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BIODIESEL

AND

JATROPHA PLANTATION

By

SATISH LELE
J-22, SECTOR 7,
VASHI, NAVI MUMBAI,
400703. INDIA.
TEL : 91-98221 99520
And
91-98202 77283
Web Site : www.svlele.com
E Mail : lele@vsnl.com

May 2006
INDEX

Chapter Description Page No.


No.
1 Introduction 1
2 Alternative Sources of Energy 8
3 Feasibility of BioDiesel Production 26
4 Production of BioDiesel 29
5 Blending of Esters and Diesel 45
6 Storage of BioDiesel 46
7 Handling of BioDiesel 47
8 Analysis of Technologies 49
9 Engine Development & Modifications 53
10 Environmental & Health Effects 56
11 Research & Development Issues 60
12 Properties of BioDiesel 67
13 Material Safety Data Sheet 73
14 Marketing and Trade 79
15 Conclusion 82
16 Biodiesel Project Report 87
17 Bio Gas Plant 101
18 Glycerine 104
19 D1 oil Company 109
20 Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel 124
21 Cultivation of Jatropha Curcas 144
22 Oil Bearing Trees 150
23 Type of Land Required 164
24 Nursery Raising and Plantation 168
25 Seed Procurement & Oil Extraction Center 173
26 Business Model for Jatropha Curcas 184
27 Research Institutes 192
28 Carbon Credit 195
29 Investing in India 206
App I News from Press about BioDiesel 228
App II News from Press about Jatropha 290
PREFACE

I am working for last 3 years to popularize BioDiesel and Jatropha Plantation in India.
During this period I studied a lot of literature, and collected practical experience on
the ground. It was found, by many who are working in this field, that a lot of
misleading and exaggerated information is spread by Marketing people.

Mr. B.H. Jain (Bhau) of Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., encouraged me to collect correct
information about all aspects of this and publish it, so that correct information will
reach common farmers and entrepreneurs.

This is my sincere effort to provide correct information to the people all over the
world about techno-commercial activities going on in India. I hope will succeed in
BioDiesel and Jatropha Mission.

SATISH LELE
20th October 2005

About The Author


Satish Lele, a Chemical Engineering Graduate from Indian Institute of Technology,
Bombay with more than 30 years of experience in the field of Chemicals. He now
works as Consultant for BioDiesel and Jatropha Plantation. He has taken up BioDiesel
and Jatropha Plantation as a mission. He can be contacted at J-22, Sector 7, Vashi,
Navi Mumbai, 400 703, INDIA. Tel : 91 - 98221 99520 and 98202 77283. E Mail :
lele@vsnl.com, Web Site : www.svlele.com
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Biodiesel is methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oils
(both edible & non-edible) and animal fats. Since edible oils are in short supply in
India, the main raw materials for manufacture of biodiesel can be non-edible oils
obtained from plant species such as Jatropha Curcas (Ratanjyot), Pongamia Pinnata
(Karanj), Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa), Hevca brasiliensis (Rubber) etc.
Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum
diesel to create a biodiesel blend or can be used in its pure form. Just like petroleum
diesel, biodiesel operates in compression ignition (diesel) engine, which essentially
require very little or no engine modifications because biodiesel has properties similar
to petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel and hence
does not require separate handling or storage infrastructure. The use of biodiesel in
conventional diesel engines results in substantial reduction of unburnt hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide and particulate matters. Biodiesel is considered clean fuel since it
has almost no sulfur, no aromatics and has about 10 % built-in oxygen, which helps it
to burn fully. Its higher cetane number improves the ignition quality even when
blended in the petroleum diesel.
For new vehicles (except 2 and 3 wheelers), compliance of Bharat Stage II emission
norms are enforced in the entire country from 1.4.2005 and Euro III equivalent norms
will be enforced by 1.4.2010. In addition to 4 metros where Bharat Stage II norms are
already in place, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur and Agra
are meeting this norm from 1.4.2003. The four metros and the other seven cities are
complying with Euro III and Euro IV equivalent emission norms from 1.4.2005 and
1.4.2010 respectively. The 2 and 3 wheelers conform to Bharat Stage II norms from
1.4.2005 all over the country and Bharat Stage III norms preferably from 1.4.2008 but
not later than 2010. For new vehicles, a drastic reduction in sulfur content (< 350
ppm) and higher cetane number (>51) will be required in the petroleum diesel
produced by Indian Refineries. Biodiesel meets these two important specifications
and would help in improving the lubricity of low sulfur diesel. The present
specification of flash point for petroleum diesel is 35°C which is lower than all the
countries in the world (>55°C). Biodiesel will help in raising the flash point, a
requirement of safety.
A B20 (a blend of 20 percent by volume biodiesel with 80 percent by volume
petroleum diesel) has demonstrated significant environmental benefits in US with a
minimum increase in cost for fleet operations and other consumers. Biodiesel is
registered as a fuel and fuel additive with the US Environmental Protection Agency
and meets clean diesel standards established by the California Air Resources Board.
Neat B100 (100 percent biodiesel) has been designated as an alternative fuel by the
Department of Energy and the Department of Transportation of US. Studies
conducted with biodiesel on engines have shown substantial reduction in Particulate
matter (25–50%). However, a marginal increase in NOx (1-6%) is also reported; but it
can be taken care of either by optimization of engine parts or by using De-NOx
catalyst (De-NOx catalyst will be necessary for Bharat-III / IV compliant engines).
Hydro Carbon and Carbon Monoxide emissions were also reported to be lower. Non-
regulated emissions like Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons etc were also found to be
lower.
Biodiesel has been accepted as clean alternative fuel by US and its production
presently is about 100 million Gallons. Each State has passed specific bills to promote
the use of biodiesel by reduction of taxes. Sunflower, rape seed etc. is the raw

1
material used in Europe whereas soy bean is used in USA. Thailand uses palm oil,
Ireland uses frying oil and animal fats. Due to its favorable properties, biodiesel can
be used as fuel for diesel engines (as either B5-a blend of 5% biodiesel in petroleum
diesel fuel or B20 or B100).
USA uses B20 and B100 biodiesel. France uses B5 as mandatory in all diesel fuel. It
can also be used as an additive to reduce the overall sulfur content of blend and to
compensate for lubricity loss due to sulfur removal from diesel fuel. The viscosity of
biodiesel is higher (1.9 to 6.0 centi-Stokes) and is reported to result into gum
formation on injector, cylinder liner etc if used in neat form. However, blends of up to
20% should not give any problem. While an engine can be designed for 100%
biodiesel use, the existing engines can use 20% biodiesel blend without any
modification and reduction in torque output.
In USA, 20% biodiesel blend is being used, while in European countries 5-15%
blends have been adopted. Germany has more than 1,500 filling stations supplying
biodiesel, and it is cheaper than ordinary diesel fuel. It is widely used in France, the
world's largest producer. Virtually all fossil diesel fuel sold in France contains
between 2% and 5% biodiesel. New EU laws will soon require this Europe-wide.
Some states in the US are legislating similar requirements. There is a growing number
of US suppliers. Biodiesel is more expensive than ordinary diesel in the US but sales
are rising very fast and prices will drop in time. In the UK biodiesel is to be taxed less
than petroleum diesel and it is already available commercially. Biodiesel works well
with new technologies such as diesel oxidation catalysts (which reduce the soluble
fraction of diesel particulate but not the solid carbon fraction).

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND USES


Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from
vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant oils. Biodiesel is safe,
biodegradable, and reduces serious air pollutants such as particulate, carbon
monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxic. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum
diesel (B20) can generally be used in unmodified diesel engines. Biodiesel can also be
used in its pure form (B100), but it too may require certain engine modifications to
avoid maintenance and performance problems.
Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) is a cleaner-burning diesel replacement fuel made
from natural, renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats.
Just like petroleum diesel, biodiesel operates in compression-ignition engines. Blends
of up to 20% biodiesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all
diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment.
These low level blends (20% and less) generally do not require any engine
modifications. Biodiesel can provide the same payload capacity and as diesel.
Using biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of
unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfates, polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter.
These reductions increase as the amount of biodiesel blended into diesel fuel
increases. The best emissions reductions are seen with B100.
The use of biodiesel decreases the solid carbon fraction of particulate matter (since
the oxygen in biodiesel enables more complete combustion to CO2) and reduces the
sulfate fraction (biodiesel contains less than 24 ppm sulfur), while the soluble, or
hydrocarbon, fraction stays the same or increases. Therefore, biodiesel works well
with new technologies such as diesel oxidation catalysts (which reduce the soluble
fraction of diesel particulate but not the solid carbon fraction).

