Anda di halaman 1dari 12

Interactive

e-Text

? Help Feedback

Engineering Electromagnetics
Sixth Edition
William H. Hayt, Jr. . John A. Buck

Textbook Table of Contents


The Textbook Table of Contents is your starting point for accessing pages within the chapter.
Once you’re at this location, you can easily move back and forth within specific chapters or just
as easily jump from one chapter to another.

Textbook Website
The Textbook Website is the McGraw-Hill Higher Education website developed to accompany this
textbook. Here you’ll find numerous text-specific learning tools and resources that expand upon the
information you normally find in a printed textbook.

McGraw-Hill Website
The McGraw-Hill Website is your starting point for discovery of all the educational content
and services offered by McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Copyright @ 2001 The McGraw Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
McGraw-Hill Higher Education is one of the many fine businesses of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

If you have a question or a suggestion about a specific book or product, please fill out our User Feedback Form accessible
from the main menu or contact our customer service line at 1-800-262-4729.

The McGraw-Hill Companies



| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


Engineering Electromagnetics


| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering
SENIOR CONSULTING EDITOR
Stephen W. Director, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Circuits and Systems


Communications and Signal Processing
Computer Engineering
Control Theory and Robotics
Electromagnetics
Electronics and VLSI Circuits
Introductory
Power
Antennas, Microwaves, and Radar

Previous Consulting Editors


Ronald N. Bracewell, Colin Cherry, James F. Gibbons, Willis W. Harman,
Hubert Heffner, Edward W. Herold, John G. Linvill, Simon Ramo, Ronald A.
Rohrer, Anthony E. Siegman, Charles Susskind, Frederick E. Terman, John G.
Truxal, Ernst Weber, and John R. Whinnery

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


Engineering
Electromagnetics
SIXTH EDITION

William H. Hayt, Jr.


Late Emeritus Professor
Purdue University

John A. Buck
Georgia Institute of Technology

Boston
Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, WI
New York San Francisco St. Louis
Bangkok Bogotá Caracas Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City
Milan New Delhi Seoul Singapore Sydney Taipei Toronto

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Vector Analysis 1


Chapter 2 Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Intensity 27
Chapter 3 Electric Flux Density, Gauss' Law, and Divergence 53
Chapter 4 Energy and Potential 83
Chapter 5 Conductors, Dielectrics, and Capacitance 119
Chapter 6 Experimental Mapping Methods 169
Chapter 7 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 195
Chapter 8 The Steady Magnetic Field 224
Chapter 9 Magnetic Forces, Materials, and Inductance 274
Chapter 10 Time-Varying Fields and Maxwell's Equations 322
Chapter 11 The Uniform Plane Wave 348
Chapter 12 Plane Waves at Boundaries and in Dispersive Media 387
Chapter 13 Transmission Lines 435
Chapter 14 Waveguide and Antenna Fundamentals 484

Appendix A Vector Analysis 529


Appendix B Units 534
Appendix C Material Constants 540
Appendix D Origins of the Complex Permittivity 544

Appendix E Answers to Selected Problems
Index 551


To find Appendix E, please visit the expanded book website:
www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/haytbuck

v

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


PREFACE

Over the years, I have developed a familiarity with this book in its various
editions, having learned from it, referred to it, and taught from it. The second
edition was used in my first electromagnetics course as a junior during the early
'70's. Its simple and easy-to-read style convinced me that this material could be
learned, and it helped to confirm my latent belief at the time that my specialty
would lie in this direction. Later, it was not surprising to see my own students
coming to me with heavily-marked copies, asking for help on the drill problems,
and taking a more active interest in the subject than I usually observed. So, when
approached to be the new co-author, and asked what I would do to change the
book, my initial feeling wasÐnothing. Further reflection brought to mind earlier
wishes for more material on waves and transmission lines. As a result, Chapters 1
to 10 are original, while 11 to 14 have been revised, and contain new material.
A conversation with Bill Hayt at the project's beginning promised the start
of what I thought would be a good working relationship. The rapport was
immediate. His declining health prevented his active participation, but we
seemed to be in general agreement on the approach to a revision. Although I
barely knew him, his death, occurring a short time later, deeply affected me in the
sense that someone that I greatly respected was gone, along with the promise of a
good friendship. My approach to the revision has been as if he were still here. In
the front of my mind was the wish to write and incorporate the new material in a
manner that he would have approved, and which would have been consistent
with the original objectives and theme of the text. Much more could have been
done, but at the risk of losing the book's identity and possibly its appeal.
Before their deaths, Bill Hayt and Jack Kemmerly completed an entirely
new set of drill problems and end-of-chapter problems for the existing material at
that time, up to and including the transmission lines chapter. These have been
incorporated, along with my own problems that pertain to the new topics. The
other revisions are summarized as follows: The original chapter on plane waves
has now become two. The first (Chapter 11) is concerned with the development
of the uniform plane wave and the treatment wave propagation in various media.
These include lossy materials, where propagation and loss are now modeled in a
general way using the complex permittivity. Conductive media are presented as
special cases, as are materials that exhibit electronic or molecular resonances. A
new appendix provides background on resonant media. A new section on wave
polarization is also included. Chapter 12 deals with wave reflection at single and
multiple interfaces, and at oblique incidence angles. An additional section on
dispersive media has been added, which introduces the concepts of group velo-
city and group dispersion. The effect of pulse broadening arising from group
dispersion is treated at an elementary level. Chapter 13 is essentially the old
transmission lines chapter, but with a new section on transients. Chapter 14 is
intended as an introduction to waveguides and antennas, in which the underlying

