Anda di halaman 1dari 86


!;fjOlmbra-l:ow 71mbaf"

, ' .......

Nul(..: W~~n :1. p'p; la r~s~'yleJ:equ ires pnIy one Gowbell, 'on'ly 0 ne line h $hC!",n -a~)o\'e 'rh1 ~~tafl;i-ljIihk inst-r~LtHon;l',\o:r- <;I n·- i naic;ition.0 fwh'j G_hcbeU to fitlY (Le ,~c:hacha-be!l) ma rhl:m l;:I,d.l, bQ,ngQ '~'eJl}. V,{~e~l' ~'. style 'fe,i:[ uires· n\rd.'li:et~~. WH,0is O·iJel iri~wnio'$pi~ding;1 ~.' e~cJ~:ben:.-Som_? '~x.l~pl~~_.a~~o,iIl:duAe. ali, aaGUtl~n\il}e9,1i,c?:U.s~ff,~bOi,reeath cXa*ple

'showiJtg~.the di_rediOI\.(lfthe·dave. I.



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• ..-L,

t, i ,!



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si mu I t,m~ouslyev9k, it'~g.·. a. shihp,Qtig'rtit and

, .,. ~, ,

$p,m.~,,~'ha t rewnaijt

tone, STnc~·lhis -i.sstlch

a)'{lmpo.rtan,L ('ealure:"of the ,ale:>:,: Y9U

~Midd t~~e<~th~:~~m.e·t(l~!)·i~k ",su:f~ th;t ~he

T· ·'he.:1ound oftl"ie·ihiAi, or afs·mm, is-a. . -v_cry ltll.pO rta I!! W11'.tof lhe:'p_,,'cru]! .~our~ '0 'of-t!\e:·'tml~ale~.~ Tti!s,,,,?uEld I~,il~e~ tYPI: ~a!ly~ \6 -$al~<'l-~~}']e:SOITfM, ,d1:!t-ing witses"pino(i' sol~~~~sO)b-sG}(>oJhcr instl"lilliferits,·as-:.indicakd

it): the.~muslca(dire~ti()ns; and ~n,ot:het" muskaj· sections. Tiie..:s6tmd is a.1~o ";fo.und in other

- tYp~l(Jf AJr~:-Culfuf1. ,sops, S! ylii~,. '1'11 e. sound is. d,~~}f a!ld.crisp. \,~iitha bright ,ttta,:ckThe nlo1:<ll mi~d~; rri"ar~e;the timbales h<i&-<! ''with the .sound, ~Steel~'und brass-are -the'most cornnN~1 'Ili~tals .used 'to.makcrlrnbales and each gi!>,e~\I r- di_sti)iCti~'e-tlilY91";t6 fh~.:.dscai:a':

'The ~aiic.ara.]s written.on the top lin·e.of the staff.

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[~~i;gh~9f ;YO\lI: druFhs:ill adju~ted:~o ti:\at§;t r,ik~ ing, th€;Ji'm 'shot j:{shr&i(i~~n t,






. 'rh~ rirruhot on the machois written on.the Ihil:(Lspace.o'(t:he suftwlth an.accent mark.. j

~ :=.- ~'": ~ ,::.=..-
t~ C· if w- 11 Another'sound from 'the; macho is the' open lon:e., You ·{l~i1.:t 'WRf;\r to use thisdinnn hlst EO,," drri'snots!'Vety (iNc~llY;·"the )n~C:h~o, is.struck,

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1 •



". -, , . ",., . ,,:;' j

: wi t~the 'st!Gk not ~~th ",n,open hal1~' (} hel

.h~mbra can. be p,layed t~lS 'ivay,~s. we.,wl.lll\:[[J Iater.)

"T' .'. he,j!(;mh~a, b["IO\' .... drum. •• ill>o l;a~ :5:e1l'end .S9U'I1·ds .. ay~iable forYrilli,: rhsvc'r,y; 1'&.ri

... ril.i:e~t(";p_lay)·:il"ll't~h;pt~, .~s:'t6·~he. ft)achh; 'on the hembra .. 'Motecommol1iy, fhe 'open nme,o'flile-dHull is used. This sound-can be ,ll,chieVed-;bYJ)I§.'y;ingwitb<i~l>l_ick )'ou tjCH(1: h.twe' tc\stiik~ji:li~ .dntrQ ';'eryti{lrj.(o;il2hieJ~,a


r~.p~1l 19n('$. on ~I:i'e ,l;ier:\llrci.C"<\il, .~b91{{ ,~~hi~y~d: by striking the. skiil w,iih%m i'!. hi:tnd Q1: -fL'I'I,g~[( or~ng<:r8 .. 'this method "b,uslI<ll1y: used



thtiliguitO:~ t~I:!tII'L,rndhodfor'achie;;:ilmthe:' open tone o;m.the,hembl'a\~·to·gendy,sl:n::)ke it, .\Ylr.iie:~nl(mn_g .tlie stick in theorook 6hhe: . thpn1hJ11a· ff)t'lt(~'1Mr,. Th~s. m.ay, ta~~>Qfne 'get"

"ood ton',' If the drumis tuned '"",,"ly. tJ ~dpl!:n tQHe~shl?yld shig}JUI W~(~d~ skin. is stru:ck'

-c '''1 .• k 1

w[tn,stt~ .

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Couu ting: from the 'b_ortOffi up,·the hembra

i~ written in <the. second spate .of the. staff:

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~~'h~Ii 'tl:i~.:ot~ero han~I i~F1<iy:j:[J:g another pa,em on rhe'urums"l,r;,·C;l.s.:.:an)c, or. bell patterns. I

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thlg.l1;'le~L to.bL,lnhis·,idhe p"d~nar:r way. .1

:Qhanguito gets-this 'sound.Dne'of the varia~.~nl:I{!;:' ~st~~g the ,mjd().ll;'!"('Jld,.fQ~HJh}ingerlfi~" g~'I'S to 'ach I~\,e:. til lS:.SO u net

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-Cuben drummers name thi.~ sound $ohado, The W<ly this wasdescribed tome was that when vou have <l. stomachache and Vo.Or mom

, ;. • • . _", I. -

nibs some .salvc 91'i vour-stornach, the merion us~d is thdp'ani~h verb sobar, ·It means to rub . o 1.'- ~"\las.sagc,

.y/.ratlgHiro Plays :Sdiwifo

.... 1-;

W- hY"d~)e~ theJimb~llern play CCl'vl;l,d~, 01' ~ii :;~fJl.l;;qSei, ('owheLl\~ of.}'i~rio~l!i ;··i',(,·es? T'hc[l~ ure ~';I;'ioli8 stlll'te"'~lJOl!! .th:t::' rd,t;'L~«}rih';'cowt;~lJ, bLl;:,n()n~ ,I~ 'int~r~s~~ +IJg.<1S [he stOI'Y. aboutAntonio .(}]'1a r~rwt ,(iboO l~n(:)\'I"LH1S ee tvl~I:WI~l,SlIe:! t\·:teJl{,11gtlC ,W[l~ n

.' . Vi:l:'V- f<li{;llUS ~i 11"\.liu.! ~t;O . ~n cil ba li~l rhe vel)"cady 2fHII century; There ~:-; '!W im!lirioll'ill the 516ry. iiheth~r . Menengueplayed t:iI)1h,ile~ {us we'

,,, .. .; .-

ktl.UW l'lK:m),oi-lj1t'

Cuban paila~ (iympanil, I n a book by .' Lel1JHII'do" PadLLr<! < l'llt:llk~' tEd Ie io"il'es

yn'i'n'~i:-J;994):":th'~- .

author ..:(>!J'iles that in' I 911·, ilL'll rre he Id'l" jOJ'::;l jc).b ',~;lIJi' n dance hH ncl, ~il~lrq[igtl~ wus -askedby h is mother to buyu bell ror lhdi··dj\\' .. I~i;d'.llw tlbci'lli!:lg'\(;!l;'h~ did

".. ..... .

\~-J)ad1e wa~ lo~d

/\Ii/(mi;:, (}l'iu 'Jierml; ':}Vkfl,~t!g/(J" .and placed the hell

:n asack, On. his war l'Ll the juJ~, !VfLr!~'gll~gol'>lll:i!~:}li;~lhk:~l_i \v,blli~ ~;-II~\l:r/h·~'.,!\[ lh~.:~,ig, tli i Ilg,~' . g{lt .1.1<11 ,U llfll.c;lVY. VVdl, ii. ;{t.;l'IllS

• ',_ - 1 ••• ;:= .

rl uit il! nw IH'jglll·o.i" ui 1.I~,k.,d P~lS"

sion, pru!J'il,I;. more t~~a!i sll~hlly' i IH.<.I:xiG~It;ll}.)\-krll;gll<:' ·I'l'.athdl .

I' -, ;, • ;.,:,. ~, I. 1 •

iIL1!} !h;,~ !;),~.::k, l1i:ollgbl ~[im.lhl' bc~)

and I'J'O.c:q::dt',ll:ti P",I}'" il,.jusl;!S if hL'.l.Wc! al\\i/IY'~ LlcJl]": i.l 1\!(tt>W'D." 'I'll i~ situut le'li occurredin the !)['lJldlrOlIL:d I';v lln.::nil·tuisil 'Jil";'

, .;\;flt?ii';C.~. '1'11\"; I' 11 is,(:i[; ~ Il~ \·'r-o.:h<:"I.I,i, w,,~ ,.:\~l!oi!"i./rvbria l("I1)('lI,: ,I vel',' J~u I 1M I l.{( .uban musiciun: '!~lr~ ~1('1·1' \V'ts·.I()i~1 III llJ(: l,~r .~'l4i\l; lhun {,lu::·nd;;q".

.. \rt •. I~her' stOI.'Yi.S los<;) Smi(hez.'Jo~e :~J\'S tJl; i -, one j i ilib,;1 em; liy, J11 t.~i:;k:t:, It i t u.cow'bdi inthe montuno section of a danzon. Alid the new ~~Imd.w<ls liked hi" everyone in the orquesra ('ip'i<:ll; He Sil):'S another ~t()!'y·b l~lnl'a ',til~11'i;Hel;9 (Or.gol h'is v;;ood-l5lock.Onc'of Hit' 'lll~;~idiu'ls in ll~I;'·IJ;;ll1d'h<:I.pp~lled·to hm'<! a cowbell (perhaps.he Lol,I had purchased onefor acowll <lnd,lJ'ekllD h ~u ihetimbalero, hie used 'it,'eveiyope H~c!~1 lt, luidJilt! cowbell s;~yt!d,

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,4\ mad ito \'i"lld es. says til ,ut i I mar have been ,lhl2greal,rimb,alero,i;.lltij.tloO I)i'll.; whofirst pJa}ul "i.)wbdl,£:I~arlg,Llj[f)s_(i).'8·i.l m,ry"hi.we li~{,I; I,II'g()~lwr: g~{~ilC Gllmerm:o. C~rd.1. \\:'hcl.lcv<:r the story, the cowbells ,Irl.' ,I very

~ . "

'importum p'lIt of the tii11b"i11e set-up,

'I'here seems 1tU he uo setmethod f()r ihe ljhlc~m~n:[" ~(~~wbeHs wltll dlnb,de~, ' ·(:hanguilo.'s·seFup I:ol',!l';i.~ hook and CD uses two l~cllll;a.u1ll.'lJl:lb!Y' style bell and ~ d1iLdlll belL. The ~il~'J.i1b() ~l'y~.;'.l;~I] has ~;'Ol'~ j~o,\i;ihill" lies ~).f.wuml.JHan .\ bell of'..'simiiar 'SI·tt", tilt'. bongo bdl, ''i,:i1e bungo bdu"s used !))' the bongot:ero' (bollgo'pla)'e6 duringsped r·l<>,:;~"(;!iOl!.S :QfAfi'()~.C:til";il ,>ong~, 'rJ~e'·<;on;~n'lKl"iofl.·;irlh¢ ll~li5"':"':;rhj .. J~h¢]:.::.:()r:·, ~h,~pe'of ihe bejJ,'''~etl~$ 1.0 h·flve.a'l~tj().do " .. hI!. tlu; tonal possiLi"ilitCes, Changui ["0 uses, the full-range' M

SOUl, ... !s: av,~ilabJt: [win 'I he mambo b"eil as wdl 'us, f"o,l1l ,t.he·¢hiHh.l hell. He alsochanges' the: roiil.irli~'in.~ l;f,dfe/b~Hs jr)1' differcn ["';>!,yles,of

T' h" diwe.lsj'tl ·r;li.b~in il1SIIJ~}lW}ll.

Ferna mlo;.(1rtiz ·.~ta t~d (n i 928. ~ h:}l ill ull the:ellonngnlj':iliic rn useums he: visited he: .did 110i I'ii~(i au in'SIHiJ!!lcjj'rlike t!le.,dave'c In :[ll.e·d;;·pl~['U;;1 da\'~' in :C):"'[lt~5 r;~./1fi~j.I:r;IJUmjp~

(/<:, lu }vjlISit: ~~FOI;llhlH!I.lw », ~I~w~il;;. how th~ugh searchi flgi It:L~Ernpt1\ Arden, and In· Mil.eI'Jocalion" 1\:(: .;h~tl,j .. ilPt~i!c.lll,ili': mention .. df clave

'Dr <l'lJvtiisftfrv of-such an instrument. H~

, 'I'~) ll,~~i. ih:~ ~{l~'l't 1l11.1 ic.'eel b "whi ~T~ . rl'~<;i &'['i [~l;" i .i:' ,dav .. :" :1) ut co uld not lin d ~ he ad,u.u.l l.l1S1Hl ment. IJlt~l-e imnllUJ'l}' examples 'of instruments made froiu Wtj(;d ~il AJ't:[c'.flll culturesbut the.clave .is

.... " ",'..., . ,',' . ..;.

l.udqttC:ly Cul)·,hl,

Tlrcworddavija B~eam;'~,I).iil:' (,If "p~g.'i 1 t ha s liee~i. I h<)'l~r' h I '[ hi~ ~ UbOTt!r:; W;ltl" lLed'to Ib;!~1 ~;nd:Llrllt~;j sJllp~ilf ~)i'c 1;,1':\;0;'$ 91'" " 1.I;Wlln,a:~nd'pdtel' (:ill},~n porbJ1Mdt iustrnmerits Fmm:tl~e pieces oJ\·,jgg:i 1l;~,'dM!.wllich

J p *eg ~j k~ Ll)ge :;"'l!\ldtrCplr;.\ 'of P(:g,;~( RUIH~~ ~~",re·oo.m(:lilllC,~,;:;'U~H:Ji'hljl.) l!]C,~t peg,~.) Tilis [I)~[}" h0 o'm:w4Y rl:[iL(chl:i'c.gcH,ltf> nunre , The na;lle the both sticks .that make up the instru-

men { is- "la cln re,:j . tht:!' cb 'I,"'. '

'r'1~; ~';'';:}'I'~ rlf:~)l h t'~' (()t' ih~e}' a.~;e t\) t'eiy encouurered) il1siru 1U(~)1t~t"'t,~bere.lhe pl"lyer !L'liJLSl CLtp (HLe or lIfe l";iLcDj' dave(Cn one-hand (I\i!~ 'a more mnp~itJed sound). <l:nd lhen,s'1''rikc' l,hi,~ ~wi(li'l tlL1'~'I~h';-I'" fT:h.[s, by)lle' \'i;lY, is': 111~: prol)'cl: ft:'dufi!1w:: '~b(.~I'lYil;.g','d~~:c:~ D~(l:ll~;piiig

(lile\hajld;J!)h\dng:oile~\vb()deli~b'v~ ill llw

'.halld:,ma,their·srriking, a more m~L1iJhl(lLlS tone is gcnerate(]:) Mcml;ldGn, -citcd by.Oni?, tal ~ ,[l8b,l~qH~W jr~)p,{)r I'lL Ill, rhe clave is ,as an tnstrt:lIiH~i~t, He'wi'lte&'(hat bbt'h'"lJodi(";;.'~ both pi<::~~,~. of j:be.~I~~'e aft: (ib;llrukea imj)bl't~,;~(t becaus",,~h~y bofh"lrr:,;,~qLLal partners ,jn'lht' sound prNhlccci'wheri hembra is stmck by l~<t'CI'lp. A{a pm;c.u:osiml instrumentrin I,h'~ faJn,it\"Q.Hdiophone~)'lhis'l·~" a ,r'ii'~~.\-iccm'!·ence und give,s the. dave <111 i mpurl.'llll SIJ'HCHlre.


.Oitiz t,'I~I~ !hc',da'\!e the spiritof the, jl'~¢I~;4yJ 'h~e' fee hng 'of tl;~ 21;~ ~:e' in GGb;d.) c . much more ;thm:ijw;( a rhyt hm ,I ~v~) P k~GCS of wlIod being.struck together: life.Jt is,,} ~};hl~h?n};, l~is oneoLt!Ie. mn~Limr,c)j'hlJ)l rJllng:s A1'oul, k~J rlgO,lh:;lNAs· Ot,tiz ,says. "th~f; clave, :101. j L':".f\()c,,>o;ut illt(dbe ~vDrl~I,'w.ill sweeten Clvc:,l'},rHllO< life mll~h mort: then the H!g~H' fl:{)r'il

Cub/s'c<llle' fields:" .

']'he ('iii ve, ] i k~ ,rrl;<~ !lyoti~ cr l nsr ruments'of

A [ , ; : h '1 - ,"'ll" J" u , I '

,-, T!'.TLJl orig'LT'I" HL!; )e~n ·seXUil.lZell.> rsac 1 part

i8'cithe£' male-or f~lnale~ macheor ht>rnl'lf<!, TheTets< ld~h~'; ~1e\"P~ f\ TilCilr}~'l6' toned ~po,~l) <:1 nd a rna! e; ;~v hi~hge~i ~ L":'I (e~" 111~ II i g~el pi llcb e::~r lo'nc ,); o;m,c tl m~s th~ n'id Imvel' to nL!~l plece 'of wood"the~helDbm;i~ carved nut ::1 hit: r(]o~l\haw:&,.t'hl',.snLlUld quality, The macho-does. the Sll'.ik~llg~ inorder to procluce: ,1 mellow tfi'n.:;

lroil:l'tllb ,hen-l·bi'l. ' ,


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TI1{']'(:,;\L:t' t~\'l") chve paUl'rnSi 111<.' sonclave all~U h e; r.) I ~i)~);t s:l~ y..~',~ b( gll i Illl;~ ~;~ i.~d ell I)(·)N~. ;Jltbe','~ w~:~Jiife pc!'l fe~;J,lt",l'<l:J;r·oh~}'; ~fI <}O(~,~l1'!f~; llJ! 1) II i~ va d',l,l i.'(] n dt..'.r~ fli:l d y g i v(,~,L;"3 ci 11 Ils, '.10' n ~wr'Il~;'()r ,rc(o'l i I'LJ?:' i'r~ I hi<icSlJi Ipiwl'x!.'l\:ISC:"I1IP

both T0dOfl rhedownbsats {in cut Hmetl .. ~" :w,r;H!f';l he {)!:l "',1 "<lilt! "2"), ;,im:ll'by/lhl' ~Un :<.;lll~'!J. FeyL'!ht:'~;';<~y ~h~~ ri<'Lttt:'rriW!)~I(~ ~\;;th!he ,,~qH!.!ll~~;lj .~. ,i;J Q.'\~< j~hly a ~ie J' lll;llM ',cklV~' <l'J:id. nn~kc'lllL'>d'lJ~~erenee beh,(cet! the two,


"I'hc c!m,:c,.l'Ii)'tllIll may hl-'gin (III eilhd- th" first nr second 'I1l,(',IMlr{' of-the p~lt teru. '1.'11(' dilk!'l.:111 eli ITdflHH or I he ... bv{' .1['(' ('Imnnnir ,·ekl'l·(~d h'.·a~ ,j:i· .Intl ·2~J.d i reel inll: Th'l'~{'"'IIT

s- , ..... _," . . ..... , '. ".

,)h;()'j;;alkd j(l'l.W'.li:tl fh'!) ;l1,d_I~~'l'rsl~.G1-J}.

cluvc directions. fhe direction otrhc d,I\'(i determines the.feel ()(t he 1001I~i,c I'wing pla)'c.1.. (Ag'lin ),opc().'IJd Cry the c:illllilc (:x(:rC.i~l' ~w ~iI10~:'C~ hu I I h i~ I i nl~ n rst Y)!~i}' ~h~· d;]\~l'-}"i~ her F'lIlllhl /;1' \q!i'-Jll f~[il;W'1 1'(1 dil;r~' ii,m, Stnl:; lin: clave, W<li(I'O]"'Lr~,W lllOi'lH:ll.h,.<iiitl Iheil II"~' l!tel-' same ·cI~I\iC'jn'thc.«o1:l1er» direction. Notice and fEe.l the !.liITen:llu.:,) II is tnnj1TlOiiphlC<: to overeliTph~v;iz~ tile teclmical ;r~p~~I" of clave

'-I 'h,h 'i,~ Ihicn'lI;i~!. i'n~pqi:t~lnl''-':\i;R~C'P(-()f l\fw-

{~lIh<!ll l1tll'::ic hili' do IWi' O"['I'I:I1-1ph~1,~i/,C Ii .lml 11,,'1] i"nq.;el aboui the kl'i or~h(' musi«,

WII'! I ~dl hen' is ;w ~~',~llllllc n1' how,· even .~Llrl i I'lgi 11' !'Ii'(~' I'onv~! 1'.,1 ;.1 i 1~':(:I'i(ll1· of ~Oll ~'I,'I\'(" onl~' C<lI1"CIr.ii11:11.: the dirc~'tinil'" nf., mil~.t(i.ll t:{)lllp .... ~lt'inll, V(,IY simply. W(~ hive slartcil om "corn ~ln~Vl iOl'l/ i 11 ~[)Il·.d.~'lv-r\ ,'\ .. ·2 dirc!:I'ion., By phlyilig <'I rhicc h\li' plil':L'~G'lnd i'nst~ni'llg'[CPC;ll 'sigrlt1, ou 1""'!:[~[lip(1~i I. i·(1I1"·hl.~ 11nW "d},l ng~\I'" (n Ilw 2-.~ llin:,:ljoll, (Thillk 'l( Ihl' 11l'\~i'2~1 ~t'clirm nx n di:rf'l'I'C'IIlL section of nul' SOI'lg,) Hut rhe (I ilVC ! I(~,'C 1- ell ;\1'1 ~<tlL Th c tu n II ,u:~j I in II chan get! "i'du lid [he cl;)\-'.t~~


. '

28·' The' Clay:e:'

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Ch;lIlgl.dl"() uses \'JI'~:)L1S pal~i'rnnL) wurm

LI iJ' .p resented are: tm:J]" W to ich ~<1 n ulso be - _ used us jUll·lJ.1 off poiuts.Iorsolo ideas.