2
Emissions of nitrogen oxides increase with the concentration of biodiesel in the fuel.
Some biodiesel produces more nitrogen oxides than others, and some additives have
shown promise in modifying the increases. More R&D is needed to resolve this issue.
Biodiesel has physical properties very similar to conventional diesel.
Physical Characteristics:
Specific gravity 0.87 to 0.89
Kinematic viscosity @ 40°C 3.7 to 5.8
Cetane number 46 to 70
Higher heating value (btu/lb) 16,928 to 17,996
Sulfur, wt% 0.0 to 0.0024
Cloud point °C -11 to 16
Pour point °C -15 to 13
Iodine number 60 to 135
Lower heating value (btu/lb) 15,700 to 16,735
BioDiesel is packed in 35 kg carboys, 225 kg MS Barrels and Bulk in Tankers.
Benefits of Biodiesel : Biodiesel is a substitute or extender for traditional petroleum
diesel and you do not need special pumps or high pressure equipment for fueling. In
addition, it can be used in conventional diesel engines, so you do not need to buy
special vehicles or engines to run biodiesel. Scientists believe carbon dioxide is one of
the main greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Neat biodiesel (100
percent biodiesel) reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 75 percent over
petroleum diesel. Using a blend of 20 percent biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide
emissions by 15 percent.
Biodiesel also produces fewer particulate, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide
emissions, all targeted as public health risks by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Since biodiesel can be used in conventional diesel engines, the renewable fuel can
directly replace petroleum products; reducing the country's dependence on imported
oil. Biodiesel offers safety benefits over petroleum diesel because it is much less
combustible, with a flash point greater than 150°C, compared to 77°C for petroleum
diesel. It is safe to handle, store, and transport.
Biodiesel can help reduce our dependence on foreign oil and help us leverage our
fossil fuel supplies. It can also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as
public health risks associated with air pollution. It is nontoxic and biodegradable.
Biodiesel contains only trace amounts of sulfur, typically less than the new EPA
standards that will go into effect in 2006 for diesel fuel. It is safe to handle, transport,
and store, and has a higher flash point than petroleum diesel. It can also be stored in
diesel tanks and pumped with regular equipment except in colder weather, where tank
heaters or agitators may be required. Biodiesel mixes readily with petroleum diesel at
any blend level, making it a very flexible fuel additive.
Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, so it contributes to complete burning of fuel and a
greatly improved emissions profile. More the biodiesel used in a blend, the higher is
emission reductions. One of the unique benefits of biodiesel is that it significantly
reduces air toxic that are associated with petroleum diesel exhaust and are suspected
of causing cancer and other human health problems. NOx emissions are an exception
to the rule, since biodiesel tends to increase NOx emissions. Recent research has
shown a number of ways to mitigate this problem.
You can use pure biodiesel in most engines made after 1994 with some limitations.
Engine performance (fuel economy, torque, and power) can be less than that of diesel
by 8% to 15%, because of the lower energy content of the biodiesel (121,000 Btu
compared to 135,000 Btu for diesel fuel). Consumers should be aware of potential

3
cold weather problems during vehicle operation and fuel storage. Consumers should
also watch for obvious signs of damage around seals and gaskets. You can use pure
biodiesel in older engines, but the seals and gaskets are more likely to be damaged by
biodiesel. Also, it helps to start out with a clean storage tank if pure biodiesel is used.
Most people use a blend of 20% biodiesel with petroleum diesel (B20) to avoid the
problems listed above. Engine performance with B20 is virtually the same as with
petroleum diesel. Problems associated with storage, seals and gaskets, and cold
weather are minimal. Even very low amounts of biodiesel (1% to 2%) can provide
substantial lubricity benefits to premium diesel fuels.
Every gallon of biodiesel displaces 0.95 gallons of petroleum-based diesel over its life
cycle. It is also very energy efficient. For every unit of fossil energy used to produce
biodiesel, 3.37 units of biodiesel energy are created. Additionally, biodiesel reduces
the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being released into the atmosphere. It releases
less fossil CO2 than does conventional diesel, and the crops used to produce biodiesel,
absorb large amounts of CO2 as they grow. And because biodiesel is nontoxic and
biodegradable, it is an excellent fuel for use in fragile environments such as estuaries,
lakes, rivers, and national parks.
Description : BioDiesel is a manufactured product, slightly yellow in color, oily
liquid with a slight aromatic odor and a bitter taste.
Applications : It is commonly used as fuel for stationary diesel engine like Pump sets
and other agricultural implements and also in Diesel cars.
Standards and Specifications for Biodiesel (B100) : These are provided by the
National Biodiesel Board. Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100), Blend
Stock for Distillate Fuels, are provided by ASTM International. Biodiesel Production
and Quality standards are provided by the National Biodiesel Board.
Pure biodiesel (B100) needs to meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 to avoid
engine operational problems. To obtain a copy of ASTM's Standard Specification for
Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels, visit the ASTM International
Web site. This table summarizes the requirements for B100.
Keep up with the latest biodiesel activities by reading the National Biodiesel Board's
newsletter, Biodiesel Bulletin.
Transport information : Hazardous for air, sea and road freight.
Personal protection : Safety glasses, adequate ventilation.
Consumer Safety : BioDiesel is used as substitute for Diesel and all safety
precautions are same as that of Petroleum diesel.
Alternative Fuels Incentives and Laws : Energy Policy Act (EPAct) Fleet
Information and Regulations : The Energy Policy Act of 1992 was passed by US
Congress to reduce dependence on imported petroleum by requiring certain fleets to
acquire alternative fuel vehicles.
Regulatory review completed : On May 2, 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE)
published in the Federal Register the completion of its regulatory review for the
Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit. According to the review, DOE does not intend to initiate
further rulemaking to modify provisions in the final rule published January 11, 2001.
Effective date of the rule was April 13, 2001.
Biodiesel Final Rules were published on January 11, 2001. The final rulemaking
concerning the use of biodiesel to fulfill EPAct requirements was published in the US
Federal Register. The final rulemaking amends Titles III and V of the Energy Policy
Act of 1992 (EPAct), giving biodiesel fuel use credit to fleets that would otherwise be
required to purchase an alternative fueled vehicle.

