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EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD Industrial Training Report

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, I am grateful to Dr. Nayana Alagiyawanna, Dean, Faculty of Engineering and


Dr. Priyankara, Director, Engineering Educational Center, Faculty of Engineering,
University of Ruhuna. Also I take this opportunity to extend my gratitude to National
Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) for making necessary
arrangements to provide me a valuable training period.

Also I am so Indebted to Mr. Chandranandana Diyunuge, Chairman of EMP Group of


Companies (PVT) LTD & Mr. T. Suresh Kumara, Managing Director of EMP Group
of Companies (PVT) LTD for providing us all the facilities in order to have a valuable
training. Next, my sincere gratitude is extended to Mr. Ravi Rupasinghe, General
Manager of EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD for extending us his kind co-
operation. I take this opportunity to extend my profound thanks to the Director Board
of EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD.

And Also I am so indebted to Mr. Thusitha Gunasekara, Head of Electrical &


Assembly Section, for dedicating his valuable time on behalf of our own goodness &
for providing us a faculty of knowledge. Next I am thankful to all the employees of
electrical & assembly section for giving us their kind co-operation.

I take this opportunity to express my profuse thanks to Mr. Indika De Silva, Director
of EPL, for giving us a huge knowledge on project handling. And also I’m so thankful
to all the staff of EPL for extending their friendly hands towards us. And finally I
extend my regards to all the employees of EMP group for all the supports given to
have a valuable training.

Thank you!
Wijeweera D.A.P.
RU/E/2007/194
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Ruhuna.

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EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD Industrial Training Report

PREFACE

This report on industrial training prepared by myself was done so not only as an
exercise to fulfill a part of the training requirements set out by NAITA, but also as a
testimony on the actual industrial training I had. Hereby, a detailed account of my
training programmed at EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD is included.

The idea behind this compilation is that anyone going through this report should get a
comprehensive understanding of all technical aspects of my training. In making this a
reality, I tried my best to keep to the guidelines stipulated by NAITA. This is
succeeded by my own training experience, which is detailed to the most possible
extent.

This report contains the entire experience and knowledge I’ve achieved from EMP
Group. The first chapter introduces the company overview where as the second and
third chapters focus on switch gears & protective devices. Next two chapters are used
to describe the knowledge of cables & panel boards.

I finally hope that this humble and honest effort of mine will meet the expectations of
the University training engineer.

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CONTENTS

Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.........................................................................1
CONTENTS..................................................................................................................3
Contents..........................................................................................................................3
LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................6
LIST OF TABLES.........................................................................................................8
CHAPTER 1........................................................................................9
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................9
1.1 EMP Group of Companies...................................................................9
Figure 1.1 – EMP Group Logo..................................................................10
1.1.1 Range of Service of EMP, EPL & EMP Engineering......................10
1.1.2 Range of Services of Other Members.........................................10
1.2 The Vision & Mission.....................................................................11
1.2 Organization Structure .................................................................11
1.2.1 Organization Structure of EMP Group.........................................11
Figure 1.2- Organization Structure.........................................................11
1.2.2 Structure of the Engineering & Assembly Section......................12
CHAPTER 2.................................................................................................................13
Switch Gears & Protective Function .............................................................13
2.1 Introduction – Switch Gears ............................................................13
2.1 Circuit Breakers................................................................................14
2.2.1 MCB............................................................................................15
2.2.2. Tripping Curves.........................................................................15
2.3.1. MCCB.........................................................................................16
2.3.2. Technical data of a MCCB..........................................................16
2.3.3. Tripping Accessories.................................................................17
2.4.1. ELCB & RCCB ...........................................................................18

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2.5.1. ACB...........................................................................................20
CHAPTER 3.................................................................................................................22
Protective Relays & Protective Devices .............................................................22
3.1 Introduction......................................................................................22
3.2. ELR..................................................................................................22
3.3. EFR..................................................................................................23
3.4. PFR..................................................................................................24
3.5. Surges and Surge Arresters.............................................................26
3.5.1 Introduction................................................................................26
3.5.2 Operating Terminology..............................................................26
3.6 Lightning rods..................................................................................29
3.6.1 Introduction...................................................................................29
3.6.2 Installation of a Lightning Rod....................................................29
3.6.3. Grounding.................................................................................30
3.6.4 Other accessories.......................................................................30
CHAPTER 4.................................................................................................................31
Cables, Wiring & Circuits ..................................................................................31
4.1. Cable Specifications........................................................................31
4.2.1. Cable Anatomy..........................................................................32
4.2.2. Selection of Cables....................................................................33
4.2.3 Steps of Calculating the Cable for a given load..........................34
4.3 Cable Lying.......................................................................................35
4.4 Ring Circuits & Other Special Circuits...............................................36
4.4.1 Ring Circuit.................................................................................36
4.4.2 Converting 4 Pole MCCB for a Single Phase Supply or DC Supply
............................................................................................................ 37
4.5 Bimetal lugs ....................................................................................38
Figure 4.5 – Bimetal Lugs............................................................................................39
CHAPTER 5.................................................................................................................40
Panel Boards & Distribution Boards ..................................................................40
5.1 Introduction - Panel Board................................................................40
5.2 IP Protection (Ingress Protection) of a Panel.....................................41
5.3 Motor Control Circuits.......................................................................43
5.4 Capacitor Banks...............................................................................49
5.4.1 Design........................................................................................49
5.4.2 Uses of HRC Fuses......................................................................51

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5.4.3 Uses of Capacitor Contactors.....................................................51


5.5 ATS (Automatic Transfer Switch)......................................................52
CHAPTER 6.................................................................................................................55
CONCLUSION............................................................................................................55
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................56
ABBREVIATIONS......................................................................................................57

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 – EMP Group Logo………………………………………………………10


Figure 1.2- Organization Structure …………………………………………………..11
Figure 1.3 – Structure of Electrical & Assembly Section …………………………...12

Figure 2.1 – Tripping Curve ‘B’ of a MCB & its Operating Regions ………………15
Figure 2.2 Wiring Diagram of a RCCB ……………………………………………..19

Figure 3.1 – Control Diagram of an ELR ……………………………………………23


Figure 3.2 – Connection Diagram of an EFR.………………………………………. 24
Figure 3.3 – PFR with a UVT coil …………………………………………………..25
Figure 3.4 – PFR with a shunt coil …………………………………………………..26
Figure 3.5 - Construction Concept of a Surge Arrester ……………………………...27
Figure 3.6 - Anatomy of a Surge …………………………………………………….28
Figure 3.7 – Rod Type Lightning Arrester …………………………………………..29
Figure 3.8 – Earthing Chamber ……………………………………………………...30

Figure 4.1.a,b,c,d,e,f – Cable Types …………………………………………………32


Figure 4.2 – Cable Radii Variation with Cable Diameter …………………………...35
Figure 4.3 – Ring Circuit …………………………………………………………….37
Figure 4.4 – Wiring Diagram of DC or Single Phase
AC Supply to a 3 Phase MCCB …………………………………….38
Figure 4.5 – Bimetal Lugs …………………………………………………………39

