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INSTITUT KIMIA MALAYSIA

KUIZ KIMIA KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA (K3M) 2010



Peringkat Asas Tingkatan 4 dan Tingkatan 5

Tarikh: 15 Julai, 2010 (Khamis) Masa: 10.00 pagi - 11.20 pagi

Arahan:

1. Anda dilarang membuka kertas soalan ini sehingga diarahkan oleh guru pengawas anda.

2. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 16 muka surat.

3. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 40 soalan, soalan 1 hingga 40 adalah dalam Bahasa Inggeris. Anda dikehendaki menjawab semua soalan dalam jangka masa 1 jam 20 minit. 10 minit tambahan diberikan untuk mengisi dan menghitamkan nama peserta, nombor kad pengenalan peserta, kod sekolah, nama sekolah, alamat sekolah, tingkatan dan poskod.

4. Semua jawapan hendaklah ditanda dalam Borang Jawapan OMR yang dibekalkan

dengan menggunakan pense 1 2B. ',-

5. Penggunaan kalkulator yang tidak boleh diprogramkan adalah dibenarkan.

© Institut Kimia Malaysia, IKM

Tiada sebarang bahagian daripada kertas soalan ini boleh dicetak semula tanpa kebenaran dari ada IKM.

KUIZ KIMIA KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA (K3M) 2010

Arahan mengisi Borang Iawapan OMR:

Anda dirninta rnernatuhi peraturan berikut serna sa rnengisi Borang Jawapan

OMR.

1. Jangan lipat Borang Jawapan OMR.

2. Hitamkan sepenuhnya seperti (_) dengan menggunakan pensel 2B

3. Jika ada kesilapan, padamkan kesilapan yang berkenaan sepenuhnya.

4. Tuliskan nama anda, nama sekolah dan alamat sekolah and a dalam ruang

yang berkenaan dengan menggunakan huruf besar.

5. Tuliskan nama, nombor kad pengenalan, poskod dan kod sekolah anda

serta hitamkan huruf atau angka yang berkenaan dalam ruang yang

disediakan.

6. Hitamkan ruang 'jantina', "b a ngs a ' dan Ltingkatan' seperti ~.

7. Sekiranya kod sekolah tidak diisi dengan betul seperti dalam arahan,

penyertaan terse but akan dibatalkan.

Kod Sekolah

iJtIA 14 III c)l II' ... ®.®. ®@®.CD.<D @@@Ci)(D(V(V @@®®Q)®® <IDCID <Ii) <D <D (!)(D ®®®®®®® ®®®®®®® ®®®<DCD<DCD <D<DCD®®®® Q)Q)Q)@®®® ®®®

<D<D<D

®®®

®®®

®@@

®®®

@@@

®®®

®®®

(i)(j)(i)

®®®

®®®

®®®

®®®

®®®

Q)®CV

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

Physical

1. An atom X with a nucleon number of 18 forms an ion with the formula X2- . The ion has the same number of electrons as ~NEI atom.

Which of the following shows the correct number of sub-atomic particles for atom X?

Electron Neutron Proton
A. 8 8 10
B. 8 10 8
c. 10 8 10
D. 12 6 12 2. Which of the following has a mass equal to that of one mole of water?

A. One mole of steam

B. One molecule of water

C. 24 dm3 of water vapour at standard temperature and pressure

D. Two moles of hydrogen molecules and one mole of oxygen molecules

3. The mass of atoms of different element is expressed in atomic mass units(amu).

The masses of the atoms of some elements are given below:

• 1 hydrogen atom = 1.008 amu

• 1 carbon atom = 12.000 amu

• 1 oxygen atom = 16.000 amu

Which of the following statement is true?

A. Equal volume of hydrogen and oxygen must have the same mass.

B. One gram of carbon dioxide has more atoms than in one gram of water.

C. There are more hydrogen atoms in one gram of hydrogen than oxygen atoms in one gram of oxygen.

D. There are more carbon atoms in one gram of carbon than there are hydrogen atoms in one gram of hydrogen atom.

4. Magnesium forms 60% of magnesium oxide by mass. A student burned 40.0 g of

magnesium and obtained magnesium oxide.

What is the mass of oxygen used?

[Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; 0, 16]

A. B. C. D.

16.0 g 24.0 g 26.7 g 32.0 g

Page 11

5. When 40.0 crrr' of 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is added to 50.0 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide, x kJ of heat is produced.

What is the volume of 0.4 mol dm" sulphuric acid needed to add to 50.0 em' of2.0 mol dm" sodium hydroxide to produce x kJ of heat?

A. 50 crrr'

B. 80 cnr'

C. 100 crrr'

D. 400 cnr'

6. Manganese forms compounds with the chemical formula Mn02 and KMn04.

Which of the following shows the correct oxidation number for manganese in these two compounds?

Mn02 KMn04
A. +2 +1
B. +2 +7
C. +4 +4
D. +4 +7 7. A chemical substance contains 50% water of crystallisation, 19.1 % of oxygen, 18.2% of sodium and 12.7% of sulphur.

What is its empirical formula?

[Relative atomic mass: H, 1; 0, 16; Na, 23; S, 32]

A. Na2S04.H20

B. Na2S03.7H20

C. Na2S04.7H20

D. Na2S04.8H20

21Page

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

8. Table 1 shows the volume and concentration of aqueous solution of three acids.

Table 1

Acids Volume (cnr') Concentration (mol dm")
Hydrochloric acid 200 0.5
Nitric acid 100 1.0
Sulphuric acid 50 2.0 What do all these acids have in common?

I Number of particles

II Number of moles of acid

III Number of negative ions

IV Number of positive ions

A. II and IV only

B. I and IV only

C. II and III only

D. I,II,and III only

9. Table 2 shows the average bond energy of3 types of bonding.

Table 2

Bond Average Bond Energy (kJ/mol)
H-H 436
0=0 496
O-H 463 Calculate the overall energy change for the formation of water from hydrogen gas and oxygen gas.

A. 442 kJ morl

B. 484 kJ mol"

C. 905 kJ morl

D. 920 kJ mol' I

Page I 3

10. Figure 1 shows the energy profile diagram for a reaction.

Energy

, ,

I ,

__ t y ,--_M __ +_N _

:40 kJ

K+L

Figure 1

What is the activation energy and the heat of reaction for this reaction?

A. B. c. D.

Activation Energy (kJ) 60

60

100

100

Heat of Reaction(kJ) 40

100

40

140

11. Which of the following has the smallest mass?

[Relative atomic mass: I, 127.0; CI, 35.5; F, 19.0; Br, 80.0; Avogadro's Number, 6.02 x 1023mor1]

A. 85.0 g of chlorine gas

B. 0.05 kg of bromine gas c. 2.50 mol of fluorine gas

D. 3.50 x 1023 molecule of iodine

12. A student prepared a standard solution by dissolving 20.0 g of potassium hydroxide in water

to make 150 crrr' of solution. Then 15.0 cnr' of the solution was added to another 50.0 crrr' of distilled water.

What is the concentration of the final solution? [Relative atomic mass: K, 39.0; 0, 16.0; H, 1.0]

A. 0.549 mol dm-3

B. 0.714 mol dm-3 c. 1.03 mol dm"

D. 1.66 mol dm"

41Page

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

13. A sample of 0.6450 g iron(III) oxide requires 22.40 cnr' of 0.1 mol dm-3 of SnCh to react

completely with the Fe3+ content according to the equation below.

2Fe3+ (aq) + Sn2+ (aq) ~ 2Fe2+ (aq) + Sn4+ (aq)

What is the percentage by mass ofFe3+ ion in the sample? [Relative atomic mass: Fe, 55.8; Sn, 118.7]

A. 19.40%

B. 25.02%

C. 38.76%

D. 77.59%

14. The formation of magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) involves the transfer of electrons from three magnesium atoms to two nitrogen atoms.

How many electrons are received by each of the nitrogen atoms?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

15. 25.0 cnr' of 0.1 mol dm" sodium hydroxide is added to 10.0 cnr' of 0.2 mol dm" sulphuric acid. The resultant solution is tested with litmus paper.

What is the colour change of the litmus paper?

A. Red litmus paper changes to blue

B. Blue litmus paper changes to red

C. Red litmus paper becomes colourless

D. Blue litmus paper remains unchanged

Page I 5

16. The approximate pH of some common substances are given in Table 3.

Table 3

Solutions pH
Lemon juice 2.1
Soft drinks 3.0
Milk 6.S
Coffee 8.0
Distilled water 7.0
Milk of magnesia 12.1 If someone suffers stomach pain from excessive drinking of lemon juice, which solution would be recommended to offset the pain?