'I'll c,!.:" p,~ t ten,l.~ .1 re.] );l~'{d Q u the nn 11 h~j d~l ve, 'ptrll{lps giv.illg ·'}·O'll,~lll.· i nsight as to ii()w Ch'IJlgu.ii(l develops his. kl.i:,~s.lf his warm lip

exercises rdkr_:t this most li'l~ic.ol:·Arro-ClLlbtUl phra:s~s·)._mt'l~ ~ pro bably mllf!>' '(i.~ he r.solo- p hras<:1> l\fe c0l1SmlC!~d l>iniil<1dY, I'cfk..;iillg basic

pJJ ru ~T~' j5'i rh .,l,! ot qJ' feel, Ch.:ll~gli ito rl ~I'n U~{,8 hi.s ,arlj»tic..mastcl"y·t"O develop .these basic kbl~' into i ll..,rt>d i ble solo p;:]ss~! 3l;;~,

'rt~i~ pattern uses alternating. d!lslc strokes 1.0 lI1~kc an illter~stitlg.mld challengiilS pattern. As:'?mJ ruri se~~,:th~e j)lHtCn; (S-lit1Jyr~bill ;'rr~, the macho. Don't be fooled li}'. lhinld.n.g,rhat. fhi,.,. is i list sii~glL';;wjili some accents.There .. are .~C(··

tions which l!l<)Y prove difficult. The I;f§l note of lil (' 2'n d s~xtil pl et, ,n r;::,i~lll:"'$2,'I: ~Jl(l (); can realI)' he' difli;:;·dlt.due to the.accented lefr' hand, This needs to be practiced -,.;Iowlyat ,1ll'St.·


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R,L R l [f L R .L R' l R L R: L ·R L R: L .R L R l R" L R L H L R L R l R L R L
0 J ',1 li~ t .--'-, .D 1 '1' j-- ~
~ ~ .' e H L R L I~ t. l~ L R L 1\ L, R l l~ L R' L R L H:I. R L R. L .R L R l R l R'- L R L

~"- . :,. ::-- C"'-. ;~.'. 6' 0.... '

rnr!~ J .:~:-~I=;:J ~J_,J .r~~1~1i .~JJ-l~~.~~:-J_J~J~~J~-:-i~~~~~r~

R L R l tr L R: L ,R L R L R: L f{ L Pi I_' R L

R, l R L 1\ L .R L H L f!. L It L R. L
10 J. 1 - ],1
~ - -
R .;(Jav,@" Reia,tI;d Hand EXer' a:llcrWarm!1p~ 29

- .

Clave Hand.Exercise 2 ~ _. -, . .:'" _. _ _ ' _ '

The hcrnhnr'is m)w,addcd rsn thiil·'tlc(~li t.cdS[I!~vl )', {i11-:l'ft,lly! l'!~~~(~ ire 11!1l"i1 'yOLI (0111 feel Ill'

notcwi th in ·'·1u: .... cxruplet. clave; .'

o c- L -- . 'j ~ -Ji- ~. 'f-)1 I' ~ j J 1 I

._ '6· 6

ll~~~~;:~~d~-htJJi~~~~~~l~~_JJ:1~JJ I

. R L R l R L' ·R L R I. R,' L·~ L R l R·· L f~ I, R L R L R l R t R L R l n 1_ R L.

H l R L R LR l R. L R L R l R- L R L R lR L R

. . ~.' .

R L R L R lR l R LB L

R L' R L' R L. R L R 1 R L- R L R' L R L . R L' R l R l R L IR L R'I. R l R L R L

, .'


R L R L ~.L R L ~ L R L ~'L R L R l R l R L R L


. ~-






Clave Hand Exercise 3 '

,Kg,lili based (n) d;ive-tilidfi'l';<lf pl~~ye(!jm,t ,011 thc',micho, this phn,~~e utilizes an i;lt~j-e.Stlng

,~rickiiig,pa-(tem, '-' ' ' , '

" ,

'R l R L R t. L, R, l R, t R l R l L :R R l R L R l L




Clave Hand Exercise 4 '

~ l R l ~ t l R l R ( R' t R L L R L R L ~; L l R L R L R l R l L

o ,1..

B t H L k 1,-, l H; l Ii:: l R L f{ L t R LR '- f{ 'L L R l R L -R: L


'Clave -Re'lated Hand E-xeh;i,~e~ ariel Warmllps 31

.' I _ ". .,' .... ,'. " 1

I _, _ -

"T 1:1c,,tlal1Z(\f\ .-i:~.'!1j~C Mlli'(: rlll~t t:X.ilYl~·pl.cs of pnpular HH]si<,; in .Cubn. !_l hus its rool s

" " .'111 Fl~WP(:<:1 i1 d.lI1za <1l1ti GOlllTatiallla,'.

whicl: wcrc.traditionallj' phl}'cd1 percussion\'.;i~~, li:~illg 1\I;lb':anj,(p<liJ,\';ct:1b;;;Hh")_ 'i'I,(p.$~:

l y:Gli pan i.; (he Cuban ~G.yIG, were rnuch .:~·ITI .. iller than their E;.Hopcnn,.consinl'_ '(he pailil;'1~ cubunus, nr-ti LTIba"]e1";1$· we c.lli them, W(;I."C:9~vtlope(t p<lrtl~' asan .answer torhe need for a ',p' u:d ;~6J~ -'j 11 S I ru I~~e il t to bri n It L his "refined"

. ~t)de {\('C~b",ll'lli1tlt;k 'lopci'liaps ~es'~ .. lIC.c.:i~s~~ihk ,m:'1S in and «round Havana, i)<1ntiago de Cuba

~;rml other UC:lS',LI'I Cuba. Tradit .. ion:;r~-Yi-ilI~ani . i,'(:err;; run 'carrv by mule or

'l;,_Il'sd"h,'c'lc' - "

. - . . '.

. 'Prom' ,It; nll'l}' ,IS t'~le-cigh teem 11 century

- thd:c ~lr~··h:;Jl:"·rel1ccs hf t-Ile :,lnivill '01' Prc'cl'lch, .

Jihliis 1'0 t1;c:.'isl(inaof.Cilh,-:I'hi: arrival 01' I h(;~t: ships, with their rrendi ~rc~~' aud otherson bmml, ~rcat1r i~ft1ut~l1(;cd I he C'lu~torr~s <m\~l esthcticsc]' Cuban culture r These rnf1uelle~s· we-i:e':~Jlh<1iiceJ hy t!Jc"lnlgritk'Ji ·of h'cl:lch C(:;k;lli~t,~'Tl"mY1HJitl 'a"ft{~l~ n]~ .~'uhes~rul' slave rcvolutfon '(tile, firsi· record of thisIll'~~'eliiCI1'1' being in ! 7S,)). Anotner-gr;;,ll'·ill"rlllgnc.c '\·11<18, the a1"]'jll<11 in-Cuba of Fr{:'f]c:h colon t!;tS'- from l.ou,{s,i.<\I1':a, ~lfl:~I-N<11;~11~Qn J1ol1~p~:rte sold Louisiaua as .pmJ.o}!,llt' LOliis-lidl.a Pm:tbi'1se iii IS 1 ilvlmk,lliy, the F~'ench '\:ol1tnl~IH'lw.a" 0[: "({mnt~r·d~l].1c;;:"-;;ind the minuet were •. wo of the nlost·li'Jlp()rr~l1'll:.Pl'e·n~h "ilnppr~~_'."Thc· contradanzn ;V<15 -verY'I:p:Li6kIY "Cubnhitcd".ilnd became, the favorite (Ll nee of mElIJ:y-:Ctllwm, cs:pcciaHji those iri ~he upper classes, 'n~c r[c:lldl'Coloil,i~tti were, i n-·'t11c mountainous ~,)st('rn 'r~·gio.n~· uf':Cul;fbllt the·tt~l;n·~:;:y-[iill(,c hud no problems reaching a.1I 'areas-of Cubn ,'jn(:,I~Ldil~g:(h~~ 0;'ltiCC Ilall_i 01' Havana,

Thei'.!E existedin Cl!.Lmfl,v() 'contra(l<llli;l~; rhc OdCtHal'( fi·om·.'flw }~:'lslr:;rii provi nces) and Ihe_Hah<1ri~l'a:(fron'lHa""'lil_<J anti sun'OLII1(iil~g' ;ir~il$}. Th~OI'~('116l \v~h fTJ101<; ·p(.ip!Ji_,il", whicb: caused a-lot, of'~}r()hl~I'ns, A flCl".al·l; l~t~\i<1ml w~'·

the.c<lpitai! '

The-A frjcan "in flLtei:i.<:e· on the contradanxa i~

'. - ~ - :..' .

'~"'I"y" i nq,,!i"'1111 li('(:l usc-I.ll ix ~nn ucnce i~av(C lfrnil, towhur k.k"o';Vil, ns Cuhun nlll.'il~: 'I'll":

ml}': of (:i,mc-i:i}[!,' til(; (n:l.l~ n,Hbm~~l,j Ill' men ,111;'1 woiucn in <I 'double'lint with ~.fHlpr(.'S f;King '~:Ilch ntild, W<l.~ astvle vcrv f;HIl ili ,1 I" In the .r

,,:\friq~Il·,b~;';:.{ lt IV,;S:I1()\\;'I1MilY l'ii'l'iqms danced tn jhelr [i"()ITlC ~(lltnh'i('s"Thh fnel is veryimport ,ml.hcG~ul~(, il hdp,nl 'gl'<:,cit"iy int he "Olu.:epLlIlClC"-of1"llcmu~k b.}':·(l rn01j(~riIY of the Cuban poplihll ion, Also; ·p,~rfs or certain 'COIltl'a~hnil.~!~.:(~n:ld later fonTl~ called thedanzal !vc;~ w';-iuc'irWtid:ped"iHrfled in (ji_ll. Thi~.addjtion ~'if'lbc'r'/3-tii11c; ~iJiPlll:lLl~Cn!'~y be the first heard lnOllCI1CC of' Afl'icln music on European music. Ci,h.-lli.· music wa,~ born! the oldf.::'~' ·Ctlh,I·!i-cUI"Ltrudal'Jz.<\ known l:i titled ~'Sa]l P;I~~'lI;!lnailoli" i,ul'(~l w,;~ 'cre<1kdi!ilR03 ..

The d~mz~l ,is I\ol nnvrh i 11~ else but a crrutin~;ati()I.1 of' this lnusic;;l.phc~wmeIlO!l_ !1y

- Isil2, ~o rn ih1SC I"S 1i~~r~ hqj; i 111~ i ng: to ,1 d,\l I Vi' ics {{,CO[l(J"ilt~<1l1Z<1, singing [hcr~, 111 the U~b<llTCnl style .. Composers of d,IJl7.01S, rnosl l1C;:tta'l;ly 19m~ciU SCI'V'lli.t~~\ used rich harmonies .(I;,,{gl;(';.l i:h)"lhHlk.figllr~~ It> embellish their ,H ;'~lll~gC nl~11'h- Th~':~l rk 'oJ con t'I;;I! hrrl~l"i a IHil danza gave li'u"rl.h to thc··di1IlI.(\,\·, '-r-~lc lb m;(l , 1 is .slower tNrn thc.gcurestlutt preceded it Mu Il more ~-I:Jii\)j)~'if\1i~ f!:n-Ihri l·i·~jpic<ll Cuhanclinuucl ;!.:-Jfllliii,1·is.d1l1,Sidercd ~hCOlh'll1 Ulati911\~ldiHKC,

Cuhun coutradanzns \WI'C initially played lj\, o·r(1\l¢.~L·1~·tfpic'<15 which consisted of.two

. viqn~l~" l·.~~'n clarinets; <'1 :~()nfr~iha,~s, -;, "c(,Jnkt il\' (a .. In.1 mper~iikc i lui i'LlmCj1~);;,I'lT(Hllbone, I'pa.i.las (:ubiltla~t'(!ymp'IiTi, , iHlt!<'gliim: TIl,~ [h~nll~g<i' -rmn.Sc,~i(.(:)I' Cl,1·~.1\ie~~Li5 1'~,{m:eS<lH~ 01' .simply ,:h<II·.;mgaJf,:~ln: dir~('1 descendants ~)r 'l1,( orquestas-ttpicas, \\!ht,!"(C(!s tht:clrli'.inetpl<lY~\~ in tht's¢·orqllr.:"I;l~ rtpicas, its Pi.!.!"'1. wus taken f)ve'" hy til$:' [lu l,d~ he C~lhmi woud flute, wilh ~rl;iTi~ll1 rO(~l's, ) .... i'li; ~ivt key;{a,'iii ii;~~i~h' rcgis'la} ·in·lhe..(hanlrl!t:.l rl'mK{!~a. The .rnctalcs

I ~ L..

O'l:(lhi.9JI:C, r~pl<lc{;d in rhc charanga fr~1I1(t"a hv: Ihe,·vl·olil;.S, 'nil' itHW('\fl' ~IM\ j(:ll1ur.fd, i~~ ti1( . ~.~~-ng~~ fi~)\t\1~UVC_Il:1~~iTI" ~ldn'~cnb~)( Iii'\, 'g;)I1, tli; most .. important '~\lld ~!lfhJ.CIl.~.j.; I nTl;lsi" f,:om t.h Ilastern p,nl'L


,tI.'\igud rai'd~ls the",iJ)VI;'ntor' of (-h-.: ilanzou, 1,;) lld"w11S b 0 r rl" L n 'CuAm il)'C<lI;X M ~ira !i7,i1'S,

, Cuba in 11:152_ Tile first danzon

'l,ri~,Altll\rl~ ;'fi' Siml';'I')H" :PI!" l-'iL,-/,I.).:llinili

W<1S;P~ff(~rl1"l:cd J~HlU~'y l,.

1".'179 'irl the-Licee de [\iIU[ailZ<lS" flo ni'rll"{ is-"t~~~'A.1t'u-r.'rj'5'_d~ " '

Shlil!SOIf_'-"l<{ilde dit'~!' in r920.

\V~ b,-gljl die'stwiyof I~mb~h,n;"wil:l~,-ci~i!:1;611 beq~~;~e, (i'{~1U the music, rhythm, ~lt;d

~. -

dance of d;lli.z6lJ'c~.1,lel'ged'

!li<1'tl}i, 'jf not llll,or thi:' pOp_UhlJ ¢(\b~i 11 nT~IS,iG: s"!~' !-e,), rll()s,f assured] r ,'l acha '<1 nd 'pos~ s1hlvm,lnl1;o, The son..whichcarne hom , the, Eastern 'region., f){Ci'l)H-(O,.·.iei1t'~ prq~vi!1c~,al\ld PQ;;sibl}' oihersl; had a,gr.e<il influence also-on Cubanrmrsic and .i,Ie; nt(:'r.g.i~~g with the .~h':i{~on _Pr'!),yirJ.ed theernphusls for n:mny newand <:fxd1i~ig stvles.

Ch;lllg\lit<J i!:Ys.r\'iaIlY. Imin~: dilferen! ways o(pl'1yjiig',dim"iln~ H~re' ;~r~: ' tlue,,'eXtlll'~I;les wi'iil'h,will give: you a:g~?ud .idea (if I IIi.; 'dlyllllllOf .. hm':dll on timbalea.Not only is there [1' n'i~{i-Il rhvtlimt» tile (i.lIii{m, Ult:rc' is

. ~, : - -'; , .. , ...... . . ~, . -. .


'.<1 way In "stick" the rhythm qll timbales: The .sticking i,~ ,wl'.~tte1'lfor' yOLf, ,Cllang~dt9 U5<;!$ vatious thedriun, wi.t-r :;tj{:k,s pl<:iyiqg open ,tones, rim shots; and muffled strokes, Sometimes heuses his fingers to play fhe )llu'I'~ll':(i strokes': Pullowingthe llOPlioll and listeni i1g" tothe a,ccoITlputl},ing,CD will dearly demonstrate the danzou,

the' basic .danzon pattern gIves you OJ ha~k j(I("i ,;fthe' rhy:tIun.- 6l.i~ advice, whicli i.~ repeated ihfDUghoUllhis book, is topractice each pattern extremely slow, perhaps our of !ilJ1C',.tD get ;ddil. for the sticking inv.q.lyecl. Some patterns 'm~i.y be a bit easier than others.

The second. measures of all. the danzones coutain.a IdFhatl,d -P{l~tern whlclt serves busicaU;';as a '(irile I . cceper, 'thti len hand plavsthc' "dc;ldene:d pauem with 'finger~"'oll most or the

" " ~ . '

"ands" of beats I ,'2';,<1-11.1 J,A~!hough .

Ch!mg~~iln plays most of them, only the most irnportant, arid 'heard, noteshave: b'6',f1 trunscribed ,

Note: 'rne notation ofrhe-rnuffledhernbru pt:lY~tJ \',.:~~ li,a sth:lt, IS ,\"~irntjl.lncd wa}' of notating.the ';;1ctll111 sound.This.sound i$ played b},'slriking,lhe hembru ,\'jtn .one stick w'hBe the other handis deadening the-hernbra.

'j'h(;:.'iL:' st-l~i1ons,: j~undi.ll e:lch di~r~jl;;:!:~'wfll conccntrar .. on gellj'n~ ~:OlHlsed to playiil!?; tl)-(>' Limh;il~s '-ror l'~~ch o(~h~~ rl.~}'l-ll nis Jhdng.s!udi~d, "fhcr6: arc ~'~1'(jQlIS movements ~~;ith which '\'fnl Y')ll I'b~e~t ro',r.~l:ll ili,.li"lY{ yourself ;',;bq r 1 l,ear;1i~~g, these r-h}'llr1m~o.[I,tiilJh", yv~: i'U.ll:t,:; 'id9~a~J;.' loolwd <l('(~nd listened to I he .IJ).i~ic. ,?~~LI,l1d$

. ai'aihlbkfJ'oln Ih.> dnll'rb,atld.b<"ib. Thl'~<:- exer, ':l~~S lonl~' ,II sorue combi,fPl'i'oTl'; ()!~~(j(nJlds ·;tlld 1111'~ti~ki'ni_ p.i 1 !~'!I';\\II'i;l 'i;1~t:ri~iUl[I\--'11L~'1 i'l,.,:}' . imc,Avc:, I~~'I·'ea_t t'<I,-Jr~I~(l'r'ij)hn,l~t;"a~, lll';my l:illw~ ;L~ IH.'<.i,<JSSnry il,l oab"·:et" ,dl'\!'l'I,\_tJ prol'('"l' 1("(I'miqlll' .uul lhl' proper ~O~liH~S i'I'OIH the

!I')S,ll:lI'I;'Il'nL " -

The (-11:',( 'rhythm in the book-is that of , danZI)II. Jj'<lllz61{USI;:S some-interesting soull~ls lind hand paU£r,~'I,~:' The.,.ril'U~TJ.l:q hembra .. and crossstick ih tile hernbra is }1Jayed .using a

',slid, lng" pattern-very similarto ',t}iwrlg,hE paradid,I'e~,Here is' !'h~ t;ath~~'n as it i,? played on the 'fH~mbr,i', r~!,,,t,-!.l;jm:~!fle(I'~Q·l'lldl' is liLwe~I on lh,~ hernbra Will) stick. The muffled 'sound '""

,~ch lcved by leaving [he left hand lyil'B ou the ,drllmwl)il~ l'm~'si r ike-rhedrum, in the 0,;<:111:<:1', 'with the right ~ticJ" This sound is Coll.o\.yed by ,I C'I'O~.s 's l ic k'i n ' \ he:, h~ III h ri; ,\~ II h,lie Il~h ~ rick, !:'oBmv'j;1g this ,~olll1{l.ItT I W~) more niu fn~(i hcmbra sOll'lull>_l.d's"ITY this pal tern.

__ L---

This 'he:;:! p:tqcm b~gins withu Idt~~,:l'OS'S .s!,kk on ihe h,i:.'iTlili:'l, l~in(\y.r(1d hy ;:1 ~Iwrircd hC'Il,lhra :wiih thl' 1:'8h'l l'~ind, 'l'h'c'llexl s~H.IIl.SI is

- new: the uP;:'/l hc·)n\}I'H., pl;'l)'Cl.hvi'lh'.1 he right si;i:~k J;nl.lowing the ~~~ll·~l·:::mll1d j,,. ;tl1lJl.hcr <r\)s; stick with 1('/1, h,i]id" '

Patten) 3 features-four (li1fel'(:l1l sou'ods, ,fl'(Hll thr:·hembn{; 't\'IlIfl1cd, iiemhl'<l wtth "tght, sli~:j(i~ fol1o\'!ed'.b.;r p~l!f1i~J'l)~]'nb:r<~ 'j[:th lingers.of thck1l:hand:The:npen Sr)lil11d: ri.gbt

;51 icic; j.51lc::,n, f()lrD\~cd by';:! 'It:n cross .~t iok. L1Ch ,~'fl'l;e'?l' P;!~tt:m!; needs Ll~ hc"pr,\stict:<ll1'Iany :tiIlH:~i{i(,{ft+l the 11mv ucccssarv'Ior lhc'tldual'

. . . . ~' ...


A. ~ J : :=:J'=l=EF _ ~ ~ ~ __: =f!

~~" ,.~32f:", /-- --. --.---~J


PatTern four h;)s'l'iv~.di'frcn:~lit sOlul'cls from· hHh {in.lm~;XliIllmtd !icmhl'a;'i"i;~ht",h'~':lt(,i;';-, Io 11 owed by'an it~(l::],~'l~~1)1)'H.·ho.:"I:hi5 ;c~l1;it . ."so'und i~ ver}:hr1iJQrt'l~nl'! rylll)wing the KCCI1{-


R L R l

cd n1ad1\~ 'is ;Ill~)thei' Illumed hC!lti)'nt,.righl. Il;l;ldi',I,d[d,~'~~d:IJ.}; 1;'eLlli,ll',!' nwilkd with hand or fingers, !eft i1an('i. Au npc~l hcmbrn ~lfld ~,mss 'SLick- HHunt ollt"dlc n:klls~"f'{",

Correct exr.(',iim~('J,(th(!5(rCJUr p,altf!fn, j:i,il1 h~~idyOlI w: {j I!(~[ ter 'rJf1del's/Onrii fl~n{ rlre hj-md moveftJeIUS'keie~~(fryJi.)I' danz;;rr,.

