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Engineering Electromagnetics

Sixth Edition

William H. Hayt, Jr. . John A. Buck

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Engineering Electromagnetics

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McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering

SENIOR CONSULTING EDITOR

Stephen W. Director, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Communications and Signal Processing

Computer Engineering

Control Theory and Robotics

Electromagnetics

Electronics and VLSI Circuits

Introductory

Power

Antennas, Microwaves, and Radar

Ronald N. Bracewell, Colin Cherry, James F. Gibbons, Willis W. Harman,

Hubert Heffner, Edward W. Herold, John G. Linvill, Simon Ramo, Ronald A.

Rohrer, Anthony E. Siegman, Charles Susskind, Frederick E. Terman, John G.

Truxal, Ernst Weber, and John R. Whinnery

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Engineering

Electromagnetics

SIXTH EDITION

Late Emeritus Professor

Purdue University

John A. Buck

Georgia Institute of Technology

Boston

Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI

New York San Francisco St. Louis

Bangkok Bogotá Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City

Milan New Delhi Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

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BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface xi

Chapter 2 Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Intensity 27

Chapter 3 Electric Flux Density, Gauss' Law, and Divergence 53

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential 83

Chapter 5 Conductors, Dielectrics, and Capacitance 119

Chapter 6 Experimental Mapping Methods 169

Chapter 7 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 195

Chapter 8 The Steady Magnetic Field 224

Chapter 9 Magnetic Forces, Materials, and Inductance 274

Chapter 10 Time-Varying Fields and Maxwell's Equations 322

Chapter 11 The Uniform Plane Wave 348

Chapter 12 Plane Waves at Boundaries and in Dispersive Media 387

Chapter 13 Transmission Lines 435

Chapter 14 Waveguide and Antenna Fundamentals 484

Appendix B Units 534

Appendix C Material Constants 540

Appendix D Origins of the Complex Permittivity 544

Appendix E Answers to Selected Problems

Index 551

To find Appendix E, please visit the expanded book website:

www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/haytbuck

v

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PREFACE

Over the years, I have developed a familiarity with this book in its various

editions, having learned from it, referred to it, and taught from it. The second

edition was used in my first electromagnetics course as a junior during the early

'70's. Its simple and easy-to-read style convinced me that this material could be

learned, and it helped to confirm my latent belief at the time that my specialty

would lie in this direction. Later, it was not surprising to see my own students

coming to me with heavily-marked copies, asking for help on the drill problems,

and taking a more active interest in the subject than I usually observed. So, when

approached to be the new co-author, and asked what I would do to change the

book, my initial feeling wasÐnothing. Further reflection brought to mind earlier

wishes for more material on waves and transmission lines. As a result, Chapters 1

to 10 are original, while 11 to 14 have been revised, and contain new material.

A conversation with Bill Hayt at the project's beginning promised the start

of what I thought would be a good working relationship. The rapport was

immediate. His declining health prevented his active participation, but we

seemed to be in general agreement on the approach to a revision. Although I

barely knew him, his death, occurring a short time later, deeply affected me in the

sense that someone that I greatly respected was gone, along with the promise of a

good friendship. My approach to the revision has been as if he were still here. In

the front of my mind was the wish to write and incorporate the new material in a

manner that he would have approved, and which would have been consistent

with the original objectives and theme of the text. Much more could have been

done, but at the risk of losing the book's identity and possibly its appeal.

Before their deaths, Bill Hayt and Jack Kemmerly completed an entirely

new set of drill problems and end-of-chapter problems for the existing material at

that time, up to and including the transmission lines chapter. These have been

incorporated, along with my own problems that pertain to the new topics. The

other revisions are summarized as follows: The original chapter on plane waves

has now become two. The first (Chapter 11) is concerned with the development

of the uniform plane wave and the treatment wave propagation in various media.

