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Child Care, Learning & Development Child Care, Learning & Development

Diploma in Child Care, Unit 1 Diploma in Child Care, Unit 1


Learning & Development Learning & Development

Unit 1 Unit 1

Principles and values underpinning work with children Principles and values underpinning work with children
and the protection and promotion of children’s rights. and the protection and promotion of children’s rights.

1.1 Principles and Values in the Sector 1.1 Principles and Values in the Sector

The values and principles adopted in the child care sector were designed to The values and principles adopted in the child care sector were designed to
provide a basis for work with children in a range of settings and services. They provide a basis for work with children in a range of settings and services. They
meet the needs and rights of the child and reflect a rapidly developing sector meet the needs and rights of the child and reflect a rapidly developing sector
that places the child at the centre. that places the child at the centre.

The principles and values for underpinning work with children and the The principles and values for underpinning work with children and the
protection and promotion of children’s rights are as follows. protection and promotion of children’s rights are as follows.

Principles Principles

1. The welfare of the child is paramount. 1. The welfare of the child is paramount.

2. Practitioners contribute to children’s care, learning and development 2. Practitioners contribute to children’s care, learning and development
and this is reflected in every aspect of practice and service provision. and this is reflected in every aspect of practice and service provision.

3. Practitioners work with parents and families who are partners in the 3. Practitioners work with parents and families who are partners in the
care, learning and development of their children and are the child’s care, learning and development of their children and are the child’s
first first
4. and most enduring educators. 4. and most enduring educators.

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Values Values

1. The needs, rights and views of the child are at the centre of all 1. The needs, rights and views of the child are at the centre of all
practice and provision. practice and provision.

2. Individuality, difference and diversity are valued and celebrated. 2. Individuality, difference and diversity are valued and celebrated.

3. Equality of opportunity and anti-discriminatory practice are actively 3. Equality of opportunity and anti-discriminatory practice are actively
promoted. promoted.

4. Children’s health and well-being are actively promoted. 4. Children’s health and well-being are actively promoted.

5. Children’s personal and physical safety is safeguarded, whilst 5. Children’s personal and physical safety is safeguarded, whilst
allowing for risk and challenge as appropriate to the capabilities of allowing for risk and challenge as appropriate to the capabilities of
the child. the child.

6. Self-esteem, resilience and a positive self-image are recognised as 6. Self-esteem, resilience and a positive self-image are recognised as
essential to every child’s development. essential to every child’s development.

7. Confidentiality and agreements about confidential information are 7. Confidentiality and agreements about confidential information are
respected as appropriate unless a child’s protection and well-being respected as appropriate unless a child’s protection and well-being
are at stake. are at stake.

8. Professional knowledge, skills and values are shared appropriately in 8. Professional knowledge, skills and values are shared appropriately in
order to enrich the experience of children more widely. order to enrich the experience of children more widely.

9. Best practice requires reflection and a continuous search for 9. Best practice requires reflection and a continuous search for
improvement. improvement.

Principles and values were extracted from “Introduction to the National Occupational Principles and values were extracted from “Introduction to the National Occupational
Standards in Children's Care, Learning and Development Levels 2, 3 and 4” Standards in Children's Care, Learning and Development Levels 2, 3 and 4”

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Who are the values and principles for? Who are the values and principles for?

These values and principles apply to anyone who works with children aged 0 to These values and principles apply to anyone who works with children aged 0 to
16 years in settings whose main aim is children’s care, learning and 16 years in settings whose main aim is children’s care, learning and
development. development.

That could include any of the following settings: That could include any of the following settings:

x schools x schools
x pre-schools/ playgroups x pre-schools/ playgroups
x after school clubs x after school clubs
x day care x day care
x crèches x crèches
x childminders’ own homes x childminders’ own homes
x nannies in a child’s own home x nannies in a child’s own home
x children’s centres x children’s centres
x hospitals x hospitals

That includes everyone, both paid and voluntary, and at all levels from the That includes everyone, both paid and voluntary, and at all levels from the
newly recruited through to managers. newly recruited through to managers.

Equality of opportunity Equality of opportunity

Although very unfair, it is a fact that the options and opportunities for many Although very unfair, it is a fact that the options and opportunities for many
children are limited from an early age because of the way they and their children are limited from an early age because of the way they and their
families are treated by other people. families are treated by other people.

To allow children an equal opportunity, each child should be recognised and To allow children an equal opportunity, each child should be recognised and
valued as an individual and should be encouraged and helped to develop their valued as an individual and should be encouraged and helped to develop their
own sense of identity within their cultural and racial groups. own sense of identity within their cultural and racial groups.