-- ~_-'

Traditional Danz6n -



.' ~ I

n {~- - j. - 't -oi~----.'.--


j J_ ~(
if! l
R R .R d!-· ---.J---


Ll R_

R :R· l, R RL


1------1~~ -.-.---- -.-·8---- --:

'B'--' -- .--.~

:_ -::-_(jf;_~- :. --iii! --- ;" __ .

- -_

_--- -._-

·R ~ R
.j ,
I til
. .1_ .•
_R L R. L




R. R L



~. --~I





t- I



Datizori 35

I, i



- - .

Danzon .... Exam' te 1 . ." ,

Val'L11\ ions oneand I:wn ad(l ~,-mlC'{ipcll 't6il('~ ,lnd ril1'l\~hOl,o'!u .~pkc llpihe cbm('.n", Th.o;:.s~: SliI] 1~:IJ'l iruo ,1 "n,Jio.;;d c;drgoFY ;md.:)I·{_'

YCr}',import.'1l'll to,k:,i{ll. ShivlngT()i' kc', is 'he nUl!'>! ii'S")j}['ii'I:i I,lt' \:UllC1:V' 'for Ibt~',alld C:~'(~':r l'hing ~:lsiC'ililhL~ IHHlk.

V~ll~i-,-,"jF· g #o. .. ~~~.-_ ~.i_~~~--=~

R L R R. l R R L R R R L R




'Danzon-Exam Je 2 '_ _'_

~3f'i 0t:1nz6n


The.'~.'~}?':~~i~.h .. ' W(lrd.,~lb~n~w. ~'!', t:~;n>'<l~ Ltp;eLltng 1~11k'jU,lC. lan:tH' ~()medl1(lg,

with which to' hUl ;'·'tlurid£: lt.seems' to come' f~'om the [:i[;,~ :t~;::lt~el'~ 'l~i~(I;"<1n{I':i') , somecases ~!cll are used; in 'the dancingof classic CI)llrm dunces Iike the CUrl' radaiiza..

d art1.i.I,<i 'nd\lal~i6fl. En<:: h sect it) 1\ o f the' dai;ce" t'ro.n~ i!)H"tdudion6( ~JH~ 1;(WII'H~rs tOA'h'e actual dance .i lsd,j~·had specialaccompanylhgmusic p!1i)'e~:I fnr.'the s:ectipn. Om: 5(;;C1'i(Jll ofa, dance. ~<l;lle.d :rei ftl)~ ,P'l#i_iC3!P<l t.i.ll:g'I;)~~[ ~d'l[) ~tjJ'open,

," ',jI.... : . . .• ~"' . . .i!'- .__,'

tl!e,id;:\[]s [It a certain lim(~.,Tlfc,~e'f(ii].s .are 'tra-

"clit'iunally'nUlcle of wooden sbts.lmagille the so Lind, if yt,m will, llr dozen ofrhese, r;lI"Is opcnjhg:s~ln;:d ~'ll~~'~~i'Ll~"ly" A: dFmnnic;~{ ~Yh;(l'h;,~tq"i h<1s,pf;Jrhill~s .'::f;[I:,,~iglle(Ho 'ln1..)hYl~l'Ii~ )1; thought or I hi!> ,so undand .came up ,w:ilIJ,tl'!e abanicoon

l irnbales; ~:~gnifjling the chnnge,l)e!ween sec-: tions Dr Afro-Cuban songs" In ''J'.(IS Puilltas,Cltl;a:ri~f~" !':i(1\·:Iarta 'Rqdrig~Je~{~ller'\'o, the .abanico is referred to '~:$ ~"a. roll which.called for the ',begin)]i n g of th e lrn p ':D¥i sat ~(i[j.l'! se'ti ~i on of the danzon,"

r 11 ,~~l~a:-~tyle tll\';e5,.t~e a~~,'l[';ic;oj'if.wl:i~en used.extensively to signalthe ',zh:utge between ~~e, verse section and the chorus section of.a \'~l)l1~. (Itcartalso be used in-ether \;"<1),'" 'belt 11~~lSwa}' ,ls,veqil;Jask,:!'6 I"he :SI ),.Ie:.) The':j~p<lniw it> also used h~ Ch'Kh~,dla ;uidioth'er fQrti'J,s (Jf

.... ~ • '\!:

Afro-Cuban music;' Changuito uses-the ahani-

(0 in tm~~itiomd:~nd non-tradltionalways.We 'fe".1 that' i,t i~ most in]!porhli:Jt f(~~ 'y{H.J to )can)

Ihi!i1;rnpcli't .. mtpart of phlyi'l'ig thetiiubales.

'Ab~mico forChacha'cha ' , ' .

The ahuuicois comprised Q(rwo s;),llnds,'lhe .crack of f~i\::' rini sho] tl'lwr~ ;,lI:~" (WO' separate !"ini 5110(5) <11:1(1 rhe dr~;: r61Fih !'he'lnacho"A'~

. : ~. . -; '_' .. ' .

Jyml can see r~i-Hi,t' ji2xr,t;'Kam~~1e', l'h~"LCc:cili'~d

'll[)k8.fn till: macho.are.very important [0'1' the "aballlc<). '''.his is <I'yery li,l,~ic ab~li',io:o.

As yo II l i!ltc n, to, mO·re· a n d TIl£,) rc Afl'O -C'-'lbaJl music you will hear-others, '\/';Iith thisbasic

. idea r~.ll ,will be .Ibk ro interpret theother, ill0·I;e.'<li:lv,.mp;d patterns, Pradice;~I()wly at first •. incrcas] I;g the ~n'ei~lp(;IJ-nly wh.c~ you rC::d comfortable,

'Aban;co' an'd .Traditional Danz6n ,with .Bell I






'E' nriqoc _jQrrjll 'is ql:t1i1~·d ~hy nHlll),,<lS'1 h~

, . "iIweqto~1' {)((J~<ich<l(11;L \bt~ ,dance gels it,

," nam.~ •. according tp [orrta, lrom the ,sol1l'i.d·oflhe dancers' rcd 011 thcdauce [lnol.'. Inl.95:}' J('}l'riT'l'-us(',.i'd:IC'~;_i·imd of a very'lypk~~1 {\fw .. Cuban style: kHld,.r,:aik~d l'h::li~nii'~r"llccsa, .'lk)i~g wilh'.~,,'har 'were c;1lkd.danzrmes: de

~n~\!vo, riim() {darizom,(:r new I'h:ythnl} to ~hdp crcat~' th'i,(it~w.},\fro-\--:~bil(I:.p'Dpllbr dance feel.

.. Ali imp(l[<ltlln:;:(j,fJhj~ new'dal1p:~w~ls tllc!t~iIU"tiQil of ,i new rhythmsand theaddl-

.... - _... - . ..

. rion o( voc'li,~ ,md.C1l.,)ITIS':~, One ')1' file !lio"l Illi.p(·mt'l11 [ new rllyt:h 111,~ ,~,id <1_"'l'r(i 111 tJ{irtfi;1 purt lCJ1' the t i miJ.,\I.t.'I'O is the chacha hdi.. ·[(is··a·· .(ll'i~'Jhg 'Hll(_~ ,1 ~cr.y'''up'i kd, 'The fed is. enhanced by t';~rihg <ill. oj' ll~eJighlhllOI('s within'llle pattern, witl-r 1.1l(;'(hi(\"ill~;lEh:·i I1.g at\:t~nted,

.;Qntc a1Fi,I.,fht: hen1b!'a pluys <!. very imporrant pnrt, e(ni)lw~'ii'jl,\g '1"h~"(lllllh"l'[) ()(tb("t~!I]lb;ldon.!.~ ~r:ong<13') und.bnss .. JJon'1 this PM't It" ismost impoHilTi,l.

Preliminar Exerc;ses '. . .' . . .

-'lbe accented 1~~ tack on the maeliois verv. 'i-mp()ttan't, ft. is;ilt~("} .Ve;:v'"imp:ortant"LQ· be al;'c ..

• _ • I ':'J'""

. tornake·the-tnm~ltipnfI'OlD,·i:hij·'",(_)l.1.ncll(i the

.sound !l~: either cowbcll.Th is tnillsltihn is.verv

. .' ., . ~

,imp(ll;!iHl·t ~~'ilh,.,~e\·w.,1 dilH;rclll" rlirthlTis"<11Hl parlerus. Here 'jit: t h} h';m~itinn Fo!'. yOl.I to prurtice. 'HiSI' wiH! tI1C-·Eh<)·ch~ belL

_NCU\",v,.iitb 'the"m',imbcf bdl. {Nole F D~'{:IJ tjumxh t h!'< I~ IMn' bo r)~w '/5 Ji~!t" r,l.i r{(;l!r r,r,~I~,\UIl ·ch{!Eh.(Jq.~i(i, Cfumgulio jell iluil il·:'fVa.~ im[lm'I/Tn"l. to "il1dr,[de.'tMs itlfrnrmtion' Fiere,f(M'rtc.l: ,>It li,·~es. lids c.i~iti' to wrne the J,ijTde!u·brUs

(dUlclI~! mid mr.i"il1/:'il) 11JJ flit' 5mm~ line" Wlj('11

. tI[~.r (mN~Sf;i in sq;trrii'tc "xcrd~c::. Wiwnri'rtl' :'/:11.£'1 hflJ!pem'J'oll wtn be IW1jlii:d 1J}'.{i~'(:(J)1IjmrIJ'ing i'r:';'litj'

Mambo B:~; ~~-e-!; .-J~-, ---t:~ ~J_--,- - J

-8~-~==-- . ' =l," -_. ~=-==-~l

&~-~ te=..-F---,_- --

. - f ----I _____;___ - ~ ,

R R . R R

_. I !

Tile i~iter!ltlr'or .ljdl>'\11~ .~h;~um,·.i:'SI:)lx.irdlr 'I1CJtlbm,~is v·er.':' i.rnp()l;tant:~'h"eil ,le~.l"·lii rig Afr.o:(:uban iirnbules.Hcre's .mJnmtT:~til)jl of

',i nrerplay >~'ith chachabell find hembra.You

wiil be playing two sounds on the chacha bell (mouthand b~dy) whlle.tlre left h.,wd plays the h~mIH'ani'ilffled.v..;ith hand or fi,lMrl',' .

Now,'ht: open' h'embnl 'is,added, played ~.;rjd~ H <'Oltk':o("rh",·nl].g.-:rs,of"rhe left 11"'!!1~L tlj(Jld:,··Ple?i~~~j:~.~h;.q{I,'<'Hi.!w r? Pmajw'lhi;;

.Boak" Fir· imp.orliliit tip.s))it <~err:il1g tiW'fNfiit /rom.lfn'~·e. brJ5it I~ifr(';se;·.)-

Cam anaICha~Cha'Bell Exa'm ~ les . . .._

• -





Chachac~a 39.

.. , r

I ,I


Y .. ;'if~)l,the rrlU~iG"rcal1y star.ISIO, grt'lOve, tJ1", iIIohtur\¢' (i5olhetimcs. translated <l'~ 1\ two-bar piano vClmp) js',~mqki~g' and the'; fliJ!~ isr(O,illy blowing"the ·tirt'lbaiern L~ '<iffected by ',vha;t 'is happ.eniilg around hlm-Clr"h'er(··1~}' 'lhe"" , !)an'd and .bythedancers), the .cxcitemcnj is shown 'j;dlle hemhra. The timbalero (timbale .player): ma}·i~.Iddiiioj.cri0tc,~.or ·I~,1.ay <I Jiffer<;:nt· pattern in thehembra.

.the·d'l)' Qllnl~ -night om; coukl sce bonfires and th.€: sl1}ie:rlH;111'_;ljl~SOHI,ld of drums, cymbals, , all d Hutes, Pe rh;:lp,5~ this: gives }"() 1,1 a,ll idea of the history of the relatibn:"liip an~lliow. special it really is!

This .i:}·pe':of plajdng:the open tone.does not 'OCGUFOn a frcqlleh't~ba'5i,~ hut the tirnbalero, being affeckd by the'ro;);lllIJi:l), tJi'~ t1ut.t(; the :dilnC?I·~,:ttc:,. Gill show th~ effec!'[)y rt"ayiilg:! ljir mere in thcncrilbr·a. all t'newhik maintainhlg the. g·rl1o~~.,(:l\'lej.~mes- 8.-1.0 arc good examples (Jfthi~"i Itrilay hilppet'l_Pi'l.I.y onetime dur~ng.a song, afkr which' the tlrnbide"td rc\'erts back tq plnying a basic .gwo.;:e in the-herr ... b~a, This,tl)uSI1:;al exa ill phi:' dem onstrnres h 0;'." ernotion and' e~itemen' can-affect Changuito's: playing, as well. <IS your OVO) I

I /.

i 3, o~ >_ ~::-~ > >- 7?- :,,_,::.- """' .::-

Ch a- ~ ••• ,i,~~DD

, --


Thereis.a 10.11£ history of th~rdi:1~thJnship between thc'Cliilrri ahd the flute'; i\:.; far 'back as 2;t)"OO};ears' Olga, ill{il.UtJl0~, \v,riting,iil the ancient-writing 0/ "duo Pcriplo" de Hannon, stated that:sailors salling· down the African ICQllld, at .!\ight"he,wa great noise-made by drum.s.tlllte~, <I1'-{d c>'m:ba!s.; Also, 'a Roma'li writer [mtne.{:(Pd·t1,lP~)~tO I\.:kb·\\'f·i>te ofa place inhl1-bikd by satyrs, \~'h~;:e it-:\,;;lS quid du,ring

! ! t




''<The mixture. 6f.(:6tig,as and timbales, the t\l.n)baO·oftheconga and the $"obado 1 n 'the ,4,cinb:r,a,_ i.s one-of Cubanpopular. musi~) 11l?_st i'nt1uent"iill· ii.n.d .importam 'sounds and feels" it ls ·this·mix" alol1g~~'it.h. rtJ;il'a'c;~s,dave, ali.d 0tfgul:r9. that reaily m~kes~the. n'l\ts.i.; swing,


This-example is of thebaskchacha,ch.taccompanied bya simple one-drum rnarchain the 'i:'Qilg,i" Eii'st you. willhear the abanico, Va}' 'attenti!'m,t'o ~he:hnpprf .. nt sounds find try to

cnmlate them. Please listen to··Cl'1. track .10.·


:=-- .
J ,
'I "


-W" " hans this word, mamboj-Many-

· , ,,' ,: ' !~~:~ut1Ji~;~i~~il~~~~~~~~~~~,~~::fc

researchers have been trying to findout.where _ 'it 'col11~eS from, whet .it means, and-more

U~~ort'Hl:tjy,';yho_j·[~\~nte;d lh'~ ~npl)ic~11 ,style called ·m'Hilbo. Manuel Cl'ldlal' Vizcaino, a Afro-(:uban-licholar, says'thit he ha.a ·L1e~~eh:el1c:0J;.I.htereq .the 'word ill::any books. 'Ev~i}J,illjtius In.usjdans of11,i~ day'(Ml~onio·. AI'~ano, for. ex;atli'!)leh:ou!q not e. .. ~plai'l' 'he birth (~'the name -. Ni'l.Cli,in;C; s,ays-~hat,f:1~'rll~\Dd() Ortiz. t31ks.abr:lIlt'the.wmd '~~mamba," a districtin::Equ<~tori(!l.t}frlc;a.., AlsoJie.l-las found [he w91'd "mO!n,P9rgiVc:lltQ <l,$, a Cri:r.~ahf African regioi:i;, Obdulio'Morales S!l}'Si t.harthe word originates from a-scream Qnrell 'rvl1ich d;il cetl"·s.ho ~i: d mi:ngl.the hot SI!C.t·i~H$ al d ance rt umbers, 1t)s also an. e·>;l'r~i;.~Ion used by those who .dance i·umha.:columbi:i'"(one'''iif-the three types ot"1'llmb,utlll;d 'it' slgnifie~ . ·{iiln~ihg·<1b' andu.feeling' f0-t'die'd"lr1ce.



, A,'se·nio·RQddgut':?', the ·gr.eiit'f:ub.<\11 tres

(Cuban style-guitar)' ~)layer.aridcdti1pl)SCr, stat-"

· ed thai the'wQni·wa5'Affit:,~n,iJj origin,

· from l:he COllgc)le:,e dtal\;'Ct. He dH~m,ed·j'ts rQ·~lt."~·:I·te:'lI:l· t.lld:c:~.m:ersll~I';n. be~w~en vocalists where one says to the ',odier, "abre 'riltoig,~)jric mambo" or·"open yourears and H$hmiO··';\lhll~ -I VI"atit"io. S<l:Y:~ '(::1 veIY maG,ho·thing to-say), , Arsenio isoire ofthe:omsiclm1s who-is credited wiH~ eirh~r 'iI;~eijtin;(~'r g·i'~i!l·~},"PO·pl;·',ar.;zil1g

. ~ f' .. .,' ., .' .. .

the mambo, He also was o11c:oflh.; J1'ri>fba'm:1'

leaders tC"ildd congas to a ll~mica] group.He : sa,id ',that he.had tOt}o·. sornethi'llg .t'~ lu,\ilY.the f~'eling~9f\er;;~i,9!i i'eprt'.~.2iHed in the Athcall phrase, The'r~sul(ant newdance was 'coill!!d rnarnlio .:

Another g.r~a~ Cuban composer; Dr.r~i<tso Perez pra(h~,::,.~a'jd·'thllt "mambo" w,i;a Cuban word. \Vh c iiJ~lile(\l\e \\,lll{t~G11:~H.:i. Y ,I ha t· 'Hi ~ ·sin.Lati()n.was,al\oq~:one,. t"ey.w(Hil~1 i;,}' ':.d mambo esta bie'n'_'; Prado ,<;ilid-:tl1<ltmw;icaUy'he 'didn't \~"inf 'to comment 0'11 who invented-the·d ancc , Just tI~;t "mamho" W,is ,L narn e. and that.

.\vasit;· .' . "'. .'

Thel'~ are :maii.y Hi<ll.S~Y tha'~~Dan{aso,Pe Prado was the.invenror of the rriiili1ho/lie

.!1~d the-chaeacterisfics'of-marnbo asbeii ~'t.r'}' 'syilctl'pa ted, Th:e lrumpet~ 'carry the. mdO((y~.'the·ba·~~ac~Olnp[l:nics·>·<\,nd ,,' """.' ~'~~I"'bil~ed·-witll. tIle bongoes and. tum~'as '('C011 g~s"J.:Prado did not' mention timbales werenor vet:i;:QmmoI1.1v used in """"'-uUlJ''','

jaiic~.b~~~s:~f.~lis ~:.;a"K ,1~t~_;3.()S~1Ild '40~)'1

Interestingly; Darnaso Perez Prado bad to I move to Mexico to invent.the ma.rnbo. He 1 ciajr)1sji1 ilP.-1.nteril"lew th8;~:si:nce he.did not h,ave:the"opp~rtimity t~ pl\lY mambo-in-Cuba

he \,;ent to Me3.ic(),· j

A bigdifference betweerrwhat Perez Pra~o. .did.inthc two countries was that he had writ-

.F~ n aU lhl:,,' ill'~~I1,' 'ge,inen t~ i.fl '~~l~'ic?~ ~~he~r~a~'~ in Cuba only a bit would be written 'Out. (I he re

.seemsto have been a.lot-of freedom with. tne. 'arrangements ~1:j.·C1Jba~J this rn~yhave ~ivef1 .h inl more. 01) pbrtunlties, inMexico, to write

. .:. . . . ~ l .

out moresyncopated figures ,and more lntrl-

.. . .. '. . ·,.l

care arrangements. Dainaso Perez I?radti'w(ote

his firsfin~mibos:in'1949 irr-a record-named

J fJ'~ey' J\.laG·ame.;".!>i'b~~l)· Il~mer~j. 5': 'and ~ "Mambo, que nco rriainbo were two very I

'i~moll:> songs-from this recording, . I

, . 1

. i

\'\l1\~r~as the .9I'igin·a_t0 rs, of rna n 'I Cu ball .

'musical st}~ks ;8-re known; the.crcaroF(}f the rnembu seems to s6I1.he in-question,

In order to play. this musical-style on.timbales YOll must kh9~;;~' b,Mk patterns: 1'hes~ paiterl1S·.~rC the .dSCtl{fl.pattf;!rn~a.i:i9·t:·owbdj patt<:msrAI>,:with mostmosical ~t}' 'Cuban roots, these pattcrus-chunge with time..

'. Y,', o.u~w]ll :fin d.S, ,0tll,:VCl.'Y.,' tYP.iC:a, [latter. n, S .,Lt,"i'tI,liS

section and yO~J. wII_l'find mj)l:e·modern par

terns',. I'or exiiill'ple,,$phle'of ¢h~ng~litQ); C,s.caraputrerus ared~fillite.iy not "trfl'diti~)na!.~

. but they ~~wing, Ahva;.anclllcry important fpi:y~·)I.i ~(,J~ii·l:!i,.are the two-bell patterns fom;d

later in this section: Bim~dr1m ~s also a'{ldecl. ·fvfast.eri ng thi~ 8~(': U:;)il, will help.' ~;o.~' be--re'aa,' Y

. . -. .,',.. - I

RI!' the next salsa gig: that comes your waylJ

MambO' 41,

. ~ .-;-

Preliminer Exercises



Tile shell 6fth~·(it,ultls:is [I. w:-r'y.-iril]J()rtalll -sound, You have Jfrcady- heurd bow-the sllell .5911hd~:·crispimd dry. La I en'Ol'I'wil) be ""ked . to ct)mb:iri·i;;'"Ci:iSp'a':t<ld~.<\4ith \i(~ sound

of thehembra, Hd-c"j;s~ b.~;g·;lln]ni.l.~s;'olvin ma!sing.this,corQbitla't!on. 'Pirit w~ wi!'1 C~~l-

bine.thrce [)eat5 of rheshell; or d~~cara, wi'ell .an 9r~.;i:!>OJll!d Cl'Onnh'e 'hembra, playedwith the flrigtTs (l)(ju~t. the ilii~i(V£·(iilg~r) '(jf Ih~'lert, haud. You should be. pla~ihg :tlu~s¢ c,\sc~'ra . S911!:iQS Oil tllc· of-the !Jigh drum '(Il!<i'cbo}.

1. J d j
It¢ .. 11
~Ow,jn·s.~rteO .hetween·"att<!~~s, is dwlefthalld playing: Ire heiiJbra muffled with

-hand·o:r.ting,!Ol"s,.' " -. ""', -- . ,





i ,


I !

. ,

~ere iip;:,t\fQ qthe/_ l'l.a.~i~ .J;l1p~'~m~n!:;s,iilv~I\!{ng :these .three.sounils.With exercisethree '~.ou are.p1fl}'inga dlffcr~nU!omblrrnrio.n invo!;;'ilig,the dr}'':~o,und of thecdscera.wlth thehcmbra mnf-

fled wit.h"H', . . .