A. Milk

B. Soft drinks

C. Distilled Water

D. Milk of Magnesia

61Page

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

17. Excess zinc is reacted with different concentrations and volumes of hydrochloric acid as tabulated in Table 4. The volumes of gas liberated are plotted against time and the results are shown in Figure 2.

Volume of gas liberated! crrr'

IV

II

o

Time/ minutes

Figure 2

Table 4

Experiment Concentration of Volume of acid/ em"
hydrochloric acid/ mol dm-3
1 0.01 50
2 0.05 40
3 0.1 50
4 0.2 25 Which of the following shows the graphs for Experiments 1-4?
Experiments 1 2 3 4
A. IV III II I
B. II I IV III
C. I II III IV
D. III IV I II Page I 7

18. Which one of the following energy level diagrams represents the heat of combustion of

methanol if 0.048 g methanol gives out 9.24 kJ?

A.

c.

81Page

[Relative atomic mass: C, 12.0; H, 1.0; 0, 16.0]

Energy

B.

Energy

~H= + 616.0 kJmor1

~H= + 19.25 kJmor1

D.

Energy

Energy

~H= - 616.0 klmol"

~H= - 19.25 kJmor1

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

19. Figure 3 below shows the set-up of apparatus for the reaction between an acid and a metal.

Hydrogen gas

Dilute sulphuric acid

Metal X

---------------------

Figure 3

Which of the following statements are true about the reaction?

I Metal X is oxidized

II Hydrogen ions are reduced

III Metal X acts as reducing agent

IV Hydrogen ion acts as oxidizing agent

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. III and IV only

D. I, II, III and IV

20. Which of the following graph shows the temperature change when ammonium nitrate is dissolved in water and the solution is left to stand?

A.

C.

Temperature/ °c

Temperature/ "c

27

27

<....'

Time/s

Time/s

B.

Temperature/X'

D.

Temperature/ °c

27

27

~-------

Time/s

Time/s

Page I 9

21. A 500 crrr' of battery acid with a concentration of 12.0 mol dm" has been spilled on the garage floor. Baking powder (NaHC03) can be used to neutralize the spilled acid.

What is the minimum mass of baking soda needed to neutralise the acid? [Relative atomic mass: H, 1.0; Na, 23.0; S, 32.0; C, 14; 0, 16.0]

A. 0.252 kg

B. 0.504 kg

c. 1.008 kg

D. 1008 kg

Inorganic

22. A few types of glass can be produced by the addition of metal or non-metal oxides to silicates.

Which of the following glass has the lowest expansion coefficient after the addition of metal or non-metal oxides?

A. Soda glass

B. Lead glass

C. Borosilicate glass

D. Fused silica glass

23. In an experiment, 4.0 cm'' of 1.0 mol dm" copper(II) sulphate solution is added to 8.0 crrr' of

1.0 mol dm" sodium carbonate solution.

What is the observation when the reaction is complete?

A. A colourless solution

B. A blue precipitate and a blue solution

C. A white precipitate and a blue solution

D. A green precipitate and a colourless solution

24. What are the products from the following chemical equation?

A. Copper(II) sulphate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen

B. Copper(II) oxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen

C. Copper(Il) oxide, sulphur dioxide and water

D. Copper(II) sulphate and water

10 I P a g

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

25. An element from Period 3 is heated in chlorine. The product is purified and then added to water and stirred. The resulting solution is found to be neutral.

What is the element?

A. Silicon
B. Sodium
c. Aluminium
D. Phosphorus 26. When organic waste decomposes in water, it is converted to carboxylic acids. The water becomes acidic and aquatic life may be destroyed.

Which of the following additives are suitable to remove this acid pollution?

I Calcium carbonate

II Calcium hydroxide

III Zinc oxide

A. I only

B. I and II only

C. II and III only

D. I, II and III

27. Some chemicals are used to study their effect on the growth of certain flowering plants. For example, Hydranges change colour when the pH of the soil changes. Dilute solutions of these chemicals were used to water these plants for a period of a few months.

Which of the chemical would encourage good plant growth and the flowers to change colour?