Figure 5.1 – Distribution System of a Four Story Building …………………………40


Figure 5.2 – Inside view of a panel with cover plates ……………………………….43
Figure 5.3 – Terminal Connections of Motors ………………………………………44
Figure 5.4 – Power & Control Circuit Diagram of a DOL Starter………………….. 44
Figure 5.5 – Power Diagram of Star Delta Starter…………………………………...45

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Figure 5.6 – Control Diagram of a Star Delta Starter ………………………………46


Figure 5.7 – Control Diagram of an Auto Transformer Starter
……………………...47
Figure 5.8 – Power Diagram of an Auto Transformer Starter
……………………….48
Figure 5.9 – Phase Diagram ……………………………………………...………….49
Figure 5.10– Wiring Diagram of a Capacitor Bank …………………………………50
Figure 5.11 – Capacitor Contactors …………………………………………………51
Figure 5.12 – Typical Control Diagram of ATS ……………………………………53
Figure 5.13 – Complete ATS Control Diagram ……………………………………54

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 – Approximated Current Ratings According to the Wire Size ……………34
Table 4.2 – Selecting appropriate cable according to the phase wire ……………….35
Table 4.3 – Approximated Current Ratings According to the Wire Size ……………35

Table 5.1 – IP Protection against Solid Bodies ……………………………………...41


Table 5.2 – IP Protection against Liquid …………………………………………….42

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

As my first compulsory session of industrial training of the Engineering degree


program, I was appointed at EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD, Panagoda. This
training was arranged for 12 weeks from 07-07-2009 to 26-09-2009. During this
period I was assigned in EMP main factory & EMP Projects Lanka (PVT) LTD which
is a group member of EMP Group. This report consists of the experience &
knowledge that I got during the training period.

1.1 EMP Group of Companies


EMP Group of Companies was found in Templeburge industrial Estate in 1992 and it
was first known as Electro Metal Pressings (PVT) LTD. In year 2002 it was taken
over by present management and on 28th July 2006 it was incorporated as EMP Group
of Companies. Today EMP is a group with 6 members which are spreading their
hands all over the business and manufacturing world. The groups of members are as
follows.
1. Electro Metal Pressings (PVT) LTD (EMP)
2. EMP Projects Lanka (PVT) LTD (EPL)
3. EMP Engineering (PVT) LTD
4. AKLAN (PVT) LTD
5. EMP PVC (PVT) LTD
6. OMATA Water Management (PVT) LTD
7. SENAS plywood (PVT) LTD

The mother company EMP, EPL & EMP engineering together addresses the
market related to the electrical field. They have professional experience in
manufacturing electrical switch boards & relevant cable light systems & accessories.

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Figure 1.1 – EMP Group Logo

1.1.1 Range of Service of EMP, EPL & EMP Engineering


As mentioned above these 3 companies are specialized in electrical field &
generally the designing part is done by EMP Engineering & EPL. Then the whole
manufacturing part including the fabrication is done by EMP & again the installation
part is done by EPL. Brief summary of EMP services are as follows.
1. Turnkey electrical projects for high rise buildings, garment
industries & apartment buildings
2. Designing & installation of turnkey electrical projects
3. Supply & installation of low voltage main switch board up to
6000A
4. Supply & installation of motor control centers
5. Supply & installation of power factor correction capacitor banks
6. Supply & installation of cable management systems (cable
ladders, cable trunkings & floor boxes)
7. Supply of 19” equipment rack systems
8. Tea & rubber factory electrification
9. Mini hydro projects
10. Generator installation & commissioning

1.1.2 Range of Services of Other Members


Among other companies, AKLAN is the sole agent for LS Industrial Systems which
manufactures & distributes all type of circuit breakers, PLC control units, and
electronic equipments all over the world. EMP PVC manufactures quality conduits &
UPVC pipes in mass scale. OMATA designs the water management systems &

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provides ideal solutions for the market. SENAS plywood manufactures plywood
boards to the Sri Lankan market.

1.2 The Vision & Mission

Vision
To be the provider of total electrical engineering solutions & be switch board
manufacturer in compliance with evolving standards to supply globally

Mission
In keeping with the commitment to continuous improvement of our engineering
products, to deliver high quality expected by the customer

1.2 Organization Structure

1.2.1 Organization Structure of EMP Group

EMP
GROUP

Managing
Chairman Director

General
Manager

EMP SENAS
EMP EPL AKLAN OMATA EMP PVC
Engineering

Figure 1.2- Organization Structure

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The academically qualified, committed and trained professionally-oriented Electrical


Engineers and Skilled Electricians along with the trained sales team dedicated to
maintain a satisfied customer base always strive to find the right electrical solutions
that are economical and practical. They are dedicating to assure optimum safety
standards in keeping with international standards. The chairman, Mr.
Chandranandana Diyunuge (B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), AMIE (SL) AMIEE (UK)) & the
managing Director, Mr. T. Suresh Kumara (B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), AMIE (SL)AMIEE
(UK)) initiated and sustained the EMP group. The General Manager Mr. H. P. Ravi
Rupasinghe (MBA, Sc. Eng. (Hons) CMEMA (SL), AMIE (SL), AMIEE (UK),
MMBAAA) is dedicating to take the group toward a quality production.

1.2.2 Structure of the Engineering & Assembly Section

Head of Electrical &


Assembly Section

Electrical & Assembly


Team Leader

Electrical & Assembly


Team Quality Team Leader

Quality Team

Figure 1.3 – Structure of Electrical & Assembly Section

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CHAPTER 2

Switch Gears & Protective Function

2.1 Introduction – Switch Gears


A Switch gear is defined as a switching/ interrupting device used in connection with
generation, transmission, distribution and conversion of electric power for controlling,
metering protecting and regulating devices. Switch gears can be categorized to main
two areas, protective devices and Non-protective devices. The reaction time is
typically between 30 ms and 150 ms depending upon the age and construction of the
device. According to the requirements & other external factors, some switch gear may
not ideal for the requirement. Although sometimes the switch gear is selected as
above, there may be some mismatching because of the variable factors of the switch
gears such as breaking capacity, impulse voltage, etc.

Several different classifications of switchgear can be made according to the below


factors.
• By the current rating.
• By breaking capacity (maximum short circuit current that the device can
safely interrupt)
• By voltage class:
o Low voltage (less than 1000 volts AC)
o Medium voltage (1000-35,000 volts AC)
o High voltage (more than 35,000 volts AC)
• By insulating medium:
o Air
o Oil
o Vacuum
• By construction type:
o Indoor (further classified by IP (Ingress Protection) class or NEMA
enclosure type)

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o Outdoor
o Industrial
o etc
• By operating method:
o Manually-operated
o Motor-operated
o Solenoid/stored energy operated
• By type of current:
o Alternating current
o Direct current
• By application:
o Transmission system
o Distribution.

2.1 Circuit Breakers


A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an
electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is
to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue
electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a
circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal
operation. Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current flow very quickly:

Circuit breakers can be categorized to several types.


1. MCB
2. MCCB
3. ELCB & RCCB
4. ACB
5. OCB
6. VCB
Among above all types 1-4 types are commonly used.

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2.2.1 MCB
MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) is a circuit breaker with optimum protection
facilities of over current and short circuit only. These are manufactured for fault level
of up to 10KA only with operating current range of 6 to 125 Amps (the ranges are
fixed). It is available as single pole, double pole, three pole, and four pole MCB’s.
These are used for smaller loads -electronic circuits, house wiring etc. As MCB reacts
for both over current & short circuit, it avoids over heating in case of excess current &
provides fire protection.