.~. -:~ .

.. f% .



Pattern 4 has }'()upI<\yi:~g an' oi)en: sound fromthe hqn~ra betweentwoattacks from the shell

of the 'high drum (macho). . .


I l

4. .J. ~. J
'1$ =1:1
- 'f \o\re'v:e)ilrea~i practiced making-rhe-transitionlro.ill·the j.ccented:ma~ho. to-the mambo beU/i-Tcre- are sOllle e;~tci~~~t~)".g~t:y'~u'a0'~18·

. ",-' h

torj:lC'"d·.to: whattlie left handplays on.the'hem-

b[~i::'_Exet"ise begins withthe accented

m"choj. tr~i'nsitiohing to the hod}' Qfthe mambo bellwitli (he. smile" hand while the l-eft hand p~ar:; l:he he~br'a muflle'd' wit~hl:iand or. ~n:ngcr~"


I ,.








E xetc.ise' six 'a d_d s ,tl~e 0 pet'! SDU nd 0 f the hem I,)], a. (Nd /,:: A,s with all. of th.esci, pa.tteriis" r.epetit~ii t~

isrlw'kIlY·) , I

6, ) ~_~~ __ ~

LB-~Y----" ____..~ j j, J





Here isanother combination of rna mba ,

bell ~;-i~i'h'~h)br<l. ,", '

The op~n sound.of-the.lew.drum i~ fea hued.








'T~ -:h,(:. (:i~:;.~:i.i'a" in . .i~s l11any f;.l!;II.l.~ ~in.d,yahl.nons, IS the mcst busic and

". 'i'll1l:)()rLallt:'paJtcfn"fQj{:i~':lJ tq.h:,~r!l·on

-timbal.cs,.'i::;'hr.::<1fa\i:tl~~rp<lll'jsh, rri~~,rr~" shell, 1JI,(.c the shell of '(he liinbJk·s. Thisiswhere itis

" ~ , . ,

r!a}'l?d, altl~o.l~gh ther':' times-when this-par-

1I~!; t'1 is [ib.Q :p la ~ied \in '; <:i

cO~\Iben or cymbul, ·When. playcd:on the :;hdl, thesound ig'dry, . ~i;d' ~;'i~l;; 'lql~(;iil,d,' ,.

sOll! a W()U\ I s~ kk on a meta] s~1ell,: lrwlginc h,rnN that should sound, It

r wflrhdt~ y~;u:to;';~!Ji~\~(:' =

the correct tone;

. Also, C;lSC;fl"~I' h~ao; to be. 'pb);t;;t! ~\'j_th':lili' ;]l~i"' tude. I t'.s [}'q{ a 'P'li.'( !ern to P~(.}' laId b~ck or. b~y. It ~nqsthave <L certain drive LO ito, '!:'hiS

'"" . - ....' ~ , ", ;_,

it> .iitl";u'nwrill(;,11 rule

th,Jt ClI;pl~,-; to Ill.tny; ,style!>' M Afro-Cuhan

1ll1lSiC~'!'hl:1"<.· is :,"n'lI1"imi~l":lbihll'thiv'c .liid

. ~ - - ~ .. . - I _

.!!11 ul'S}' to [be nHI~it.'_ /\nd lhl~ Ill(lVt:.11H.'lir bcgins.with.vou.

V/h(~r(.: 'does 'he c(tS(;,JnI paHem cnmc frnt""n" 'j-hen: ~if'c m;Jui~: V~':!ii(;l~~Or i rs i n..:epl.;wl. The· ds(.~ ra i~.,t P;)tH'HI whose we'd .... li1~y he associale(~,wi l:h the il1jl ucnce of' A III eri r.;.1l1 :!J_1.lh;trid5 ij/lhc"c<I'I'ly pMhyl' tlie·10t h. ("llIUT}~ ,f).rmtditci· V:;ldci sb~!c.s., ibi~ pattitul;Jr belief; ·f'h~· hi-hat a.nd l:id~q'l~lh<i1 j1;.ittl?rii·tould li<i\;(~ influenced ti111iJ<!lc2rns'of those days '1.0 develop L1H~k own syrrc\llnuect, timekeeping patterns,

. AIlCl·nH:I' 'in Ilucllci:- nn lht.' dC'~el(]prll.enr of

. t he (;~':-;GII:,l' p<ll'h:l'Ii cou I c.I he I hill (~f" the 'r:mnba, ,PrH:'O r the pHl uos l-',~Hcl'n fOJ- rumbais \i(.'!')" IIt:"~II' .to t h(':, SOU 1'1':( of I ilc.ri\~t'H rn.' n" iJJ:ll'cd wi.I.'

t;'tj.c h~l.I1·U, Ihi;, ~)l1n~.i'n Sfl\ll1ds i~knlic~li.w the ,~, dscar<1, 'I Ii ,i r99]··intd,'vkw· lrom !\:'i'CllI;S~utli rnag,;zir;c, lito. f~tlc!llC alludes t~) W~ mcf'hal lhe.c;l,\.Cili"<lCOmeS froln the rumba. A ral.y (;rjr\ialel,:, i)1c·l$,t,.!1 :has~ist, ;",l.~!)·ted, '1 hal, rhe roots 'of c-;isc<1r~' are frorn rumba.

. . . . :' ....

··The Pafltos,Patt~rn ..... one exam Je of man -

'~The' Cata'Pattern' . .. . ... -. . .

. ,

t\"nu yet unorhcr pattern,

pj:() ITered. by two great Cuban j'iJ rlba1f~l:D,"" J 6's~ '~himid ' Sllih:h'<:,"~ ·and· Y9[~d~r r)~J.e~1I:S 1?"J;:i'!~ u.ov~t"migIH give us

another clue, to tlJ~~ origins of cascara, The rhythm ph~ycd byliletarn, in tun:!!}" Irancesa, a "hYl:hlTlo["the eastern part of ~-::lJbJI., could be .' considered a dose cousin- to the c.:lsem',,·, Th.e -rhvthin is rransrrihed for .VO·,l,

~. '. .~. ~


The·. Cin uillo Cubano ,,- . . . . . .

'1'ht'l'e b,mfimihjHj~n( r.hy~hln, d<!v~joped i.rI'"(:Llb<l lwei heardin .he .Lt,l1(iiri, c,lk.cI .Gllq~lill(l Cubuuo, ·1"I:!i.~i~·<l v<.:J')" impm:tali; fi~'e. Ii"OW jJj'l!'jSt'; .(''Cii1(,)'''"ill S.p:;iil jsI1·is,"r{~'e,:")

'l'11 i,~ ,'"IWLh 111 is. sillilhll' in Ilc"i(,ltiolf ,hi rh<,

• • - •• • -OJ •

tal:l puriern l'n.mHulnba (:r'HH':C~<1 :~l'ld S,iLI1L"

o !!JiIl1 ~)~':r(,l'lS;:i()li ists.Ieel« L' ~ .[ h is,. llTigl.\~ ~l ~so h.\w· t1~+'1J ill) i!illLII:'Il(l; oil Ilwdcvdllpmenl or' t.he ~'<\S~:i\t::.J,f\,loi.j·: '(tl.~ IIrwi~',..r! IIO«rr IdJ"J wili'dr

I(JiIOl'i'B!~ fm: appi;fi0illllllion orr! t")·'rIJp,lm:tnll·f Jpr tJirm;ol1,.llwrwtr,rlJ'on is ~111?tE\1I·kmll ~)i)"

,.,,~' rr w.aJ;Jcby A.{nril/ IT[enr.r Vi.lmeta (;;)I~~~d,!i, l'fw (YrigipwJ.-ll.'{[' W1'ht(~n Iii. trw 2/4- ),'im..: .s·js·/wtiln: .• 'L'hi$ JJ~~~llior,j aO(:.~ }W! jiJIlmv Ihr~ ,f!Jll>~"i"t:(lr k~y JiJI" the /J[Jok".)


t I

The next f;,I'~L<ll'a partcms _c!1I~n!~I';'1i (0 2:-3 . (n~v~f~{') dircctiort«f llL{, clave, l~ i~ .. !hc w'~\,'. Lhll,l (:~h~ng;:~iiCJ rdl~ 11l()re-(omt()1'l~lbk p't.{ilig. '{()lliil~' <triLl sjlbi;ldlc:ll-ll'''t,hc pa\l~~rhs :i["1 rh~ ~ 3~2 (f'orwar-d)' ;lin;...:lic·jil (inh{, c-lil~:c.

. . .

Listcn.-t.o·I,I~() accent ill thc-c;lsl:,ua_ Tr,i's accenl rid'ti{':"n:t~h.e::~ hack: lWll>lY, VC~il'~:as-w:1,,"k~-

!iCie~i ,t;, b}~,C;,h\=vci.'l)JJgO.'{l~,ll;idi;t S;;rnl ,

I'undom ). .. Chevc(ongo i~:·;.cl'e'tircd pt·l~cu~.sh1li-ist; well-into- his 7lb~and li';;~illJrill H<1V~lIl:l. My inlcrview wijh C,IK'vcfOngo W.1S cxcilil'lg; the .man hat lived thiC:!l".gh. f11:anY\Jf l lic' ch<l,nges' ill

. Cubal~"p()puhil: ...- .. ~ . .'

musl':, }...teel ing him was-an htrnor. rJii,~,lgihe meeting,'this -ffail-toQJ.~i;lg'

older-man in :.l pork-pitJml and 'olleohhe first

- thi.ii~{~'hc··a~:ks:vou to ~i~ (s «ric;}: ' danzon for rnc." He

walll-I.\1 10 ki L.')'\~' 'if I k ucw' :l.hd'III' ( ;ld)~IWI1i!1.~iG,

.11~·_-li$·IC,lJcd·lo-rilc l:hc;~.:~i • .t ;:i~hLd;)\~:ll'Ull'~hc iiDorf W;'1h.illCS~'( l'i;O [u Ilk)1 d~'(!IllSI'icks, ;j)id p[~!}'C'tL II be~ll,,~ iftil (hmz{).11 011·.1 he _(OIIU'(,!~:- 'I therl p'L~u~pcdc'd l:o:"~sl~ qucsuous <Ihmi L 1·1111- !i,ik.~ ,ai-i(J ';"'e'j.·l(:viliih1.y' 1!(lt ,lr(mli~11:~j Hie c{l,~" t;,l!:ll;, 'I"nu\sCri[Jl·d· r:;i'l" yrll1 ~,o;JI\eop<lti(;-jj \",h ich (:hn'(;:'I"UI'It\0 _plil}'cd ~~s ctLsqr,I,l\("llki: thi)\ L'I{b

,ilth', h;;il.ld·phly,~·mfly the ilCCCllll'(IIIOLc~.; .

CI.1CV<li;1'1l'gLJ:,~;iid·1Ijhll h~' ,,,a.~'piilyi Ilg lhhp,1!.- , rern ill IJ](_-:--"10~. Thi~ 111e1l1O,1 or pl;l}.'ing die cl!>c;,u1i is di.~~illCtiv!"h'Mm-Cubflll ,ii'U:!:is ilHj$1 importunt.when ~e~a'('dil;,g'j:~t'l'i\i1ll swilig.


tJ --



R- '







,.-, fWd. m,11!'







ACce'fltin "the Cascara Pattern ' ' , ' _' ' -

On the accornpnriylng Cp )!oU,will hear C,lfmlgu~Lo p:luylng,l.h,t C:~$s:ara~;imem wjtl~ )'nJ \iiil!iout_ Wllg~ arcompanimcnr, hi~hi~. W,L}' i6LL'[<\I'1J~~'lF h()~" t.hC·((lI1gl~. and' dmb'llcs work tog~iher a;ld ,tll~n 'y0u C~l1 hear the.tim-

h~Jes' nl(}n~, .'

Ji~re jsJh~',c~sc.ura \\'ltl-l no accompaniment 11 the hen~bra: 'Notice' rhe accent patte;w. This .' S <'I 'Vd.v,lml)orhtt\t''o:f tl)e,'c,ls'cara pattern.

• - f" i ..

!li:i~ pi'irt:i~ular-t:ist.a~'a pattern is ih 2,.3" I (reverse)' cla ve direction,

~~hangtL(to Il)IS 'a l1'i'rtf2:'llar,I~I~'orjte"wayof ,llt,liyiLigthc t:lo$cd~aml 0PC.1l'"torlLM h~ Il~e hembra" E,x<l-rnp(~ rwo sbmys 'rhil't'patter-Il, Nul ice whel:,~ ~l:\'G':(jp~il,!On<:' pJ;,I~:;;,'~ln~the4th eighlh note or-each n\t'<tS:t1 re 11 [l d.' ch)$~s Oi, .the 7Lh' 'cighth nnte.":I.'hls'gi.vcs a Lei'taiL~:~wi;lg,'1,() [,lie. rifi >::"LI:I ('L' ,0 ft,() Il'Wl' l Lll)lb,H) .ancl he-nlb rn so'h;ado., Vt:J+·'illl,r;O]'"dLilly,'91'jrig,Lliwho!(:I~:L.he l'ilnbal~: xtick, in ,his I,c:ft lHl'rid ~~h iI,e pbyillg the 0een

£lilci--eJosed t()ne~, This ()cciw; i.n m~11y qf these patterns,,~i,to sometimes pl::1)'9 ·",':dea!.lened 'lloLe~)'ith finger'" Oil !he hembra on {liC'. 2'n~lj'lotc o{ each n~e~sui'e; This is a natura!

. ( .. ' ' .. " '.' . .

movernenrIor tlre hands, and g!~'e" a.coruinu-

ity to tne movement-This haS' !lO'tb~'Clurallscribed hut,yoLl mtlY,<Wi.~lt to I.ry it on(e the Ii',<tI}sci'ibe<;i dCl'cisdlas been mastered.


Hei'l; ha li,:o!:~~'lypical appHinch to lhe dosed a:lid (.ip~n'.il;'\.ii,l{l;s in thl': hcmbra, '.llllC o()p~n Sfltlll(,l' !tow.n)l)lilli l;i(mi~'~th~ (Ollg,1 [L(id ba~~ LLlmha.,('1 here ;'i~ nq,b:.l~~ (ill: lh'e,~~cL;lr~:I'


ing, h,l1t \'{r}, typkllliyc speaking, there wnukl' mote ofit'n'~tl'hH'; lin! be <1. bas's note either U]l !,he"i'i;urtlt q'l;,ar,cl' ';l(~te of the-measure or If';e bass p,ll tern \'iould e.mphusite' his-note.)


. I 'r ,$ '<"




· .•.• ~.' .. : -. -. .

, . .

,'. -~ ..• .. .. ._





Add ing oIlw()rCI'~atlgt,jw'oS l'avO!'itr;;' hen Li)I"'J 'I;_ahcr!'i:~


0 i~~ t I lliJ £-J- -t J j t
-- .. , -ill ~: -
, -e- (,)tKq:a'gain:,;dJ';;hIHlg (he 1~l!ilQn6'-;1f ~ he c0nga pwvid(:s';l veery djJJ&renl: sound and feel, -This -c w,colTIpanimen t seems [0- strcngt hen tho:

tml(!ll;J(i v.·i,~{''~ (he other pi1tkm, liT olt~et& li;i~g the ttl ml~i~~'l, give.,; dw_t!;i:nn\!l"'l-_\V~ry: di rkl::~ cnr Fed.





. :

Here is a 16~rnei:lsm~ pHrase .wi~lr~fI~eai"~., end: in. te)t~t![e created b}i each pattern.with-

-using borh(}pen/dose.patter_lls 'in lhe.·h"ffibf:'d, out.the ct}rlg~s., . .

Usa. tood 'cliance for;.you tohearthe differ-


r+J - -.,~--:--Jl J ~ .. ,~ i-· ----
. , ",
>' '0:=- -r ] ;:::,.., .:::;-.
il "j- J J, , J J J J
bh= I .. -
.. ' .>.

_J ffi-



:;:s- . :;:..- '::,= :1--- :=--

~~g~·:·~~:~f~J§c ~J~·f~~~)~d~-J~-·l

;J c :) c 1. 3t £Jd =&tJ



_::., ..

Cascara and Clave ".

'];0("; dlXCm",;'is moi~·d 'in the dave, tilL clave is-\'he"hC!ckbm~e of much, 'if nor ;111~ of AfnlChbAIl'POPllll1l' :mmii'~,.The di rccti;~11 ,(_if:l"hc davc~. whctller -2~:{ (reverse dave dig:d it'HI) '01" J~:i(-foJ'wanl clave dircdi,,,hha,,,/-'evc;'iihing'J0_ d0 with the-feel of.theparticular ,~nng. 01" parL . 'of, the music, (Due to cnmposer/urrangeredls-

• 0;:.. • , 11 r.

tretiiin,·!hc w<J}':i_u:wfli;ch ,I piece ofmusic is

t)rranged .jll}IY reH~ct a. "cb;lnge'~ in-the d irection 'of the ~hlV:e,·1·his change \\'i11 the]; 'llfC'ct the feel of differem sections-of the arra~~g~~ rnent.)

These-examples, 5h~i;"v the 111'1y~l1g·.of the cascara !lIJH.i.cbv"e tu-gCtllC':: This is, nq{ a-simple. exercise, First yO\! must-be able to ·h~~l the ci1~cara ·p;~rtcm·. Herc'are.two .suggest.iiJll forprnc-

t_king 'tb..i!i P~I.I.C~'ll; .


1) [lirsl p[ay.thc: cascara, ill one h,~(ht without accentswhile the other hand rests. Add ihc

clave in :the other linnd "ne ]"]'(")'IC L~l. ,1' rime, utter rpp.eallll·[,\.~·;uj~,~;fn'bit prlhlSl'·lmln\.' rimes, \"'''';1](111. you call play HIC ~~'h.Ac j1"llicl:il, a~.ld thi\' 'lC(ClllS;' (m~. at.,I-I', UI) Iii Y011 ,m' pl~l};illg the \~!~_,)lt'livo-h:LE~tl~d pnucrn.

2)"'r'ry p('dili·mirlg.rl1"·~~.I(,cr(i$G: with both h:w<is,sl.n:l-ing with yery short. 'phh~,,~cs'M a few' eighth noh::;~~,ch,':Hct'cis ;1"~lCj'\-bY~~l"cp approach. tQ "pl;lying·the 'c{Lsc;ua pnucrn and ~1.1~'(·' Til ii1;"pmt [qI:hl;O!\PPio""chi~'wrilt.Ctl wil"h ihc 2-3 ofthe ~O;·; duel nunba dav('s inm:imLt)f course, if{:ml'b(:'uHt:d I'O;-lh~ 3-;2, direction ofboth son and rumba da;"e·.

Tlibis'<1 basic huiltHrig blm:k e;.;ucis(""\~ith bve p,;r~;, l'l-i~ key i~._t0 prm.:}'C'd .h~ !hc: !lEO;>:L level. on'~~··y(lll h a v~ dc,i,ek}pdt C1 ft:dl\~r the ' level Of] which vou are workiug, Start wi Ih\'Cl:Y ~horl.llhra5c~ ~)Ca Jew'eighth notes each, EX('f~ise I-'j!> the, "2" p~1I't·()r lI}.e c'hvc·phrilsc,.



E:.xf!r.tI:ic,.s.~s the "3" par] qf the rumba-clare. Substitute this in the·prcvioLIS·e..wrci;·c I'di' the

rumba CUIW! in' 2-3' direcj·]Oi];.. .


Exam -Ies of-Cascara and .Clave - . ,


. .


-:;: ....


Cascara··and Rumba Clave . . -., _

lhHliha ·da.\(e·lsYHllGlhcr·'i:listind dave ·with ufrs 6\':,n, fi.::d·'<\J1('1 ,ullplk'i1Ji6ns. ~",herei;l\, irrolder Afm'(~llb'll1, popular, $9ng~, ~~e' I'liinbq: ~Iav~ '. was' ~l'M ~1 ver'}, common-phrase [{) be he<l~rd,.ih (ilc':80's and '9Qs \,silh Cuban ]"jkl;;-I.~os \~m{ Vi~~i;.IfJ'kci·c, ·I>1G~.; ll~lnd~, ChM'l'I'~ga Hllban~j~l,_~rr,i~I-(jt1ier gr'e::tl g~~o'l~I:-~ •. 1hc:' rlllli.V~l d .• we is·l)L'ln!~.b(:'!llJ in popular d<lJ!cc n~·lI.~.j,(~ }~I{)I't: and ni(~n .. ·< It" ~iv(."s the music .~I diNel:J!.l1·L

:swing with its rnore syncopiited [,t)ithm. The change betweenrumba clave andson.clave is 'on)}' one note.but, o.h; what that-one note can

·.(Il)_[ • .

.Here is the. ci{sc<I.ra. pattern with rumba .cliwf,; iEl the '2-3 direction. listen to' tlw'cb I,(';lof

Iflkpaitcfil w,ith congas.: .




MambQ~ The. Ca;sca ra 51






wiien·-YCl\i catl play these dscilrU-a'nq-cJjY'e - _ patterns' ,~'cn';roH:\~;iif he <'Ib!eJQ--heHcI:' cxperl-.

cncethe difference in-fed ilffD!,dedby each -pl1_f:I"e,

Two-Hande'd Cascara Patterns - - _ - - -

The c<\.~eara-patt~rTi_ can alsobeplayed with ~arb,_hfiild 'P1.%I.y;.ing:~)n I"he_,~orte:spOl~dil1t: shell 6flht: tii.nhilld. _(Amadil:lIValdes fdls us-that

',._ . . .' "',' "... . ~. _' .> J " '<' _:

thls pattern is used when the: temp6i~_ sl'q~~')

New- styles are censtantly .in Sevclopmi:nl ~t1T{I

so it is'v{itli' tl'lis tl)ethod:qi'plnying cascara. I{a!her tJl<ln the left ha.n:d jti~i r'illln~ in when[n.eri~1l1 han'ldoe.~not'plaf,ccrt(li!l embellishm'en,sJHI,V~ been added ttl spice 'Hp. the gronv,c, Hereare tfll'ceex<lmptes of Ihis stvle:

. '. . ~ .

'G--¢- ~t--J _J_ ~~'


I . h I: I " .J .J } . I '. ~~} 1

J. --''-.+.+--:- ,,.1----,1' -. ---. -r- -ttJ--r"-"!-r'-~

52 MambQ~'The Ca,scara'



. \:

Adding··the congas (on the CDfy~}U' can hear'how t~e'tWD parIs interact. .