A. Calcium chloride

B. Potassium nitrate

C. Ammonium nitrate

D. Copper(II) sulphate

28. A packet of detergent shows the presence of the following ingredients:

Zeolite, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium carbonate, sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate and optical brighteners. The main detergent component is sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate.

What is the role of carboxymethyl cellulose?

To soften water

To stabilise the bubbles

A. B. C. D.

To give a sparkling look to the textile

To prevent dirt from sticking to the clean textile

Page 111

29. Iron(II) sulphate is easily oxidised to iron (III) sulphate using acidified potassium dichromate solution. The overall redox equation is given as follows:

What are the values for n, m, x and y?

In m x y
A. 6 6 3 6
B. 8 3 4 2
C. 12 6 6 6
D. 14 6 7 6 30. Three elements represented by the letters X, Y and Z are in Period 3 of the Periodic Table of

elements. The oxide of X is acidic, the oxide of Y is basic and the oxide of Z is amphoteric.

Which of the following statements are correct about elements X, Y and Z?

I Proton number of elements increases from X, Y and Z.

II Atomic size of the elements decreases from Y, Z and X.

III The melting points of the elements increase from X, Z and y.

IV Electronegativity of the elements increase from Y, Z and X.

A. I and III only

B. II and IV only

C. I, II and III only

D. II, III and IV only

Organic

31. An esterification reaction is given as follows:

Propanoic acid + ethanol ~ Q + H20

What is the molecular formula of ester Q?

A. CSHll COOH

B. C3H7COOC2Hs

C. C2HsCOOC3H7

D. C2HsCOOC2HS

12 I P a g

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

32. Which of the following statement best explains why the element carbon forms so many compounds?

A. Carbon atoms combine readily with oxygen

B. Carbon atoms have very high electronegativity

C. Carbon can form ionic bonds with other atoms

D. Carbon can easily form covalent bonds with other atoms

33. What is the IUP AC name of the following compound?

A. 2-ethyl,propyl but-3-ene

B. 3,4-dimethyl hept-3-ene

C. 2-propyl,3-methyl pent-2-ene

D. 3-methyl,4-propyl pent-3-ene

34. A compound Y has the following properties:

• Liquid at room temperature and pressure

• Does not mix completely with water

• Does not decolourise acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution

What is compound Y?

A. Hexene

B. Ethanol

C. Ethanoic acid

D. Ethyl ethanoate

35. Palmitic acid has the following molecular formula:

This acid reacts with glycerol to form a triglyceride (fats).

How many carbon atoms are there in this particular triglyceride?

A. 12

B. 19

C. 48

D. 51

Page 113

36. Figure 4 shows the structural formulae of two compounds:

H H H H H H

I I I I I I

H-C=C-C-C-C-C-H

I I I I

H H H H

H H H H H H

I I l I I I

H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H

I I I I I I

OH H H H H H

Figure 4

Which of the following is a property of both compounds?

A. Slightly soluble in water

B. Decolourise bromine water

C. Have the same boiling point

D. Decolourise acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution

37. Figure 5 show the structural formula of vitamin C.

a /OH ~C

I

HO-C

II

HO-C

I

H-C-OH

I

HO-C-H

I

CH20H

Figure 5

Which of the following is true about vitamin C?

I When bromine water is added it turns from brown to colourless

II When dissolved in ethanol, a colourless solution is formed.

III When sodium hydrogencarbonate is added to a vitamin C solution, a colourless gas that turns lime water chalky is given off.

IV When magnesium powder is added to an aqueous solution of vitamin C, a colourless gas which gives a pop sound with a lighted wooden splinter is given off.

A. B. C. D.

I and II only

I, II and III only I, II and IV only I, II, III and IV

14 I P a g e

Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M) 2010 - Peringkat Asas

38. 95% alcohol is commonly used as solvent in the laboratory. In industries, the solvent commonly used is methylated spirit.

What is the difference between the two solvents?

A. The colour of the two solvents

B. The alcohol present in the laboratory solvent is ethanol whereas the industrial solvent is methanol

c. 95% alcohol is ethanol with 5% water whereas methylated spirit is 95% methanol and 5% ethanol.

D. 95% alcohol is ethanol with 5% water whereas methylated spirit is 95% ethanol and 5% methanol

39. X is the isomer ofbut-l-ene.

Which of the following is/are the possible structure(s) of X?