4
THE ECONOMICS OF SMALL SCALE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
Conventional energy generation is usually location sensitive. The results of this are
centralised facilities, and complex distribution grids. Alternative energies, on the
other hand, offer the possibility of de-centralised generation. Solar Photo Voltaic
Cells, and micro hydro are good examples of this. And so is biodiesel. Although
biodiesel production has so far emulated fossil fuels, making use of large central
facilities, the soundness of this strategy is now being challenged.
Contrary to fossil fuels, biodiesel can be made from a variety of feed stocks, rather
than from a single feedstock originating in distant oil fields. Also contrary to fossil
fuels, biodiesel production can be low tech, and is not capital intensive.
Biodiesel production does not require economy of scale. There is no minimum size
for a biodiesel facility. And small decentralised biodiesel facilities do not require
dedicated technical staff support; they can be operated by locally trained non-
technical staff.
Small biodiesel plants are more energy and capital efficient than their bigger
centralised counterparts. A 180 tons / year facility will use 50 watts per litre of
biodiesel produced, whereas a 20,000 tons /year plant will require 400 watts per litre
or more. The rising demand for biodiesel has so far been met by large centralised
plants, usually 20,000 tons / year, or more; but as biodiesel becomes better known,
small decentralised experimental units have proliferated.
For last two years I have been marketing small commercial biodiesel plants. Sizes
range from 45 to 1800 tons /year, whilst prices range from US$ 1,000 to 40,000. The
smaller units are batch units; the larger ones are batch / continuous. All use the base
process, and generate zero effluents. Demand for them has grown geometrically in the
past 18 months.
Within the next ten years the aggregate production of small decentralised biodiesel
plants will be greater than the aggregate production of the larger centralised units. The
number of small decentralised plants will grow not only because of cost and
environmental considerations, but also because such units can be manufactured
locally without a high-tech input, and can make use of a greater variety of locally
available feed stocks.
Small scale biodiesel production generates a win / win situation, in which low tech
inputs are transformed into a superior, environmentally friendly fuel, without the need
for large capital expenditure, or expensive technology transfers. As a bonus, de-
centralisation of fuel supply will reduce distribution costs, stop gross local product
transfer, and what is more, empower people, making them energy self-sufficient. The
know-how and the hardware are available. All we need now is a bit of word
spreading.
Biodiesel is quite simple to make. Generically, a fatty acid is mixed with a catalyst
and an alcohol, and the resulting compound, alcohol ester fatty acid, is what is known
as biodiesel. This transformation also generates small amounts of a by-product,
glycerine or glycerol, that has many commercial applications. The term fatty acid
encompasses all greases and oils of both animal and vegetable origin, either virgin or
used. Biodiesel can be made (to name a few feed stocks) from lard, fish-oil, virgin
vegetable oil, or waste vegetable oil no longer acceptable for cooking. For this brief
overview reference will only be made to virgin Vegetable Oil (VO), and Waste
Vegetable Oil, (WVO) also known in US as yellow grease.
The alcohols of choice for making biodiesel are methanol and ethanol. And the
catalysts of choice are sodium hydroxide, also known as lye in US, and potassium
hydroxide. All of these inputs are readily available world-wide.

5
Equipment necessary for mixing biodiesel components can be as rudimentary as a
used 20 litre bucket and a hand held drill, or can involve sophisticated reactors. The
end result is usually the same in both cases. The degree of sophistication of biodiesel
equipment has more to do with the production volumes required than with quality
considerations. Large volume production techniques used for making biodiesel can be
scaled down without a loss in process quality; unit costs are lower with the smaller
facilities than with the larger ones.
Large scale production requires wasteful intermediate steps, expensive technical
controls and supervision, and generates effluents that have to be disposed off at
additional cost. Small scale production can side-step these requirements, and has the
added advantage of not generating effluents. One litre of VO or WVO will translate
into one litre of biodiesel. This makes cost calculations simple. Also, the alcohol used
will translate into glycerol, again simplifying cost calculations.
If the glycerol is correctly marketed, the cost of biodiesel will be essentially that of
the VO / WVO used, it is often the case that the sale of the glycerol covers not only
the cost of the alcohol and the catalyst, but the energy input, and labour, as well.
Glycerol is an extraordinary de-greaser, and the world's first liquid glycerine soap. Its
present use as an industrial precursor for pure glycerine is wasteful, instead it should
be used as a de-greaser / soap precursor and locally transformed into value added
products that enhance the biodiesel equation, and generate jobs.
Biodiesel obtained through either small scale or large scale production is a fantastic
fuel that doubles engine life, significantly reduces harmful emissions, does not
generate carcinogenic compounds like its fossil diesel counterpart, and is neutral in
carbon dioxide generation. Biodiesel quality standards vary widely. Most of them
have been determined based on political considerations rather than on technical ones.
As an example, biodiesel meeting US ASTM standards would be un-acceptable in the
European Community, as it is sub-standard as regards proposed DIN, or EN
standards. Still, what really matters is that all existing or proposed biodiesel standards
can be met either through small scale or large scale production. Scale does not affect
biodiesel quality.
The above comments can easily be translated into a direct cost equation for biodiesel.
Indirect costs are another matter, as size and complexity play a predominant role in
determining biodiesel's final cost.
As mentioned earlier, small scale biodiesel plants range from US$ 1,000 to US$
40,000 for installed capacity of between 45 and 1800 tons /year. This translates into
an opportunity cost of US$ 22 a ton / year. Compared to this, the large scale units start
at US$ 350,000 for an installed capacity of 5,000 tons / year, which translates into an
opportunity cost of US$ 70 a ton/year.
If large volumes are the only acceptable business strategy, the higher opportunity cost
will have to be paid. But if a smaller unit can provide the required volumes, the
advantage of small size is quite evident. Over the years we have been led to believe
that only through economy of scale can cheaper goods be obtained. This has led to our
present highly concentrated structure, in which a minute number of players determine
the economics of our lives.
Alternate energies in general, and biodiesel in particular, offer an option to this
scenario. The required inputs and know-how are there; it is now simply a matter of
putting them to good use.
Car facts
!" 70 million motor vehicles were on the world's roads in 1950.
!" 630 million motor vehicles were on the world's roads in 1994.

6
!" 1 billion motor vehicles are expected to be on the world's roads by 2025, if the
current growth rate continues.
!" 50 million new cars roll off the assembly line each year, 137,000 a day.
!" 27 tons of waste materials are produced in the manufacture of the average new
car.
!" 11 million cars are junked annually in the US.
!" 12,000 pounds of carbon dioxide are emitted by the average US car each year.
!" 5% of a car's fuel can be wasted by under inflated tires. 2 billion gallons of
gasoline could be saved annually if 65 million car owners kept their tires properly
inflated.
!" 85% of auto fuel is consumed just to overcome inertia and start the wheels
turning.
!" 2.5 times more emissions are generated by Sports Utility Vehicles and light trucks
than by standard cars.
!" 33,000 natural gas vehicles were in use in the US in 1993. 75,000 natural gas
vehicles were in use in the US in 1998.

7
CHAPTER 2
Alternative Sources of Energy
Energy Scenario : The energy that we use today in India, can be categorized in
number of headings which are used by different sections of society. Some of these can
be the following :
1. Cow Dung (Cattle Waste) : It is used as fuel for thousands of years. In India it
satisfies 20 to 25% of the energy needs for the rural poor. It is a fuel ultimately
based on Solar Energy. The bio mass is used by animals to produce food and fuel
for the mankind. Since it can be used as fertilizer, it is also used as Natural
BioFertilizer. Another alternative is to separate the energy part as Bio Gas and
balance is used as fertilizer. This is possible only in India and other developing
countries, because cow dung has to be collected manually and then dried using
solar energy.
2. Firewood : It is also a widely used fuel in rural areas in India, and it also provides
20 to 25% needs of fuel. Since climatic conditions in India, are favorable for
growing trees, it is used as fuel. To sustain the requirement of fuel wood, more
trees are planted and balance is maintained. This can be widely used in India, as
large population is available to get these from wide spread areas. A tree is the
cheapest form of solar energy plant. Some verities of trees which grow very
rapidly and have very low requirement of water, are specially grown for supply of
firewood.
3. Solar Heaters / Cookers / Photo Voltaic Cells : In this solar energy is used
directly and either heating and cooking can be done. These can be used directly by
households. Much of development has taken place in solar water heaters. We can
produce electrical power by photo voltaic cells. The electrical power option is
expensive now and it will take some more years to make it affordable.
4. Coal / Charcoal : These are similar to firewood, but these were produced over a
long time frame. It is a solid fuel and its handling is difficult. It can be used for
stationary applications where higher efficiency is possible. Disposal of ash is a
problem. Large quantity of these fossil fuels are available and these can last for
another 100 years.
5. Hydro Electric : This is another indirect way of solar energy, and there is a big
potential for these in Northern India. Water is stored in reservoirs or barrages,
through out the year and used for power generation and irrigation.
6. Nuclear : India has by now developed skills to generate power from nuclear fuels,
and new plants are coming up. The latest to commission at Tarapur will be 510
Megawatt, which is bigger than any thermal power plant, currently running in
India. It has advantage of handling of small quantity of fuel, but radioactivity and
processing of spent fuel is a problem.
7. Wind Power : This is another form of Solar Energy. This is more suitable for
places where the winds blow through out the year. It is picking very rapidly and
even big oil companies are investing in this.
8. Petroleum : These are the latest find by mankind. It is very easy to extract liquid
fuels from earth, processing to get different fractions and very easy to handle and
use. Crude petroleum contains a number of fractions and the main fractions can be
broadly classified as
!" Petrol / Gasoline : It is about 20% of the crude oil, and used in Cars.
!" Aviation Turbine Fuel : It is about 5 to 7% of crude oil and it used in Aircraft
as fuel.
!" Kerosene : It is about 25 to 30% of crude oil and it used for cooking.