The value of individuality, difference and diversity The value of individuality, difference and diversity

Britain today is very much a multi-cultural, multi-racial society. A large variety Britain today is very much a multi-cultural, multi-racial society. A large variety
of cultural groups make a very positive contribution to our society. All children of cultural groups make a very positive contribution to our society. All children
should have the chance to learn about other cultures that are different from should have the chance to learn about other cultures that are different from
their own so that no one culture is represented as being better than another. their own so that no one culture is represented as being better than another.
Information and background about their various traditions, customs and Information and background about their various traditions, customs and

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festivals should be taught to all children, including those in areas where there festivals should be taught to all children, including those in areas where there
are few members of minority ethnic groups. These traditions should be are few members of minority ethnic groups. These traditions should be
presented with a sense of pleasure and enjoyment. Introducing information presented with a sense of pleasure and enjoyment. Introducing information
about a variety of cultures can be done in a fun way through posters, food, about a variety of cultures can be done in a fun way through posters, food,
dressing-up, clothes, stories and videos. dressing-up, clothes, stories and videos.

The child carer must ensure that in everything they do they help to teach The child carer must ensure that in everything they do they help to teach
children that all people are valuable, whatever their gender, class, racial origins, children that all people are valuable, whatever their gender, class, racial origins,
religion, culture, ability or linguistic background. religion, culture, ability or linguistic background.

Promote equal opportunities and diversity Promote equal opportunities and diversity

In order to provide an inclusive child care setting that enjoys diversity and does In order to provide an inclusive child care setting that enjoys diversity and does
not discriminate against children and their families, the setting should ensure not discriminate against children and their families, the setting should ensure
the following practices are in place: the following practices are in place:

x prejudice about a particular group in society is not used to exclude x prejudice about a particular group in society is not used to exclude
children or their families from the activities of the setting children or their families from the activities of the setting

x parental activities are accessible to all parents x parental activities are accessible to all parents

x all children’s activities are accessible to all children x all children’s activities are accessible to all children

x that all activities reflect the diversity of background of all of the families x that all activities reflect the diversity of background of all of the families
represented in the community represented in the community

x activities in the child care setting help children to realise that they are x activities in the child care setting help children to realise that they are
part of a world where people’s backgrounds and experiences are diverse part of a world where people’s backgrounds and experiences are diverse
and that this diversity is a valuable asset and that this diversity is a valuable asset

x that no child or it’s family should suffer from any form of abusive x that no child or it’s family should suffer from any form of abusive
treatment because they belong to particular group or because of a treatment because they belong to particular group or because of a
particular personal characteristic particular personal characteristic
The way in which adults treat children and the information they expose them to The way in which adults treat children and the information they expose them to
will have a huge influence on them. In order to promote equal opportunities will have a huge influence on them. In order to promote equal opportunities
and the value of diversity, the child care setting should ensure that they employ and the value of diversity, the child care setting should ensure that they employ
the following practices: the following practices:

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1 Avoid stereotyping. The way adults treat children can give strong 1 Avoid stereotyping. The way adults treat children can give strong
messages about what is expected of them and what they can and can’t messages about what is expected of them and what they can and can’t
achieve. For example, indicating that it is alright for a boy to do certain achieve. For example, indicating that it is alright for a boy to do certain
things but not for a girl and vice versa, restricts possibilities for children’s things but not for a girl and vice versa, restricts possibilities for children’s
future development by limiting their expectations about what role they future development by limiting their expectations about what role they
can play in life. Avoiding these kinds of stereotyping traps is very can play in life. Avoiding these kinds of stereotyping traps is very
important. Girls should be encouraged to be adventurous, ambitious etc, important. Girls should be encouraged to be adventurous, ambitious etc,
whilst boys should also be encouraged to be caring and sensitive, whilst boys should also be encouraged to be caring and sensitive,
creative, and expected to do domestic roles. creative, and expected to do domestic roles.

2 Provide positive images. All children develop perceptions and 2 Provide positive images. All children develop perceptions and
misconceptions about various racial and cultural groups from the society misconceptions about various racial and cultural groups from the society
we live in and the media. The environment that they are brought up in is we live in and the media. The environment that they are brought up in is
therefore an important way of helping to overcome stereotyping therefore an important way of helping to overcome stereotyping
expectations. Materials on display should show black people, women expectations. Materials on display should show black people, women
and disabled people taking responsible roles and men in caring, and disabled people taking responsible roles and men in caring,
domestic or creative roles. These materials can take the form of domestic or creative roles. These materials can take the form of
pictures, books, puzzles, play materials, computer games, television pictures, books, puzzles, play materials, computer games, television
programmes, videos or board games. programmes, videos or board games.