Over current region

Short circuit region

Figure 2.1 – Tripping Curve ‘B’ of a MCB & its Operating Regions

2.2.2. Tripping Curves


Every MCB have a specified tripping curve, B,C,D or sometimes very specialized
curve that varies from MCB brand to brand (e.g. -: K & Z curves of ABB breaker). B,
C & D curves are defined in IEE regulations.
The relationship between current and tripping time is usually shown as a curve,
known as the MCB's trip characteristic. The most important curves are B, C and D.

Type B MCBs react quickly to overloads, and are set to trip when the current passing
through them is between 3 and 5 times the normal full load current. They are suitable
for protecting incandescent lighting and socket-outlet circuits in domestic and
commercial environments (resistive loads), where there is little risk of surges that
could cause the MCB to trip.

Type C MCBs react more slowly, and are recommended for applications involving
inductive loads with high inrush currents, such as fluorescent lighting installations.

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Type C MCBs are set to trip at between 5 and 10 times the normal full load current.
This type is generally used.

Type D MCBs are slower still, and are set to trip at between 10 and 20 times the
normal full load current. They are recommended only for circuits with very high
inrush currents, such as those feeding transformers and welding machines.

K curves can also be used for motors and transformers but have improved thermal
characteristics at 1.05 to 1.2 times the rated current. The Z curves provide protection
to semiconductors, with instantaneous trip values at two to three times the rated
current.

2.3.1. MCCB
MCCB’s (Moulded Case Circuit Breakers) are designed for protection of low voltage
distribution systems. They are suitable for application as main breakers & for
protection of branch & feeder circuit & connected equipment. MCCB’s provide
protection of short circuit & overload protection. For all circuit elements including
cables, motors etc. They are designed for used in control centers, panel boards &
switch boards. They suit the requirement of lighting distribution & other power
circuits. Main two types of MCCBs are

2.3.2. Technical data of a MCCB


It is vitally important to know the parameters of a MCCB that are essential when we
selecting a proper MCCB. All the technical data of a MCCB is printed in the face
plate and it is vitally important to know the meanings of them.
1. Rated Current (In) -: The current which the circuit breaker will carry
continuously under specified conditions and on which the time/current
characteristics are based. Unless otherwise stated In is based on a reference
ambient temperature of 30 degrees centigrade.
2. Rated Operational Voltage (Ue) -: The nominal line to line voltage of the
system should not exceed Ue
3. Rated insulation Voltage (Ui) -: .The highest operating voltage that will not
cause a dielectric strength failure. The rated insulation voltage is used as a

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parameter for dielectric strength tests. The rated insulation voltage must
always be higher than the rated operating voltage (Ue).
4. Rated Impulse Withstand Voltage (Uimp) -: The voltage on which
clearance distances are based. The value of transient peak voltage the circuit
breaker can withstand from switching surges or lighting strikes imposed on the
supply .e.g. Uimp = 8kV, Tested at 8kV peak with 1.2/50µs impulse wave.
5. Ultimate Breaking Capacity (Icu) -: The maximum fault current which can
flow through without damaging the equipment. The calculated prospective
fault current at the incoming terminals of the circuit breaker should not exceed
Icu.
6. Service Breaking Capacity (Ics)-: The maximum level of fault current
operation after which further service is assured without loss of performance.
7. Let Through Energy (I2t) -: A measure of energy required to blow the fuse
element and so a measure of the damaging effect of over current on protected
devices; sometimes known as the let-through energy. Unique I2t parameters
are provided by charts in manufacturer data sheets for each fuse family. The
energy is mainly dependent on current and time for fuses. When a fault is
occurred, fault energy will flow through the protective device. That energy is
known as the let through energy. So a good quality protective device must
have a lesser value of let through energy
8. Utilization Category of a MCCB -:
Every MCCB has a utilization category, “Cat. A” or “Cat. B”.
Cat. A -: Category A designates circuit breakers not specifically intended for
selectivity with devices on the load side. In other words circuit breakers will
discriminate only up to certain fault levels, above which discrimination with
devices on the load side cannot be guaranteed.
Cat. B -: Category B designates circuit breakers specifically intended for
selectivity with devices on the load side. Such circuit breakers will incorporate
some form of time delay.

2.3.3. Tripping Accessories


Unlike RCDs (Residual Current Devices) MCCB has a tripping method, which can
operates fully mechanically. Even though power is not supplied to the breaker, if it is

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in on position it can be tripped using the trip button. But RCD cannot be tripped when
the power isn’t supplied as its tripping method works from residual current (through
an electrical signal mechanical system is energized). There is also a method to do the
tripping function of a MCCB by using electrical signals (current). For this we have to
use the tripping accessories, shunt coil & UVT coil which is normally mounted in the
right hand seat of the case of the MCCB. Protection relays are connected to these
coils.
Shunt Coil -: When a current passes through the shunt coil it passes tripping signal
to the MCCB. In the normal operation no current must be gone through shunt coil. If
power flow continuously through a shunt coil, it will burn. So current to the shunt coil
is supplies from out going of the breaker.
UVT coil -: When current doesn’t pass through the UVT coil it passes tripping signal
to the MCCB. So to switch on a breaker with UVT coil, the coil must be provided a
voltage. So it must be connected to the incoming of the breaker.

2.4.1. ELCB & RCCB


There are two types of ELCB, the voltage operated device and the differential current
operated device. For the convenience of further explaining voltage operated ELCB
will be referred as vELCB and differential current operating ELCB will be referred as
iELCB.

The principle of operation of the vELCB is as follows. Under normal conditions the
closed contacts of the vELCB feed the supply current to the load. The load is
protected by a metal frame. The vELCB also has a relay coil, one end of which is
connected to the metal frame and one end connected directly to ground. A shock risk
will arise if a breakdown in the insulation occurs in the load which causes the metal
frame to rise to a voltage above earth. A resultant current will flow from the
metalwork through the relay coil to earth and when the frame voltage reaches a
dangerous level, e.g. 50 volts, the current flowing through the relay coil will be
sufficient to activate the relay thereby causing opening of the supply contacts and
removal of the shock risk.

As can be seen from the above description, this type of ELCB is essentially a voltage
sensing device intended to detect dangerous touch voltages. The level of shock

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protection provided by the vELCB was somewhat limited as these devices would not
provide shock protection in the event of direct contact with a live part. An additional
problem with the vELCB was its tendency to be tripped by earth currents originating
in other installations.

The principle of operation of the vELCB is as follows. Under normal conditions the
closed contacts of the iELCB feed the supply current to the load. The load conductors
are passed through a current transformer (CT). The load conductors act as primary
windings of the transformer. The CT is fitted with a secondary winding. Under
normal conditions, the total current flowing from the supply to the load will be the
same as the total current flowing back to the supply from the load. As the currents in
both directions are equal but opposite, it has no effect on the CT. However, if some
current flows to earth after the iELCB, possibly due to an earth fault, the current
flowing to the load and from the load will be different. This differential current will
cause a resultant output from the CT. This output is detected and if above a
predetermined safe level, it will cause the iELCB to trip and disconnect the supply
from the load.

