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# MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

## BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)

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QUESTION 1

## What is Photo Scale?

1. Photo scale is the ratio of a distance on the photo to the corresponding distance on the ground.
2. Photo scale may be presented as unit equivalents, unit fractions, dimensionless representative
fractions or dimensionless ratio.
3. Photo scale is shown as where one unit on the photograph represents a specific number of the
same units on the ground. For example, a photo scale of 1 : 15 000 means 1 mm unit on the photo
is represents 15 000 mm or 15 metres unit on the ground.
4. Two common types of photo scale are:
i. Large Scale – means the larger ground features and more detailed in size. However the area of
ground coverage on the photo is less than at smaller scales.
ii. Small Scale – means the smaller ground features and less detailed size. However the area of
ground coverage on the photo is greater than at larger scales.

QUESTION 2

## List out information that can be obtained from an aerial photograph.

1. Number of Photo
2. Flying Height
3. Time
4. Date
5. Scale
6. Number of Flight Line. Example, L1N means Line One Northing
7. Film Colour. Example, FC 1220
8. Focal Length
9. Type of Camera
10. Four (4) Fiducial Marks

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzain
ni (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
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QUESTION 3

## If a distance of a line on the photograph is known as 1 c

cm,
m, what is it’s equivalent distance on the
ground if the photographic scale is 1 : 10 000

## Distance of a line on the photograph 1 cm means 10 mm unit

Photo Scale 1 : 10 000 means 1 mm unit on the photo represents 10 000 mm or 10 m on the ground.

If the distance on the photograph is known as 10 mm, so the equivalent distance on the ground is 100
000 mm or 100 m on the ground.

QUESTION 4

How many fiducial marks you can see on an aerial photograph? Categorize them.
There are four (4) or eight (8) fiducial marks on an aerial photograph. And it falls into few categories:
1. Circle
2. Square
3. Rectangle
4. Diamond, etc

QUESTION 5

## Define what is principal point.

1. Principal
rincipal point is defined as a point that lie on the focal plane and the geometric centre of
photograph.
2. It is also the intersection point between lines that link the opposite fiducial marks
marks.
3. It is also the nadir of the optical axis of the camera during the instant of exposure.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 6

What is the difference between principal distance and focal length of a camera?
1. Principal distance is the distance between two principal points and it is conjugate.
2. In theory the principal distance is seems same as the focal length. However principal distance
differs from focal length when the lens is focused at a closer distance, the principal distance
changes.
3. Instead the term used in the lab is “principal distance” but when in the field it is called “focal length”.

QUESTION 7

## What is fiducial center? How it is determined?

Fiducial Center is the intersection of the diagonal lines connecting fiducial marks, which lie diametrically
apart.
Fiducial center also the origin of the coordinate x and y given in rectangular.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 8

What are the differences between a metric camera and a non – metric camera?
Metric Camera Non – Metric Camera

1. Been specifically designed for photogrammetric 1. An unstable interior orientation. The effective
purposes and take large format focal length may change for each exposure
photogrammetric images on stable-base film or and the direction of the optical axis may alter
glass plates with focusing movements
2. A stable interior orientation, that is lens cone is 2. A lack of fiducial marks
rigid and the focusing distance pre-set at the 3. Irregular lens distortions. As well as radial lens
factory. The optical axis is defined by fiducial distortions, relatively large tangential
marks fixed to the camera which are distortions may be present in the lenses of
reproduced on each exposure as reference older amateur camera.
points; 4. An unsophisticated film flattening device. The
3. A low distortion lens whose characteristics film may be buckled at the time of exposure,
(focal length, radial lens distortions) are known but will be held flat whilst image coordinates
from a manufacturer’s calibration test are read from it. the buckling may vary from
4. An image surface which is flat within a fine frame to frame and consequently is very
tolerance and which incorporates a film difficult to correct during calculations for object
flattening device such as a pressure plate or coordinates
vacuum system. 5. Small image format. The accuracy of
determining the position of an object by
photogrammetry is claimed to be directly
related to the area of the photographed image.
6. However the modern lenses available for
small format non-metric cameras often have a
better pictorial quality than the low distortion
and lower resolution lenses in metric cameras.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 9

## Explain the Newton’s Lens Law. Show the expression.

1. Lens formula:
The relation between u, v and f is called lens formula. 1/f = 1/v – 1/u
2. Lens maker formula:
The relation focal length (f), refractive index (µ), radius of curvature of first and second (R1 & R2)
which refracting surfaces of a thin lens is known as lens maker formula.
1/f = (µ – 1) (1/R1 – 1/R2)
3. Newton Formula:
Newton’s formula measures the distance of object (x1) and (x2) from the first and second principal
foci not from the optical centre. then Newton's formula states f2 = x1x

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 10

## What is the differences between an oblique photograph and a panoramic photograph?

Oblique Photograph Panoramic Photograph

An oblique photograph is taken when the camera is Panoramic photography is achieved by stitching a
focused at any angle between three degrees from number of photographs together to form a single
vertical and the horizon. "Wide" shot.

