nm: Wednesday
Hemantah {g;a': Winter Guruvasarah ~~i.ff'~: Thursday
Sisirah ~: The Cold Season sukravssarah ~'P'lfl~~: Friday
sanlvasarah ~T~~: Saturday
3. MONTHS Saptshah ~me:: A week
~T«l: 5, DIRECTIONS
Chaitrah ~: March/April
~:
Vaisakhah ~~: April/May
: -'i,.qf. $fT:or'T
Jyesthah ~: May/June Parva, Prachi East
A§a4~ah en~: June/July Dakshina, Avachi. ~~r, aicrr:<r'T South
SravaQah WI1JOf: July/August Paschima, pratlchl q~ilT, 5Ri1::oft West
Bhadrapadah +rI1(qf{: Aug./Sept. U ttara, udlchl ~U. (j~'ii') North
Asvinab ~1~: Aisiini qm~ North-east
Sept./Octo.
Knrtikab I!fi1ff116: Octo./Nov. Agney! ~~ South-east
Miirgaslrllah ;nqqft~: Nov./Dec, Nairrtii ~ffl South west
Paushah ~: Dec.pan. Viiyavyi qT~T North-west
Mii~ai1 ,,"'Pi; Inn./Feb, Note: AU the words Jenoting directions are in
Phiilg1lnah 'fi1\WJiif: Feb·fMarch Feminine Gender. 182 183
6, PLANETS 8, TASTES
~: ~Q1:
Suryah ~: Sun Madhurah if~~; Sweet
Candrah "Vl{: Moon AmlRh en;w: Sourness
Kujab ~'5(: Mars Lava1)ah wE(Vl: Saltish
Budhah ~: Mercury Kajuh ~: Pungent
Guruh ~~: Jupiter Kasayah Efi1IIW: Astringent
Sukrah p: Venus Tiktah ~~: Bitterness
Sanih d: Saturn 9. RELATIVES
Rahuh ~T~: (Ascending node) Rahu ~:
Ketuh ~ij: (Descending node) Kethu
Mata illaT Mother
7. COLOURS Pita fqtTf Father
qQ{T: MatamRhah ifffi1'f(: Maternal grand-father
Matsmahl 'fTamjft Maternal grand-mother
Suklah ~: White Pitamahah jqaril'i[: Paternal grand-father
NIIah ;ft'w: Black Pitamahl f'rcrrq{j" Paternal grand-mother
Pitah tim; . Yellow Patih q'~: Husband
Raktah ~: Red Patnl q'(;fl Wife
Haritah ~: Green Putrah ~csr: Son
Kapisah lfifq~: Brown Putri S~ Daughter
Dhnsarah ~{: Dusky white Sisuh ~: Child
S01}.ah mllJ': Crimson Jyesthabhrata ~aT Elder brother
Arunah <Sf~ur: Reddish brown Jye'thabhaginI ~g~ffrift Elder sister
Patalah qR;w: Pale red Kani§thabhrata CfifinlJllaT Younger brother
Karburah 1J,i~: Grey Kani,thabhagini .~fiT;ft Younger sister 184 185
Ma!ulah qT~: _ Maternal uncle Kshantih ~:. Forgiveness
Matulanl O:{~<;Jr;ft The wife of maternal uncle ASl1ya ~ Envy
Pitrvyah fir<r~: Paternal uncle Prema it{ Affection, Love
Pitnvasa ~<rnr Aunt (Paternal) Iccha {iUT Wish
Svasrl1h ~~: Mother-in-law Kamah filii: Lust, Desire
Svasurah ~U(: Father-in-law Chinta f.ir..ar Anxiety
Syalah 1p:rT(ll": Brother-in-law UtkaQ.tha ~ Longing
Nananda ... ~t Husband's sister Utsahah \'!~~: Inclination
Devarah ~: Husband's brother
Pautrah tfr~: Son's son 11. ANIMALS
Pautri ~ Son's daughter ~:
Dauhitrah ~: Daughter's son W{: Lion
Dauhitri ~ft5f1 Daughter's daughter SiITlh~h
Vyaghrah o~til: Tiger
10. FEELINGS Vilrahah CRT(: Pig
~l(m: Vanarah 'H"'~: Monkey
Bhallakah lR'~"Ii: Bear
Anandah ~Tifr((: Joy Mahisah t{~: Buffalo
Kopah ~q-: Anger Srga1ah ~qlW: Jackal
Hasah (1tI": Laughter Bigalah fim(ll": Cat
Rodanam U~'l Weeping Vrkah 'i1i: Wolf
Dnhkham ~:~ Sorrow HariQ.ah ~: Deer
Daya ((lff Pity Sasah ~: Rabbit
Vismayah ~~: Surprise Gajah qaf: Elephant
Bhayam ~~Ii. Fear Asvah ~: Horse