xi

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


xii PREFACE

physical concepts are emphasized. The waveguide sections are all new, but the
antennas treatment is that of the previous editions.
The approach taken in the new material, as was true in the original work, is
to emphasize physical understanding and problem-solving skills. I have also
moved the work more in the direction of communications-oriented material,
as this seemed a logical way in which the book could evolve, given the material
that was already there. The perspective has been broadened by an expanded
emphasis toward optics concepts and applications, which are presented along
with the more traditional lower-frequency discussions. This again seemed to be a
logical step, as the importance of optics and optical communications has
increased significantly since the earlier editions were published.
The theme of the text has not changed since the first edition of 1958. An
inductive approach is used that is consistent with the historical development. In
it, the experimental laws are presented as individual concepts that are later
unified in Maxwell's equations. Apart from the first chapter on vector analysis,
the mathematical tools are introduced in the text on an as-needed basis.
Throughout every edition, as well as this one, the primary goal has been to
enable students to learn independently. Numerous examples, drill problems
(usually having multiple parts), and end-of-chapter problems are provided to
facilitate this. Answers to the drill problems are given below each problem.
Answers to selected end-of-chapter problems can be found on the internet at
www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/haytbuck. A solutions manual is also available.
The book contains more than enough material for a one-semester course.
As is evident, statics concepts are emphasized and occur first in the presentation.
In a course that places more emphasis on dynamics, the later chapters can be
reached earlier by omitting some or all of the material in Chapters 6 and 7, as
well as the later sections of Chapter 8. The transmission line treatment (Chapter
13) relies heavily on the plane wave development in Chapters 11 and 12. A more
streamlined presentation of plane waves, leading to an earlier arrival at transmis-
sion lines, can be accomplished by omitting sections 11.5, 12.5, and 12.6. Chapter
14 is intended as an ``advanced topics'' chapter, in which the development of
waveguide and antenna concepts occurs through the application of the methods
learned in earlier chapters, thus helping to solidify that knowledge. It may also
serve as a bridge between the basic course and more advanced courses that
follow it.
I am deeply indebted to several people who provided much-needed feed-
back and assistance on the work. Glenn S. Smith, Georgia Tech, reviewed parts
of the manuscript and had many suggestions on the content and the philosophy
of the revision. Several outside reviewers pointed out errors and had excellent
suggestions for improving the presentation, most of which, within time limita-
tions, were taken. These include Madeleine Andrawis, South Dakota State
University, M. Yousif El-Ibiary, University of Oklahoma, Joel T. Johnson,
Ohio State University, David Kelley, Pennsylvania State University, Sharad R.
Laxpati, University of Illinois at Chicago, Masoud Mostafavi, San Jose State
University, Vladimir A. Rakov, University of Florida, Hussain Al-Rizzo, Sultan

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


PREFACE xiii

Qaboos University, Juri Silmberg, Ryerson Polytechnic University and Robert


M. Weikle II, University of Virginia. My editors at McGraw-Hill, Catherine
Fields, Michelle Flomenhoft, and Betsy Jones, provided excellent expertise and
supportÐparticularly Michelle, who was almost in daily contact, and provided
immediate and knowledgeable answers to all questions and concerns. My see-
mingly odd conception of the cover illustration was brought into reality through
the graphics talents of Ms Diana Fouts at Georgia Tech. Finally, much is owed
to my wife and daughters for putting up with a part-time husband and father for
many a weekend.
John A. Buck
Atlanta, 2000

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


CONTENTS

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Vector Analysis 1


1.1. Scalars and Vectors 2
1.2. Vector Algebra 3
1.3. The Cartesian Coordinate System 4
1.4. Vector Components and Unit Vectors 6
1.5. The Vector Field 9
1.6. The Dot Product 10
1.7. The Cross Product 13
1.8. Other Coordinate Systems: Circular Cylindrical
Coordinates 15
1.9. The Spherical Coordinate System 20

Chapter 2 Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Intensity 27


2.1. The Experimental Law of Coulomb 28
2.2. Electric Field Intensity 31
2.3. Field Due to a Continuous Volume Charge Distribution 36
2.4. Field of a Line Charge 38
2.5. Field of a Sheet Charge 44
2.6. Streamlines and Sketches of Fields 46