8
!" Diesel : It is about 25 to 30% of crude oil and it used in as fuel for cars, heavy
commercial vehicles and stationary engines.
!" Lubricating oil : It is about 5 to 7% of crude oil and it used for manufacturing
lubricating oils.
!" Heating / Fuel Oil : It is about 15 to 20% of crude oil and it used as fuel in
boilers.
!" Bitumen / Tar : It is made by blowing high boiling crude residue.
Present consumption of crude oil in India is about 100 million tons. Indian oil
companies extract about 30 million tons of crude from Indian oil wells and import
about 70 million tons. Present consumption of diesel in India, is around 40 million
tons. India imports about 10 to 15 million tons of diesel. This is going to increase in
next few years to 50 million tons. Until now these liquid fuels were quite cheap, and
supply bottlenecks were not there. But in the last years its price has doubled and
supply is also doubtful. A number of alternative liquid fuels are now in use for use in
vehicles. Ethanol is blended with petrol, BioDiesel is blended with diesel and natural
gas is compressed for use as CNG.
Biodiesel as an option for Energy Security: India ranks sixth in the world in terms
of energy demand accounting for 3.5% of world commercial energy demand in 2001.
The energy demand is expected to grow at 4.8%. A large part of India’s population,
mostly in the rural areas, does not have access to it. At 479 kg of oil equivalent the per
capita, energy consumption is very low. Hence a program for the development of
energy from raw material which grows in the rural areas will go a long way in
providing energy security to the rural people.
The growth in energy demand in all forms is expected to continue unabated owing to
increasing urbanization, standard of living and expanding population with
stabilization not before mid of the current century. The demand for High Speed Diesel
(HSD), which is used for running the heavy commercial vehicles, is projected to grow
from 39.81 million metric tons in 2001-02 to 52.32 million metric tons in 2006-07 at a
rate of 5.6% per annum. Indian crude oil production as per the Tenth Plan Working
Group is estimated to hover around 33 to 34 million metric tons per annum even
though there will be increase in gas production from 86 million standard cubic meters
per day (2002-03) to 103 million standard cubic meters per day in (2006-07). Only
with joint venture abroad there is a hope of oil production to increase to 41 million
metric tons by (2016-17). The gas production would decline by this period to 73
million standard cubic meters per day. The increasing gap between demand and
domestically produced petroleum is a matter of serious concern.
In other words, India's dependence on import of oil will increase in the foreseeable
future. The Working Group has estimated import of crude oil to go up from 85 million
metric tons per annum to 147 million metric tons per annum by the end of 2006-07
correspondingly increasing the import bill. Transport sector remains the most
problematic sector as no alternative to petroleum based fuel has been successful so
far. Hence petroleum based fuels especially petroleum diesel (HSD) will continue to
dominate the transport sector in the foreseeable future but their consumption can be
minimized by implementation of Biodiesel program expeditiously. Targets need to be
set up for biodiesel production to achieve blending ratios of 5, 10 and 20 percent in
phased manner. The estimated biodiesel requirements for blending with petroleum
diesel over the period of next 5 years are given in Table.

9
Biodiesel requirement for blending
Year Diesel Biodiesel requirement for blending million tons
demand @ 5% @10% @20%
million
tons
2001-02 39.81 1.99 3.98 7.96
2002-03 42.15 2.16 4.32 8.64
2003-04 44.51 2.28 4.56 9.12
2004-05 46.97 2.35 4.70 9.40
2005-06 49.56 2.48 4.96 9.92
2006-07 52.33 2.62 5.24 10.48
Having seen this scenario, we have to consider one of the alternatives.

BIODIESEL
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel. It can be manufactured from edible as well as non-
edible vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant oils. The present production
of Edible oils in India is 6.7 million tons, and global production is 95 million tons.
Indian production is thus 6% of the global production. Biodiesel is safe,
biodegradable, and reduces serious air pollutants such as carbon particulates, carbon
monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxins. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum
diesel (B20) can generally be used in diesel engines without any modifications.
Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but it requires certain engine
modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems.
BENEFITS
!" Substitute or extender for petroleum diesel.
!" No need of any special pumps or high pressure equipment for fueling.
!" No need to buy special vehicles or engines to run on bio-diesel.
!" 100 percent bio diesel reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 75 percent
compared to petroleum diesel. Using a blend of 20 percent bio-diesel reduces
carbon dioxide emissions by 15 percent.
!" Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, so carbon burns completely and has a greatly
improved emissions profile. Biodiesel produces fewer carbon particulate, carbon
monoxide, greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide emissions, reducing public health
risks.
!" It will reduce the country's dependence on imported oil.
!" Its flash point is >150°C, compared to 77°C for petroleum diesel. Hence, it is safe
to handle, store and transport.
DRAWBACKS
!" NOx emissions are higher, since bio-diesel tends to increase NOx emissions.
!" Engine performance (fuel economy, torque, and power) is less than that of diesel
by 8% to 15%, because of the lower energy content of the bio-diesel.
!" Since its pour point and cloud point is around minus (-)10, it solidifies at that
temperature during winter in European and American Countries.
USES
It is commonly used as fuel for stationary diesel engines like Pump sets and other
agricultural implements and also in Diesel vehicles. The use of biodiesel decreases the
solid carbon fraction of particulate matter (since the oxygen in biodiesel enables
complete combustion to CO2) and reduces the sulfate fraction (biodiesel contains less
than 24 ppm sulfur), while the soluble, or hydrocarbon fraction stays the same or

10
increases. Therefore, biodiesel works well with new technologies such as diesel
oxidation catalysts (which reduce the soluble fraction of diesel particulate but not the
solid carbon fraction).

VEGETABLE OILS AS FUEL


In spite of a growing awareness over the past forty years, the threat to the
environment has not ceased to intensify and to amplify, notably in three ways:
1st THREAT – THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Today and for a number of years, people have been taking stock of a threat most
readily characterized by its global impact. It covers the entire planet and menaces all
species by an alteration, already underway, of their habitats and by a global and too
quick modification of the earth’s climate. This is the greenhouse effect.
The cause is of biblical simplicity. Mainly since the industrial revolution of 1850,
mankind has spewed into the atmosphere Green House Gases, in the form of carbon
dioxide (CO2) in immeasurable quantities the carbon that plants had been using for
300 million years, to create what we call “fossil fuels” such as, coal, natural gas, and
petroleum. Yet carbon dioxide is one of the most pervasive greenhouse gases and
there is no "clean" fossil fuel. No matter what you do, if you feed an engine with fuel
containing fossil carbon, you will have the same quantity of fossil carbon at the
exhaust.
Some numbers just to illustrate: 6 billion tons of CO2 emissions of human origin in
1950, 22 billion tons in 1989, and 24 billion tons in 2000 (source: US Department of
Energy).
With, among other factors, the 8% increase (and higher) in the economic growth of
China and India, not to mention the USA, Central Europe, Brazil, Turkey, etc. the
phenomenon is not about to reverse itself, considering more or less that one
percentage point of economic growth entails an increase by one percentage point of
energy consumption and linked CO2 emission.
2nd THREAT: THE LACK OF PETROLEUM
The experts are beginning to express their strong concerns that petroleum will start
becoming scarce. Thus we are reaching an important milestone: the moment when the
volume of the demand for oil is surpassing for good the volume of newly discovered
reserves. The next milestone, known as “peak oil,” is when the demand for oil will
exceed the supply for good. This fateful date does not cease to change depending on
expert analyses, but more and more clearly, it appears to be approaching in a manner
that threatens the global economy. In any case, whether 5 years or one century of
mineral oil remain, the fact is that we are still unable to answer the question: "What
will replace petroleum?".
3rd THREAT: EXTREME POVERTY
At the same time, the economic gap between rich (the North) and many poorer
countries is improving significantly such as between the North and Asia as well as
between the North and South America, but it obstinately remains unbearable between
the North and Africa. It doesn’t just “obstinately remain unbearable”; actually, it's still
worsening, in particular with certain countries of West Africa, Central Africa and
Eastern Africa.
There is no exaggerated pessimistic perception in this triple observation, which is
unfortunately not contested by the reliable experts. All that remains is to wait for
political decisions appropriate to give a little security to the future of our children and
their progeny.