3 Make each child feel individual. Each of us is an individual, different 3 Make each child feel individual. Each of us is an individual, different
from any other person. We all have different strengths, weaknesses, from any other person. We all have different strengths, weaknesses,
wishes and needs and characteristics. By appreciating children for who wishes and needs and characteristics. By appreciating children for who
they are and admiring the characteristics that make them special, the they are and admiring the characteristics that make them special, the
carer can indicate to them that they are valuable, special and unique carer can indicate to them that they are valuable, special and unique
individuals. individuals.

4 Treat all children equally but not all the same. In order to treat 4 Treat all children equally but not all the same. In order to treat
children equally the carer may sometimes have to treat them differently children equally the carer may sometimes have to treat them differently
from one another, adapting the way they work with them to meet their from one another, adapting the way they work with them to meet their
individual needs and characteristics. It is important to treat all children individual needs and characteristics. It is important to treat all children
with equal concern, making sure that they have the opportunities which with equal concern, making sure that they have the opportunities which
will help them to get the most out of life. will help them to get the most out of life.

An equal opportunities policy An equal opportunities policy

A written equal opportunities policy can help to ensure that all aspects of the A written equal opportunities policy can help to ensure that all aspects of the
child care setting give equality of opportunity to all children and their families, child care setting give equality of opportunity to all children and their families,

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regardless of gender, racial origin, ethnic, cultural, religious, linguistic or family regardless of gender, racial origin, ethnic, cultural, religious, linguistic or family
background. background.

But however useful it may look on paper, an equal opportunities policy cannot But however useful it may look on paper, an equal opportunities policy cannot
bring about real equality of opportunity unless it is supported by the adults in bring about real equality of opportunity unless it is supported by the adults in
the child care setting who have to put it into practice. The process of the child care setting who have to put it into practice. The process of
discussing, preparing, agreeing, acting on and monitoring the policy is much discussing, preparing, agreeing, acting on and monitoring the policy is much
more important than the piece of paper itself. more important than the piece of paper itself.

The policy should be developed in the following stages: The policy should be developed in the following stages:

1. Discuss why the setting needs a policy, what should go into it, and who 1. Discuss why the setting needs a policy, what should go into it, and who
will operate it. will operate it.
2. Draw up a draft policy and circulate it to everyone who has a role within 2. Draw up a draft policy and circulate it to everyone who has a role within
the setting. the setting.
3. Invite everyone’s comments. 3. Invite everyone’s comments.
4. Make any necessary changes based on these comments. 4. Make any necessary changes based on these comments.
5. Implementation of the policy should be agreed at a formal meeting in the 5. Implementation of the policy should be agreed at a formal meeting in the
child care setting. child care setting.
6. Develop a timed action plan for putting the policy into practice. 6. Develop a timed action plan for putting the policy into practice.

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Activity 1 Activity 1

Draw up a draft equal opportunities policy for your child care setting. Draw up a draft equal opportunities policy for your child care setting.

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Implementing anti-discriminatory practices Implementing anti-discriminatory practices

Good anti-discriminatory practice involves treating everyone with equal care, Good anti-discriminatory practice involves treating everyone with equal care,
consideration and respect. consideration and respect.

Research has shown that children start to learn about the differences between Research has shown that children start to learn about the differences between
people at a very early age. By the age of two to three a child is aware of the people at a very early age. By the age of two to three a child is aware of the
difference between male and female, and black and white people. By the time difference between male and female, and black and white people. By the time
they are four years old they are developing their own views about the different they are four years old they are developing their own views about the different
values attached to different people. values attached to different people.

Children learn through imitation. They need to have good role models. If an Children learn through imitation. They need to have good role models. If an
individual acts in an anti-discriminatory way in their presence they are more individual acts in an anti-discriminatory way in their presence they are more
likely to do so too. It is therefore important that in all that the child carer does likely to do so too. It is therefore important that in all that the child carer does
they must help the child learn that all people are valuable, whatever their they must help the child learn that all people are valuable, whatever their
gender, race, ability or background. gender, race, ability or background.

Most child care settings do have good, clear written polices about anti Most child care settings do have good, clear written polices about anti
discrimination which make it plain that prejudice and discrimination will not be discrimination which make it plain that prejudice and discrimination will not be
tolerated. tolerated.