There are two basic types of oblique photograph: Panoramic aerial photography can be done using
high-angle and low-angle. In high-angle oblique, full-sized helicopters, their unmanned counterparts,
the apparent horizon is shown, while in low-angle or pole cams.
oblique the horizon is not.
Pole cams are good for very low altitudes but they
With high oblique photograph, atmospheric haze are limited to about 100 feet and road access is
and clouds often prevent the viewer from seeing needed.
the true horizon.
Full-sized helicopters are the platform of choice for
The furthest point viewable in high oblique aerial high-altitude panoramas; however new
photography is called the apparent horizon. technologies permit unmanned helicopters, coupled
with advanced GPS autopilot stabilization systems,
to be positioned within a few feet from any
elevation or location.

## This type of aerial photography is perfect for

showing views from proposed or under-
construction high-rise buildings.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 11

Show the equations of a photo scale for a vertical photo and an oblique photo.

## Vertical Photograph Oblique / Tilted Photograph

1. Scale of Vertical Photograph Over Flat Terrain


S=


  

## 2. Scale of Vertical Photograph over Variable Terrain

(at a point)


S=
    %& #'(\$
!"#\$
H = Flying Height, h = the elevation at point S=
)*
3. Scale of Vertical Photograph by other method
f = focal length
   
S= x map scale y’ = calculated coordinate of the point in the auxiliary
  
system
H = Flying height above datum for the photo
h’ = elevation of certain object point above datum

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 12

## Define the followings:

it is the point where a plumb line dropped from the front nodal point pierces the photograph. This
point is vertically beneath the exposure station.

## iv. Control Point

A reference point precisely located on both the ground and the photo (ground control point) on both
a map and the photo (map control point), or on two adjacent photos (photo control point)

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 13

## What is Snell’s Law?

Snell's law (also known as the law of refraction) named after
Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius, one of its discoverers, is
a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of
incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves
passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media,
such as water and glass.

The law says that the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence
and of refraction is a constant that depends on the media.

## In optics, the law is used in ray tracing to compute the angles of

incidence or refraction, and in experimental optics and gemology to
find the refractive index of a material.

## Refraction of light at the interface between two media of

different refractive indices, with n2 > n1. Since the
velocity is lower in the second medium (v2 < v1), the
angle of refraction θ2 is less than the angle of incidence
θ1; that is, the ray in the higher-index medium is closer to
the normal.

## Snell's law is also satisfied in the metamaterials which

allow light to be bent "backward" at a negative index,
with a negative angle of refraction.

Snell's law states that the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction is equivalent to the
ratio of velocities in the two media, or equivalent to the opposite ratio of the indices of refraction:

## v = velocity, SI units are m/s

n = refractive index, which is unitless

Snell's law follows from Fermat's principle of least time, which in turn follows from the propagation of light
as waves.

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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 14

## What are the parameters of inner orientation?

1. Coordinate system.
2. Principal distance.
3. Focal length.
4. Principal point.
5. Fiducial mark coordinates.

QUESTION 15

## What is relative orientation? How it differs from absolute orientation?

Absolute orientation includes the identification of ground control features and the measurement of the
corresponding image coordinates. Implementations of automatic absolute orientation are rare and work
under restricted conditions only. These measurements, in principle, make ground control information as
such, and thus also their identification in the images, obsolete. As it stands today, however, at least a
small number of control points are still needed to ensure a reliable solution.

In contrast to absolute orientation, relative orientation does not require the recognition of specific features.
The conjugate points used only have to be geometrically well distributed in the model area.

Relative orientation is a prerequisite in order to provide users from photogrammetry and other disciplines
with parallax-free stereo viewing for photogrammetric date collection, interpretation purposes, and a

Relative orientation is also the core for any automatic point transfer system. Moreover, the parameters of
relative orientation are
needed for epipolar
resampling of digital images.
Therefore, automatic relative
orientation is an essential
procedure for the automation
of further procedures in
photogrammetric stereo
processing.

“Relative orientation” is done by selecting correlative photo points: this eliminates model parallax.
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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
BACHELOR OF GEOMATIC AND SURVEYING SCIENCE (AP220) Jack Ruzaini (jacketphisher@yahoo.com)
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

QUESTION 16

## There are three (3) types of errors in photogrammetry. Discuss.

1. Gross Errors – mistakes or blunders caused by carelessness or negligence. E.g. point
misidentification, transcription error in recording a value, misreading of a scale.
2. Systematic Errors – is an error in measurement which follows some mathematical or physical law.
E.g. shrinkage or expansive of photograph, camera lens distortion, atmospheric refraction.
3. Random Errors – generally were small but can never be avoided entirely in measurement. E.g. in
estimating between least graduation of a scale.

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