Now differential current operating ELCB is referred as RCCB and provides 3 types of
protection.
1. Basic Protection- Protective measure against direct contact
2. Fault Protection - Protective measure against indirect contact
3. Additional Protection – Maximum current allowable for a fault

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Figure 2.2 Wiring Diagram of a RCCB

2.5.1. ACB
ACB(air circuit breaker) is an electric protecting apparatus which is installed between
an electric source and load units in order to protect a load unit and a load line from an
abnormal current generated on an electric circuit and to perform distribution function
for changing the electric power line to another line. The electrical systems in
residential, commercial and industrial applications usually include a panel board for
receiving electrical power from a utility source. The power is then routed through
over current protection devices to designated branch circuits supplying one or more
loads. Electrical power distribution systems and their components need protection
from numerous types of malfunctions, including over current conditions, overvoltage
conditions, under voltage conditions, reverse current flow, and unbalanced phase
voltages. If a MCCB is used instead of an ACB it is essential to connect protection
relays to protect load from above malfunctions. Generally ACB is available from
1200A to 6400A for low voltage applications.

Air circuit breakers include operating mechanisms that are mainly exposed to the
environment. Since the air circuit breakers are rated to carry several thousand amperes
of current continuously, the exposure to convection cooling air assists in keeping the
operating components within reasonable temperature limits. A typical air circuit
breaker comprises a component for connecting an electrical power source to electrical
power consumer or load. The component is referred to as a main contact assembly. A
main contact is typically either opened, interrupting a path for power to travel from
the source to the load, or closed, providing a path for power to travel from the source
to the load. In many air circuit breakers, the force necessary to open or close the main
contact assembly is provided by an arrangement of compression springs.

In many air circuit breakers, the mechanism for controlling the compression springs
comprises a configuration of mechanical linkages between a latching shaft and an
actuation device. The actuation device may be manually or electrically operated. In a
common construction of a low voltage air circuit breaker, the movable contact is
mounted on a contact arm that is pivoted to open the contacts by a spring powered
operating mechanism triggered by a trip unit responsive to an over current condition

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in the protected circuit. Various accessory devices are used with such air circuit
breakers to provide auxiliary function along with over current protection. One such
accessory is the bell alarm accessory that provides local and remote indication as to
the occurrence of circuit interruption.

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CHAPTER 3

Protective Relays & Protective Devices

3.1 Introduction
When manufacturing a panel board it is essential to have some protective methods
other than breakers which provide additional protection to the panel board,
equipments that are connected to the panel board and the user. For this case protective
relays and other protective devices such as surge arresters and fuses can be used.
When considering about protective relays, it doesn’t act a protective function alone. It
needs some tripping accessories mounted in a MCCB such as described in chapter
2.3.3, to provide the protective function. As panel board is the heart of the distribution
system of building it is vitally important to have protective methods.

3.2. ELR
ELR (Earth Leakage Relay) ensures the protection of electrical installations and
person against direct and indirect contacts. ELR is designed on an electronic basis,
which ensures the monitoring of earth fault currents. When the fault current rises
above the selected level, the outputs of the product operate depending on the relay
selected, it can have either fixed or adjustable settings for selectivity purposes. Both
minimum leakage current and also the tripping current can be adjusted in an ELR.
This is an advantage of an ELR than a RCCB.

To operate an ELR it must be connected to a CBCT (Core Balance Current


Transformer).The function of an ELR is as below (Figure 3.2.1). It is known that at
any instant the algebraic sum of currents in 3 phase balanced supply is equal to zero.
So at normal condition, total algebraic sum of currents in four wires (3 phases and
neutral) must be zero. So at normal conditions no current should be generating in the
CBCT. When a leakage happens then there will be a leakage current and ultimately
algebraic sum of current through CBCT will not be equal to Zero and as a result of
that the current will be induced in the CBCT. This current provides a signal to ELR
and it begins to operate and closes its normally open contact. Then there will be a

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current through the shunt coil and then shunt coil passes a tripping signal to the
MCCB. (It is known that if there is a current through a shunt coil it will provide a
tripping signal to a MCCB). ELR is used with MCCBs with current rating less than
250A.

L1 L2 L3 N

Fuse 2
MC CB
Auxiliary
Supply

Fuse 1 NO

S1 ELR
CBCT S2

Shunt Coil

Figure 3.1 – Control Diagram of an ELR

3.3. EFR
EFR (Earth Fault Relay) is used for protecting from earth faults and use with MCCBs
with current rating greater than 250A. The function of EFR is as same as ELR, but
more sensitive than ELR. Instead of a CBCT, four separate CT’s are used to connect
an EFR. It is an Electronic Trip Unit, designed to protect the Electrical installation in
case of faults or leakage currents beyond a preset level. The trip delay is adjustable.

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L1 L2 L3 N
Fuse 2

MCCB Auxiliary
Supply

Fuse 1
NO

EFR Shunt Coil


CTs

Figure 3.2 – Connection Diagram of an EFR

3.4. PFR
PFR (Phase Failure Relay or Phase Voltage Balance Relay) is a three-phase voltage
sensing device that trips on phase loss, phase reversal, over voltage, or under voltage.
Voltage unbalance trips the device when any voltage drops certain percentage (around
10%) below the average. Under voltage is externally adjustable from 75–100% of the
rated voltage (Depends upon the brand and type). The LED on the front of the device
lights when the device is energized. For the protection of 3 phase loads tih can be
installed.

Generally a PFR is used along with an UVT coil. But a disadvantage of this is when
incoming supply cuts off, PFR considers it as a fault and trips the circuit. Then
somebody has to switch on the breaker after power comes. To avoid this disturbance

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sometimes shunt coil is used instead of a UVT. But it has some disadvantages also.
When a failure of a phase which provides voltage to the shunt coil, occurs then PFR
cannot send the tripping signal. Of course this matter can be avoided but it is a little
bit expensive.

L1 L2 L3 N

F use1

NO
F use2
Fu se3
Fu se4 P FR
U V T C oil

MCCB

Figure 3.3 – PFR with a UVT coil

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L1 L2 L3 N

F use1
F use2
F use3
F use4

PFR
MCCB

F use5
T im er
NO NC
S hunt
C oil

T im er
C oil

Figure 3.4 – PFR with a shunt coil

3.5. Surges and Surge Arresters

3.5.1 Introduction
The lightning arresters and ground wires can well protect the electrical system against
direct lightning strokes but they fail to provide protection against travelling waves,
which may reach the terminal apparatus. The surge arresters or surge diverters
provide protection against such surges. A lightning arrester or a surge diverter is a
protective device, which conducts the high voltage surges on the power system to the
ground.

3.5.2 Operating Terminology


Generally Surge arrester is assembled at the incoming side of an every main
distribution board. The construction concept of a surge arrester is as shown below.

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Figure 3.5 - Construction Concept of a Surge Arrester

Fig 3.5.(i) shows the basic form of a surge arrester. It consists of a spark gap in series
with a non-linear resistor. One end of the arrester is connected to the terminal of the
equipment to be protected (generally a distribution board) and the other end is
effectively grounded. The length of the gap is so set that normal voltage is not enough
to cause an arc but a dangerously high voltage will break down the air insulation and
form an arc. The property of the non-linear resistance is that its resistance increases as
the voltage (or current) increases and vice-versa. This is clear from the voltage current
characteristic of the resistor shown in Fig 3.5.(ii).