The policy should state that no member, user, employee or applicant receives The policy should state that no member, user, employee or applicant receives
more or less favourable treatment because of: more or less favourable treatment because of:

x nationality x nationality
x gender x gender
x racial or ethnic origin x racial or ethnic origin
x colour x colour
x sexual orientation x sexual orientation
x disability x disability
x cultural background x cultural background
x language x language
x religious belief x religious belief
x marital or parental status x marital or parental status
x age x age
x HIV/Aids status x HIV/Aids status

The child care setting will need to examine whether its practice is inclusive and The child care setting will need to examine whether its practice is inclusive and
anti-discriminatory from the perspective of each of the many groups that make anti-discriminatory from the perspective of each of the many groups that make

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up our society and also whether the principles of inclusion are applied to all up our society and also whether the principles of inclusion are applied to all
areas of the child care setting’s practice. These principles will affect the way areas of the child care setting’s practice. These principles will affect the way
the setting carries out the following activities: the setting carries out the following activities:

x advertises its services x advertises its services


x operates its admissions systems x operates its admissions systems
x plans, presents and manages play activities for the children x plans, presents and manages play activities for the children
x creates and maintains relationships with the children’s parents x creates and maintains relationships with the children’s parents
x recruits and manages its staff x recruits and manages its staff

The policy should be reviewed regularly. The policy should be reviewed regularly.

Monitoring and evaluating anti-discriminatory practice Monitoring and evaluating anti-discriminatory practice

Once the code of practice has been put into effect, the child care setting should Once the code of practice has been put into effect, the child care setting should
regularly monitor and evaluate how it is being used, to ensure that the policy is regularly monitor and evaluate how it is being used, to ensure that the policy is
not merely a piece of paper in a file but a code of practice that is actively not merely a piece of paper in a file but a code of practice that is actively
followed. It will also be necessary to make sure that it is being implemented and followed. It will also be necessary to make sure that it is being implemented and
to decide whether any further action is needed to ensure that it is being to decide whether any further action is needed to ensure that it is being
effective. effective.

Exclusion to certain individuals or groups can happen even though there was Exclusion to certain individuals or groups can happen even though there was
no deliberate intention on anyone’s part, but because some structures and no deliberate intention on anyone’s part, but because some structures and
systems that are set up with best of intentions can accidentally create situations systems that are set up with best of intentions can accidentally create situations
that: that:

x prevent some people from finding out about the group and their x prevent some people from finding out about the group and their
entitlement to join it entitlement to join it

x do not encourage all children to develop to their potential x do not encourage all children to develop to their potential

x exclude some individuals from active decision-making within a group x exclude some individuals from active decision-making within a group

It is therefore important that each of the specified areas of practice is reviewed It is therefore important that each of the specified areas of practice is reviewed
as part of the monitoring and evaluation of its anti-discriminatory policy. To as part of the monitoring and evaluation of its anti-discriminatory policy. To
monitor the policy the setting will need to develop ways to measure their monitor the policy the setting will need to develop ways to measure their
practice against the requirements and targets of the anti- discriminatory policy. practice against the requirements and targets of the anti- discriminatory policy.
In order to evaluate its practice the setting will need to assess whether the In order to evaluate its practice the setting will need to assess whether the
practice meets the requirements and targets of its policy or whether its practice practice meets the requirements and targets of its policy or whether its practice

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falls short of these targets and requirements. If there is a shortfall the setting falls short of these targets and requirements. If there is a shortfall the setting
will need to decide what needs to be done to bring its practice up to the desired will need to decide what needs to be done to bring its practice up to the desired
level described in their policy. level described in their policy.

Reacting to instances of prejudice or discrimination Reacting to instances of prejudice or discrimination

Prejudice can be described as an attitude, opinion or feeling, usually negative, Prejudice can be described as an attitude, opinion or feeling, usually negative,
that is formed without knowledge, thought or reason. that is formed without knowledge, thought or reason.

Discrimination can be described as actions based on prejudice against a Discrimination can be described as actions based on prejudice against a
person or group of people. person or group of people.

How anyone reacts to instances of prejudice or discriminatory behaviour will How anyone reacts to instances of prejudice or discriminatory behaviour will
depend on the circumstances and the setting, but simple guidelines are: depend on the circumstances and the setting, but simple guidelines are:

x acknowledge the behaviour or remark x acknowledge the behaviour or remark


x state clearly that it is unacceptable x state clearly that it is unacceptable
x correct any misinformation x correct any misinformation
x make it clear to the person discriminated against that you support them x make it clear to the person discriminated against that you support them
x the incident should be reported to the relevant leader/manager x the incident should be reported to the relevant leader/manager

Sometimes in doing this all the attention is focused on the person who has Sometimes in doing this all the attention is focused on the person who has
made the remark, but it is important to remember to give time and attention to made the remark, but it is important to remember to give time and attention to
the child who has been the object of the prejudice. They will need comfort and the child who has been the object of the prejudice. They will need comfort and
reassurance and perhaps some help in knowing how to respond to any future reassurance and perhaps some help in knowing how to respond to any future
comments with dignity. comments with dignity.