H H H H

I I I I

H-C-C=C-C-H

I I

H H

H H H H

I I I I

H-C-C-C=C-H

I I

H H

I

II

H %

\ I H

/C=C" I

H C-H

I

H

III

A. I

B. II

C. III & IV

D. I, II & III

Page 115

40. A carboxylic acid, X, has a molecular formula C4Hs02• It is a monoprotic acid which reacts

with black copper(II) oxide to form a blue solution. When X reacts with calcium carbonate, an effeverscence reaction is observed and a colourless solution is formed.

What are the blue and colourless solutions?

Blue solution

Colourless solution

A. B. C. D.

Copper(II) butanoate Copper(II) propanoate Copper(II) ethanoate Copper(II) methyl propanoate

Calcium butanoate Calcium butanoate Calcium ethanoate Calcium propanoate

16 I P age

General Data and Fundamental Constants

Speed of light in vacuum Co
Elementary charge e
I
Boltzmann's constant k, kg
Planck's constant h
fi=hl2rr
Avogadro's constant L, NA
Gas constant R
Faraday's constant F
Atomic mass constant m, = 1 u
(unified atomic mass unit)
Electron rest mass m,
Proton rest mass mp
Neutron rest mass m,
Permeabi~ty of vacuum' !lo
Permittivity of vacuum' Eo = 1 / !loSo' , H m' = N A' = N s' C-'; F m' = C' J-' rn'

Bohr magneton Nuclear magneton

Lande g-factor for free electron

g,

299 792 458 m s' (defined) 1-602 177 33(49) x 10'9 C 1.380 658 (12) x 10-23 J K-' 6.626 075 5 (40) x 10-34 J s 1.054 572 66 (63) x 10" J s

6.022 136 7(36) x 1023 mol:' 8.314510 (70) J K' mol' 9.648 530 9 (29) x 10' C mol'

1.6605402(10) x 10'7 kg

9.109 389 7(54) x 1031 kg 1 .672 623 1 (10) x 10-'7 kg 1.674928 6(10) x 10'7 kg

4p x 10-7 H rn' (defined) 8.854187816 ... x 10-1' F rn'

9.2740154(31) x 10-'4 J T' 5.050 786 6(17) x 10-'7 J T' 2.002319304386(20)

Fine structure constant

a =!lo e" Co 12h 0" = hColk

Second radiation constant

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

c = 21ts k' 115h' co' a, = 4rr E" 7j' I m; e'

Bohr radius

Hartree energy

Eh=lf/m,ao'

Rydberg constant

Roo = Eh/2hco

7.297 353 08(33) x 103

1.438 769(12) x 102 m K 5.67051(19) x 10" W m' K' 5.291 772 49(241 x 10" m 4.359 748 2(26) x 10" J 1.0973731534(13) x 10' rn'

Reprinted with permission from IUPAC for

participants of Kuiz Kimia Kebangsaan Malaysia (K3M)

Standard acceleration of free fall g,

9.806 65 m s' (defined) 6.672 59(85) x 10.11 m' kg-' s-'

Gravitational constant G

Zero of Celsius scale

273.15 K (defined) 22.711 08 (19) L mol:'

Molar volume of ideal gas,

p = 1 bar and T = 273.15 K

101 325 Pa (defined) 2.4790 kJ mol:'

Standard atmosphere

RTat 298.15 K

Pa

atm

Torr

9.86923 x 10-6

7.50062 x 10-'

1 Pa =

101325

760

1 atm =

1 Torr =

133.322

1.31579xl0"

Example of the use of this table: 1 atm = 101 325 Pa Notes: 1 mmHg ",1 Torr; 1 bar = 105 Pa

ENERGY CONVERSION FACTORS

energy E molar energy wave
Em number v
J eV e; kJ/mol ern"
1 aJ 10-" 6.241506 0.2293710 602.2137 50341.1
1 eV 1.602 177xl 0-'9 3.674 931 x1 0' 96.4853 8065.54
1 t; 4.359748x10" 27.2114 2625.500 219474.63
1 kJ/mol 1.660 540x10-21 1.036 427xl 0-' 3.808 798xl 0-' 83.5935
1 em:' 1.986 447x1 023 1.239 842x1 0-' 4.556 335xl O· 11 :962 66x1 0' Example of the use of this table: 1 eV 'corresponds to' or 'is equivalent to' 96.4853 kJ/mol Notes: 1 cal = 4.184 J

Source: Quantities. Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry (the so-called IUPAC Green Book). Second Edition, t 993.