Garvah ~: Pride Vr§abhah '[~if; Bull
Lajja w\llfT Shame Sarameyah tn~it~; Dog 186 187
Dhenuh ~!I: Cow 13. PARTS OF THE BODY
Ustrah n· Camel ~~~ llPtt:
,,'
Gardabhah ~: Donkey Sariram ~t Body
Ajah 8nr: Goat Sirah fu{: Head
Vatsah iffiI': Calf Vadanam ~ Mouth, Face
Kanthah 1iUO: Neck
12. BIRDS Karah Efi{: Hand
~n Bhujah ~: Shoulder
Kokilah, Pikah Vak§ah <AT: Chest
<itfiIi~: ~:
Cuckoo Udaram ~~t Belly
Kapotah <rim: Dove Nabhih .,.tfl:r: Navel
Ulnkah ~: Owl Druh e;~: Thigh
Kukkutah ~!!f!§!: Cock-Hen Jiinuh ;sJT~: Knee
Chatakah "'la'6: Sparrow Piidah I:Jr~: Foot
Kakah 15Ji6: Crow Netram ;J::t't. Eye
Grdhrah ~~: Vulture Kart;lah <Jidr: Ear
Sukah ~: Parrot Nasika. Of(fti;6T Nose
Bakah q: Stork Mukham uia Mouth
Garudah 'I'W: The King of Birds Jihva ~iiT Tongue
May11rah ~: Peacock Dantah ~: Tooth
Vartakah .1'(\'6: QUail Anguli er~ Finger
...
Hamsah t«: Swan Nakhah .,.~: Nail
Madhupah qq: Bee Kesah ~: Hair 188 189
16. DISABLED PERSONS
A iifie IWI:
Bhasanam ~iI. Ornament Andhah 3Jr'I: A blind
Kirltam f<i(t~ Crown Badhirab .m: A deaf
Cll\lamal}i 'i:@l;r~: A crest jewel; Vigrab r.r~: J Noseless
Kaqlika IfifUrliT Ear-ring. Vinasah ~:
KU:t;ltJalam ~;.;sil. Pendant Ear-ring Kubjah ~: Hump-backed
Harah ttl: Chain or Necklace Patigub "!: A lame man
Ekavalih ~f05: A single string of pearls Kharvab ~: Mutilated
Mekhala it@WT Girdle Mllkah 1l'6: Dumb
KatikaQam qllf'l Bangle.
Angadah ~; An armlet 17. PROFESSIONAL MEN
Nupuram "l~'l Anklet _:
15. DRESSES AND TOILETS Tak~akah ~: Carpenter
~tf;r t Sf~f.r ~ Rajakah (15flIi: Dhoby
Nspitah .nftra-: Barber
Vastram <Tfiir'l Cloth Svarnakarah ~,,3r<m:: Goldsmith
Ksaumam ~'+TJ{ Silk Lohaksrah ~~: Blacksmith
Karpatah ~~i A piece of cloth Tantuvsyah (l';Sl<tPJ: Weaver
Kambalah "ti~orw: A blanket Saucikah ~~: Tailor
Ahatam 3filtQ~ Washed Kulilab "W1~: Potter
Anahatam ~lfr'i:I'l Unbleached Milliklirah 'lmTifil'~: Garland maker
Darpanah ~ Mirror A,.rtist
i{1l1lf: Citrakarah f.irsI1til(:
Prasadhani smT'tI'ift comb Carmakarah .~: Shoe-maker
Vyajanam ~~i'f~ Fan. Vylidhah ~l": Hunter
Kaiicukah ~'3'6: Shirt Natah ~: Actor 191
190
~ff~: Jumbjram ~t Lemon fruit
Vaitanikah Servant ~<'l
Viirtiivahab <mIfq:: Messenger Kupittham The wood apple
Corah 'IiR: Thief Kadali <6~ Plantain fruit
Kinkarah r;q{:J Attendant Jnmbjih 3f;{: Rose apple
Sevakah ijq<6: Amalakam 13iT+r\051fi1l Emblica myrobalan
18. FOOD GRAINS Iludararn ~t Jujube fruit
\11;:~ 20. METALS & MINERALS
Tal,lQulam ao)~(lSi{, Rice ~~,fi( ~~ff;t :;:.r
Godhnmah m~q: Wheat •
Ac;lhakah err": Red-gram Suvarnam g~ur Gold
Canakah :q'Qf'1'i: Bengal-gram Rnjatam {\iRf Silver
Mudgah ~S{: Green-gram Pittalam ~a Brass
Raiamasah U~qTIiI': Bean
Tamram . Copper
Kulutthah frg~: Horse-gram ffTl){
Tilam fer~ Gingly-seed Ayah Si~: Iron
Mii~ah lillii': Black-gram
Sisam «t~ Lead
Note: The above nine items are called with a Common
name • Navadhanyam • (~Il ) Kamsyam ~ Bell metal
19. FRUITS Trapu 'SI'~ Tin
"~ff.t Paradah "t~!{: Quick silver