Under normal operation, the lightning arrester is off i.e. it conducts no current to earth
or the gap is non-conducting. On the occurrence of over voltage, the air insulation
across the gap breaks down and an arc is formed providing a low resistance path for
the surge to the ground. In this way, the excess charge on the line due to the surge is
harmlessly conducted through the arrester to the ground instead of being sent back
over the line. It is worthwhile to mention the function of non-linear resistor in the
operation of arrester. As the gap sparks over due to over voltage, the arc would be
short-circuited on the power system and may ground the surge. Since the

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characteristic of the resistor is to offer low resistance to high voltage (or current), it
gives the effect of short-circuit. After the surge is over, the resistor offers high
resistance to make the gap non-conducting.

But though a lightning has the strength about 200kA, generally a surge arrester of
10kA is assembled in a main panel & 5kA for a branch panel for the protection (or
otherwise only one 20kA surge arrester for the main panel & no surge arresters for
branch panel). This is a contradiction. Let’s clear this, consider below figure.

Figure 3.6 - Anatomy of a Surge


Suppose a surge of 210kA occurs on a 3 phase transmission line. Then for a single
phase the surge will be70kA. In the transmission line it can flow through both
directions. So the surge for one side will be 35kA. The arrester of distribution
transformer then diverts about 20kA to the ground. When the rest of the surge, 15kA
meets the main panel surge arrester, it will be diverted to the earth (if possible
capacity of a surge arrester) or the rest part of the surge will be grounded by branch
panel surge arresters.

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3.6 Lightning rods

3.6.1 Introduction
Lightning is an unpredictable event that can affect our electrical system any time
which has the high current capacity & high voltage capacity. Direct effects are from
resistive (ohmic) heating, arcing and burning. Indirect effects are more probable. On a
building without lightning protection, those same millions of volts of electricity still
have to get to the ground. Lightning will use the electrical wiring, telephone or cable
wiring, structural elements of the building, or anything else it can find as a path to
ground. None of these building elements is designed to safely carry this amount of
electricity. The result is a build-up of resistance, which leads to fire and explosive
damage to the building. Still it is impossible to guarantee 100% about a lightning
protection. But some percentage of protection can be taken from installing lightning
arresters. There are various types of lightning arresters. Among that finial rod type
lightning arrester is the most common type. This is made out of pure copper.
Lightning rod is the equipment that directly acts with a lightning.

Figure 3.7 – Rod Type Lightning Arrester

3.6.2 Installation of a Lightning Rod


The lightning rod must be installed in an appropriate angle to protect the building.
This protection angle varies according to the capacity of the lightning. Generally,
lightning arrester is fixed in a height that includes the building in 45 degrees of angle.

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According to top area of the building multiple arresters may be used. Lightning rods
must be placed at regular intervals, preferably 20 feet apart, at most. The end rods
should be installed within at least one foot of the end of the roof, though two feet, at
most, is acceptable. The most suitable, but most cost way of fixing over head shield is
the Faraday cage, copper plate net with 2x2 square feet squares. But as this is very
high in cost, a copper tape is run around the top of the building & bottom of the
building. Then these two rounds are connected with copper tape (by all four sides or
at least two sides).

3.6.3. Grounding
After proper grounding is connected, the earth resistance must be smaller than 10
ohms. Depending on the earth resistance numbers of grounding rods are varied. At
least 2 rods are grounded at a distance same as the depth of the rod for grounding.
Depending on the size of your house, at least 2 groundings will be needed. If the
building is larger in perimeter than 250 feet but less than 350, the building needs three
groundings. If the perimeter is between 350 and 450 feet, it needs four, and so on. The
groundings should be at opposite corners of the house, if possible. If the copper rods
are not enough for decreasing resistance then a copper plate have to be used. It must
be laid in the ground such that the copper plate will make 30 degrees angle to vertical
axis.

3.6.4 Other accessories


A yellow bow must be kept to disconnect the grounding rod with the lightning rod to
measure the ground resistance time to time. And also earthing chamber must also be
kept

Figure 3.8 – Earthing Chamber

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CHAPTER 4

Cables, Wiring & Circuits

In electrical systems, cables are used for carrying electrical currents. Most times core
of these cables are made of copper or Aluminum to conduct current with minimum
voltage drop. Most cables have a protective insulation to protect the cable & also to
protect living beings from dangerous voltages. Types of cables are differ according to
the,
1. Current go through (cable size)
2. Purpose they are used
3. Place (indoor or outdoor)
4. Protection level required
5. Etc.
Mainly the cable types can be categorized to below groups.
1. General Cables (cables which are used for general purposes)
2. Flexible Cables
3. Aluminum Cables (Bare conductors)
4. Armored Cables
5. Unarmored Cables
6. Auto Cables
7. Coaxial Cables
8. Telecommunication Cables

4.1. Cable Specifications


As previously said types of cables that are used is differs from various reasons.
Generally bare conductors are used for the transmission & distribution of low,
medium & high voltage. Armored & unarmored cables are used for the distribution of
electricity with in cities, factories & buildings. They are directly laid in ground where
excessive mechanical stresses likely to occur. Though the armored cables don’t need
any excess protection, unarmored cables must be provided some additional protection.
Other major type of cable used in low voltage distribution in rural & semi urban areas
is ABC (Arial Bundled Conductors) Cables. These are only few things about cables

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4.2.1. Cable Anatomy


Below are some types of cables that have explained above.

4.1.a 4.1.b

4.1.c 4.1.d

4.1.e 4.1.f

Figure 4.1.a,b,c,d,e,f – Cable Types

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From above figures it can be seen that some cables are consists of several strands. It
can be observed that though the cables have same cross sectional area if the number
of strands of cable is higher than the other it can carries a larger current than other
one. This incident happens because of electrons. Normally charges (here electrons)
stays in the surface of any conductive element. The numbers of strands are increased
means that the surface area of the cable is increased. That means it can take more
electrons (current). So, than other cables of same size flexible cables can take larger
currents.

4.2.2. Selection of Cables


Voltage Drop
Voltage drop is the reduction in voltage in an electrical circuit between the source and
load. When a cable is being selected for taking current for a specified machine, as per
IEEE regulations it is required to have the voltage drop of the cable less than 4% of
the nominal supply. This voltage drop must be included all the voltage drops in series.
That means maximum permissible voltage drop of a cable must be 4%. The factors
affecting for the voltage drop ate,
1. Resistance of the cable for 1m length (Voltage drop for 1m- [v/Am]) - Vc
2. Rated current of the cable (or carrying current) - I
3. Length of the cable - L
So Voltage drop of the cable (Vd) can be calculated as,
Vd= ILVc

Derating Factors
All the cables in the market are marked for a current that it can carry under standard
conditions. But always these standard conditions cannot be kept practically, in a
construction. So if a cable is selected according to the requirements (current)
according to our assemble method there can be variations of current. The factors that
are affecting for above variations are called as derating factors. They are,
1. Ambient temperature
2. Ground temperature
3. Depth of lying
4. Soil Thermal resistivity

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So if a cable is being selected, we must consider derating factors which are mentioned
in cable catalogues.