IUPAC Periodic Table of the Elements

18

1 2
H He
hydrogen h.elium
1.00794(7) 2 Key: 13 14 15 16 17 4.002602(2)
3 4 atomic numher 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li . Be Symbol B C N 0 F Ne
lithium beryllium name boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
6.941(2) 9.012182(3) standard atomic weight 10.811(7) 12.0107(8) 14.0067(2) 15.9994(3) 18.9984032(5) 20.1797(6)
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg AI Si P 5 CI Ar
sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
22.989770(2) 24.3050(6) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 26.981 538(2) 28.0855(3) 30.973 761(2) 32.065(5) 35.453(2) 39.948(1)
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca 5e Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As 5e Br Kr
potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium ~hromium manganese iron cobalt ntckel ' copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
39.0983(1) 40.078(4) 4~.9S5 910(8) 47.867(1) 50.941S(1) 51.9961(6) 54.938049(9) 55.845(2) 58.933 200(9) 58.6934(2) 63.546(3) 65.409(4) 69.723(1) 72.64(1) 74.92160(2) 78.96(3) 79.904(1) 83.798(2)
37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rb 5r Y Zr Nb Mo Te Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In 5n 5b Te I Xe
rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium Silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
85.4678(3) 87.62(1) 88.905 85(2) 91.224(2) 92.906 38(2) 95.94(2) [97.9072) 101.07(2) 102.90550(2) 106.42(1) 107.8682(2) 112.411(8) 114.818(3) 118.710(7) 121.760(1) 127.60(3) 126.904 47(3) 131293(6)
55 56 57-71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cs Ba lanthanoids Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg TI Pb Bi Po At Rn
caesium barium hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
132.90545(2) 137.327(7) 178.49(2) 180.9479(1) 183.84(1) 186.207(1) 190.23(3) 192.217(3) 195.078(2) 196.966 55(2) 200.59(2) 204.3833(2) 207.2(1) 208.98038(2) [208.9824] [209.9871] [222.0176]
87 88 89·1(J3 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111
Fr l' Ra aclii10ids Rf Db 5g Bh Hs Mt Ds
francium radium rutherfordium dubnium seaborqiurn bohrium hassium meitnerium darmstadtium
[223.01971 [226.0254) [261.1088] [262.11411 [266.1219] [264.12] [277] [268.1388] [271] [272] •

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
La Ce Pr Nd Pm 5m Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
lanthanum cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium erbium thulium ytterbium lutetium
138.9055(2) 140.116(1) 140.907 65(2) 144.24(3) 1144.9127] 150.36(3) 151.964(1) 157.253 158.925342 162.500(1) 164.930322 167.259(3) 168.934 21 (2) 173.04(3) 174.967(1)

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
Ae Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
actinium thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plUtoniUm americium curium berkelium californium einsteiniUm fermlum mendelevium nobelium laltlrandum
[227.0277] 232.0381(1) 231.03588(2) 238.028 91(3) (237.0482) (244.0642) [243.0614] (247.0704] (247.0103] [251.0796l [252.De3OI [257.0951] (258.0984] (258.10'10] [252.1087] Notes

. Aluminum and cesium are commonly used English·language spellings for aluminium and caesium.

- IUPAC 2001 standard atomic weights (mean relative atomic masses) are listed with uncertainties in the last figure in parentheses [R. D. Loss, Pure Appt. Chern. 75, 1107-1122 (2003)].

These values correspond to current best knowledge of the elements in natural terrestrial sources. For elements with no IUPAC assigned standard value, the atomic mass (in unified atomic mass units) or the mass number of the nuclide with the longest known half-life is listed between square brackets.

~ Element with atomic number 111 has not yet been named. The IUPAC provisional name is shown.

- Elements With atomic numbers 112, 114. and 116 have been reported but not fully authenticated.

Copyright © 2003 IUPAC, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. For updates to this table, see http://www.iupac.org/reports/periodic_table/.This version is dated 7 November 2003.