11
Of course, taking into account the economic stakes involved, many propose the
solution that corresponds best to their own interests rather than to the situation, totally
obscuring the “real” danger that humanity is incurring because of their irresponsible
attitude.
YET A SOLUTION EXISTS
A solution susceptible to bring a good response to the three threats mentioned above:
The development of the pure vegetable oil market. This would consist in using
unmodified vegetable oil (simply decanted, degummed and filtered to three microns)
instead of diesel mineral fuel or its variants in diesel engines and heating fuel in
heating systems. In all of these applications, vegetable oil perfectly replaces fossil
fuels (this does not concern gasoline).
It is just that today it is not possible to use it in a general fashion without making
some simple technical modifications to the engines or to the burners. For example, in
certain older cars with Bosch injection pumps and indirect injection, one can use
100% unmodified sunflower or rape seed oil (only a small heater to warm the oil may
be needed for winter weather). Most diesel vehicles can use up to 50% sunflower or
rape seed oil without major modifications. The most modern engines require the
greatest adjustments. New engines should be designed to run on vegetable oil from
the start. This is neither more nor less complicated than what is already done today for
running on diesel. Consider for instance the work of Dr Ludwig Elsbett, a German
engineer, who during the 1980s had invented and perfected a “multi-fuel” diesel
motor that ran on diesel as well as all known vegetable oils, pure or blended in all
proportions (2000 vegetable oils have been identified around the planet). It is
essentially for political reasons that this engine, whose efficiency was equivalent to
the most recent high-pressure diesel engines, was never manufactured and remained
in the shadows. Today, mankind needs industrial leaders to take this invention into
consideration for their next diesel engines.
Garages exist in Germany, where they modify customers’ car and truck engines to
enable them to use pure vegetable oil as a fuel. The German government allows this,
whereas the French government does not in spite of a European Directive 2003/30/EC
European Parliament and Council of 8th May 2003 which allows member states to
authorize the use of pure vegetable oil.
BUT WHY DEFEND THE USE OF VEGETABLE OIL INSTEAD OF DIESEL?
First of all, one must keep in mind that the most useful and intelligent energy deposits
are those made with energy savings. Nothing should be done in this matter without a
prior optimization of the use of energy.
But that quickly reaches a limit when one reads the figures for the growth rates of
Asian countries or of the consumption rates of North Americans. Even if savings are
extremely efficient everywhere, they will not change much with regards to the
problem. They will only allow us to gain a few years or at most a few decades, but
they will have very limited positive consequences against the greenhouse effect and
no result whatsoever against extreme poverty.
Thus, with respect to the three threatening conditions mentioned previously, one
could strongly recommend the extensive use of pure vegetable oil, because it is a
simple and effective answer to all three threats simultaneously.
1 – With respect to the greenhouse effect, using unmodified fuel of vegetable origin
assures an equilibrium between the carbon fixed by the plants during their growth and
the carbon emitted into the atmosphere as a result of the vegetable oil being burned.
We switch to an annual carbon cycle that, overall, ceases to increase the amount of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

12
2 – With respect to the exhaustion of petroleum, having access to an unmodified
vegetable oil market would allow the use of the fuel throughout the entire production
chain, from planting the crop to filling the fuel tank of a vehicle, an engine or a heater.
No need for petroleum from one end to the other of the chain.
Today, there is nothing of the sort, for when one talks of “biodiesel,” it is in fact
methyl ester, which is just a derivative of vegetable oil. Methyl ester is often added to
diesel fuel for use in transportation and other diesel engines. Currently, its production
requests the use of a lot of fossil fuel for cultivation, transportation and distribution. In
addition, it is produced by using fertilizers, which consume large amounts of fossil
fuels when produced and release nitrogen oxide (N2O), itself a powerful greenhouse
gas, when used. Finally, methyl ester is obtained by heating (using lots of energy)
vegetable oil under pressure (using lots of energy) in the presence of an alcohol
(produced with lots of energy). Thus, if one were to tally a realistic “bio balance
sheet” of the entire production and distribution chain of this modified vegetable oil,
one would note that it is quite disappointing.
It would be immeasurably easier to modify from the beginning the engines and
heaters so that they can directly use either unmodified pure vegetable oil or petroleum
or again a mix of both. It's clear that there are no difficult technical problems (except
for the obstinate refusal to solve them), just a political problem. Yes or no, do we
accept to leave our grandchildren a planet without petroleum and with a climate out of
kilter for the long term, or will we make use of this technology that is easily
accessible and exploitable?
3 – With regard to the fight against extreme poverty, it is possible to cultivate oilseed
plants in almost all climates, that is to say, in all latitudes. This marks a capital
difference with petroleum, which is not uniformly distributed around the planet.
Indeed, this sparse distribution of petroleum deposits is at the origin of all of the
geopolitical complications that humanity has endured since oil became king. What if
there is another way? A way that would permit several countries, including many
extremely poor ones, even the poorest, to become producers of energy wealth. A way
that would considerably reduce the notion of energy dependence, since many
countries would become producers and merchants of energy. No more “energy crisis”
to worry about.
The idea here is to complete the European production by developing, as much as
possible, the cultivation of oilseed plants, a number of which are highly productive,
on land that is today unused. These crops could provide work and revenues to
populations currently suffering from extreme poverty without disturbing the
employment or the standard of living of the rich. For once, the stakes between North
and South would be complementary rather than contradictory.
CONCERNING NEEDED LAND
In our reasoning, a liter of oil weighs around 920 grams. The most productive oilseed
plant in the world is the Guinean Palm (Elaeis guineensis). Each year, it produces at
the very least 5,000 liters of palm oil per hectare and, another advantage, it fixes
several tons of CO2 per hectare and per year for 25 years. It obviously grows in hot
countries and requires water to grow well. Using this productivity figure as a
theoretical point of reference, to better comprehend the situation at hand, if we were
to replace a quarter of the 3.5 billion tons of petroleum that humanity currently
consumes each year with pure vegetable oil, 3 million square kilometers of land
would need to be cultivated, or roughly 5.5 times the area of France.
In Europe, rape seed and sunflower crops produce around 800 to 900 liters of oil per
hectare per year, and the entry of the twelve new member nations will considerably up