Summary Summary

To give children the best start in life child carers must ensure all children: To give children the best start in life child carers must ensure all children:

x are given an equal opportunity to develop their own individual potential x are given an equal opportunity to develop their own individual potential
x learn not to discriminate against others x learn not to discriminate against others
x learn to value and enjoy the ways that people are different from one x learn to value and enjoy the ways that people are different from one
another another

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Activity 2 Activity 2

How would you react to this father’s comment? How would you react to this father’s comment?

‘Well, you don’t expect a boy to be artistic, do you? Maths and science are ‘Well, you don’t expect a boy to be artistic, do you? Maths and science are
more suited to boys’ more suited to boys’

The Legislation The Legislation

There are particular laws that aim to promote equal opportunities. Some aim There are particular laws that aim to promote equal opportunities. Some aim
to prevent discriminatory practice and the expression of prejudice and others to to prevent discriminatory practice and the expression of prejudice and others to
establish the rights of individuals. establish the rights of individuals.

These laws can provide frameworks to make certain practices punishable, but These laws can provide frameworks to make certain practices punishable, but
cannot change people’s attitudes. This can only come through education and cannot change people’s attitudes. This can only come through education and
exploration of ideas and helping people to develop attitudes about the equal exploration of ideas and helping people to develop attitudes about the equal
value of each individual. That is why the work of the child carer is so influential value of each individual. That is why the work of the child carer is so influential
in promoting greater harmony in our society. in promoting greater harmony in our society.

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Data Protection Act 1998 Data Protection Act 1998


Under this legislation, individuals have a right to information recorded about Under this legislation, individuals have a right to information recorded about
themselves in hard or electronic copies. This information should be relevant, themselves in hard or electronic copies. This information should be relevant,
accurate and up to date. accurate and up to date.

Children Act 1989 actively encourages good anti-racist and anti-discriminatory Children Act 1989 actively encourages good anti-racist and anti-discriminatory
practice. practice.

Race Relations Act 1976 outlaws discrimination on the grounds of race, Race Relations Act 1976 outlaws discrimination on the grounds of race,
colour, nationality, ethnic or national origin. colour, nationality, ethnic or national origin.

The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 outlaws discrimination on the grounds of The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 outlaws discrimination on the grounds of
gender. gender.

The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 outlaws discrimination against The Disability Discrimination Act 1995 outlaws discrimination against
disabled people in employment, and in the provision of goods and services. disabled people in employment, and in the provision of goods and services.

1.2 Children’s rights and legislation 1.2 Children’s rights and legislation

In this unit we will look at the rights of the child. We look at how to ensure In this unit we will look at the rights of the child. We look at how to ensure
confidentiality and privacy for children, except where their well-being is at stake, confidentiality and privacy for children, except where their well-being is at stake,
and the child care setting’s responsibility to safeguard and promote the welfare and the child care setting’s responsibility to safeguard and promote the welfare
of those individuals in their care. of those individuals in their care.

Confidentiality Confidentiality

In this position the child carer will have access to information about the children In this position the child carer will have access to information about the children
they work with and their families. Some of it will come to them directly from they work with and their families. Some of it will come to them directly from
parents or other professionals and some of it they may pick up indirectly, parents or other professionals and some of it they may pick up indirectly,
perhaps from children. Some of this information may be sensitive and must be perhaps from children. Some of this information may be sensitive and must be
treated in a confidential way. treated in a confidential way.

The principles of confidentiality The principles of confidentiality

Maintaining confidentiality is a fundamental part of working in a professional Maintaining confidentiality is a fundamental part of working in a professional
way for all child carers. Upholding confidentiality means not passing on way for all child carers. Upholding confidentiality means not passing on
personal information about the families that carers work with. It doesn’t mean personal information about the families that carers work with. It doesn’t mean

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that an individual can never say anything about a child of family to someone that an individual can never say anything about a child of family to someone
else. else.

Confidentiality is about understanding: Confidentiality is about understanding:

x what sort of information is sensitive and must be kept confidential x what sort of information is sensitive and must be kept confidential
x what sort of information is suitable to share with other people x what sort of information is suitable to share with other people
x when to seek parents’ permission to pass on information about their x when to seek parents’ permission to pass on information about their
child child
x when to pass on information without seeking permission first if it is in the x when to pass on information without seeking permission first if it is in the
child’s interests to do so child’s interests to do so

But a carer should: But a carer should:

x never discuss one set of parents with another x never discuss one set of parents with another
x take care when they are having casual conversations with friends, family x take care when they are having casual conversations with friends, family
and at meetings with other carers and at meetings with other carers
x be cautious, even in training course sessions, and in preparing course x be cautious, even in training course sessions, and in preparing course
work assignments. make references to children and families in a work assignments. make references to children and families in a
general way and don’t refer to them by name general way and don’t refer to them by name
x be prepared for others to be curious and ask questions about the child in x be prepared for others to be curious and ask questions about the child in
their care or its family their care or its family
x keep any written information they have about children and families in x keep any written information they have about children and families in
their care in a secure lockable file, cabinet, or box, which is accessible their care in a secure lockable file, cabinet, or box, which is accessible
only to the relevant members of the child care setting only to the relevant members of the child care setting