• r ",


R" L R L R R l R R'L R R L R l' R L R L R L R L R L R R. t, R . R L RI L R

~JJ J J1J/ J) J_Dl~J n IJJJ J J lUUid ] I

W l R;, l. 'R R L R R l R R" L R L:R L R l R, l R l R: .L, R R L R R' L R. L R

. ,

. )j IJ JJJ lJJ JJ J} rn:l:tlJ J JJJ J1JJj__,[JJ]

.; ._ . I; , . = I' - ~=I' ~~



"', "

.. '



ThlsniscarOl- groove "has some ld~ky st~cki!lg-but}'nll'11-i10'ti_cc,: tliat the iil\.pbrtaf\r~cc~OI P,,\ltem i~}J;1' throughout,

R L R' L R~ R t, ~L ~ L R R .l·R· L 1'1: L R L R L R 'L R. L R. 'L R L R R L I~' L R


. ~

fil.' l R l R L ~. L I:' R l'!R L ,R L 'R L R L R LR L R L ,R' l R R. L R 'L. 'R

•.. -





- •..• ' ....•....... ~' ... '.

. .... - ,

... " I'~

Tl~eb~~s"dnJm c.<m··h~tl5ed i;l LTl[lny_(.(aT~r. eut wayo'w·j lh dl'l1haJcs. U,Xrlg ;d)~1S~ d6~m r~ not at ~p aprerequ i~j!'eW pl~;}'iJ~!~ timbales' It

j ust ~lcld s; I ,b: 11~'.~ t~' ).;1 ~II p i:ll-'i>i bi I i !.Ie;, ;1;1 d n i l.1 )" ji d d some extra- punch.One.common US.C i~'l(i hdp, to punctuate.cymbalcrashes: Changuii(} uses the bass drum .is-part or II'Ie ,w(:r;ill~gmov~,

'iVilh this next:mD~kal:examplc;thl" bassdru'l!t t;,j:ce}':the:'pbc_S"rif ~!1-~pen }'a·in the "3" pa(t of the.clave, (The "openhernbra" i~· from C:hanfj:~l(to's tlvQrite: hem bra .p"l ttern.) You'll notice (hIlt I.hc_8;f{)!WC; in-these mea-

wl'H::lhf;:n]udh~ verses or bridges; he.Al~H;~_iJ-ai:

IllCll:hll!l~~d~;'·ln.'I,:(:enfmll'" ccrtnjn.m usical pas's~lgc~; und lie LiStS [I, 'ierY·1tp",'tll!~ly •. ,dll~-illg ilt~ s_(jl~f~: Tliis-fllsl'{,X~1111* with Ihe ])~l~idh~Ulilis a ·re)#i.v~;J;.)'_ ~ji1\j.iLe (illc~ ,1tI~lillg th~'liils$,'dl'Uln in the down beat-of every other I1H::IS,llrc in tile casca ra 'groove:


} .. _~---.J._

,-)_,. _

-Sllre'_~; is rnainl .• lined by a dosed sound, with the fl·ngtr;·.q!Lt'he_ hembra, In this waythere isa :~nlltillLlitv of mnsical motiori, cnhancirtg the

swiilg<1mn~~:l. I' ..

n;o~:'(l'"Cl'slated itf tll~S. pattern, ItpE\Y0 'a. '$11])portive, Ifot;"n\jve[p6~~'''_;ring, role,

I·]b'c'ls,a-si.n!plif patt~rn"'for bass drum y.thile ptayiilg-the'c~SCiJl~il p;;tttt¢tti. Tllkt titllc'·'fir rhe.nccents in the d.)c:af~l.Thc bass drumis

5'4 Mambo

Amaditq. Valdes'] .a,·grel't timbalero re-siding in Havmia,'has so'n~e wOl~de"rful j(kas about playing the cascara, P~eSt'n ted. i~ just -one., (Xf)u

will not '6ndehis on the CD.) ,Amad~to uses the closed tone, playedwith the fingers of the . hand, ill an inr~restillg"W,IY;

.. ~~~L-'1-))-:+-l-J ------t--+--,j.-J-_:-f-'-". -Jf-fT-- ... J _____,_,. .b~------+--!~~~.--,+-,--~



The AbanicD within the Mambo' "- .

We; h"vl!: :o! ready: discussed the roots .and tole: ,ofthe·ab.ll~jcO in thesection on chachacha./Ihe r~)~c of the '~l)al;icS if!th:e"iliilInbo is similar in -that ~t is u~d 'to fnt+o~ll~ ,; new "Se:d~(iJ! of.the

song being. pl~}'~(L Verytypicilly; th.e:.ananico has ,be~n used to in!roJuce the secriouofa :s(H:iwfea.tU:d~lg the.~~?ro _(chorus);. Thjs is h)'110 means a' hard and fast nik'~~~i~ demcristrated


"by Clpngu.ito~an~·Qther musicians,

The <ibimko, when begjm on tbe/<3"pu-rt of the c1ive~·.h<ls its. firsr strong accent on the. secoHd dave heat inthat lJ1e\l$u.fe._,ChaIlguito calls this al;l1nico''.i:banjCiJ a contratiempo" because itbegins on a syncopated p.~(tbfthe.mea,~ure,

the "',!TId" (jr~2~;' .


rn+~;~ ~f=


:-t- J~' . -

6.-·~tj_4. . j

'. I

-~-.' .

"' j).~ J
I - t' -- R



I !

'-.1 'j.

.. _.

Mambo ~


,:Addin _the Mambo Bell ._ . _


."\ I'~cf ph)iil1~.~,hc, c.hc,n:a i~'11~1 lhcn. ubanico it h~lS he-en cirstomarv For lhc-.dmh;llcm 10 .~~~;itdl:r~o~n t:h~;,d:~c~;-;"l pattern 10 bell. Since

tID C"rc,i~ ·ail acce n f"in t j-ier.n;-ich() (sma·lI(:.r·{I~'llln) 01\ llie dm"li.h"eflt qi' l~lc'-<lb~n'k~~ ~~lh;;''''in'gfhe 7 stroke roll, the bell 'P.'ll't~TII ;J.~ written ml.L,~t slar1mt thequarter uotc.following the downb~,it 61' h,~gi!lTlo~il~fnf~lhc mt<l?l.I t,t. Here is an

·c~~,[C.t·(is,<;, III g'~J YP'(l tl~c~J ~o I'll]!); I r:m~iiirll.1: One Il1ri~g:l;)_Iit)licc arethe .~i.~htle aq;'f;!l1ts'iii the

earn puns, 'l'h esc t '<l.s. W i til . ~ 1:1>[: n'eec n t si n ] h I' PIS, (,ir,I,al'c, importnnr ri,," tWC'I';ll1li.:d_ 'These slIbJly iL~C~I1~{'jJ l1t~ic</.e-~Jiy ;]m:k iii (he groove, A G~es(:r,:nd" tlhlrking'slio\\,s ~·,jll how the bell p;I!"l.e::r.rl isto:b;;.litly~'d~Y()u dill j'ca'lly hc',lr how-

'this fcelshy llsteniugt» the cu '


_ A_4.iding one 11f the pflncrns·:i-or the.l1cml'hl; ~H'sJlot .overcm Phfl~izl;:n g ,ro:S4y· thai' these pa t,le;I:Jl~. i n Ihe 11.('liiLij·,J, cvcu though not Veley-l()ud ln corllfmri$i).tl·,.6-,olhei- imitt'lJ~rlcnt;'i~ urc

) ,

~,-- ..


M\1crt!!:elesS'ydy ·impgr1IHH .. ·They hdI?.:lo .tiE-i

all.the instrurncnts togtlhc-r-ii't ,~!ali'ify:illg gr<.10ve:



" He_ni"k,1n111h~r:raq'~nlf9r" the hembra. (Noticethat ill measure 1<5p);]ngl.litb throws ~1 one

of his ~peci"l '"~st:lrprl*"l) :





!!!"!-- --'-r,

A~ldi nlfth~~ ";';o§o - bl ock. p ia~: i ng' c !two. IS' a tI Im p(.;rtant pMte,r."l"ucdeou' n. Here is the bell pattern, preceded by the' aban~c.o •. withth~: 2:-3 sonclave,



58' Mambo.

.Cn.i1rigultQ. is a veritable treasure trove ,i'

g reat p.·~rCI!.15s"io.h.·iil.2~/;· ,,-i;l"d h'e _('ertilin~f .is not a C ,! loss·jhri.deJg ~""!Ienh dlll\es{Q.hl;'llp~ti~rn:s. Prescnted-are.z.ldeas pertaining to. t~ese"p~tt'7J'tjs;~ They are advanced PJlWns: R~Iatively eJ;ls'y 'to [I';'~.J> they re;illysaY,"l lotabout tension and release and. feel, The ·o'pb\. and.closed toiles, in the hembra.are maiuteiued \\,hlkthe,hdl .

li,it!dil is ,pusl~.ed. and pl1l1e~t time-wise, -

th~\I.llgh9\li ~he m~'~".IJreS, l.;i~rr;:[l'tothl';' way the Ildl i1aUt.'r;l-is·,¢, 'l],'j~n.g.the~accCntt;d, .notes to push t!1C. beat \i.'\4i.thifl: the framework of the mcasuretoereate rhc' ,tbi;;i(~j and release necessary for the pattern's

nJo!:~rn¢llt, .

A note.please make-surethatyoucan pia)') ~tn{!· i)iay ·w~I.I"the p(tUern.s already.cutllned;

The bd) pattern' frorn. tli~,rrc;vioU8 eXC:I.'ccjs:esis fine oj' tIle most COt:l).m.)n··for· ih:is·.sJr'Ie. of AI:ro~ Cubun -popular .mnsic, You must 'be able ll) feel"

fh{spatte'i-o before proceeding on,,' j


°f'he l)s,ttern:in the hembta isalso not 10 be overlooked. There ·ls._a fclft m~Olirii.of i1lde.pell- . dence ~work occurring within-this pattern, USc med~b~D) <·y (;u;liil~:d 10 a.chie"", the opti--

mllm perform<lnce:'of thes.f(patte·[I'!"S. -

Ancllilstly, Iistento thesubtlecresceiidoiu the f1_elld~rillg certain sections-of.the patt~rn. 'rhis is yet allOth<!ri..vay.'to, make-the p~tter[l groove.more, sw ing.more, and make the -ir\llsiC; reallysing, Y(lU approximate allof thJse.varia91e.~:a5"Closely as possible.

. ...;


. .,1

_____ r +-;~. ,4'

~":~-J. -~L--~--.- J-··F-.P-:_~':-4~h-·,~~i-·.J .~

O.:n~J-J_jIJ~._~~n~~~_~n ~D,LOIJ

~m~~~~~~"~~Lf-=' ~-~lt~di

<if . 'j



Mambo 59

.. -1·· ...





i .



6.. I 1 -J- h h· I , ,- hi-;·

-[} ~~'-1-.-~t--. :-'l.--.J" __ -$-"!~-' -:J----:J~.J;--_:_J~ .-. -~._-'~' --:JL_~_ -~f--:.lJ

'______"'-""'.-'--'---" -I----_~ _'. tJ_-D ... _I:;:J_~~rn~n-

--~. 6"

-:1:1. ~-f-H,t~ 1;}$4.~·l'i ~ .. " ._

'Ji:"j.," - -iF

I. _

~. t~-_-J-j ~- . -_~J~~'___"/J- ::._ * . j j f~ j-:--7~-J~-. 1-}_;_

__ 1JJ J_ J Il·~-JL__ll.- .~:l_ J tn ~ illj_ __ ,----'----'! .

__ r _

LS~~ -_. J---J t --_ . ----4' .. ~)) :.r::----t -------!fY - p-:.'.

,~JlLD______,..",~1 J~~~~~~ ... L-;.l-I.

60 Marpbo

•~ -




-Combinin "the Mambo and Bon - 0 Bells':' _ .

The tole of I'he !Lnibl'l]ero has 'c9rlstantly, beellch,mgl!.lg:~ndi!-I<':1~tiIig. Ai;. -~ai'l}':as th~

~ .1.970~, (~b,\,ngl.iit() was .ddying·baiTiei:s nnd' stretchingthe role of the.tlmbelero; He.wasIll,r~irlg ii\road;;:(-or. rnorerreativitv.rcreating a g/t.(ter role a'~: ml.;·"h,:laiii11d riot-j~is!as tini¢: 1,,(:epel','a;1dco ri'~'l '11'1~tI-£ de~doping 11~~~~" nietlrods 'ot pbyillg,.One of the important plaiii.ig te~~~il.i{q.llesd(~;eloped by Ch,_i!gufto W[lS the' '#bUj(-y to pl\,y t~o~bdl parfs:.sirnl}

These two b"(;l1 i~lU:t;s:j'le~r~·(hc.·~.iior'l11al" pnj-'t.uf·· tbetimbalero.played on what many musicians call th~""m\'imbo helll;' "iong.with· thfO.hell pari. pl;l,y~d by' the 'bQ~igb;:f;'''() (hong(!'player)," ~

. .called, by some, the "bongo b,ellt This bongo benp.~r.t is most important because-in manv ·2·~,se.s~~1l: 8we.s :the'(lownhbt while other . 'rhitl;i:r~,tpla}; off ~f ir .. Th~ sO:~·~<j()i:dte· bongo bell E~ strong-and co nsblJt , 1tpr()\(id~'sd)c d~):wnheats Pff ofwhidl the other syncopated fl1)'th~lS can r~;!!IY\"'or~.' The'.I.1Di~go 'bell pan

is oile of tlie' cornerstones ~~pon \;\r.hidl.l11JKh of the'sro eve-de pends. The, 9i lie;', and ino,.; 1 import.tnt,: [~ of COlJ[!;e C1aVL\

. Here is·th~ bongo bell P'llt in the 2'-3'cjave direction, .

Tht' )namli9 bdl part is' pl'ily"d by-the ti rry hal t: ro dili'i rig chorusesand '(,1 th~'r ~ectiom 01:' mambo-style songs, Hen: is one of

An J

the most typical of mambo bdl. patterns, It is Nay~~<, lnt!· c'1"(;', in the 2-3 dave direction,

.11lilying the rwo.purts.tcgettier is'a1l,ilH:r:~as~ il~gly .iypic;llw'll' 9f pbying,tirribah:,s" When would. }'{)L} W~:I1:t to.use .iib; tedmiqueV"he

. obvious .time·to lIS~: 'U\i~' is 'when !iic:tc 'js nio hongocero '111 ·1:he-n~ll'~ic<;I.I~i·o{l~ .u;_i rhYipicll you ·<1,I:e.phwrng. \'Vha-t thispauorn does LI> pruvidu' ... !.6Jical,~fll]n;n!)iHJing· pattern complete ;~\~[rh 'll~~merli';IIPti2d .ih dDi.;mH~'i!~ n~otigo·: !:idO., a 1:1~OSt !·}'Pl~;l:fsYl'lci)ij.~ILC~i !;h5;thIH;·,ll.l .wilh I he claveas ,t·IJ~. hackboneJ.)j;·co'l~r~e, thereare some inherent problems With this I·;,tlt~rli. YOl~L hrjljnt'~a to workrnr the.indepen. dC,:tt:. This'::,::,'n:b~~ dC;'ilC jit several. diiTt:'l-CJ1r~

• .~. • ','l',;

,va}'~, <l~;~~',)~ed before,

('lax bosh paLlen1x;·slD.w]y,.a'·:>m,[,Clse at <11imc; 'lJ~Jjng '<1. note-or two ollly:after the pre)i(;lis' r;l'inl$'~ h":~, b~c·li·m~i~{ered.

Play que patti:r."! 'slowly, ,Hid add the.ether at a time un'ril both phrases are Hn'ifi.ed in thegroove .

Cha'nglJit(l' ~:a.s .. 'another important and excitiug melllOttJ'0-i- d~.~\;'h)_piiig, independence, lila}' one: pattern find sing the otherpattern, This will <l8~i,';1' yOll, greatly in [!::mltug 10 per" Forni both.ti;g~ih~I·, Must jlmbnblYi di,i" ~ nle(h·o~nfe'i!d(~i-is:.liJj rftt-c:nt part of rour indepcudcnce vo~<,i)~;lilry., <lJ1d 'it ;l.~~(~ts' rc;~ll"··actllal performance: Try It. II- ddinlldt, helps to "interi.1anze~) the·rJw~hrn,: As a matter of Iact,

-. J.' '.

Lry 'sillgint(~11I the parts W<: 11.1\'" been prucric_i;i'g: clil:~'e,'<l, '~<Impana, bohgu bell, Pt'rfl.ap!l~yOl1 will become-more intimate with therhythms. helping rotl W beuer fed and utilize them itt your pbxin;g.

Mambo 61.

,,' '0 _:.1t A -) ). - -). ',' "_ -I J

-:..~:t. _ ..~: '\ ""

- Mambo Be!~-B~~~~J.~--j--) __ J -i-'~)'-+'f - J~ .J. - n __ ~I'~

"BongD'~e-r1 -D-1:.~-~_. :j~iJ- __ jJ~.+J-~_J:J_:_J-~.~r:J ':\1



- "f

AsJdin . the 'Bass ·Orum.: :':. :......:: - -_. . .. :.'. .

t~v~ J:!l;.umj(;iit-{i~' the bas$ clhu)l.. Its~ync()[l:;ition serves t~)'!no1'2Hhc ilcal,.'~mlJI"(:;g ~!id(}wn_ If ,the' ha~s Jrunn"H.s·G<Jpying·~~xtldly what- lhcI~~;~stst .-rilight,p~a)'. _(ix_J''-l.hd r"lf £. ,\t@'1~') there l11;;1y. ti;:,a L"'~~~_CJlq 1o, "'leigb 111~. ~i('~)(.1\{~ cJ(·J\'\'t'I~. 'Ui.is_sytlCopatc,d iJ<ltterll spices.\'£ju~l· dght.·

·the .bass d rum' can. add so me .extra rh )'tl}. ':!TJ,I':;; e;<;citl~m~il~ N]: this gm(m~.l:fdtn·'1J"tiadd· '~6,b,lhe'r ~ev~i_(!f" ill~t'e~i~B~epce "\Y';lrk. Th~

.: ini.'poft<i\1Y tl:'tilljft(~ k J'l O,\~~· j:s thi~l'IJ" i~)~Ti(){!(;'o'F PC{fOj;"i:tlil;g: i~ t},PL~:,Wregab:lilig q}'~jg[L~tO:Jtj~., -an- iu tegrilJ'pa rt-of h 11mL d dl!litdygi'ves -i{(s grooves' their , c!i:iMndivc fed_ N (1 l k'c

........ I

.•.• ,.i.,~-.,.'~' ..

." .,,'

~ . ~ -' .. " -, - '"

_:) .. - -·I--J-·r--j)'·:·t.-·.L-u,"-. J_J

+ ' . '" , "

:11. 8~;:~~-' LW~I_rrn_lJJ_~_J_J_j]J I ,/--lIU_D' :11

'.$'cJ~--J-D+J---11,..L.cll-JJ J DI~~~n-J n ;1·1

pa der 11~, ~i ther tr ~ l h c6';' }-y.i I.h a lhytj1 III ~S~(Jil)n ~)J;'.br(Calh),lJ' yn.u~_jhvQrjile Los.¥anV,m CD; . 'hi ~~d play 'al 01lg:1' ,~ilheJ; w,~y _rOll ;'~l, fin a 0 I j I t:()O D1 : Sl~fiffgJi H"yoti';1!" gonim~~'! rri']iiJm .j~ .~~C[jJhi!n JJ:,i'1] Ef i;.)tgN,(iY(i{r i,ving,'j

A 11 ~?, ,g;liangu'~ to-and,lmimbh bell !-lilt" terns! Although ,we haxe stild'ied.:this,pahem :be:f(~~c, th(~d~itimf'of \hr: hj·$~,drtlm ·~n(~l . ~o.ngQ . b~ir[e[iu}: ·;']~s~p-~ ~:(cerl' ['&J :gl·~'il.·r.

',""-' ,,/ .... -. ._ "~. ~~ '-::-';;"" _ i-_: __ .~".' ,;~. _.

>j{e1nern1.i_el·;. pta!Ctice'slowly '(lriJ nre:U~o81thJI.}' .

cWhemvou fed (Com(ur-t<lble WJth:<lllV nf'thcse:

)J ~





,L +¢'~'-----"''lF'-J ~j -'-f~. -rL-,!~}~~-. htc--J~~j -i' 'I·J- "'f J!~j~j-'~I 'M~!nb~\s@il'.'-D-~~J-j-· J_j~J~._#.Ll·rill~j~n~\_nLIJ~lj·--I~y·-j_LJ~j-lJ~11

. -

'BoogD~Bell ~.8-m'J-"j_J~· D-tJ~n+,D:-IJ_j J n~-J.D-J-~I

~ .

·BassT)rum ~ ~~ .. _. 'gyJ.- -~ '-r$:-' :~.- 11'., ~~iJ~~* j~Jq~~_'" '-~~~i

,~ .





[:ll~,~$r;: Jp·kecop i~uni[lj_ n\at most of-the . femrOS'Oll the il.'ct_<:rln'ip_3JIVirtg (~D ~r¢ r~j'·~j;iY . '~flw:t~)([~_~~e.iiillg':JIlCl.I_~·~rlll;{g~e~~~, H· it '

. HTlj) ol'tati:r thai' },b~ .l ,,;1 t]l . tli~~~~ rhyi'hni h.\ ad

cmnbinatiqns at't"hese . .sl.ow{and:slbwer.). ternJtos, It .ls- the besr tltlJ rnostadvart tageoiJ'S way til je'l!'!l .. Bl':I: ti.ilfei:enq¢mpo!i'<\~.ill pr?wfdy,dj'f-

. ..

- ferent feels/ ,.0 once ycu'havethese rhythms "under }'vur ,hdt,~~·· pfijJ:' ~f d~ffe[~nt t:~rl.1·

.pos .. to, :a~1\,iel'e ?~he di#~re~~. Illrih mi·(;f.mQv~~. mei:iJS:''COlic.oft!l1! manv wayS w)ikh

Gha n gnito descri bes ;t:hc,.j'e gr~ows: is' ~,j th~h c Sp<ir\i&h .word."wovim~~T\~o" or "~nO\ie[lierle)

Th".i -Infro' Fill:; ~ _~'.: _.': .' '" . ~ -'. .. .'. . : :.: .'. '.. ':'" . .. . .




Til i;':fll~ :id L'1-) $ ~~'~h:~~(·~,.n tn·i );n~'1 idi:' 'c()m • ~llOn~v used ~s;the,' iilh'o.dn,-:tiDI'i ("cummy Af(:O, ·Ctlbnl~ l;lyk~.;poptlbr'M.Jng~. The open -torie On :1 [rLi-lr(,:n\hj-~l'i~ ,IHW"Lmck h.c~~,>~iv~I)'. !il~.~i ..