4.2.3 Steps of Calculating the Cable for a given load


Let, we are given to calculate suitable cable size for a machine which have known
power consumption, Known input voltage. And also the distance from power supply
to load (L) is provided. Then,
• Using the given data, calculate the load current I.
• Select a wire that is a little bigger to carry I (Iwire > I)
• Then multiply the rated current of selected wire with all the derating factors.
• Find whether,
Iwire x derating factors < I
• If so select next bigger wire size. If not select that wire
• Then calculate the voltage drop of wire & nominal voltage drop & see whether
it is ok.

4.2.4 Normal Current Ratings for Wires


Current ratings for wires differ from manufacturer to manufacturer, though they are
almost similar. Below shows the approximated current ratings for given wire sizes
under standard conditions.
Wire size Current Rating
(sq. mm) (A)
1 12
1.5 16
2.5 19
4 24
6 32
10 40
16 60
25 100
35 125
50 160
70 200
70 225
95 250
120 300
150 350
185 400
Table 4.1 – Approximated Current Ratings According to the Wire Size

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According to these current ratings appropriate earth cables have to be selected.


According to IEC regulations, selection of protective earth cable is as follows.

Cross-sectional area Minimum cross-sectional area


of phase conductors of the corresponding protective
S conductor (PE, PEN) Sp
mm2 mm2
S≤ 16 S
16 < S ≤ 35 16
35 < S ≤ 400 S/2
400 < S ≤ 800 200
800 < S S/4

Table 4.2 – Selecting appropriate cable according to the phase wire

Note that the values in table are valid only if the protective conductor is made of the
same metal as the phase conductors.

4.3 Cable Lying


When a cable is being laid it is important, but generally forgotten factor is cable
bends. As per IEEE regulations according to cable diameter, the internal radii of cable
vary as follows.
r

Figure 4.2 – Cable Radii Variation with Cable Diameter

Cable Diameter Range (mm) Minimum internal radii (mm) - r


D < 10 Dx3
10 < D < 25 Dx4
25 < D Dx6
PVC/XLPE insulated armored circular Dx6
conductors
PVC/XLPE insulated armored or Dx8
unarmored solid Al or shaped Cu
conductors
Table 4.3 – Approximated Current Ratings According to the Wire Size

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4.4 Ring Circuits & Other Special Circuits

4.4.1 Ring Circuit


Ring circuit is provided two independent conductors for live, neutral and protective
earth within a building for each connected load or socket. This design enables the use
of smaller-diameter wire than would be used in a radial circuit of equivalent total
current. Ideally, the ring acts like two radial circuits proceeding in opposite directions
around the ring, the dividing point between them dependent on the distribution of load
in the ring. If the load is evenly split across the two directions, the current in each
direction is half of the total, allowing the use of wire with half the current-carrying
capacity. In practice, the load does not always split evenly, so thicker wire is used.

Another advantage of ring circuits was an economy of cable and labor, as one could
connect a cable between two existing 15 A radially wired sockets to make one 30 A
ring, then adding as many sockets as were desired. This would leave the ring supplied
by two 15 A fuses, which worked well enough in practice, even if unconventional.

Rules for ring circuits say that the cable rating must be no less than two thirds of the
rating of the protective device. This means that the risk of sustained overloading of
the cable can be considered minimal. In practice, however, it is extremely uncommon
to encounter a ring with a protective device other than a 30 A fuse. The IEE Wiring
Regulations (BS 7671) permit an unlimited number of socket outlets to be installed on
a ring circuit, provided that the floor area served does not exceed 100 m2. In practice,
most small and medium houses have one ring circuit per storey, with larger premises
having more.

Ring circuits can have extra sockets added to them by adding a 'spur' onto a ring
circuit. A spur is a branch off the ring circuit, usually from an existing circuit,
although a junction box could also be used. Theoretically as many spurs as sockets
could be added, but the maximum load of the circuit (30/32amp) still exists). To
extend a spur further more a fuse must be connected. The rating of the fuse is decided
according to the power factor & the number of socket outlets.

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Fuse

2.5mm wires 1.5mm wires

1.5mm wires 2.5mm wires

Fuse

2.5mm wires

30A Fuse

Power Supply

Figure 4.3 – Ring Circuit

4.4.2 Converting 4 Pole MCCB for a Single Phase Supply or DC Supply


The protective equipments which is having over current protection, sometimes don’t
activate for an over current in one line only. It only activates if over current goes
through all 3 phases. In this case, if we wire an over current relay or a thermal
magnetic MCCB by using only 2 poles the protection system may not work properly.
To avoid this case it is wired as below.

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L N

L N

Figure 4.4 – Wiring Diagram of DC or Single Phase AC Supply to a 3 Phase MCCB

This connection allows equal heating in all 3 phases in case of a over current in the
provided phase.

4.5 Bimetal lugs


Whenever aluminium cable is to be terminated on copper bus bar or copper contact, if
aluminium lug is used then contact between terminal lug and copper bus bar being of
dissimilar metals, galvanic action takes place. Also if copper lug is used then contact
between aluminium cable and barrel of copper terminal lug is of dissimilar metal and
hence the galvanic action takes place. In order to prevent dissimilar contact and to
avoid galvanic action it is always advisable to use copper aluminium Bi-Metal lugs.

In Bi-Metal lugs barrel of the lug is of aluminium and the head or palm of the lug is of
copper. This ensures contact between aluminium cables to terminal lug is of
aluminium and contact between terminal lug to copper bus bar or contact is of copper.
Thus contact between dissimilar metal is avoided and contact between similar metal is
established. Thus Bi-Metallic or galvanic action is completely eliminated and hence
durable joint is achieved.

Electrolytic copper head / palm is friction welded to electrolytic aluminium barrel. At


the interface, copper molecules and aluminium molecules intermingles with each
other and form durable bond. Similarly if aluminium cable is to be joined with copper
cable then Bi-Metal in line connectors are to be used. Here for aluminium cable

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aluminium barrel is provided and for copper cable copper barrel is provided. Copper
and aluminium barrels are friction welded. Depending upon application Bi-Metal
terminals, in line connectors, pin type connectors etc are manufactured.

Figure 4.5 – Bimetal Lugs

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CHAPTER 5

Panel Boards & Distribution Boards

5.1 Introduction - Panel Board


A panel board (or distribution board) is a component of an electricity supply system
which divides an electrical power feed into subsidiary circuits, while providing a
protective fuse or circuit breaker for each circuit, in a common enclosure. Normally, a
main switch, and in recent boards, one or more Residual-current devices (RCD) or
Residual Current Breakers with Over current protection (RCBO), will also be
incorporated. Rather than providing separate protection systems, it is easier to use a
panel board. The main advantage of a panel board is, all the outgoing power circuits
& incoming power can be controlled at a single location. Since panel boards are with
protection systems it supplies overall protection to its subsidiary circuits. When a
construction of a high rise building or a factory, it is easy to use panel boards & sub
DB’s & also panel boards provides high protection & neat electric work for the
building.