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When it is appropriate to share confidential information When it is appropriate to share confidential information

There are only two situations when it is acceptable for a carer to share or pass There are only two situations when it is acceptable for a carer to share or pass
on confidential information. These are: on confidential information. These are:

1. If parents have first given permission for them to do so. For example 1. If parents have first given permission for them to do so. For example
they may take a child to see a health visitor, but first they must discuss they may take a child to see a health visitor, but first they must discuss
with the parents what they are going to say and be sure the parents are with the parents what they are going to say and be sure the parents are
happy about them talking about the child. happy about them talking about the child.

2. If it is necessary to do so in the interest of the child. A child’s welfare 2. If it is necessary to do so in the interest of the child. A child’s welfare
must always take top priority especially if there is any suspicion of must always take top priority especially if there is any suspicion of
abuse. A carer may have to pass on information without any previous abuse. A carer may have to pass on information without any previous
discussion with the parents, in the interest of protecting their child from discussion with the parents, in the interest of protecting their child from
harm. harm.

Activity 3 Activity 3

What information might the child care setting hold that is confidential? What information might the child care setting hold that is confidential?

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Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children

According to the Children Act 1989, anyone who comes into contact with According to the Children Act 1989, anyone who comes into contact with
children and their families in their daily work, even if they don’t have a specific children and their families in their daily work, even if they don’t have a specific
role in relation to child protection, has a duty to safeguard and promote the role in relation to child protection, has a duty to safeguard and promote the
welfare of children. welfare of children.

Well-being Well-being

Well-being is defined by the five positive outcomes set out in Section 10 of the Well-being is defined by the five positive outcomes set out in Section 10 of the
Children Act 2004. They are: Children Act 2004. They are:

x physical and mental health and emotional well-being x physical and mental health and emotional well-being
x protection from harm and neglect x protection from harm and neglect
x education, training and recreation x education, training and recreation
x the contribution made by them to society x the contribution made by them to society
x social and economic well-being x social and economic well-being

Why it is important to safeguard the welfare of children Why it is important to safeguard the welfare of children

All children and young people have a basic right to build a positive future and All children and young people have a basic right to build a positive future and
this includes emotional, physical and mental health. Good emotional well-being this includes emotional, physical and mental health. Good emotional well-being
and mental health will enable the child to build positive relationships and cope and mental health will enable the child to build positive relationships and cope
with the ups and downs of life. It will help them to realise their own potential with the ups and downs of life. It will help them to realise their own potential
and have the opportunity to develop emotionally, intellectually and spiritually. and have the opportunity to develop emotionally, intellectually and spiritually.

The three main influences on a child’s welfare are: The three main influences on a child’s welfare are:

1. The child’s developmental needs 1. The child’s developmental needs


x health x health
x education x education
x emotional & behavioural development x emotional & behavioural development
x identity x identity
x family and social relationships x family and social relationships
x social presentation x social presentation
x self -care skills x self -care skills

2. The capacity of the child’s parents or carers to parent 2. The capacity of the child’s parents or carers to parent

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x basic care x basic care


x ensuring safety x ensuring safety
x emotional warmth x emotional warmth
x stimulation x stimulation
x guidance and boundaries x guidance and boundaries
x stability x stability

3. Family and environmental factors 3. Family and environmental factors


x family history and functioning x family history and functioning
x wider family x wider family
x housing x housing
x employment x employment
x income x income
x family’s social integration x family’s social integration
x community resources x community resources

(From framework for the assessment of children in need and their (From framework for the assessment of children in need and their
families, Department of Health, Department of Education, Home Office families, Department of Health, Department of Education, Home Office
2000). 2000).

How can a carer promote well-being? How can a carer promote well-being?

As a professional in a child care setting the carer can use their knowledge, As a professional in a child care setting the carer can use their knowledge,
skills, and values to enhance the experience of children over a wide range of skills, and values to enhance the experience of children over a wide range of
areas. Those skills can be used to: areas. Those skills can be used to:

x recognise when a child or young person may not be achieving their x recognise when a child or young person may not be achieving their
developmental potential developmental potential
x recognise when a child’s health is impaired x recognise when a child’s health is impaired
x identify appropriate sources of help for children and their families x identify appropriate sources of help for children and their families

What skills and knowledge will help the child carer to fulfil their duty to safe What skills and knowledge will help the child carer to fulfil their duty to safe
guard and promote the welfare of children? guard and promote the welfare of children?