~ • ." > •• • ,I. . ..

t!i~tl+_gh tc~ gtL·.ht1Ip~n· tc?ri'~, Th,t i:nb,st irrlpor.:: tant Plut, is the. combiiia non of the .~ ccented macho-and 'tbeopen.rone in-thehembra .

~ ~I~ $---.-J - j-~-. J~--~t-.-J~-.· ~-J-rf-.L_J~,,-·· ---1--:#-------1- .. J-J~_i-. ~~¢t=:=- .---==-~----== ~.-.~~-. - ·Et~~f

-R' L

R i..


Makin the Transition-The Transition Exercise . _

Making transitions, sbrt~flgJi:-orn silence, ',nid mqvirlg illt<~ a _gJ(Jove, tl~ci;'lllakjl1_g " tran~"ith~n to' ailo~h~r:gl .. oove, is whatall ml1~i~j<m.) ;l.l'C cmi,~tall~i.y doing. 'I~~!gil'millg a s()n.g;:gl~i !1P; hom illtl'oto verse, \'crsc W. chorus, dlOFL1S back to-verse, (hisj~ something. d1.11tY~~1; a timbalcro, must be accustomed to doing, On the ,u::~6mp;m}~ i 11 g' ttl lr~~tk~ for this secl~i(m:you wi 1I:1ic;jr' tl,lahguilo ,p.laYi llS'l;;fllacyhs we" already have this book, This 10';.i:he reason why certain parts of .ill,s cxe:r~j:Se af,(: not- transcri bed, "l:h.roug ho ur. the book you will find information th at" fits" ill this exercise.

'}'he: "Intro .Fill"'jti. ro!!m¥~d .Hoy a,\'e~~e.s",'c'T tion where-you \\Till:h~a;r the (.~.s(arawith bomho (b.<1ss·}. Then you will hear what 'Gliallg~l·ii<):calls·.(i.l~·;i. p'(cp8,r'ati6~)" a 'preparation, Tll"ere arc four of i.nes·?'·"PH~p'lra~im~~$."

@ .verse.sediOfll

a - :~-!"t;Tij Z

n R L R I._




Ej.l'joy'th~rnl J~,ich "pl:t:pamci61l".i1i twomeasures long, cQrre,~p-ondi:ilg to'lhc dl~ve, Afler each, Ghanguito plays wh~lt he wilLiid normally .pi,,)'" fril' a chornsscctlon .. corresponding Iothc ~1.)'I,e,.il1 ,whkh he isplaylng: tw l·bclb and bass dr.1;m;(Y(.YU will"j·hen I;cahhc' transition t-m .nlllr()PiJl") <J!~"in and then ''liS go h~ckd;1wn If) "the dsc;arll pattern for rhc verse .. Thi.~ l{ Tepe~tcd S,()\'Cr~1 times,

This exci·Ci~~·is wry Inlpi),rLaill. Then: arc.many ila!'t'~nisYo.uc~!n usc-to "fill ij']~'Jhe'Y{;;I~~e au d 2: horus .sec tions 0 f the '.tnuis iti on Ex.~kii;~, The' most important concept.behind develop-

.. \

u1g,th is- b riefbu t 's'igl r ifican t exerciseis . lila til

Wfhili!;t "flo;,,,,}'- It 1111,st i"~'ing'" You must be sure of what you ad. plaiing. The dancers are dep end in g on you !

• t

'~ I

\ t i J J



, D.C. (To The Top,

Chorus. Section


- -: ~ ..


I; I

~ "

. '


! \
'" \
.~(" -
I ~
1 '~'I;""

P¥!'Hl i;,>~ .. rhythn~: .11i\./('.me.d·~~rJ~J·lri9.~~· cF!onne m, the OrHmte'p.I'oymce,of Cuba.

. . y ... , ! t.

Pacho Alol;l8V madetlre pilonfamo us.

. wiJ~ bi~ gre) ll,p,).ds' nO.CUli6.~., 1'h e: :~,hin'cc s'.f Ibe . . pilQn)\nl{~L€s).i'iq:ri\(i!tO~l 0,';e.!'h:11~~~ \~'tk,l. , grind i n g' wfke~ "p iIoli ", is. Span islrfbr' "pe.5tle.," vessel !,hal', },.!)u grind t!1inJ~s in;,." , ,.

. B.\nno'.piI.s[l i'Her,~jo a ·~,,'llJ'.ljf.dilil'Ci~!S to the sOI1J.:l'tyle-. 'ii's .done~ry'.pbcing. the hands in lrontof.·yolli·in'tl do oed' (i~t; OJ1~' ~)Jop Ihc'oil'ler and ~;;;l~Lt1g:a stif;dn~ motion,

ChallguiwJias developed'tbe pUl611.into <In art t~;rm, Presented are-snme-of his '1(1 ens,

~xe[che J fea t';l res .goil1g f~lIm the i:;b\HJ~"l1H;dj to the-accented macho wllh the right-hand,

." .

There ate :.1 fecw ru 0 vements YO'Ll w:ni be. 11l fikiqgYi:j tli-both 1~a-L~d~:,.S9 t,~ke 'i I: ~!ow:· .

l·~x( .. n.oise::q~~MUI·t:S. ~)pen' tones on the hemh'n~,pluy(ld' \,iilIUrlC']~;n~H'el,:! ~ILc~,'mFanicd·l)r dl~H:h<~ bell plflyed·.\¥ith: the rjght lW~i'd,

o n ceo a g,1 i 11;"1'b en' areseveral JlI()V(,':LUl: n r, ,)'0 U . :iI'C' m:Jki[',g w1th both hands.

... > I

'66 Pilo·nl

, J


'B.ui/din ··:th.e:-Pildn-:Exam· les • . '. " .. ' :.:__" :'.:. . --'

! I



r'Vc.~~·m,lmilff tij<pik~l~ in _.~~d.i()!]s" 11 rst -~(;n;-tiilg with tidhlli_tl crQs~~;(iek/rhi~i~:\

.Aduin_g jhe "lha~llo.\high :JwnlY,and 'herTlbfa O{)~~, thtnn,), w¢1s.t~~;fl.u:;scc. ,m:d feci the ~n'&et7eml~f1cc teg~!i;''i'~ (ff play ~lisV<!tte)'l1:

The h[md··~)I~Y"in~J.h~ l'\~Jr~i'igh~ haLlde.iJ- _P~.<ly" 'eJ$$lrould ptiy:l'hc bdJ wh]~ r~ght h"rJdr\v~!L

n O\\t [\1 :s.o:rl~y-,!ll'G' macho, 'I'll ehand playing .th e r.iQ.$s:str(:Ji:~i~l rh~ !le~11hr~l,;\im~p\~' 't11~() "11ta1~ t!H~ Jleill,hrh~{)peh,ton'~ - wlth"iiti"ck, 'r~.~.c it:slowl~ It's not easy to;:g;O (tum bcWtfJ a ,verypo~i H\~(

rim Rh~t\lil the' miH::N·,t JL!S~ pr~~'::_licjng goir.{g from bel i-to .1'i_iTI .sh ()t: j\ il;,Ye'( V g'or/c1 -id eJ. 'Do" -that a few hundred:tiiue5·,tyi~ke.5~w~ the heiglv( .~nhe·.tim~~~k:s·aliow$ tl\is,v""'l}, basle IIH.IW:'c -·iniL'i(Tht·.·s'~i~'e fhHig goesw'lh:the hembra ¢j'(i5S".."tiqk-~6. tl1~J1~mbra~!.)p~~Jt terre. Th'c_se have, to' b every -n<l L IJra~ moveme n ts i T\'l!l'dle'r for

- the (!ll~'gmQv~~o dojust 't'bat, groove-all,]

.i-; <l1i.c':~~il~~e, III us ic~lk. -'

-t: .".:... -:-- ~.

./\. bit n\o~:qfJh(·p~Ht(;rll,io:re",cl'lled'.:w.:ith

t-W(1:{j,{or~~i;t~5~i;·I··the=;hembr.,cand beif'l;his

. -t~)-:b.i;':p:.~l'\-;ii';~,'l s R~~~rcJnn{d -~_ S~r,]r;j i~r:tililPS /onthe\tD.';0ne of the L:qsml~:111j.t; 'r~:as,doiH':

_ \~;a:rt~rgjv~""}'ou <1 rcst,b-tf~-I'('~ hH\~iT:lf', tq/lrj!b:k~ 'ill:io~lI'pl ayi nwth~ . N ttcrrragain. [i1 ay It o.{i;:t"i"iilellit~'llgh thfh1 t';:;kca:lil;cak"h_ln)r~:

- '. . . ~ .

htto it -ag<1.[ii. No!lO?;,wlje;rei(dF_cl"S,g9Qd~. Notice :",;licl'e<tlle[~ arc little "Hlld\d~ in lJi~ pflt.t~r~l where; you dono ~ Je~ foFi:abl c. 11lkf;, ~6tl:r~ ti\Ti·.:' t~ \\r{jrltJi'{ these:);ecti()ns of-this tW(}cbill".

... - " '-. . .. -- -. '

g,rlIoye hsfpnF'l ~I~m ptin(; l P' p ~~!Y i!, for Ib'ilg~r

. .ptriods:>of time,


L R: ,L



~: ..

. ~









. A. bit L"lloi-e ';.4v;liiced, thjsgrbo\le\!om~e

again c;_IH on-your r~laxed·'-C()nt~Dfled indep~n. ilo;lfC'tlll\d groove. Changuito plays .tlle threebar r!hf~~e :tht'ee'::"tjm~s~ :r;ra<.;i:i:c~ !h~~ shOlJ'phrase ~1C)wiy- anll.I>arffiill}~ 'H(fW'youi time ind ~ a break.

• in betweerreach phrase 10. examine.whafiri'.~}i haVe'

: b,,~n' ullcomr?rta,!;ole areaswithin the,~l'Oo"e,

- , '5. "' .. I n

. - ·chH., ",II ["'--



Here. are someuseas to.think abouu

• Jtow.did the 'mix ,af helllhrn am-/-/Jell fed?

• TJ~e i~m;"i;icm fro/;I V~{{ 10 m,'rr/hl? -

• c).'vemU tirJ~e fe.el rfo',,;lghou! ilw t,ilrtl5e?

_. Transision. from cross stidc 10' open wfu:':in tJli:~ ,:~J~mbtll? .

,r I 1

'" I·'








1 I,

I I }




, , (~. '-~, ~ ~ n J ".01 ,.,I : ,n 'J '~.l\ ,nc 1 j, ' ,n ::\',

a.<~B~f~ :~.~~~




7.~~' n- ~' '£~--- n '[M~

, "

. ," -' '':'-- ',_' .. _ ' __ ,_' ',' " ,,- ~-" ~', ' _-' ",_- --

. : , _ ~ . '....".!.of - . '!lJ r_., _.~._._ ....... " ..... _' " __ ~, .-_ _ h, . s r

_B --m;-4::J=~iJ_,- -~- ::'1~~" jiJ. ~

kJ--. >~~~_ .,.... Z"""" ~;. -. ..:u..:., ..• _ . ._-: ---= - ,. ~ - ' , ,

68 pilon







TheJ?lJ1l(mSCUban musician l:ic:l1a. el Afrok~ri:(Pedl'D lzquierdo) Invented rn(171UlibiqLle,. There are:m<1i.r~(st;oIie~ as' '10 how.or "_;'h}' thi~ rhytlun was inycilte'1:M.<l'ny people believe-the "ho\'I/' i~.,tha[:dle; mozainbique rhythm: is ~l·deri\'u.llot1 of.the corlga

:corri b.i ned with fdl;l]Jl~ll(l of rumb a. _(Rumha is .<111 ~fl'O-Cllb"<in:rhYllU'I'lrC triidilio:n.) , .

,An important. (:ssetl(:e,6f the ~r\1t}L\lilbiclll;[;!:' is that.of a brass hand with many drummers,

. Typical! y, .:yim corrfindl {l co n geros.and u fi.111 ;~tllonot' trombohcs making. IIp· the mozambique, >i'Jie rhytlil~l is il l11ixt.ul,e,:Q[·e')Il'lp_<U,,,fi. rumba, and this "br·as~.l)alldi' A.;:t;or(lfiil!-\ tb_.Dr • O~(lV() Alen Rodrlgucz, rnozamblquewasquhc I)\lpula!':a~er it~ invention in rhc early '66::;"

'Prelim;par Exercises:· .. _ -.,..:.- ..

Let's concentrate .Qll the .. ln·Ot;th;and body ~)I~ lh,E'''iil<lmbu bell, This first' !;:x'~I'Cjse is rhe 1i!"Sl

measure .of the Mozambique rhythm. .

I.- j JJ

Mamb"q.6e!1 m-(j:,~·--·~ _-J_. -~~ --- ~""-:II

2, Ht¢- _-...;_ '__'___""lJ-_l_lJ_~J_n--rI:1

1\1'1' C 1 osc :.It·i:enl"i on " () [he next 0' k'd~~scs on the Cb.TheY··willi·n~:mJuce}'QlHlt LIH::.COi11I:tin:l[LOnS~ Q-f.belHn\om11 arid bddy)"open hembui 'wi, h.~tick;\Hld, nWrflcd hembnl~itfi 'stick,

!. ~ ~,' -. • • .,,' R..·. ,

w~: will tOl"lk:~t. playing the bornbo und ch~v~' f()r·,iioz<imtJique later in j·his·dlilptt;r;' Here 'are some-ideas fQr-gett·i.Ifg ~,!arled.vJi.tb',this section f·il".~I, the chacha bdl and open hembra with sjick

Alit! the hembru Ilii.LlU(:d.vhlh the ~!uck .

. MILfjling.ih~·.;nL.I~ld:·l)J·ih~h~'inlil.~·il· af.e~; plOlyi)i.l:1

th~~ drum "open" (witl-i lhc .~!icl\·J: reqLl'i(e~ '. .

touch and taste, 'n,k~l your-tim e. As with all of lbi: d~rciscs l:LI·g.f:'l }'O'LI accusuuned.rospecific j'hyt]1I1i$;ti.kc.: ~t 'si~)w .and rcl •.• xed,



Primar Bell Patterns ' , - ,-

- - ~-

,On~! 6f1hc: [h~nY'g're~t (Cfll'LlfCS'of'the" ;mo(.'lmbi'1L1e ~re,thf-bclf pa'ite:rf,,~. i:'I~i'i: 'i,\<1 primary pattern I',r1tidl(_:'IHlI'ngui,lo _~~b}'s 011 t'h~ mambo bell, utilizhig.themouth and bod!, ofthe'tlli'1J for two distlnct SOUJilh. Al f.irst it ~~'iigb't bn g,of'u:l idea (PI' you. t.rl pickupthe Gell <i-i}Zi-pi~lr' it. This,' gives:yo ua'more"il'l'tilnat'e .feel with thebell, You can fed ho} .... il,!"c'fi.oI1,ates "ht }'olir,hand; how the-open tone resonates

tllOl,e',!li'lT(~he-r()lle;[[bUl 'trw rbo4y ofth e 'beU. l1ii;;,t;flllCrli d6e~'!1ot:~tec,~s<rtil.}' h41"f;'I!]' ,Ije j)].\yc~i,ol1(l'[nilltibn bd]' A E;m<tHt:r hell (c~.~, h~n.y. or different. bell (bongo 'bell)' canwork <I!~Ch







The most i'mporianl. parts-ofthis putrernare:

• \1\Ca~:11l1l1 rhythm YOll'~m:: playing

• the kd of tile rhv!llhi CdIKC~:O\.l understand

the l?aJt~rn) ,'" ',,' ,

• thesounds of-tpt:, hell.

,.once),ou:h'iVC spent sUl'tlC time w,ilh thla. ~fm:;lt 'tn~;hdl on, Yl1IJr t.fmbilles andget.the same f<;;ding:t'bat )";),~Illl'd~~hik l,rf~I~:~~~g the' belt

Tl)~,rumht~ d<lvC m:t:OI~lpmlie,~1.his pattern.

Heri'e prinmrr bell p<~~I'~H1 [tW'Ill()l;<lfni)iquc.

Arid l1~o\.\;, iH:ldipg,the,h~tr)b~a':wi,thtlie' motarii.bJ'<.il,c.hc11 pan'flrn., tJ,;;~ ,next 'th,J~ei£~XC~' pil,!:t'erl1or bell and ,b'c!l11,)r,a, The 'lluclJ'gr~dtl<illy ',idd the .hernbra-both dosed ,~nd:o'}fen tQil~s".aI6ilg; \I!itb'~h~ mozambique> lieU pa,ltl6'rL 'f-h~_:~l'lPN i{ntJprt~nt.thipg 'to .remernber ,is,tha't this piHjel't) really swings :;i.:hell,uTI I he-parts' aresynchronized. 'I(eej.l'tbat

•: ••••..•.. J

:.. ...


in you-slowly proceed thrvugh these le.('els.:(SI'i~~h: rege,lt after'II1C;,j 1(IJ(n~r it will )gA){)vc';'l k~O:w ilwlli' g,j:'o:~;v~, .. ),

A nlfr~sher note abotJ~'))ra{:l:king, Listen to what .yc)u arc pl~ying, \'\~ltd\ what yotl,a!'c p~hiyLn~:;cl, for ~he '~ilOIS and S,OUI'·Le.~ of tension.





f¢J j

,B~$ y----J1) : .,

j ;-. ~ j :=~
,J J ~ .
• ;'"'ll.-
~~. -
< .] r , -r


This 'i~.t'he fi)ll.m'0:-;<lmhl.tllie pattt'1;it ('1)1' ·1·im6alcs.\;\/~~~ },puha~'e sllcce5Sf~JI}i.·p~~-' formed le~'e!s',,2·a-2c, you're ready.for the '!'Iht~le j)<tUei"!l. !'Vb at has 'been :'Iddca: to finish th e, pat}el:t?is ,ih.~ fqurl11·:q~lflrl'r;jf.Jl.Ole'6f th~ second mem;q tU w h teh' 110~'" has: t\vo. eigh ~h' tl (;te,~. ori

3··r·B_¢ __ $~_L __ .J <: _ 1_j-'-_:7-}~~-~

. 'MamQo,Bcl'l: -&-¢-J_L--~ J 4--t+-.JJ ] J.D 'II:

~ :..~

J$:* r=-;tL-~. ,it j tE Jt§il==¥l

1. 'f


the bell (bci4}~) and a'd~sed notein tlie.hernhr'a (played With the-stick), Slowly, earefolly, with rt'speGl 'fer the tj:a~JEtiOlJAh<lc'~, theway' to pr.<ldice'this;i;!ie~ brcak'out s~m'le records and pl},yalongL

Mozambi ue Bell and Rumba Clave· - --

, .

H"re if.amitht" pattem which works well ~!~d gr~)(')\!!Os .~\ard. l~~p}'jng rumba d<lv¥- lJ1, line liawlalld the·m()l'lrTlhiqL~e- bell p'lw:~n involves somrdfldt'peh~eiie:e.l~ul. ka!'iJi'ilg ihii;; pauernis w~ll.wol'th the.d'I~)rLyoli can .' .'1ppm<Ld~ this:p;lik·m ,the' sam" W',w as-we did 'the bdl-h2rlilh'a coinbill('. i;·"i'. Tak~'lhe rl<lut:l'n

,,_ ...... - ,- .

.one.small stepata tirne'until YOIfliave the full phrase grooving, AIJ:hough'.this pattern b~giItS "orrthe "2"·.p'lrt 'of-the mozambique bdfpat-

t~~n,:,Chapg~iiqilJ*t:~ n~:lt oneshould begin playing the .clave on .t.lje "'.3" part . .f.~e is adaruall'l tl'M:t you would never start the'd(l~"~ .cn-thc "2" part .

Mozambique.' 7

I Clave and Bomba bass dr,iJm ' -' - " .. _

, c





'~I], mozambique, this 'b(Jlll\)o;,m ~m,~s-:dJ'lun

, part,-i; oj,,1-yt1i(;F,Li' p~rHi.:i'iL (TfiC' i):i,,~ II riim is IlO~ i6iir\Yi~~~:ll bilSS (1I'lIln, p~a}'~gwith ihc ftlhL h lsa drum p'l~ycd with a ~.(ick ";ln~r' ~s ~~I :iap~,{'ti 10 ,'tlw player muchl ~h',i I'illl:i L;lr~" '~ly-k buss drurn.) Now we :H:(!' really g,c,thng into .mm(~ seTi()"iI1'dJ'pcli~ie]~c~wor~,,:_0l1c,h:lni!L~ I'I~}:- '

" j.lg<nIm15<l ~hlVep_r:! "lu;: h~)dy ,)fJFi.~ .... h;lCli~; bell. The: other is phlyihg the bornbo p'li-1:,.:v~)ll know the drill b},'r'low_ 'Iukc },PIllI' time-and -n;-fer '[(j,th~ section ~f the bO~ll~Y, How to

P.r~fttjce, f£5r'il,oi~iSt.'\n"c"l\, Jlk,)1YC pay 1,1;])-lh.:uli~r,;t1ttc'n,ttori 'to' hb~ Ch~,n.g,~iii_() plmt~~:~ this,

·,md _1n,1!'1}' (ll her musical pfl!';l~('.~ tlno,11ghn\.I L ,!ll~S'hook. l)'t.IVt i 1111: ct lW('linll:,~lc:olul-\bl.Wtidw<1' 'Zhiili.g fr~m C~li;1:1' '.'P:lI~1. 'Of ttlt' h;'~LI>t? nll!1 t'hvfhili'i(' ki'i~iOl~ '{')(1\frk;lll~ "'I:rk:~llll~'

Al~H'~l"i(c'l n t.11;lL'oLl1cl' wO'l:ld I]ni~ic :i~,l.hc,'(6,.,scions bhlnrng dhi: LIf<l1 innal V:;llH.':~ lwhvct'rl ,dupkl and 'Iriplc._,~·'Chmlgl!iIO, ,1;1; well ;I,~,·iltany '\1 tll CI' t\(I~('!-(\I1),~ 11 ti<!I'~"I~~;~~6r1i"lS, i.,~ a ma::lcr of 'il:i'f, tdiolll. [1's,i1'('}1 [tf:cl1i'iiq1!C,'H's'" '~:1Y (;rlifc' a,,~l Ill' mLl~k;l1 f'~l'r~S~iOll, :n"},; }'fim h~sf j~,

,U nderstnud ~lnd then, emulate this rill rasing, 11 is, Pdrl-,:(lDd' pan:!:'I:{/r the A rI'O~'( .uban feel.


, '





. ~ ...