These include lossy materials, where propagation and loss are now modeled in a

general way using the complex permittivity. Conductive media are presented as

special cases, as are materials that exhibit electronic or molecular resonances. A

new appendix provides background on resonant media. A new section on wave

polarization is also included. Chapter 12 deals with wave reflection at single and

multiple interfaces, and at oblique incidence angles. An additional section on

dispersive media has been added, which introduces the concepts of group velo-

city and group dispersion. The effect of pulse broadening arising from group

dispersion is treated at an elementary level. Chapter 13 is essentially the old

transmission lines chapter, but with a new section on transients. Chapter 14 is

intended as an introduction to waveguides and antennas, in which the underlying

xi

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xii PREFACE

physical concepts are emphasized. The waveguide sections are all new, but the

antennas treatment is that of the previous editions.

The approach taken in the new material, as was true in the original work, is

to emphasize physical understanding and problem-solving skills. I have also

moved the work more in the direction of communications-oriented material,

as this seemed a logical way in which the book could evolve, given the material

that was already there. The perspective has been broadened by an expanded

emphasis toward optics concepts and applications, which are presented along

with the more traditional lower-frequency discussions. This again seemed to be a

logical step, as the importance of optics and optical communications has

increased significantly since the earlier editions were published.

The theme of the text has not changed since the first edition of 1958. An

inductive approach is used that is consistent with the historical development. In

it, the experimental laws are presented as individual concepts that are later

unified in Maxwell's equations. Apart from the first chapter on vector analysis,

the mathematical tools are introduced in the text on an as-needed basis.

Throughout every edition, as well as this one, the primary goal has been to

enable students to learn independently. Numerous examples, drill problems

(usually having multiple parts), and end-of-chapter problems are provided to

facilitate this. Answers to the drill problems are given below each problem.

Answers to selected end-of-chapter problems can be found on the internet at

www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/haytbuck. A solutions manual is also available.

The book contains more than enough material for a one-semester course.

As is evident, statics concepts are emphasized and occur first in the presentation.

In a course that places more emphasis on dynamics, the later chapters can be

reached earlier by omitting some or all of the material in Chapters 6 and 7, as

well as the later sections of Chapter 8. The transmission line treatment (Chapter

13) relies heavily on the plane wave development in Chapters 11 and 12. A more

streamlined presentation of plane waves, leading to an earlier arrival at transmis-

sion lines, can be accomplished by omitting sections 11.5, 12.5, and 12.6. Chapter

14 is intended as an ``advanced topics'' chapter, in which the development of

waveguide and antenna concepts occurs through the application of the methods

learned in earlier chapters, thus helping to solidify that knowledge. It may also

serve as a bridge between the basic course and more advanced courses that

follow it.

I am deeply indebted to several people who provided much-needed feed-

back and assistance on the work. Glenn S. Smith, Georgia Tech, reviewed parts

of the manuscript and had many suggestions on the content and the philosophy

of the revision. Several outside reviewers pointed out errors and had excellent

suggestions for improving the presentation, most of which, within time limita-

tions, were taken. These include Madeleine Andrawis, South Dakota State

University, M. Yousif El-Ibiary, University of Oklahoma, Joel T. Johnson,

Ohio State University, David Kelley, Pennsylvania State University, Sharad R.

Laxpati, University of Illinois at Chicago, Masoud Mostafavi, San Jose State

University, Vladimir A. Rakov, University of Florida, Hussain Al-Rizzo, Sultan

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PREFACE xiii

M. Weikle II, University of Virginia. My editors at McGraw-Hill, Catherine

Fields, Michelle Flomenhoft, and Betsy Jones, provided excellent expertise and

supportÐparticularly Michelle, who was almost in daily contact, and provided

immediate and knowledgeable answers to all questions and concerns. My see-

mingly odd conception of the cover illustration was brought into reality through

the graphics talents of Ms Diana Fouts at Georgia Tech. Finally, much is owed

to my wife and daughters for putting up with a part-time husband and father for

many a weekend.