x children and young people will more readily relate to the carer if a x children and young people will more readily relate to the carer if a
trusting and respectful relationship can be built up with them trusting and respectful relationship can be built up with them

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x a carer should understand what is meant by safeguarding and know in x a carer should understand what is meant by safeguarding and know in
what different ways children and young people can be harmed what different ways children and young people can be harmed
x a carer should understand the parents’ role in safeguarding and x a carer should understand the parents’ role in safeguarding and
promoting children and young people's welfare and involve them promoting children and young people's welfare and involve them
accordingly accordingly
x a carer should give careful thought regarding how to act to safeguard x a carer should give careful thought regarding how to act to safeguard
and promote a child or young person's welfare and promote a child or young person's welfare
x a carer should know the signs of abuse and understand that the signs x a carer should know the signs of abuse and understand that the signs
may be subtle and could be expressed in a variety of ways, including may be subtle and could be expressed in a variety of ways, including
play, artwork, and in their relationships with other individuals play, artwork, and in their relationships with other individuals
x carers should ensure children or young people are given the opportunity x carers should ensure children or young people are given the opportunity
to participate in decisions affecting them, as appropriate to their age and to participate in decisions affecting them, as appropriate to their age and
ability ability
x carers should undertake assessments and be vigilant to unexplained x carers should undertake assessments and be vigilant to unexplained
changes in behaviour and signs of neglect or abuse changes in behaviour and signs of neglect or abuse
x carers should observe, record, and report making a distinction between x carers should observe, record, and report making a distinction between
observation, facts, information gained from others and opinion, using the observation, facts, information gained from others and opinion, using the
appropriate IT and language skills effectively appropriate IT and language skills effectively
x carers should be able to recognise when a child or young person is in x carers should be able to recognise when a child or young person is in
danger or at risk of harm, and know what action to take to protect them danger or at risk of harm, and know what action to take to protect them
x carers should develop appropriate professional relationships with x carers should develop appropriate professional relationships with
children and young people children and young people
x a carer should be able to evaluate objectively x a carer should be able to evaluate objectively

x a carer should have the confidence to challenge their own and others' x a carer should have the confidence to challenge their own and others'
practice practice

x a carer should be confident in their ability to represent the child or young x a carer should be confident in their ability to represent the child or young
person and his or her rights person and his or her rights

The legislation related to children and their care The legislation related to children and their care

There is no single piece of legislation that covers children’s rights, but rather a There is no single piece of legislation that covers children’s rights, but rather a
multitude of laws and guidance that are being continually amended, updated multitude of laws and guidance that are being continually amended, updated
and revoked. and revoked.

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Child welfare policies and initiatives target the care, health, and well-being of Child welfare policies and initiatives target the care, health, and well-being of
children, with the goal of improving child health within the public health sector. children, with the goal of improving child health within the public health sector.
These policies and initiatives aim to protect children from the harmful effects of These policies and initiatives aim to protect children from the harmful effects of
poverty, family and parenting problems, child abuse and neglect, and poverty, family and parenting problems, child abuse and neglect, and
inadequate resources. inadequate resources.

The Children Act 1989 The Children Act 1989

This reform upholds a number of principles, one being that a child’s welfare is This reform upholds a number of principles, one being that a child’s welfare is
paramount when making decisions about a child’s upbringing. It introduced paramount when making decisions about a child’s upbringing. It introduced
the concept of parental responsibility which sets out the rights, duties, power the concept of parental responsibility which sets out the rights, duties, power
and responsibilities of the parent or carer of a child. It also sets out to detail and responsibilities of the parent or carer of a child. It also sets out to detail
what local authorities and the courts should do to protect the welfare of what local authorities and the courts should do to protect the welfare of
children. children.

The Children Act 2004 The Children Act 2004

This did not replace or even amend the Children Act 1989, instead it sets out This did not replace or even amend the Children Act 1989, instead it sets out
the process for providing services to children so that every child can achieve the process for providing services to children so that every child can achieve
the five outcomes laid down in the ‘Every Child Matters’ green paper: the five outcomes laid down in the ‘Every Child Matters’ green paper:

x be healthy x be healthy
x stay safe x stay safe
x enjoy and achieve x enjoy and achieve
x make a positive contribution x make a positive contribution
x achieve economic well-being x achieve economic well-being

It requires local authorities to take the lead through multi-agency children's It requires local authorities to take the lead through multi-agency children's
trusts, to develop a children and young people's plan, and to set up a shared trusts, to develop a children and young people's plan, and to set up a shared
database of children, containing information relevant to their welfare. This database of children, containing information relevant to their welfare. This
means that the organisations involved with providing services to children - from means that the organisations involved with providing services to children - from
hospitals and schools, to police and voluntary groups - will be teaming up, hospitals and schools, to police and voluntary groups - will be teaming up,
sharing information and working together, to protect children and young people sharing information and working together, to protect children and young people
from harm and help them achieve what they want in life. from harm and help them achieve what they want in life.