13
the ante, since certain countries have large tracts of agricultural land, and they will be
required to review their practices in light of the upcoming common agricultural
policy. These changes, allied with an energy policy giving a preference to pure
vegetable oil, will allow hundreds of thousands of hectares of oilseed crops to be
planted.
In the poor countries, unused land (amounting to millions of hectares) is either left
fallow for lack of a market for this or that crop, or ravaged by deforestation, or burned
and left abandoned because of the loss of the topsoil needed for cultivating. All of
these lands could be turned over to the cultivation of certain productive oilseed crops
such as jatropha, which offers another advantage in that it (re)generates topsoil and
thus adds value to abandoned or about-to-be-abandoned land (jatropha curcas L – 650
to 800 liters /Hector per year).
All of the vegetable oil produced there would generate a commerce, either locally
with the village or city producing its own energy, or nationally or internationally with
the farmers organized as a co-op selling their vegetable oil to a vast energy market
that could supply either vehicles or heating stations around the world. Do not forget
that this market could function on vegetable oil from one end to the other with, as a
consequence, extremely low emissions of greenhouse gases during its functioning.
THREE CONDITIONS SINE QUA NON
These ideas seem seductive, but they are so only by virtue of three imperative
conditions. If just one of these conditions is not fulfilled, the change is not possible.
First condition – a technical, financial and political condition:
At first glance, this solution appears to have interests opposed to those of the
petroleum companies, but in fact this isn’t true for two reasons:
a - the first is that sooner or later, the petroleum companies will be forced to
fundamentally restructure. Developing the pure vegetable oil market is by far the least
different and the least traumatizing way for them to surmount this obstacle. Vegetable
oil is the product that most resembles petroleum.
b - The second is that the business of selling petroleum is the closest to a business that
does not yet exist – selling fuel-grade vegetable oil. (Because the market does not
exist in a world-wide dimension, one cannot talk of prices today. There is no demand,
so there is no supply, so there are no prices. The various vegetable oils that are
marketed today are not exclusively destined as fuel, so they have production costs that
are not pertinent to the fuel-grade vegetable oils of the future).
The petroleum companies have the material and the know-how, and getting them into
the loop is the best way to get their co-operation instead of their opposition. One can
likewise make the same remark about producers of comestible or industrial purpose
oil. If one wants the system to function, there must be a quality control system
identical to what exists for petroleum and comestible or industrial vegetable oils. Only
these professionals are capable of working to solve the problem successfully within an
acceptable time limit.
This is perhaps the moment to think with motorists about a product composed of a
blend of different pure vegetable oils with an energy content and an appropriate
fluidity which would be the same everywhere in the world. In comparison with
current fuel oil, we could optimize different kinds of fuel for different purposes :
a – on-road vehicles and small boats,
b – trains and middle-sized boats, small and medium sized diesel engine-powered
planes,
c – vessels and diesel engine-powered power plants, steam-powered power plants and,
at last,

14
d – jet planes. This is perhaps the future of vegetable oil.
For this system to be put into place, it requires imperatively the collaboration of
politicians, because they have the legitimacy to impose international solutions and to
impose local taxes that will determine the price at the pump. And finally it requires
the collaboration of financiers, because they have the means of financing the
necessary investments.
The following second and third conditions must be the subject of a legal enforcement,
compulsory for the validity of each supplying contract and this obligation must be
recorded in a written specification compulsorily attached to the delivery. If this
specification is not respected, the delivery must not to be delivered. If we don't follow
such a compelling procedure, we should not apply these.
Second condition – an agricultural condition: if not fulfilled, not only is the proposed
change not possible, it is not desirable because the remedy would be worse than the
malady. It's the same if we clear forests to grow oilseed crops. It would be better to
stop right now and continue with fossil fuels. Mankind's destruction would be just as
unavoidable, but a bit slower.
For the reason stated above (that chemical products used in agriculture generate
enormous quantities of greenhouse gases) it is absolutely imperative that the
cultivation methods used for the production of oilseed crops follow the concept of
“sustainable agriculture” (that is to say which preserves natural resources and avoids
using chemical products), or, at least, the concept of “reasonable farming” (one uses
chemical products only when necessary and only the exact amount necessary).
Otherwise, the remedy will be worse than the malady.
One could also cite “integrated farming”, in which the method and its application are
global. It takes into account the interactions among different crops that grow next to
each other to minimize the use of chemicals and maximize the mutual beneficial
effect of the complementary natural processes among them.
One resource seems to be very promising and is currently being studied in different
American universities and companies: oil-producing micro-algae (diatoms). They
could contain large quantities of vegetable oil, have a quick rhythm of turnover and
need only a small amount of land with a high yield.
In any case, the elements that must receive maximum protection at the highest world
political level are water, air, soil, bio-diversity and landscapes, because they are the
most precious natural common goods of humanity.
Third condition – a commercial condition:
These propositions would miss half of their objectives if they did not result in an
important improvement in the condition of the poorest populations of the planet.
A human worthy of this name must not accept to live comfortably on the same planet
as billions of men and women who don’t even have the minimum needed to survive
and who die each year by the millions from extreme poverty. To attain this result, it is
necessary that the harvesting and marketing of oilseeds and vegetable oil be organized
according to the rules of fair trade, otherwise the stated goal of improving
development in poor countries will not be reached, and the economic gap will only
continue to widen. To encourage the poorest countries to enter into a producing
activity is more clever and helpful than just giving them subsidies, even of a large
amount.
To guide the planet toward this long-term solution, a broad information movement
needs to be launched in order to raise public awareness so that the population drives
politicians to understand that we can no longer wait.

15
We are changing of era : We are leaving a time where technocrats were looking for a
way to drive the matter of SVO under the rules of King Petroleum. We are going to
enter a new time where the main liquid source of energy for transportation and
heating will be SVO and where petroleum will have to be adapted to its requirements.
It's up to us not to make the same error twice that is to say the deification of petroleum
and it's up to us to optimize the resources of vegetable oil and the financial gains in
order to ensure a future for our descendants. It is our common responsibility. Pure
vegetable oil is neither a god or a king. It is just an excellent tool for real sustainable
development, that's all!
Oil Vs. BioDiesel : Why not use oil itself in diesel engine? It can be burnt, but there
are some problems. The first cars manufactured by Ford Motors before 1900, ran on
oil and up to 1940 on BioDiesel. But the supply of these two was limited. By that time
petroleum sources were found and supply from petroleum source was thousands of
times more than that of BioDiesel. The cars developed later were based on Gasoline
as these engines are lighter. Only heavy engines were based on Diesel. Raw oil is very
viscous and it does not flow smoothly in small diameter tubes. It also chocks filters.
BioDiesel is basically cracked oil. The three chains are broken down individually,
which makes it less viscous. The viscosity of BioDiesel is only twice that of diesel.
The viscosity of oil is 10 times that of Diesel. Also BioDiesel is blended up to 20% of
total volume. Due to this there is slight increase in viscosity and the fuel properties are
very close to those of diesel.
Most vegetable oils have good Cetane number, high heat content and good spray
characteristics and hence these can be burnt in diesel engines. Vegetable oils, both
edible and non-edible, can be used as substitute fuels for diesel engines. A number of
experiments and trials are already conducted and have encouraging results. Following
edible vegetable oils were used during these trials on single cylinder, four stroke
compression ignition engine.
!" Safflower
!" Sunflower
!" Soy
!" Groundnut
!" Cotton seed
!" Coconut
!" Rice bran
!" Mahua
!" Linseed
Following non-edible vegetable oils were also used on the same engine
!" Jatropha Curcas
!" Pongamia Pinnata
!" Neem
These vegetable oils have several advantages. These are readily and locally grown
and available. Being liquid these can be transported very easily. Although these oils
are costlier than diesel, higher production of these can lower the price, and it will be
comparable to price of diesel. But these have problem of high viscosity, low volatility
and tendency to separate.
Safflower, Sunflower and Soy beans oil
Diesel Safflower Sunflower Soy
Density 0.835 0.9 0.915 0.925
Calorific Value KJ/Kg 42,636 38,038 37,486 37,528