John A. Buck

Atlanta, 2000

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CONTENTS

Preface xi

1.1. Scalars and Vectors 2

1.2. Vector Algebra 3

1.3. The Cartesian Coordinate System 4

1.4. Vector Components and Unit Vectors 6

1.5. The Vector Field 9

1.6. The Dot Product 10

1.7. The Cross Product 13

1.8. Other Coordinate Systems: Circular Cylindrical

Coordinates 15

1.9. The Spherical Coordinate System 20

2.1. The Experimental Law of Coulomb 28

2.2. Electric Field Intensity 31

2.3. Field Due to a Continuous Volume Charge Distribution 36

2.4. Field of a Line Charge 38

2.5. Field of a Sheet Charge 44

2.6. Streamlines and Sketches of Fields 46

3.1. Electric Flux Density 54

3.2. Gauss' Law 57

3.3. Applications of Gauss' Law: Some Symmetrical Charge

Distributions 62

3.4. Application of Gauss' Law: Differential Volume Element 67

3.5. Divergence 70

3.6. Maxwell's First Equation (Electrostatics) 73

3.7. The Vector Operator r and the Divergence Theorem 74

4.1. Energy and Potential in a Moving Point Charge in an

Electric Field 84

4.2. The Line Integral 85

4.3. De®nition of Potential Difference and Potential 91

4.4. The Potential Field of a Point Charge 93

vii

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viii CONTENTS

Property 95

4.6. Potential Gradient 99

4.7. The Dipole 106

4.8. Energy Density in the Electric Field 110

5.1. Current and Current Density 120

5.2. Continuity of Current 122

5.3. Metallic Conductors 124

5.4. Conductor Properties and Boundary Conditions 129

5.5. The Method of Images 134

5.6. Semiconductors 136

5.7. The Nature of Dielectric Materials 138

5.8. Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials 144

5.9. Capacitance 150

5.10. Several Capacitance Examples 154

5.11. Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line 157

6.1. Curvilinear Squares 170

6.2. The Iteration Method 176

6.3. Current Analogies 183

6.4. Physical Models 186

7.1 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 196

7.2. Uniqueness Theorem 198

7.3. Examples of the Solution of Laplace's Equation 200

7.4. Example of the Solution of Poisson's Equation 207

7.5. Product Solution of Laplace's Equation 211

8.1. Biot-Savart Law 225

8.2. Ampere's Circuital Law 232

8.3. Curl 239

8.4. Stokes' Theorem 246

8.5. Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density 251

8.6. The Scalar and Vector Magnetic Potentials 254

8.7. Derivation of the Steady-Magnetic-Field Laws 261

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CONTENTS ix

9.1. Force on a Moving Charge 275

9.2. Force on a Differential Current Element 276

9.3. Force Between Differential Current Elements 280

9.4. Force and Torque on a Closed Circuit 283

9.5. The Nature of Magnetic Materials 288

9.6. Magnetization and Permeability 292

9.7. Magnetic Boundary Conditions 297

9.8. The Magnetic Circuit 299

9.9. Potential Energy and Forces on Magnetic Materials 306

9.10. Inductance and Mutual Inductance 308

10.1. Faraday's Law 323

10.2. Displacement Current 329

10.3. Maxwell's Equations in Point Form 334

10.4. Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form 336

10.5. The Retarded Potentials 338

11.1. Wave Propagation in Free Space 348

11.2. Wave Propagation in Dielectrics 356

11.3. The Poynting Vector and Power Considerations 365

11.4. Propagation in Good Conductors: Skin Effect 369

11.5. Wave Polarization 376

12.1. Re¯ection of Uniform Plane Waves at Normal Incidence 388

12.2. Standing Wave Ratio 395

12.3. Wave Re¯ection from Multiple Interfaces 400

12.4. Plane Wave Propagation in General Directions 408

12.5. Plane Wave Re¯ection at Oblique Incidence Angles 411

12.6. Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media 421

13.1. The Transmission-Line Equations 436

13.2. Transmission-Line Parameters 442

13.3. Some Transmission-Line Examples 448

13.4. Graphical Methods 452

13.5. Several Practical Problems 460

13.6. Transients on Transmission Lines 463

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x CONTENTS

14.1. Basic Waveguide Operation 485

14.2. Plane Wave Analysis of the Parallel-Plate Waveguide 488

14.3. Parallel-Plate Guide Analysis Using the Wave Equation 497

14.4. Rectangular Waveguides 501

14.5. Dielectric Waveguides 506

14.6. Basic Antenna Principles 514

Appendix B Units 534

Appendix C Material Constants 540

Appendix D Origins of the Complex Permittivity 544

Appendix E Answers to Selected Problems

Index 551

To find Appendix E, please visit the expanded website:

www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/haytbuck

▲

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