Children and young people will have far more say about issues that affect them Children and young people will have far more say about issues that affect them
as individuals and collectively. as individuals and collectively.

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Children’s Commissioner for England Children’s Commissioner for England

In March 2005, the first Children's Commissioner for England was appointed, to In March 2005, the first Children's Commissioner for England was appointed, to
give children and young people a voice in government and in public life. The give children and young people a voice in government and in public life. The
Commissioner will pay particular attention to gathering and putting forward the Commissioner will pay particular attention to gathering and putting forward the
views of the most vulnerable children and young people in society, and will views of the most vulnerable children and young people in society, and will
promote their involvement in the work of organisations whose actions and promote their involvement in the work of organisations whose actions and
decisions affect them. decisions affect them.

Childcare Act 2006 Childcare Act 2006

The new Childcare Act is the first ever Act to be solely concerned with early The new Childcare Act is the first ever Act to be solely concerned with early
years and childcare. The Act will help transform childcare and early years years and childcare. The Act will help transform childcare and early years
services in England for generations to come. Measures in the Act set out services in England for generations to come. Measures in the Act set out
important strategic roles for local authorities to play through a set of new duties. important strategic roles for local authorities to play through a set of new duties.
These duties will require authorities to: These duties will require authorities to:

x improve the five every child matters outcomes for all pre-school children x improve the five every child matters outcomes for all pre-school children
and reduce inequalities in these outcomes and reduce inequalities in these outcomes
x secure sufficient childcare for working parents x secure sufficient childcare for working parents
x provide a better parental information service x provide a better parental information service

The Act also reforms and simplifies early years regulation and inspection The Act also reforms and simplifies early years regulation and inspection
arrangements. The Act's main provisions will come into effect in 2008. arrangements. The Act's main provisions will come into effect in 2008.

Every Child Matters Every Child Matters

Every Child Matters: Change for Children is a new approach to the well-being Every Child Matters: Change for Children is a new approach to the well-being
of children and young people from birth to age 19. of children and young people from birth to age 19.

The Government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their The Government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their
circumstances, to have the support they need to: circumstances, to have the support they need to:

x be healthy x be healthy
x stay safe x stay safe
x enjoy and achieve x enjoy and achieve
x make a positive contribution x make a positive contribution
x achieve economic well-being x achieve economic well-being

The Every Child Matters: Change for Children programme aims to put in place The Every Child Matters: Change for Children programme aims to put in place
a national framework to support the joining up of services so that every child a national framework to support the joining up of services so that every child

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can achieve the five Every Child Matters outcomes. This will involve, amongst can achieve the five Every Child Matters outcomes. This will involve, amongst
others: others:

x the every child matters: change for children programme aims to ensure x the every child matters: change for children programme aims to ensure
that support for parents becomes routine, particularly at key points in a that support for parents becomes routine, particularly at key points in a
child or young person's life, because parents, carers and families are the child or young person's life, because parents, carers and families are the
most important influence on outcomes for children and young people most important influence on outcomes for children and young people

x social services will play a central role in trying to improve outcomes for x social services will play a central role in trying to improve outcomes for
the most vulnerable. they will be achieving change through closing the the most vulnerable. they will be achieving change through closing the
gap between their outcomes and those of the majority of children and gap between their outcomes and those of the majority of children and
young people young people

x the government, in partnership with local areas, is working to make sure x the government, in partnership with local areas, is working to make sure
parents and families have access to the support that they need, when parents and families have access to the support that they need, when
they need it, so that all children can benefit from confident, positive and they need it, so that all children can benefit from confident, positive and
resilient parenting, from birth right through to the teenage years resilient parenting, from birth right through to the teenage years

United Nations Convention in the Rights of the Child 1989 United Nations Convention in the Rights of the Child 1989

This Act includes the right to protection from abuse, the right to express their This Act includes the right to protection from abuse, the right to express their
views and have them listened to and the right to care and services for disabled views and have them listened to and the right to care and services for disabled
children and children living away from home. children and children living away from home.

The Human Rights Act 1998 The Human Rights Act 1998

The Act makes it unlawful for public authorities to act in a manner which is The Act makes it unlawful for public authorities to act in a manner which is
incompatible with the rights and freedoms contained in the Act. It also requires incompatible with the rights and freedoms contained in the Act. It also requires
the Government and the courts to ensure that court rulings and new Bills are the Government and the courts to ensure that court rulings and new Bills are
compatible with the Act wherever possible. These include the right to respect compatible with the Act wherever possible. These include the right to respect
for private and family life. for private and family life.

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