Electrical
components
Sub DB Floor 4
Floor 4

Electrical
components
Sub DB Floor 3
Floor 3
Main Power
Supply Main
Panel Electrical
components
Sub DB Floor 2
Floor 2

Electrical
components
Sub DB Floor 1
Floor 1

Figure 5.1 – Distribution System of a Four Story Building

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5.2 IP Protection (Ingress Protection) of a Panel


A two-digit number established by the International Electro Technical Commission is
used to provide an Ingress Protection rating to a piece of electronic equipment or to an
enclosure for electronic equipment. The protection class after EN60529 is indicated
by short symbols that consist of the two code letters IP and a code numeral for the
amount of the protection. IP XX (e.g. – IP 54)
The two digits represent different forms of environmental influence:
• The first digit represents protection against ingress of solid objects.
• The second digit represents protection against ingress of liquids.
The larger value of each digit, the greater the protection. As an example, a product
rated IP54 would be better protected against environmental factors than another
similar product rated as IP42. IP rating tables are as below.

IP First number - Protection against solid objects

0 No special protection
1 Protected against solid objects up to 50 mm, e.g. accidental
touch by persons hands.
2 Protected against solid objects up to 12 mm, e.g. persons
fingers.
3 Protected against solid objects over 2.5 mm (tools and
wires).
4 Protected against solid objects over 1 mm (tools, wires, and
small wires).
5 Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).

6 Totally protected against dust.

Table 5.1 – IP Protection against Solid Bodies

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IP Second Number – Protection against liquid

0 No protection.
1 Protection against vertically falling drops of water e.g. condensation.
2 Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15o from the vertical.
3 Protected against direct sprays of water up to 60o from the vertical.
4 Protection against water sprayed from all directions - limited ingress
permitted.
5 Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions - limited
ingress.
6 Protected against temporary flooding of water, e.g. for use on ship
decks - limited ingress permitted.
7 Protected against the effect of immersion between 15 cm and 1 m.
8 Protects against long periods of immersion under pressure.

Table 5.2 – IP Protection against Liquid

According to above two charts it can be seen that there must be some ways to increase
the protection of a panel Board. They are,
• Equal thickness of powder coating according to the standards – Insulate
enclosure to prevent hazards up to some level in case of a fault condition
• Doors for panel boards with properly assembled & earthed
• Cover plates which are tailor made for the panel – provides additional
protection after door is opened
• Insulation of the Bus bars & Perspex sheets – provides additional protection
after cover plates are removed
• Panel earthing – to ground in case of fault current
• Using glands in cable cable entries

Sometimes, albeit rarely, the optional characters three and/or four may be used as
follows:
• 3rd Character – Optional access to live parts (A,B,C,D)
1. A - Back of hand
2. B - Finger
3. C - Tool

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4. D - Wire
• 4th Character – Optional Supplementary Information ( H,M,S,W)
1. H - High voltage apparatus
2. M - Motion during water test
3. S - Stationary during water test
4. W -Weather conditions

Figure 5.2 – Inside view of a panel with cover plates

5.3 Motor Control Circuits


Mainly, 3 types of motor control circuits were learnt in detail during the training
period. They are,
1. Direct
U1 On Line
V1 Starter
W1 (DOL starter)
U1 V1 W1
2. Star Delta Starter
3. Auto Transformer Starter

W2 U2 V2 W2 U2 V2
DOL Starter – This starter type is used for small motors,Cunormally
bars motors which
Terminal connection of Motor Star connection of Motor
have power less than 10kW. If the motor type wanted is Star or Delta (We can
configure it), it must me manually connected. That means during the operation we
cannot change the motor U1 V1
type. There W1 3 copper bars which are provided with the
are
motor, & using those, the motor can be configured as below.
Cu bar

W2 U2 V2
Delta connection of Motor
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Figure 5.3 – Terminal Connections of Motors

After motor is configured to star or delta, the supply should connect to the terminals
U1, V1, W1 according to the below diagram.

U V W

L
HRC Fuse
Emergency
Stop
K1 Push ON
Contactor

Push OFF
Over Current K1
Relay

K1

M N

Figure 5.4 – Power & Control Circuit Diagram of a DOL Starter

Star Delta Starter

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To decrease the starting current cage motors of medium and larger sizes are started at
a reduced supply voltage. The reduced supply voltage starting is applied in the Star
Delta methods. This is applicable to motors designed for delta connection in normal
running conditions. Both ends of each phase of the stator winding are brought out as
six terminals. For starting, the stator windings are connected in star and when the
machine is running the switch is thrown quickly to the running position by
automatically (It can be done manually also), thus connecting the motor in delta for
normal operation. The power diagram of Star Delta starter is shown below.
U V W

HRC Fuse

KD KL KS
Delta Line Star
Contactor Contactor Contactor

Overload
Relay

U V W

Figure 5.5 – Power Diagram of Star Delta Starter

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When the motor is started in the star connection, the phase voltage of the motor is
reduced by a factor of √3. The starting line current of the motor will be reduced to a
1/3 value of DOL Delta starting. And ultimately power of the motor will be reduced
to a factor of 1/3. A disadvantage of this method is that the starting torque (which is
proportional to the square of the applied voltage) is also reduced to 1/3 of its delta
value.

Note that all six terminals of the motor are connected to wires. No copper bars are
used to configure the Delta connection; it is automatically done by the contactors
according to the control circuit. At the starting moment, line contactor & star
contactor are energized. After a time delay while star contactor is being de-energized,
the Delta contactor will be energized & work as a DOL Delta motor. The control
circuit of star delta starter is as below.

Emergency
Stop

Push
ON KL

Push
OFF

T1 T1

KD KS

Timer
KL KS KD
T1

Figure 5.6 – Control Diagram of a Star Delta Starter

Auto Transformer Starter

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This method also reduces the initial voltage applied to the motor and therefore the
starting current and torque. The motor, which can be connected permanently in delta
or in star, is switched first on reduced voltage from a 3-phase tapped auto
-transformer and when it has accelerated sufficiently, it is switched to the running
(full voltage) position. The principle is similar to star-delta starting and has similar
limitations. The advantage of the method is that the current and torque can be adjusted
to the required value, by taking the correct tapping on the autotransformer. This
method is more expensive because of the additional autotransformer and uses this
starter for motors above 80kW.
Consider figures 5.7 & 5.8. In this control system, firstly star contactor will be
energized. Soon after the transformer contactor will be energized. Then after a time
delay while main contactor is energized the star contactor will be energized. At this
moment, motor have got the full load. Then after a time delay, transformer contactor
also will be de energized.

Fuse
L

Emergency
Stop

Push Off
R1

R1 T1 T2 Ks
Push ON

KS KT T1

R1 T2
Contactor T1 KS KT KM
Timer Timer
Relay

Figure 5.7 – Control Diagram of an Auto Transformer Starter

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U V W

Fuses

KM KT
Main Transformer
Contactor Contactor

Auto
Transformer

Over
Current
Relay

KS
Star
M Contactor

Figure 5.8 – Power Diagram of an Auto Transformer Starter

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5.4 Capacitor Banks

5.4.1 Design
Capacitor banks are mainly installed to provide capacitive reactive compensation/
power factor correction. The use of capacitor banks has increased because they are
relatively inexpensive, easy and quick to install and can be deployed virtually
anywhere in the network. Its installation has other beneficial effects on the system
such as, improvement of the voltage at the load, better voltage regulation.