16
Cetane Number > 40 37 37 37
o
Boiling Point C 150 349 351 350
% O2 by weight 0 11.65 11.64 11.61
In these trials, many advantages were noticed, regarding smoke density, exhaust gas
temperature, noise level etc. Load tests were carried out on the vegetable oils at 1,500
rpm at almost constant load. The delay period for vegetable oil is 1 to 2o crank angle
higher than that for diesel because of coarser fuel spray and higher viscosity. The
vegetable oil consumption is associated with lower peak rate of heat release and lower
peak rate of pressure rise. The rate of burning is lower with vegetable oils which
results in prolonged duration of combustion. Noise level is comparatively lower in
case of vegetable oils than diesel oil.
Brake thermal efficiency is comparatively less for vegetable oils than the diesel oil.
This is due to prolonged combustion and slow burning rate of vegetable oils. The
exhaust smoke level is given in table later. It shows that safflower oil has smoke level
of 50% of that of diesel, while for other edible oils, it is slightly higher than that of
diesel. This reduction of smoke density in safflower oil is of great importance since it
will help to curb pollution to a large extent. The most important problem faced during
the trials, was of clogging of fuel filter element, due to separation and deposition of
wax on filter element.
Cotton Seed oil
It has a calorific value of 38,288 KJ / Kg and specific gravity of 0.91. Refined cotton
seed oil was tried in single cylinder engine, with 1,500 rpm and rated at 5 HP, with
compression ratio of 16.5 : 1. Open combustion chamber was used for these trials.
Fuel injection pressure was initially maintained at 175 atm., which is same as diesel.
Later test were carried out at 210 atm. It was observed that fuel consumption was
more, but calorific consumption is same. Smoke density was almost same but brake
thermal efficiency was slightly better.
Groundnut and Coconut Oil
Tests were carried out on same engine but oil was heated to 45oC, and then used in the
engine trials. There was decrease in smoke density, due to higher temperature of oil.
Neem Oil
Neem oil was tried on same engine but 100% neem oil can not burn in engine. Hence
2 blends of 50-50 and 25-75 were used. But the results are not encouraging. Though
engine could run at full load with these two blends, the exhaust gas temperature was
very high and smoke density at higher and full load was beyond limits of tolerance.
Karanj Oil
The viscosity of Karanj oil is 10 times that of diesel. It was heated in water bath to
maintain a temperature of 60oC. smoke density is 4-5 Hartridge units compared to 607
for diesel.

Fuel Maximum Maxim Minimum Calorific Maximum Maximum


Thermal um fuel specific valu KJ / smoke exhaust
efficiency consum fuel Kg density on gas
in % ption in consumpti Hartridge temperatu
kg / hr on in kg / units re in oC
kW / hr
Diesel 33.2 1.14 0.2507 42,636 6-7 431
Safflower 31.5 1.45 0.2976 38,056 3 431
Sunflower 29.9 1.48 0.3150 37,504 44 450
Soy 29.1 1.49 0.3217 37,546 9-12 441

17
Groundnut 29.77 1.36 0.2976 39,938 7.5-8.5 493
Coconut 29.8 1.46 0.3056 38,825 5-6 496
(45oC)
Undal 26 1.44 0.3847 38,440 5-6 506
(60oC)
Karanj 27.6 1.34 0.3592 38,500 4-5 454
(60oC)
Rice bran 29.8 1.43 0.3592 38,500 4-5 454
(60oC)
Mahua 26.3 1.45 0.3592 38,237 - 491
(60oC)
Linseed 28.84 1.37 0.3405 37,813 4-5 491
o
(60 C)
Neem 23
(60oC)
Smoke density of neem is very high. Hence, it is not suitable. If exhaust gas
temperature is high, efficiency is low.

Alcohol Industry in India


The First alcohol distillery in the country was set up at Kanpur in 1805 by Carew &
Co. Ltd., for manufacture of Rum for the army. The technique of fermentation,
distillation and blending of alcoholic beverages was developed in India on the lines of
practices adopted overseas particularly in Europe.
The alcohol distillery industry today consists broadly of two parts, one potable liquor
and the industrial alcohol. The potable distillery producing Indian Made Foreign
Liquor and Country Liquor has a steady but limited demand with a growth rate of
about 8 per cent per annum. The industrial alcohol industry, on the other hand, is
showing a declining trend because of high price of Molasses which is invariantly
used as substrate for production of alcohol. The alcohol produced is now being
utilized in the ratio of approximately 52 per cent for potable and the balance 48
percent for industrial use. Over the years the potable liquor industry has shown
remarkable results in the production of quality spirits.
The utilization of Ethyl alcohol or Ethanol, now popularly known as alcohol, for
industrial use is a recent phenomenon and its importance came into being towards the
end of the second world war. With protection being granted to the sugar Industry in
1932, a large number of sugar factories were established in the country, particularly in
Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh where irrigation facilities existed for cultivation of
sugarcane. This increase resulted in accumulation of molasses, which resultantly,
caused unmanageable environmental problems. At that time the demand for molasses
was almost insignificant and the sugar mills had to incur some expenditure on
removal of this by product i.e. molasses. For resolving these problems a joint
committee of U.P. and Bihar was constituted to explore the possibilities of developing
alcohol based industries for the purpose of utilization of molasses. The Committee in
its report recommended the establishment of distilleries for production of alcohol,
utilizing molasses as substrate. They also recommended that alcohol produced by the
distilleries should be admixed with petrol, to supplement motor fuel. The production
of alcohol did not only help in solving the problems of disposal of molasses but it also
filled up the gap in the demand and supply of motor spirit. As a substantial quantity of
alcohol after meeting its requirement for manufacture of gasohol alcohol was diverted
for production of alcohol based chemicals in different parts of the country. The

18
utilization of alcohol for this purpose progressed steadily and a substantial quantity of
alcohol produced in the country is now being utilized for manufacture of solvents and
intermediates. Till a few years back a little more then 50 % alcohol produced in the
country was being utilized for production of alcohol based chemical but after the
decontrol of molasses in the year 1993 the utilization of alcohol for production of
chemical, dye-stuff, synthetic rubber, polymers and plastics etc. has received a
setback.
Manufacture of alcohol
In India, the bulk of alcohol is being produced from sugar cane molasses. Molasses is
a thick viscous bye-product of the sugar industry which is acidic in nature, rich in
salts, dark brown in color and it also contains sugar which could not be crystallized.
For manufacturing alcohol, the Molasses is diluted with water into a solution
containing 15-16 % of sugars. (Cane sugar juice also has 12 to 14% sugar
concentration, hence it can directly be used for production of alcohol, without any
production of sugar). This solution is then inoculated with yeast strain and is allowed
to ferment at room temperature. The fermented wash is distilled in a series of
distillation columns to obtain alcohol of adequate / requisite strength and quality /
specification. This alcohol is used for various purposes including potable and
industrial. For manufacture of alcoholic beverages, the alcohol is, if required,
matured and blended with malt alcohol (for manufacture of whisky) and diluted to
requisite strength to obtain the desired type of liquor/ Indian Made Foreign Liquor
(IMFL). This is bottled in bottles of various sizes for the convenience of consumers.
Today, in India, we have 295 alcohol distilleries, which are scattered throughout the
country which have an installed capacity for production of 3198 million liters of
alcohol. The requirement of alcohol in country for all purposes however stands at
about 1,200 to 1,300 million litter of alcohol in a year. Which works out about 40
percent licensed capacity. The bulk of capacity thus remain dormant which can be
advantageously utilize for production of anhydrous alcohol for being used as
oxygenate / fuel. The utilization of ethanol as oxygenate is the prime need of the
country because the enormous increase in the population of motor vehicles after
emphasize has been major cause of air pollution in particularly in metropolises and
big cities. As the air pollution disposing a serious threat to the health of community it
is absolutely necessary to devise way and means of curbing pollution. Cheapest and
best way to alternative this objective is to utilize ethanol as oxygenates in admixture
with Petrol / Diesel. The implementation of this program has been delayed rather
inordinately and it should therefore be implemented as promptly as possible.
Alcohol is a member of a class of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen, considered as hydroxyl derivatives of hydrocarbons, produced by the
replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms by one or more hydroxyl (-OH)
GROUPS.
MOTOR FUEL GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION
Ethanol is a generic name for Ethyl Alcohol and based on level of purity it is also
known as Spirit, Rectified Spirit, Industrial Alcohol, Neutral Alcohol, Absolute
Alcohol, etc. Ethanol when blended, as an additive, with fuel for motor vehicles, is
known as Motor Fuel Grade Alcohol or Power Alcohol. The concept of ethanol as a
fuel began as early as the first Model T car designed by Henry Ford American usage
of ethanol-blended gasoline began in the late 1970s. Environmentally, the use of
ethanol blends has assisted in reducing carbon monoxide emissions.
Primary market values of ethanol, as an additive to petrol, are as a high quality octane
enhance, a fuel extended and as oxygenating, fuel component for cities with air