'T' " '·1.1iS)~~yt.h~~~:~\'~~S.}~:V:Pted b.r;'lj,al?g~.l.l? 0,

il 11~1 !.\"" .lTu~tl,lpoqf mel'e;B.gue~from the:

'. . l~' ()! n l n !(:all' R~p ubl it.a nJ~sol1go, .

91~rl;~u:ii:Q li~.·$·<"1..W~ .. d .m¢p;;ntiongQ\~ith Los' 'Van Vtm iindis co.nsrndtl}' ji~ldjng n~~'W uppij(,;'llillll~

for it. . .

preliminar' 'Exercises '. . . ,.. .': : __ ." _.~_ .---- -- . .

Here-is an exercise for mouth-and body.of . ~h~-rn~lr~ib(rl)d~ ;,.v·(!h. muftledhernbrh Pc[~y~~

with the.stick, 'rhe-'rhythrn iII the mambo-bell i~ -.~it[ere~ltJr01·~,i: .l~?zainhique .

... __ .,o.___-'---.-'"

,. ". 2: ~~~ J .~ I j'

M,"ibO 0.>11. -D~- --1-· .~~~ .•

-- fi .. ~~ {. .'




M'mbO.;~ ~:_~~-~~~~~~c-,-c-+'-~--_ -=--- __ ._:_-_=-~~-.-_ "--~-- .. ----:J

Besic Merenson o . , __

MalllboH~U ~o_~._J--- ~~tj c,_J~_~ j~l'b--:-~ __ ~!~~-jJ. ,:-=j_~~-

- .-~ .J~±*.......--,;---,,"),:::::=.-- -==r_-:JI .. E __ -. _:)~ ~~i"~-:- .~1_}_ --~-.

,-~ --::1---' :;..,_.._-~ ____.. I -~~:ft-~--~-=--- ,.:- t;_--jj=---if~~ --.

_':'.. '. ._-- ~---'-- . ----"'- ----- -

A.s, you can. sec; _)'Q{i "'Vi\! be p,larlllg the .mambo.bcll, .mduth.{ open-sound] and body lor.this

. p<I"ite rn. H~re. is the 'basic bell patLe"m. ."

f1t1ore Adva"nced Merenson o. . _ _


f['~;c'~iorl0f t!ie'gn')ove' where yOQ. ll,l,IY have

p~nb~en)s."vjlh·(~rptnde~c" .. Start frQID. ·lhere.'D(1 notleave there until youcan'perform·) wiU"fedillgphis il1djv~h.h;,;l1 part, of' the (Jv:I?"r~111 B'ron"¢:

the next, more advanced, i~~'clbfmer:r;I1~ ~nhgO: add,s}'t bit more In the hembrn. E~.en thi~ rhyth'l11 j':; not a recent Invention of Ch~ngu:i.\o;: the"li·5:t~ an~( drinnset .Cl.ll)3_ollse it in \'~ry modern t:t',imlar ·dan,,~'·mllS.ic;Y6\! can hear the.influence (;(L'hi~ )ie~t"ley¢l': of the rhytl.ll1l;whcl'c,the ~;v.e ()PCtl tones are itclde<fj!l' thchernbra,

, . .. ~ ."

;l)]C:1iC' note.when li~k:!lillg'to the CD, t~<ltj1 the five consecutive open toneshavea crescen-" du' feel, culmin[lting ina sligh I. accent 011 the fifth li"ot,C .. ]~y ~'c(ci§ccndofj:'~i;' 1 mean is not an actual ';:l:ciS'~~lido; p~'['&) but the' resul- 1atllle~1 pnwi~les,.;t very big part of the"Q,'cran groove,

This Ievelrequires a lot at study.-YOll shouldknow bY';nGw .how to take apart .the.: . measures (,lnl1 ~ .gl'O(:,ve,:qi vid i Ilg tht;I~1'1 n ~q

th e ir Ieast ·Cot:1I1l:l!0I1·.i:n~ eljeTla~iiGe denqrnj ri~tors:,\Nh'ilt Hils means is I-inding the smallest


Mil mho,'~ ell;

Addin toe Bass Drum-Pre/iminar Exercises

.1 H;-;rc.a~e:·i:lllh:"tiundil1g b1Qd~l'exe~dses to help you develop the jilder¢iid'enci:nu:i£1fef:lllece,~-

;~~y toplay the next example,

2" . '. .b,l . . h J. ~ 1 [ .~ j

J-+-""_,-J .~ JJ r#J....._ - J - "f ~f-.l-"--'l-.u.J-.~

:-lli=I:-=".:::l~--=)=----~~ J=¥¥J }~ - . a .'-"

~~~~q,-.~ '.-1, '-¥--\~."f..' ,-==" '", . I·)· •

~. .,_ ~ "~


I 'I


lYierensol'lgo ~

.... -

~Merenson a·With Bass Drum·Added· ~



AiHi now we: v.iiir add the j)a.~sidntl1l .1"0 (h('· lil"t,lch lil;::~<1~Un~.·it re;dly hdl;~ in w.kllo the

"1~iisk"'~1 !H..! "m:xl." lcvci$ pi" mC:I:~~ngsDn·go. l.vcn i'ltytilfllicc:x(.ilcmcllI <lIlt! m{·;Vt'lllt:nt.

Ihuugh tbercis i.lI1iy \")r1C b,lSS ilruut 1l~ltc<l~kr~~·


tt!U.,jIif4ljtt424.,&t·J,i.t·iWtlmt·nB$lIm);6IIj3ft4iQU4 _

'rt: " I" '" bl'· 'h' , 'h ' l... ' , .:« . 1"

, lu:;>neX.l t;xq,mp e l~ prona "y. t e most t ere.are not man}" t~H~}' never mtertere WtU'i.

intense rlwthni'c <\crivit\; we'v'li ~)(amined so -the How [)ft~e_'gr()OVe,bllt"instead illb~ly H:kl

tbr. E~~h·hvo"bm·'p·atljrii \t)'ang~#'eirh~I: ~'Iiglltc the.nece.,sai·{,pict:,jil~.slwd:iflg W propel' [be

h':m:'dnlmatioallv:fn,lt.s-m;i·te.'ct)'lltrau.13ut Hie gaHwe aIO[~g.. "

feci :ne>ie'{vil,i('s.'Yo.u coul~i,.a·nd i,x)ssibl); . shouk], placti~'cach b~'o-harJHnNI'n scparstely;'omcentrating,Ol~ thc··tecli.t!i@l ,isp~{:ts of. ,irl):rdj,},b'la.e.flce'J.l1d correct pl'l.¢.~.il1e·i\C9f"s\:id(, oh pbyi·rlgsi]if'i(:~ n;·e--,'pbY~ng·froni.lht;: In()llth w·the body ~flhe b~ll(s) \~~h~,;~ notated), while 111e other limb ispJ".u}'ipg iJ& part on another Sllrr~(.e. Note the ghosted notes, eSp',~ciallyin~

~ he' se·i:dnd nreasure-of eaGh,phra,i: -, i.n-j'o~gh

Yes;oun;.llggi!sti(.li1 is ;'0 take.each IW{1·br';i' pauern.and priH':tice. it.:lintil il becomes pbrl of - . YUlU repertoire. l';heI! .~~1(1 only th:enprogn~;;s

- to-the next two l\1e,J;$ure~,\,V)1Ct1, four measares can be: pl~i)'cd, proceed to the next two; ~m~1. so,

• .... '_ §.; . . '~I.. .'. I ~ .

on.'e'ttl'eJ1J;'e.bUi.ld,log.block t::'{en:l~es"uol:

irrcludedon the·CD:, \'.'hich will heh)·yo\l':;devd'.op the bert hembra, and has~ drum i);Me~Tl.

Cna-C~a ~'en ~D~~ rr J n 1- ~l-m-~~ 'M~mb(l aell -~'__:--'------1-J-L]-, -41





. I

~1amb() Bell -.0 ~~~-- --

f·" ·ttia-Cha Bell,

3.. ella-eha l3ell



c'hll-Cha.ieli· 'H-¢~J . rJ_~J. __JJ-l~-~ ---¥- m -~H

,"--------.:--- ---l-J---.Jl. ---- -~ II

::..~ '~-

~~~~~. ~~i- .. ~~· 'E=-:tl

Merenson a-Another verteuon " . "_ - I

I., And here is the full 1"'''''"-

'8J·.-~IJ J' JJ-r- __ .,. m [J .n J_j]-I---- -.~,-m~l

-8 " I J IJ ~j , I]-'~-- I

l8' MerensQ,rfl"l(1:·

,.- "'i :;.~-::;J ,

Advanced Merenso'" o-PreJimina Exercises: - , ' - -

I-iere,'rile~six buj,ldi!lg"hlock exercises, not includedsorr the ,G:D,wbicb;e~~,jn help youdeveiop l'he

bdl,'hemb.r:i;:and l?u)1s drum pattern for the next example. ' 1

, I


Merel1S0n o-Ativenced .Pattern . ',"



. .


'\J1otht'r j-mq~.rn'j'o.l\lllCrqns~i!y~';'I!,!Jd~ .rimc _11Cll:~:~1~'l, an_d 'h<l~~-d rum, Dd11l11dy advanced

\~'iiJ-d l'it'''''' .bell p<lth:rn·,;cht. t)pb~' tlincstin-(hec. _ :a't"ld'il'lJ)SI deli uitcly wmlll) h~'('ff()"rt'.

,j j


l' t

I ~,

C:o,!lsa,i,Sya,:thYt'hm !YP,ica!IYl.lSed <:luling

" C<1nHl~'alilll t:l~I)a:,'Th~ gr6ilp'~~~hi~h '" '

play~ conga is- called comparsu, (Tl~l$ grj/up js rdatiy~dy 'I ike .the- samba schools in Bra~jJ:,) The ',d'l·.lli~l~ ll;>!'!([ for tongjl. ~['e, ,':'>in~il<Lr, ,(hruug~l () u t the j'slailU; e'J{\:;.e~)t' in Sii. t; tlago d~~ .Cuba-where the comparsas use bo~~; a-cone-

-shap edd r um. .

CorjgaHqbtm~tf,1 IS related tb~rh.llFnba. Jt

. uses tu mbadoras, three ,I n (i)ia I., l~he' tumb <'ido;· -ras 'are slung around 'i,h~, neck orille, drummers dUl'i:llg'.'the 'nl;rlJililUI par-ade, Th~ drums usedby ',th,e 'camil at,sa :':ll:~ ·''''cqi.{ln ri);,qllirito>};u inl?ll.,,"p I:

CQIJ.g'J5: TI1~Sc drums harken back Ii) the ,Afri'G~m herll,lge ~f drums frum Dahornev and '£[(j;il HI~ b;iUO:I:The bass'drums' used '0; c~ng~ ~an" : n'q11bqjt{P'Pl~;rilila[t: ,i:,;L"r:;,l'fJ,"x2.6")' P ti ~a'l'ldel'.l\ {srnaI[er L~a S~ .. ~,r,l~ 1~1" .1 fJ"x2 4," 'b-r" - j ()i'x:20',)-nml' g:~lIet<t '(sJl1alle;>t bass d;'unl; 4" io

'".. I' 'I ,~' " :,' ! S .., <" .

~"UK:W.~ )y2~ .) Sartenes \'"j.l!lIlJsh!'M trymg

*Ril'!'~'! t arc j'asteilediTtp~,rs'~to,hoMer~:wh~ch ch,n ,be 'llie n WOJ;!l by: P,l 1'1 ki pau ts in' rhe'Ttl rnparsa.Haud bells-and snare drums-are al:;o

used. '

m l:igli,dero, the leader-of th('('ns~}l1~le,. is Hke ,i'''dnuji.,majo['' ,;OI1\l~h~~~ wlth the""b,rtoni' ,g¥ve~ the 'calls wi •. h thC\i,'tlistie. The~~ "'calls'" ar:i-, for breirkeln rhcrhythm.turns and steps by

, the 'dancers; ,atl'long ma!1Y other things,

CQnga Orie~i~l COJileS from the eastern pruvil1ccs of Cuba, the Ori<:!l'te provinces, In Samt~go de Cub<1"th4:tOnlt'arsa uses, instead i)ffj':};.iJ,lg 'p,m~> brid;;~ drmris. The- guataca, or h!)e~ blade; is iilso 'u sect .. A tdieres 'or nW[,icas';1 re also used.within rhe cpmpat'&1, In Havana, trumpet or-cornet is used in, the .cornparsa but ill ~hr;! ,oriente region of-Cub" lh(:; corneta chiri,i 'o'r lminpeta chilw,j~ double-reeded i;~5tn']1tlcrit of:th:~ oboe Kmi.lly" is ll~fd.Tltis' instrument has a ve'ry,chan'lcb.:,ristic,pierdllg ~ourid which is utilized topenetrate the mas~iy~,soi\Ii{j of tb'e'l?~rcL'l$siol1. EverYl,jnc in the, comparsa, playlng:'tbe' rhythm I,e,coilg;}, ph'ty!> sorne.rype of pe['<cuS$iOrfinstiu.m~nt. Conga habanerais more like .urban music; wh i~c" (\)t'lgi oriental is more rural in, nature,

Pre-lim ina 'Exercises ' _' __ -

Changuito'smcrhcd "o(pedorming lhc c:nng,l alsel utllizes'the mambo bell'a.,nd mut't1:~t{/bpeli. sm!Il.d~h, (I~ t,l!p:hcnibp, 1'1"~ .. e.bell par- dilT:erenl"than mozambique 9r,pil61i. Here- is a look at' one measure of' conga, You ~"j Ii H'e p biting' 4 '~()und:5.

, ,

Ulilizi"i1gJhe 'cil<Jd1<I and rnnmbo bello Io!' mng<l'lJfn~ij"dc~'in,I~l'cMillH' C.11<lllC'~\g(Z' .<111(~:f~I\:<11 groOYC'O$ -, \<~'l"1l1LiqL JC('I,~ii/lli:'6ilr~d~c.d~).1~1~i~'~.

~Hg on) ~\'i).;~1lI"01(~lZ.~,.! iii'(/. t\~;i·i~hplb), ~~:Iiik two .~~)llllds "1,(JIm l'!~jl <l1ul hr~ij}: ~.i.~epiill't~di~n the Inn rnbo l .cll, .

" 1

j, Ch<iKha Ben


n ~i-J --- j2...1 --1 j\~+ --

'D-'¢~~ -JL J-_J_J--'I ~ --~--

--~n .. _- ~Il

MamlSo Bell

,)' . -

-~- --_.," ..



--rI!I!!!-'- ---

Addi!j)(i:hc.h;]ss opel1wnc 'ill the;' .dilvc' (ChaL1l~il~~O pbyR d,w,,:,.wi'th hi!'. left

ltiOmbra,.,pl~Y'wilh ~hc 1~<1Jld which is plH}'1l1g. Jhafi~L)

i\s,::>~1'b.·l~l<lI~}" phhe',rhithiil:'.,~~r:.'hwv(7bcen sl:udpng. 't~ie.hdJ 1~attern p!i\y..ll "ji n~1p(lnant

r . . .


role i;!~ 2l1~'11p: '['he 'cht\,~' ha~,i.~e~1l llddcd ,~U you -can r!:~c:! tllis·mn.s:!: irnyiorl<ml rcb'ti(~T~sh.ip:

1 \


.... -.,.

Nldiiig:r,he' h;e'ri1!?ra:.p l'0v!.Cles si!l~e' o'~: th,e' mide~ftfun? ~(h~ rileaqhigf':ll pom~ec[i(1 II

re,'lH~·tl rDr5i6i1g~Ii,]baner<i"Q.nce <lgMn the ,betw€~n·rh} .. tllm~ilnd"key:> '

cl<~~,;,-b. playt:':d ,.md. written for y(Jwt~'fe~Lamj

. ..

.. ) ,

_', . D-'q~-7t-,-,J_'-~~--H-' ~- .;j. f __,.)'/-:--<,; .~h If-f-~ ____.).__", ___,.J.__, ---'-, ''f--~, ---1lj----+-·~ It-I-~--''!-_)~

M,mb.',11 ~~.J j J, ]" ,,,,hJ jj I J J j l, j 1"1 JiJ Ji j

o t~..L ~" {--I"J---~:_))-~'t-h~I-4--Ly-' I J T ~h f ·"f.I-

~~-~-J--LJ 'FJ-~~~!~~J.LJ-J-)~, ..-IJ:~.J ' '" j J'7 J I "f' ,~J, J J -[tjJ~4~ 'l4!:~~l 'I Js4-=j'- ------- -II _~J---,~"c::~--- --~,~,---H :;n~~~~~~~~=:~==--=-::~

(oliga 83




A-ddin the Bass Drum' .

- - .

Thcnddirion of the bass.drum adds hoih a bottom'endand an "anchor'vto the conga groovc.T t "aLi;~; :a'~lds,o il e'n~~q.r(: j~'1clofi i;~511:: p~ n-

dCIl(:(:wol'ic .. ,If }'vti h<lv~ ,,\o·c~ • .r~ct! ihn)1.,1gh the previous exercises you.shoukl nul havcaprob-, ~erin\lith th!.5 paHC'I'II,

·u-t-J , J ~ fJ"-"I JLt-----+-J' I) J_J_ -~-~ j ----'/ JLt- ;/~.0!_1

H+->.I-J-.+--· _....j. J ~'! JI~· .J l--tJ-J L1 ;~~1-'h[l·J.___J_~~ -1

m~~g~~§~§~~~ ~l$::t~'~~"~;:-~~~~~~~

j J-J-!-J--_.,!' ~~--'t~Jj: j-t:- -J_J --1- -IJ--- r-t-},--t -r-} -I

-J-J IJ4=l1 y ,P J J j I JJ_j_]-7~r1-jJ~ _1_ J-1

i 1j~1'," .J¢g,j i,-mb-11·. ~~hJ'- ~~if~

1\ .rJ1, :t , )J I~' ..._J -,J-t-tJ_·,-"C"",,0} -,,;··~·.ill .,.

,J J ----+-,.J----J--D-,;J_~-t_~}J_ LJ-i'1

H+-'I, .. ,F--J ~,~. ,'J

·8 J J J J ·~]-I ~ .. Jj J

i .~.~

~:--~ ". -§~I~







I .,




Another Bel! Pattern. for the Can a Habanera __

I ~ '.. . j

I~-+-'I __....~'--ft-----+'1 _io'-' ~I'I i

J; JI ¥ 11 J j J :11

·Add the' qave··:td":lhe: pr.e:eJicting bel! pattern, th~'"da've i~ pl~r~d. i.n ·thts.ex;J.:t),pk.·~ri Hu! . chacha bell, (You will notice, other examI"il'o!~ in th e book; 'the bells. have been. written in

~. r . '."

a the staff. This is done for ea.';~·oir~adij1~·I.·) 1'his pa~~t;r~'''id m'g<roo';',;" are. well.worth ~he time, yOl.lwitl spend leaming it.

7 Addin the Bass Drum . '.' '.. . .

- - - -

ditional'feeling. We feel it's- most important'to learn this feeling,

cha-cha Be!1 O"':¢L-OK..::. __ --=-=--J _--{'-t _I,J~., _j~J~E-=-+I:}----"",-J_..-:...._J. ------4-"? . I j_,___. ----""'-"-11+_~ ~~r .l~----;tJ:1I

1 12 '! -tll'l jl J J J l' J ~ j1 'I q-I-'~""c~rr-----I ...:AIo:._J L"I

: ~Ef. -IEiJ~ J' l I~~~~§

Cdnga 85

C~lHr~gu. i.[(i.'s. :~i.l<l:~lL.:rr ~.! .. r 61f.-I. d:i.! hnrs is legcndaF' l]11S knQwkt!t'\c IS, 11l9W p<l.s.~1!d on to YQ1I. The roots ()'f1h..;se,

. lhythrri s .F6l'ne:'filll'(1·Afi'kfl '<1 ndCh a ngui to.Iras a'dd~(h\e';v 'iit~d\:x(j"tjng :.i;a"riatYullt,l t{)Pl~S~

IhI\i( I'hyLh ms ·<lI~'ll1a[jcrll~. Most importantly. l'h'~:LnJl i~d ;\'i;9 sillmflgrt;aJ. Aller some prno~i(~y(jil wHllle a~;lc'lO a"f.'pr(lxirilafc thcsounel (if ~hc.CD ~1I1i.l:'ymi'll heTt<l:dYJn a~~lpIY thi.~ j~;c::w knowli:dgc to yout· own music.

Prelimina'r Exercises '" .' .: ~_ _ _ ._

Chacha .. bell and -h¢il1LJ'r~i,. both open .and muffled withfingers orhand, a]:e fo:alu'rclfin:


. Cha::'Cha Bell


. Bell Pattern' . . .. _ _ .

.... :1-.

~~t} We ~dd thf,'i:;;I{)!>ed ,a[lslopeh,tom!5~f1l tlw heml:I!',;,; TM :n,l;st '[';"'0 'lueiis}lfes ,a,'~ 'difft:rem from the .remainiug l'4'andill'ri':basicilly thnekeepersunt]] the actual hemhrapattern

I d£ydops, The hembr-a pattern begimlil~g with measures Z and ,8, and continuing untillthe end kalhrnpu[i<J.~t,·pattel1.11 <i~d sliq.uld be.~<insidered the main'Tesson'tir, i.his.c;xample.:

~_J] ~~ j .] .J ] n ~, J , '..I
'~ jf i ... 7 "1 .. I~ l
.1 I ,I I J.
'---12E L -~ _j, .. ..
" -:----. - - .. -::1-1--t:
.~-- :-: '-- ~ ...
..:::. .1



, ~.'

I ~.' • .


_-~ ,

, '':' ~-- _._;_

,-_.- - ___,.