Amram - Mango fruit Abhrakam qt Mica
Panasam ""qo Jack fruit i'M, ~~. ffm, itfa":, 1IiRil, CI"IT ~ I
N!rikelam ~ Cocoanut ~, emsTlf~ \ir, ~ ~ 'ifri It
Driikvi ~f Grape 192

21. NUMERALS ~~ ... :

Mase. Fem. Neu.
~: ~ 1t!f
Fh'l't Eka Bkam
IJ I ....
t
Dvau DYe DYe
SFf: ~: !ft'fVr
Trayah Tisrah TrIJ}.i
~l~: ~: :ff"(CfYr.
Catvarah Catasrah Catvari
q~
Panca
"'f<t
...
~at
~
Sapta
~,~
A~ta. A,tau
:or"
Nava
~
Daa& , One ~ Two

~ Three

v Four

"\ Five

, Six

Seven

~ Eight

~ Nine

,\0 Ten

:I< Only the numerals from Q,1i to ~T~ hiIlye declensions in all gen4ers.

193

~~((~ Ekiirl~~a

al~~ Dvadasa 5J~)~ Trayodasa :;Vg~~ Caturdasa 'fll{~~ Paiicadaaa ~~~ ~ogasa ~fli~~ Saptadasa 'If~r~ AHiidasa ifq((~ Navadase f;rnfcr:

Vimsatih (F) ffi"~nr.

Trimsat (F) :qeq'ft~ Catvsrimsat (F)

Forty

'\1 Eleven

n Twelve

,~ Thirteen "tv Fourteen

'It., Fifteen

'1\ Sixteen

~\S Seventeen '1<= Eighteen

'l' Nineteen

=to Twenty ~o Thirty

·~o

Note:

All the numerals from Twenty to Croreare in

Singular. 13

194 195
qll:fT~T(l;_ ,",0 Masc. Ne'U.
Paffcasat (F) Fifty I!Cflll': qo'l~r q:a1li+{
q~: ,0 Tritiyah Trtiya Trtlyam 3rd
l?a~tih (F) ~ :q~1J1 :q~~'l.
Sixty "'SI'!f:
~n'fu": \to Caturthah Caturthl Caturtham 4th
Saptatih (F) Seventy q~q: ItliP.l q~'fi\
31~'tfu: ~o Pancamah Paftcamt Pancamam 5th
Asltih (F) Eighty l'ig; W q§'I.
;tqfu: "'0 :;;a~thah l?a§thl $a§tham 6th
Navatih (F) Ninty ~HIi: ~;fr 6F11i'l.
~Cf'l. "100 Saptamah Saptaml Saptamam 7th
Satam (N) Hundred ~'lll: 31'lift ai'lIT'l.
~Hi~li. '1000 A~tamah A~tamI A~tamam 8th
Sahasram (N) Thousand ;fi.nn ifcrli1 'fCf'ft:{
<?1lf~ '1,00,000 Navamah Navami Navamam 9th
Laksam (N) Lakh ~!ff'f; (('ij'il1 ((!(flit:{
~l~: ,,000,00,00 Dasamah Dasami Dasamam 10th
Kotih (F) Crore ~'lil~':ff: Q:ij)T~'ij'r Q;'fil~!ffi{
22. ORDINALS Ekadaeab Eklidasi Ekadasam 11th
~irt4f.(I:qifiT: [I~~: ~~\"ft ~T~~f(
Dvadasah DVlidasl Dvadasam 12th
Masc. Fern. Neu. '.!il{t({'ij': ':flf~~ ':f~?{!ff+{
!1~Ii: SlIJJ['T SI'l~ 'I'rayodasah Trayodasl Trayodaeam 13th
Prathamah Prathama Prath am am l st 'ila<tU: :q~~l(ft :qg~~+{
m:ffl~; fttft~ ~~ Caturdasah Caturdasi Caturql\s~m 14th
Dvitiyah Dvittya Dvitiyam 2nd 'ri{f~!ff: q.((!ff1 qlil'~~
Paiicadasah PaiicadaSi Pl\n~adllRam 15th 196
Masc, Fern. Neu • 197
.
~~: ~m ~ (Numerals with Fractions)
~ogasah ~o9asi I?ogasam 16th Quarter
'~.{!i'~~: 'El'H~~ ~!(~ Pildam qT~'I.
Saptadasah Saptadasl Saptadasam 17th Ardham ~ Half
8l1lF{~: e:r1iT~ arn:r~ Padonam q~)Wf'l. Three fourth
AHadasah A~tadasi A~tadaSam 18th Sapadaikam 'El'qt~~ One and one fourth
;rcr~~: "",~1 ;rcr~~ 'EI't~1fi+J. One and half
Navadasah Navadasl Navadasam 19th Sardhaikam
R~: fW1 ~ Padonadvayam qicttWf~~ One and one third
Vimsah Vims! VimSam 20th Sapadadvayam 'El'q~~~ Two and one quarter
ffi'~: fffm f;r~'I. Sardhadvayam 'El'Tt,~~'I. Two and half
Trimsah Trimsi' Trimsam 30th ':n~)WfSi~'l. Two and three forth
:qccrTR~: '<Iccnfhft 'if"ccnft~~ Padonatrayam
Catvsrimsah Catvarfmsl Catvarimsam 40th Note :-The forms of other figures with fractions are to
~T~: q~r~ ~ be formed in the same line as shown above.
Paiicasah Paiicasl Pancasam 50th
lt~CfIi: ~&Cf~1 1lfMa+r'l.
Sa§titamah Sa~titami Sa~titamam 60th
mrfa'CfIi: ;aHfe"CI6ft 'El'Hfutm'l.
Saptatitamah Saptatitamr Saptatitamam 70th
ern1~1i: 8f~fuCfift e:rmfao'll{
Asltitamah Asititami Asititamam sou
;rcrftl"oli: WfcrfoCf~ iflifa~
Navatitamah Navatitamt Navatitamam 90th
~Gt1Ii: ~~ ~0'lll
Satatamah Satatami Satatamam 100th