Normally in factories or other high power consuming places, most probably there will
be a consumption of inductive load. Inductive voltage means that there must be a
lagging power factor. In order to reduce the tariff & utilization of power the power
factor must be taken near to 1. That means power factor angle must be taken to zero.
To do this we supply a capacitive load to compensate the inductive load. This is the
system of a capacitor bank.

Figure5.9 – Phase Diagram

The power factor regulator combines comprehensive operation with user-friendly


control setting. It uses numerical techniques in computing the phase difference
between the fundamentals of current and voltage, thus precise power factor
measurement is achieved even in presence of harmonics. The power factor regulator
is designed to optimize the control of reactive power compensation. Reactive power
compensation is achieved by measuring continuously the reactive power of the system

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and then compensated by the switching of capacitor banks. The sensitivity setting
optimizes the switching speed. With the inbuilt intelligent automatic switching
program, the power factor regulator further improves the switching efficiency by
reducing the number of switching operations required to achieve the desired power
factor.

Generator CEB

To
Power 1 A11
Contactors
Factor 2 A12
Of
Regulator 3 A13
Capacitor
4 A14
Bank

Auxiliary
Supply

On Load Changeover Switch

To Load

HRC Fuses A11 A12 A13 A14

Capacitor
Contactors

A21 A22 A23 A24

Figure 5.10– Wiring Diagram of a Capacitor Bank

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5.4.2 Uses of HRC Fuses


In electrical system fuse acts as protection device and depending on application
different type of fuse is to select. Out of these different type of fuses HRC is also one
of the type and it stands for “High Rupture Capacity". This type of fuses normally
used where some delay is acceptable for protecting the system. it has a advantage of
current limiting feature. So it is used for protection of contactors which may melt for
higher value of current. H.R.C fuses acts as secondary protecting devices [back up
protection]. This type of fuses normally used where some delay is acceptable for
protecting the system. That means this fuse will not burn out for a current pulse & as a
result of this it identifies a fault current & an inrush current separately. So these fuses
are used in series with motors & surge arresters.

5.4.3 Uses of Capacitor Contactors


Many customers use power-factor correction capacitors to increase the efficiencies of
their overall power systems. When switching capacitors in and out of the power
system, the switching device (contactor) can experience initial in-rush currents near
180x the nominal current. This high current can reduce the life of the contactor. The
Capacitor Contactors include early-make auxiliary contacts that bring pre-charge
resistors into the circuit to handle the high in-rush currents.

Figure 5.11 – Capacitor Contactors

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5.5 ATS (Automatic Transfer Switch)


Transfer switches are critical components of any emergency or standby power system.
When the normal (preferred) source of power is lost, a transfer switch quickly and
safely shifts the load circuit from the normal source of power to the emergency
(alternate) source of power. This permits critical loads to continue running with
minimal or no outage. After the normal source of power has been restored, the re-
transfer process returns the load circuit to the normal power source. Transfer switches
are available with different operational modes including:
* Manual
* Automatic

Most of the times both of above are available as one unit according to the customer
requirements. ATS is mostly a relay logic control unit, but sometimes available as
programmable logic control unit. The typical control diagram of an ATS is as below.
The main items that are used in ATS are contactors with electrical & mechanical
interlocks. Two coupled contactors with mechanical interlocks doesn’t energize at the
same time. If one contactor is energized then automatically other contactor will be de-
energized. That means at any moment path is provided for only one source, not the
both of them.

Consider figure 5.11. The task of the timer T1 is, to wait a given time to observe
whether there is any failure again in the main supply ( To avoid continuous switching
in case of a back to back failures when generator runs) T2 timer is used to provide a
delay to energize CEB side. And T3 timer is used to provide a delay to energize
generator contactor (This is in case of a little time failure. To avoid the starting of a
generator for a little time failure)

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Generator Start
Signal
R1
K2

OFF
ON
K2

K1

K2
PFR2

R1

T3

T3
Fuse2

GEN
K2

OFF
ON
K1

K2

K1
R1

T2

T2
R1
T1

T1
PFR1
Fuse1

CEB

Figure 5.12 – Typical Control Diagram of ATS

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F use1 Fuse2

PF R1 K1 K2 EP B2 K2
EP B1 K2

R1 P FR2

R1 G enera tor S tart


Signa l
CEB GE N
Auto Ma nual Auto Ma nual
EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD

Se lec tor S witch Se lec tor S witch

P B1 PB 3
R1

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T2 P B2 T3
K1 P B4 K2

T1

K2 K1

T1 R1 T2 K1 T3 K2

Figure 5.13 – Complete ATS Control Diagram


ON OFF ON OF F

Figure – ATS Control Diagram with ma nual C ontrol C irc uit


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EMP Group of Companies (PVT) LTD Industrial Training Report

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

I’ve got a good opportunity to have my first compulsory session of industrial training
in EMP Group of Companies, Panagoda Sri Lanka. EMP Group of Companies is the
Sri Lanka’s leading solution provider of electrical solutions with global presence.
EMP honored a lot of awards for its outstanding performance and robust growth in
this sector.

During this valuable period I was able to take so much of hand on experiences
installation and troubleshooting of mobile telecommunication equipment. And also I
was able to have knowledge about project handling, electrical designing, ISO
standards, IEEE regulations & store keeping

Here I should mention that I was able to get a special opportunity to work together
technicians as well as engineers and share their knowledge and experiences. Those
things gave me a really good training as an engineering undergraduate.

Since EMP involving implementation of various electrical projects in Sri Lanka, I’ve
got much experience in techniques on implementation of a electrical project, as I
involved there. This made me to interact with various industry people, not only from
EMP, but from some other companies such as Holcim (Pvt.) LTD, Textile Apparel
(PVT) LTD etc. Since the implementation of project is going on in whole Sri Lanka,
I’ve got a chance to visit lot of sites in various places. By this I’ve got a vast
knowledge not only in technical and electrical sector but also in management field.

As well as The EMP staffs are very friendly and guided me a lot in the training. So, it
helps me to gain a better experience and work made my training valuable and
successful.

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REFERENCES

1. IEEE Wiring Regulations


2. http://www.emp.lk/
3. http://www.lsis.biz/
4. http://wikipedia.org/
5. http://www.sierracables.com/Product_Range-2-1.html
6. http://www.electronics-manufacturers.com/info/electrical-components/air-
circuit-breaker.html

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ABBREVIATIONS

1. AC - Alternative Current
2. ACB - Air Circuit Breaker
3. ATS - Automatic Transfer Switch
4. DB - Distribution Board
5. DC - Direct Current
6. EFR - Earth Fault Relay
7. ELCB - Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker
8. ELR - Earth Leakage Relay
9. HRC - High Rupture Capacity
10. IEEE - Institution of Electrical & Electronic Engineers
11. IP - Ingress Protection
12. MCB - Miniature Circuit Breaker
13. MCCB - Molded Case
14. OCB - Oil Circuit Breaker
15. PFR - Phase Failure Relay
16. PVC - Poly Vinyl Chloride
17. RCBO – Residual Current Circuit Breaker with Over Current Protection
18. RCCB - Residual Current Circuit Breaker
19. RCD - Residual Current Device
20. UVT - Under Voltage Trip
21. VCB - Vacuum Circuit Breaker
22. XLPE - Cross Link Poly Ethylene

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