--,------ "

.. __ ---

-: ~

8embs_BeJl Pattern _ '-.-

CI;mlguit:p c;i'I!i:illis t",e:'~bemh~~';dayt' ~,)I; 'R<lhen'. 'NNia:ilw t the bell 'p:H d i('(erenl . -than the Ijrevio'!ls.6/H examples. Y6u'wllralso lind spn;ii \'ill'if:'LLltp,atteql,s,'i!l the 4Jh, sdl, l2.tli"and lot-h )l]eaiu~~e~.:i\s lllenti6Iled'b~r(l,i,:,

" ,',". .J'. ~ " 1

.·.lhis pattern is lll,l appftlxi'I'mlii_i)]J c)(thc p,1,<l}liiig

'in hdwct:11 h·iii!e.<tllclo~!tlpl(; mc!c.r wnich'js' so qlmm.(Hi ·ir; mnny Aji,'hi'll~b"sed types,or

music. It has beentranscribed belegible, 111 he are .s~\'e~il~ imp6rt~~~l~ patf~r'n~ ,\¥ it h" in.this musicalexample. Measures.1 and. X ate very:ril1portHflL·So·are fhe aforementioned ~Y!1~Cip'<lte,d'pal-rcrns. Listen to !heCD and ~b~;irJ'i the fed of tiff;" 'Pilue·f1ls.:,They.are essen['I::II·fo Ghin'g~~if!:' il<;' p~aY~I: <l11,d,tQ,.:C::ubMI timbales, rhythm, and mw~i'~,




. ~. Rhyth rns' 87


·Bembe'· Be/(Pattern continued .. . _ . .

i ::,

Another Bell'Pattern' " ' , ,,', ' .. ,',' ',' ,', ': ,


. I

~h'';;1 Hl ~ L;_L~~i~____.e;:1I-~~+r-}~LG.y


ISL1__l_..t-[J i ·L}~· J .,~_,rD Of n !+--4Li' _l_\

1-&j_,j_'J_ 7,-L4~~ j I yn ~--~ L_L,:J 1 ~8+-.o ~.J j \ ~ }Jf- 1"1 j i j L.L'I +~ ~_j+1-1 ~B~ j l{ptL/___L,,:l+J IJ '1n~1~ L{_j-i

G ~h\{fhms 89

hi '/ " ,

Add~ilg thc.'llpel.l <lna;.dqscH tonE:'~ irt thi hem bnr-yic1ds,tli i,5 .re~ult. Ail-I.hc. PJ;1Clic~' (:Cd1~ niques ;~!~. have d·is(u~~ed ln th(tl)()ok c~I1 .. ,bt: .

,-,sed)l'ert". Practice slowlYlll1dhodimllr, and i~,lh 'gre,!! -care·, YOl1. wll:'n't,to.g,d as do~~ as-you crill ti; the ~i)lm9 nf ~h.e' CD.

~ , . .

I' __ .

C- -han~illf~'~~'~ .. ~ery-!.J1Y~ntiv·~ musi~~:'tli' end-this grooyt; is oiu~ of hE finest. 'Funowin~plrc some preliminary exercise.

. 6 to h~lp gel );(~nl'gplng with this. groove, 'frhes\;, exC-·t~jSe:s, a~- wi til a]!·exe.icise;s· foundi n the \:!!}i;! ~~ing sccfib ils : ~f ~a6h:cl.;p t~r, llee~1 tc:..

be P racticed v~ry ~h*ly an d ·,"ar-.efi:dJy.: . RW"e,at . each short pl1hi~e' .. s·ma{lY tinles ~s tl"eyessar,y to develop the rechnlquefor playing-the ;p'ath;H1, Tllis will insure the usefulness oftlie exercise,



Prelimina Exercises _ .


~~ombim; dwcha.J~c:ll; 'the. sounds "from'both mouthand bo.dy o(the·bell,~:lld crcssst icl;:::in~

il"1 jlelnl~nh, .'

-u-¢~~L-:LJ--j-~~·. m~~h~~ ~J~ ~- -'~~., -~.~ ~I~~~~I


\ ..






.. '

The Bel/. Pattern _ -, __

.l-lcrc is.the 1;e:]1 p~31~C!'11 f9rJhi~',t;:Jo;trcmd}' furiky rhytlml.,Nofe, how 11lt: bell ver-f.,dearly ~t<Hcs t!u:: rumba-clave. And,whell Y0l.! listen to

't~e:",(~D, p,le!lse [l"y'i~,ltCtltiopJo ImlNlh,isp[l.t~ terri is,jlh'rasc~J; pU5hif!lt 'r1ill!'pulling, <in the te:llsiotl!r-el<:a:>~: cr,c,ajin~' ~gn;:i:ll~i'oovc.

The, hand not pl.<1)''}'s cross,'stick on the'hcnibm, 'Here is the pattem. Thc-. adce:~t

'must remain ill the bell 'whilE this-pattern is bd;lg'iil<iyed'!'n tl(~ h~'mhq,

A~14ii}g lin' open sound In tlie,helnbra, :phlyed wi,nh~fli~ stick,'The' a~~nl bas'he-c~me',?

hit less here, so we.are- using (Ul"lccato lTI:uk~n~fimte,ad of'an acecnt marking.

~ ~ .

.J. (hcf·_cn<i' Bell

-~t~J '}-'-1_'-~-}~$-- -L-.-j ----t- -__:;tl




, ~

u~~ JS-'-:[I









, I ,



.. ~-.

Ap.(Jther··open ~6rie·Hatlei:nin. the hernhra velytrPl~al h};'<Elft9cubanismo:: Listen-to (he

gives. lhi:;; :s'peciaI 'grpove" alioth-~r 'reason t9. CD. :ny ~n.d fed it for yoursel f. r rrri ttl te It-

:swing) .M~a!~li;·e 9;is speCii11 "~<iy (;f ph[.a~·i~lg> b~i;;<l~i.~.i·t l~ bei~lg.p]ayed·b)·-!'i m.a~tel·~.


'o_j_· --.h-t+-- ._}1 l t: }_! J t ,J ,b J. 11,~~----:-J-..J -- f ,

~Jll___iJ~J ~ 1 j JjJ. Jj 1 j j J [11

-~~~~: .J' j1¥ n oJ, *~=t1;t J~ J'~=Jgg."* J~ * 1t3


lfi'irI ba Sorigo layJ§" 93

~-,-,:.~~.:~ .. ~ J2+f-·J--J-·~_ .. ·iJ·· j)-~~,--j)-11 J--_j-,~:.. 1

~_l__Lj_~.2 j_.O ~j I)_J ~LJ ,J-~]-1 _~. d.~.J~~~~~~~;;~~§~~l~~





5. I

(h~~Cha ~ell -E:-¢ ~ .


- .--.

AddJ.T\g.the bass d:ri:ltll'pnn;ides yet another layerto this groove. The clave is.not over- . em p.liiisi J::ci:!., ~~O. ~h e: Mag!} (0 1']1 ar ki ngs areu sed again,:Me~s~~re 9 •. mice··~gtiirl,;i5 'th::~~!t!dit Ijh diff~r.eliCny. This li'll1:, though, 'iCs a bit "~.t~·.afghtc.r".the!·lthc. previous ~x,tmpk. J 1', written to reflcer Ihc_slib!lc din-ere-nee .

(By, the W:l}" hOlf\ !I1C<l:SlII'C' 9s· iii' the8C I'WIl exarnnles.are uotwritrcn correctly; Tillis is jl.l~t an njJPw)i,I nation of the nU!<1tiol;. Di,lgl"nrm, symbols, and d ircction marki ngs 'have been u·";t:d bv nlhei"~ to Cicn(j:t(,·.lli"e "laid back'"or "j~.lst ·j';:i·w,,;-d~·:rn~~;veJ"C;l'.il~ IIl~s,e phmses, In

. other wonb, 'Hs~ct1 ~o-thc(;;i)!)

~ J' 11 Il--j-J-~·---t· .. L, ~~ J-~'-. --l-I--t - .J j -'~-I

oi'. ••

1l J lllj~··J~_[] I j [J-_J-ll-1J ir n.

-=- _:I ~~~-,; :.~-.=J_"" :~\J .::~: __::~ -Ej~--:.~===~I~

~ ---, . -b'~-;~~' -=;; -~-l . --~.,l __ _;«-, ---~ T~

. '- . -- , , -~-. -.- ~----=I- .' . ---. -~ .~....--- .. t:=== --., - ~- .

- . -- -...,... __ ._ ...... "-


~BJ· JJ ~' ,JLH..J j. t. ·1" J.,.'-L~-,--J1 I J-.L- ~:- -s:-I

. . .

~J=J--~I .. 11 I j .j-. j. nl j . Jl--J_' IJ-tl-J--j_jJ1

~:L-1J1~ ~::=~~d J -ffl=.~-' .t=~. _I:t- ~-i-~~


...,_____-·.b_t··_· -}~l'-l'-' J_j-. )~-+J~ --)Y j. f-'-I :t J-- J.._--~c-II

Jj j Jj-f1j j ~j.~ Jj~ j-j__~--I~

~m~~·-~ ... -~ .. --_.~~ .. ~~tP~~~@~~iL'--~-_- 11

;94 TlmofSQngo ~i:!Y~



l. I:






HO\.V aL1dWh.r".-I~OLd'-l_ W~ 1'J!~a~tl.2e in .• depcndence on timbales? VVt have an

. .. J}e~n tau.gilt,:(lr\~;~!ltcq to learn Olt somepoint, Lfre:i~lie.'al":l_.Af'jn~ki)-efldeli . ce, ft is a. dl'mprni.llgtnHkm::li;k.':i·hi.~ is a ntelh(\d, develpped by (jiangLii[o, :whi":h 'i"g based on fuelj)o,t mAl~s; roots np!. exercise, l) cascara, clave, 6ig p;iW~I':nS'i '~\"hile'5~1"i,ig\\,i-th !bi-otner Iln'1h ·t'lw solos.are ba.sed O[} ph!:a~es.l!1a:t make

. ;. l , ., , ~. .

h<:ll\Jlifiil musical sense. HDW In do it? Y('H.I'

Jrinv/ lhi~ "~Till .. Break the _pall't:rn down tel their .](,!w.e.s( c'c/fnQl011 (kil.OI~liimi~·dr, stjdd~l~nlll~" terns, Stoi.r,l. ;;km;ly.-:()nesm:'jILiilc·~ement ,-In:. time, until the whole: phrase [lows ffum yOll'r' h~1.n~S)!;'lli heart, Thls section provides-some vCl'·i.n.(kptin,den~~.ldei:lS which will

. assist )'"0\1 illdf~,:d().}Jiiig'Y(;Ul· .s.kiih1.fts a'rirnb',tlei:o und percussjcnist.;

. h,depclI'~i~'nGe is.a key ingredient 111 a Ji'llnHll~~-'s:<\bjli~y to 'al:!ljl.jit:'r-(ol.m>iil·his or her, il1.';1_rument_·Changlli!_t'I_has '4r~;dop~d: rhi(> ~'~'lc: into -an amuzing tuur de fQl'ce of percus-

. sinll,·JkiH";.JJ~i Im!~}cal mastery, 'j.I.H:" il:lillg, :rh,is~4f1jsufcc.lIl~billeS~he nmsicul';E;ing. of ('1'~;;:-rhy'dlj,1~:dn;d rhythm k

. ... ...

.. structures •. n-!(·)ldiu1i.,Ih!..:1!1 into.a: milld~b()g~ ,tiling c:rei,llh:c ·e;:q-;hj~.t{j0n: An)'oile wh\_)kJ:s cxperien (eel thlOi>i.1'le.of 'Pl' r[(1rmri'n ,0, ~a nno t .h<:ip b~t 'b-e> rn ove eLm U challenged as a [j~'rformer as well as :i.'li6t,ener; ,

-. ... -.. ...

.~t is as perfocrner .. ·(iliir; e"i<1'rnille these-phrases, .fl.·rBt to. develop a, sense/of IHe. il1d~pe.l'~l~ncc:~ ~hen to delve deeper <u}d work \jrr".thc:ph)'sit;:·a.!" act, RU.Lwhen these <lit"

th rou gR, QUI: gohi i't;' ·t.~plrty' Illusi C; 'U$ ill g'tb e

. \I' spl."il1gb~~<lrd'fr~j~i;\~~~hi(h to [ump into waters chartedby a few d.l\~·ing virtuosos .... rh Afro-Cuban music, Changuito is the

ca~)tllin_(;f.ihe yew,' . j

'qlangu~\:t)"usesth(::se'idea~ as hll~ solo jd_;:,iis)n 1ji-5 manx w~jrkshopsaround ['he. world, Chailg~li~6 ili.. tLrnei; Pt;I:fO[~1lS:"S a 'solo percll ~'si onist. . Th i:s 'is ,wli t:!rc theSe id~~is _com~ to lift.'. They, can work iii,lI!l-,dtulg·buf t~~·y· shine whenused il! solos,

An ideafl".am¢h,~llguil()js to 's11:ig}!o . line while 1)luy!.llgthe·.r.,lli1ri .rhl'ihill,. Jil tb~~e ;i" •• scs ei ther: casca ra o r,,~· clave,

::Cascarcfih·One Hand/Solo Pattern in·the Other Hand'·. .-.

, ('Yuu' ni,q dmose ti;~\lo,tllese lnu.s(cai·exi:rcises wifht:iiht'1' h<!lId phlring-cilht:]:\f,irL,."fui'- . 'j her t:nhamlin!:(_ f(Jllr .iudepcndcnce.)

{;I~;l L1 gL1! 10: ~Yl: 11~Jj~}'s',n\,i n y :tl i lferen t.:~()lp pllras~~Jn li;",.:I~f( bilild ~~'hilt"fh:~'Tight ha;jd pl;~)'s d,sC<lnt I'll b~h .. 1)~e'seillt'{1 ale:~."'vi:J~·;l ptjC~ lli:!rIls, ~;]~li (d· which will prest'nt uulque ', ch,d-


le nges., (Please-rev iew" How. to·;¥md:jfe l:ills l$o,;~-" fiji: pra~tice. idea.s,·) Most imp~~J:l:arlt .to

. th~ rhqte:>", is :the phnl;il~g,. This can only:'bc' . <lc:hil'\'~i:l aft,~'r l~lOrbut\h: I)'l'~ct.i~e· ~[it)t~_ t~ch di,cl'l!'aspects (ffthe exercise. ·ihke .. \your.·irTle., gu - .skw,;ly;-methodi·udl~',·and .you-will eventually ;·I~.ister phrusesund devr::lop your (Mil .. ·

independence Exe~dses 9.5



i I

Inde endenc~ Exercise 1

:1'111S. first musica] jndepen~cn0e'. exercise' is' 'based on the.relationshjp. bel~~reed the' c~stanl.: _patten~_ in one hand and' another syncopaied,

m~uskal the other h.<I_nd. We n.a:ve'broken down the.pattern into small mereme:nts, 1~1<iking lreits.ier-t() study and per.form,

~ ~ - .' "_. "



Hj_.;~, i _.J J~"-1_J-. j) ~ y-{~-J 1 [J. - . .,;..;.-1 "if'C.---.'. ---41J~~1

~_j J J ,~\ .. J n ¥~L~l,~Ln 7 .0 :11

PattemZ extends the" previous pattern. by !) ne note.


J j J ). J

O.!J~ j J

f._ IJ. J>~ 4 ,],In, 041

J -J

1 J. Jrf IJ :.0 7

Pattern 3

.J '~ I J J2 J J :11 j J yJ 1 j[J ¥ Q :11 ,J-=cJ. t .. 41




- . ,






P<~ ttern 4, is'pl"'r:edon the drums and ill ~IQwly. 'll:lakjni H.>~l(know,n; PI a Y illusicHliy.


. \

' '


Pa~t:ern,' more t.o thepatterncompletes musical idea.




J)all~rn 6.. Her;t:'i,s the the <:omplet~d musical idea inits perforrnan ce .form.

Independence Exerclses 97

.Inde en"dence,.'fxerC:ise:2 .', ~'.' .: : .: :. - . __ ' ~ _

This is· <11Jplhc"~u{dodic ~llljcf)!:n(lcllcc "movement' fcatU.I,l.llg'. t.he:{;,hl:<IUl .p~~~ IC·HI·and a >\~I"y-~'y1l9()P,'1'c;'(I, tl{1,mi!l log'cl!. rhyth mic UCC{) ,c1)pa nl n] ei.~!, Til is_ p<J.H('·, il igJir{~icll h:di 11 :1

diffei-~~Tit,'il:lCJre !IO\';')11ih maauerfhan th~' previous group oTm.lI,~iC:;;11(;';.;ampl.c.'l. Perhapsthis IllG1 h()'(Lw~ll,ii\'c you more-of ,HT im;ighl '· the creative "to<:"e:;s involved in-Illil> idea,

-D-~~·· t- J .. J -~ .J J. )),-$.---- j_ I t J- J"""---~. -"--I J_ .Jj:,t--·-- J_ 1

M.mbo",IlU ~l L.J . J J '. ~-:D'~~/-O-t~l_· .LJL~Ij_ D-'I-O, "

}~ _=-~~I===:_:::_==-,- -~J-:~ - --:- ~-.-- ,I ~- ]

'908' nidependel1ee Exercises

. . I .


Inde en.dence Exercise 3 _ " _

Cl1a-r:iguj~\~ has developed some '~maziilg

musical tdeil~cigin~j.'hitshigl1,l~ir1y extracrdi-

• m~ry. ~ii(!~11~I1(U:.Il.te ~~l~ rn.~&i.~~!ity.:H€;!T!:: !~'ol1;e , pJlIilSewJ,ich.Jel.nOJl. $~r;ifes this·'il,maZirii.a.,b,', jli·ty. Basically these are six-note phrases-rbeginnhlg,lD"d eh~in.g w~rh a rest), 11m the be-alH}'


~Sholilcl_not-belo5:t in :t!te'the4ry, T:herej:;}i

"wol1(kr;rul feeling imp~J.t<:dby,.dli.s; <!)i'd many . other ofCha!lgl1ii:o's'U)~tsi(.al and inspiring

. phi<J&c~.Li~!~ri to jhe C1Ybr;:fllre yon begin to read the:eXa!'Dl~le.

D ~.' ~---J -~---~ .~--+.J-, _J +-:j ~J -I-·t~~-J~J--I_j-· ~jJ-1'"-'_ I Mambo"6ell' tr¢ .• LJ .. _j J .,~: .il J [J -{ J!t¥ J J J-+J'I~I

~~!~~ ~~-~~=I~~'~-~~~~~



~U ~-"'~.,=__



'1nde endence'.Soio't:·"<:· .,:;: , .,..:. ,'-"".'-" ":'-:_. _

An Ihn~e>nftli.~s('mu,~ic;d ~(h:~lS P"CS,C'I~ led in (\o:~I·H;rl.·indc·~';~ndclkc,\(·1,hi .~h;;\'v., case.Y1C::1SC 1.iO,tj'C(',.wh(~n fiSt"(~'lill~ t·'ll I he t.;l),

Lhe :'>C,l mli.'ii~flC~~ or' ~ he nnw of i(k'l'~·Hi1od the

gl:~ (,we ~(lillhL·r("i~L~illli)("f:;i~;C(::.' I hily a ~\!~irkrjhlrL ;,


o ~~ J j ,J $' I J .~ r )1'1 t. .~ j -.t. I j ,-f r . } I

o ~~l__Ll]_1~J~-D .~ L;:lIJJ _Ll~J I LlJ 71-'1 J"'I 'E~~:==~==;- .j~. -~~ .. __ ~ __ ._ -:~._.~. _ ~~~ ~"_ ... ~"-:~~-~·---:?-==~~~~-l

. ,

""continuE's ·on:nextpage


Inde endenc:e Solo. 1 continued -::. --. _ _. .



trrl__j_llF11Dl1 0 I J J J J0L_lJ .~ q ~&~LI::c~

I~-~I·I n~~~o~ ~. ~~.~~

~~~G~~:~J:tic=1 fl- ,Itij O{ .?C~~~~

W L~~ I j~+P+J-J "' j ~ ( J i J ~ 1:2 ~ .~ I ~"'!~~~_ f·; m dii1_1 ~ ~.rf-~

~5~d;:t1J~~Q : j~-Ij ~ . .D _.,_r;J I .'1=8:!t=~~~~l=E+-g~t )1=t==[~L7 -ffi=I~~~·~

·n_j·- ., ~~.L4J.~n -'i~l..-d J J '/c:L{j .~ .I1_J- rl-I ill~_~~~J~~~~~c~~~-t~§~~~~~±J;;-~~d=1~~~~·~ ~~ -~I

"contin.ue{bn n.ext page

·Indepelldence Exercises 10-1



\ .

. ,

Inde enderice Solo 1 continued _. .

. ,

Inde _ endence Jdeas-;w;th the H Clave_ or BelrPattern' , . '.

thHh":;~~ L;_j, ': n _~_.D~--:-~ Jt~--~ L]_j~_.h~_Lf 1~~ __ .

- ~' ---- ,_n' -- --,. '-~··l· =E-'~

- ..... -~ ........... - _._ - -_

- - ....... -- .~--- - -- ._ - -

- -~ "' -



! . \

I' L~:.

- ~ . ..: • ... ", . I

"'continues on next page



' •.•........... ' .

. ." _-,

. . '

The. til i rd musical cxe t'C] se. A:swi th, all· CXCf.i:.jses·In;lhis 'boc;I{;,when!l'l_tht err pay part'ic,;uJ<lf'atlclitiol'lJo'the':phnl:fi:6'g,Tlfere ar~ times when.aJlteral 't'ram;cript:ibn' ot1ly '~'ome~ ,e1,tlse lo·~~;h<lt·is,aCh.l[\llJ; beihfjPlaycd.

AUCHl plitlg t~}, hanll[;ribe certain phhl.,t::<:: 'ex,id~ '\ [y .. would oh~y serve to confuse rather .ihun eril,jglitcn.and etlucate -; Listen :rq the CD for the b~:\t p.o,~sible·id~~ of l;o~v ti).¢.Il(tt,itc;l·rh}'q1ll:1;,

are interpreted (fel r).


~1 04';" nd~pende'n~c.e';E·xerdse5~'

In e endence Solo' 2 . ". . . _ -


!\ ud -]1 o':'_",aU th ree patte r-D:~ :playe~l ina: beauti fu..ll V cons trucred solo, Please I.i stcn. to 'the . i;l t~I~;.i [:y ',~ t~fsl.;l\e--h·'v;~leJ~ess. 'wi,' h \,r!licl1, t t{is _,,so!n is executed.The.proper ~xeclJ.tjoii of ~Ili~.~

SOIO.WOLlld be: a lofty gO'iiI rot even the 'most seasoned of percussbil.lsts .. listen. listep, then l"i"sten -sorne more. Thi~ is ;;eally. a, worK. of ~ir't.

("H.,aell L8-g ~ Ii

_n~~--·---=··- ---":~._~--~·I ~-~- @~§@~~@


independence Exercises 10~

Inde endence Solo 2 continued ' , -

- -







n _lL'" L::L' "~' n~ ~ .D_

~_; M~~:- '= 7 ~ _ _:__~- ~~~ M' 1- __ --j~

;g, J~_, t2 I ,e- --,~- ---~

- , '. ,-" --- "J

_.:- - - ;_ t, .--~~ ~--==E~---=-_:_ --,-~



Inae· endence Solo 2 (co'nfinued "'. .

Chan uito ·So/o 1m rovisatlon .. '. . .

) \



Indepe·nd~nc.e Exerdses 107