Chapter 3 Electric Flux Density, Gauss' Law, and Divergence 53


3.1. Electric Flux Density 54
3.2. Gauss' Law 57
3.3. Applications of Gauss' Law: Some Symmetrical Charge
Distributions 62
3.4. Application of Gauss' Law: Differential Volume Element 67
3.5. Divergence 70
3.6. Maxwell's First Equation (Electrostatics) 73
3.7. The Vector Operator r and the Divergence Theorem 74

Chapter 4 Energy and Potential 83


4.1. Energy and Potential in a Moving Point Charge in an
Electric Field 84
4.2. The Line Integral 85
4.3. De®nition of Potential Difference and Potential 91
4.4. The Potential Field of a Point Charge 93

vii

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


viii CONTENTS

4.5. The Potential Field of a System of Charges: Conservative


Property 95
4.6. Potential Gradient 99
4.7. The Dipole 106
4.8. Energy Density in the Electric Field 110

Chapter 5 Conductors, Dielectrics, and Capacitance 119


5.1. Current and Current Density 120
5.2. Continuity of Current 122
5.3. Metallic Conductors 124
5.4. Conductor Properties and Boundary Conditions 129
5.5. The Method of Images 134
5.6. Semiconductors 136
5.7. The Nature of Dielectric Materials 138
5.8. Boundary Conditions for Perfect Dielectric Materials 144
5.9. Capacitance 150
5.10. Several Capacitance Examples 154
5.11. Capacitance of a Two-Wire Line 157

Chapter 6 Experimental Mapping Methods 169


6.1. Curvilinear Squares 170
6.2. The Iteration Method 176
6.3. Current Analogies 183
6.4. Physical Models 186

Chapter 7 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 195


7.1 Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 196
7.2. Uniqueness Theorem 198
7.3. Examples of the Solution of Laplace's Equation 200
7.4. Example of the Solution of Poisson's Equation 207
7.5. Product Solution of Laplace's Equation 211

Chapter 8 The Steady Magnetic Field 224


8.1. Biot-Savart Law 225
8.2. Ampere's Circuital Law 232
8.3. Curl 239
8.4. Stokes' Theorem 246
8.5. Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density 251
8.6. The Scalar and Vector Magnetic Potentials 254
8.7. Derivation of the Steady-Magnetic-Field Laws 261

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


CONTENTS ix

Chapter 9 Magnetic Forces, Materials and Inductance 274


9.1. Force on a Moving Charge 275
9.2. Force on a Differential Current Element 276
9.3. Force Between Differential Current Elements 280
9.4. Force and Torque on a Closed Circuit 283
9.5. The Nature of Magnetic Materials 288
9.6. Magnetization and Permeability 292
9.7. Magnetic Boundary Conditions 297
9.8. The Magnetic Circuit 299
9.9. Potential Energy and Forces on Magnetic Materials 306
9.10. Inductance and Mutual Inductance 308

Chapter 10 Time-Varying Fields and Maxwell's Equations 322


10.1. Faraday's Law 323
10.2. Displacement Current 329
10.3. Maxwell's Equations in Point Form 334
10.4. Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form 336
10.5. The Retarded Potentials 338

Chapter 11 The Uniform Plane Wave 348


11.1. Wave Propagation in Free Space 348
11.2. Wave Propagation in Dielectrics 356
11.3. The Poynting Vector and Power Considerations 365
11.4. Propagation in Good Conductors: Skin Effect 369
11.5. Wave Polarization 376

Chapter 12 Plane Waves at Boundaries and in Dispersive Media 387


12.1. Re¯ection of Uniform Plane Waves at Normal Incidence 388
12.2. Standing Wave Ratio 395
12.3. Wave Re¯ection from Multiple Interfaces 400
12.4. Plane Wave Propagation in General Directions 408
12.5. Plane Wave Re¯ection at Oblique Incidence Angles 411
12.6. Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media 421

Chapter 13 Transmission Lines 435


13.1. The Transmission-Line Equations 436
13.2. Transmission-Line Parameters 442
13.3. Some Transmission-Line Examples 448
13.4. Graphical Methods 452
13.5. Several Practical Problems 460
13.6. Transients on Transmission Lines 463

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |


x CONTENTS

Chapter 14 Waveguide and Antenna Fundamentals 484


14.1. Basic Waveguide Operation 485
14.2. Plane Wave Analysis of the Parallel-Plate Waveguide 488
14.3. Parallel-Plate Guide Analysis Using the Wave Equation 497
14.4. Rectangular Waveguides 501
14.5. Dielectric Waveguides 506
14.6. Basic Antenna Principles 514

Appendix A Vector Analysis 529


Appendix B Units 534
Appendix C Material Constants 540
Appendix D Origins of the Complex Permittivity 544
Appendix E Answers to Selected Problems
Index 551

To get the fully access of the document please click here.


To find Appendix E, please visit the expanded website:
www.mhhe.com/engcs/electrical/haytbuck

| | e-Text Main Menu | Textbook Table of Contents |