19
quality problems. The addition of 10% ethanol increases the octane level by 2.5-3
points and adds 3.5% weight oxygen to the base gasoline. Due to this oxygen, it
contributes to a cleaner, more efficient combustion in the automobile engine, resulting
in lower harmful exhaust emissions. Ethanol can be blended in any proportion with
petrol but up to 10% blending, no change is required in the engines running on petrol.
The advantages of using of ethanol-blended fuels are:
!" Renewable source of energy
!" Reduced dependence on imports of foreign oil
!" Market opportunity for agricultural crops
!" Rural economic development
!" Environmental benefits (reduced carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emission,
net reduction in ozone-causing gases)
!" Displaces dangerous and environmentally dame ging components in gasoline,
such as benzene
!" Concerns about environmental hazards associated with exploration and extraction
of fossil fuels and with tanker movement of imported oil.
Present Status :
Ethanol has a proven track record, internationally, as an automobile fuel. The fuel
ethanol industry is welt developed in the United States . Sales of ethanol-gasoline
blends represent about 8 - 9 % of the total gasoline sales in the United States last year.
Support for fuel ethanol is a key component in the current U.S. "Clean Air Act"
because of its beneficial effect on air quality. "Oxygenated fuels," such as ethanol
blends, are mandated in certain regions to reduce carbon monoxide emissions and /or
ozone.
Brazil is the world's leader in the use of ethanol as an automobile fuel. More than 11
billion liters of ethanol for fuel are produced each year. About 15% of the vehicles
with spark ignition engines (the type normally fueled by petrol) run on neat ethanol,
and the rest use a blend of 20% ethanol in petrol. Ethanol was introduced to reduce
Brazil's dependence on expensive foreign oil, and provides an additional market for
domestic sugar producers Beneficial effects on air quality have been an added bonus.
Based on the experience of USA and Brazil many European countries have started a
fuel Ethanol program. The Indian Government decided to implement the Fuel Ethanol
program, pressed by the rising oil import bill and pollution levels in cities. Before
introducing the Fuel Alcohol Program at the national level the Government decided to
go through a trial phase in selected areas so as to streamline the; process and work out
the logistics of blending Fuel Ethanol with Petrol.
The pilot phase has already started at three depots, two in Maharashtra (Miraj and
Manmad) and one in Uttar Pradesh (Aonla, Bareiliy). For the Trial Phase, Oil
companies have issued a joint tender for procurement of 3 million liters of Motor fuel
Grade ethanol, through these depots. These depots will procure the Ethanol from the
distilleries, blend it with petrol and distribute in the adjacent areas. The potential
demand is huge if we consider a blend of 10% Ethanol with Petrol, at the national
level. The demand will increase manifold as the Indian government is also actively
considering the option of blending 3 to 5% of ethanol with Diesel.
Production Technologies: Options
By two-component, simple distillation alone, alcohol stronger than 95.57 percent by
weight cannot be produced. The reason is that a mixture of 95.5 percent alcohol and
4.5 percent water an "AZEOTROPIC MIXTURE", which behaves like a pure liquid
of constant boiling point and is more volatile than pure alcohol. It is challenging to
separate this mixture and produce dry (anhydrous) ethanol using distillation systems.

20
Motor Fuel Grade Ethanol can be produced by dehydration of Rectified Spirit or
Industrial Alcohol, of any Grade. The objective is to remove the 4 to 5% water from
the alcohol. Commercially, this dehydration is accomplished by using primarily two
technologies:
i. Ternary Azeotropic Distillation
ii. Molecular Sieve Based Adsorption
Research and commercial demonstrations have been carried out on new technologies
based on Membrane Separation. Most talked about is PERVAPORATION
PROCESS, wherein the alcohol feed is vaporized and passed over a hydrophilic
membrane to carry out separation of water and alcohol, but till date the technology is
not commercially viable.
Ternary Azeotropic Distillation :
In this process a third component (entrainer) is added to alter the binary azeotrope.
Various chemicals like benzene, cyclo-hexane, acetone, toluene, pentane, etc. can be
used as entrainer. But, the most commonly used entrainers are Benzene and
cyclohexane. During the distillation, there is a tendency towards separation of three
fractions (all water, a near-ternary azeotrope mixture of benzene, alcohol and water
are in the first two fractions and the third fraction containing anhydrous alcohol or
absolute alcohol). This was the most commonly used technology but, now most of the
compounds used as entrainer have been classified as highly polluting and benzene is a
known carcinogenic. Also, substantial energy is required to perform this distillation,
resulting in higher production costs as compared to the newer technology of
molecular sieve based dehydration systems.
Molecular Steve based Dehydration :
The basic principles of dehydration by adsorption were developed and were well
understood more than five decades ago, but commercial practice in the fuel alcohol
industry began about 20 years ago. Initially the molecular sieves were used to
dehydrate the hydrous ethanol in liquid phase. The process operated at ambient
temperature and required. high temperature under inert atmosphere for regeneration of
molecular sieves. Due to wide thermal cycling and high shocks the bed life was quite
low.
The turning point came with the use of vapor phase; dehydration of ethanol by using
molecular sieves. In this process the beds were held at a constant temperature, while
the adsorption of water from ethanol stream was achieved under pressure and
regeneration was accomplished by applying vacuum to the beds. The systems are
called Pressure Swing Adsorption Systems. This prevented the thermal shocks and
appreciably extended the molecular sieve bed life. The molecular sieve based Pressure
Swing Adsorption Systems dehydration systems have been operating the world over
with no replacement of molecular sieve material for over a decade now.
Presently, optimization of technology with proper heart recovery and lean phase
recycling has unquestionably positioned molecular sieves as superior to ternary
azeotrope dehydration for fuel ethanol production. In most of the countries having a
Fuel Alcohol Program, there has been a major displacement of ternary azeotrope
dehydration by solid-state adsorbent technology, (i.e. molecular sieves). The Vapor
Phase Molecular Sieve based Ethanol Dehydration Unit is Fully Automated and needs
minimal supervision. The unit can be easily retrofitted to the distillation section of
existing Distilleries or can be taken as extension module to distillation section for new
projects. There is no polluting effluent stream from the unit. The only effluent is water
from the base of concentrator column, which can be easily recycled to the
fermentation section for molasses dilution.

21
Advantages of Molecular Sieve System :
!" Provides low and consistent moisture contents in ethanol), concentration of 99.9%
v/v easily achievable.
!" Can tolerate fluctuations in process parameters (such as flow-rate, composition,
temperature & pressure) far better than other units operations like distillation.
!" Presence of methanol! in the feed stream doesn't affect the system performance.
!" Easy to operate and quick to start up & shut down.
!" Easy to fully automate for unattended operation
!" Substantially lower operating cost.
!" Offer largest turndown capability and versatility.
!" More economical than azeotropic distillation even when inlet moisture contents
are high.
!" Use no toxic compound used, while azeotropic distillation uses toxic, compounds
like Benzene or Cyclo-hexane as entrainer.
Crude Black Molasses :
Analysis of Molasses used in India for making silage reveals is as follows :
Sucrose 39.5 %
Invert sugar 11.5
Ash 9.0
Water 22.5
Organic matter 17.5
The quantity of insoluble matter is negligible. The 9 per cent ash represents soluble
mineral matter largely consisting of potassium and calcium salts. A more detailed
analysis of (American Blackstrap Molasses) reveals the minerals iron, copper and
magnesium furthermore, that the ailment is a rich source of most of the vitamins of
the B family with the exception of Vitamin B1. It is extremely high in Vitamin B6, in
pantothenic acid and Inositol; and it should be put on one's table as regularly as salt,
and used as a sugar substitute on cereals, stirred into milk and eaten instead of jam or
jelly. A most important constituent of Molasses is phosphoric acid. Crude Sugar
Cane Molasses contains about 50 per cent fruit sugars.
MOLASSES UTILIZATION - PROBLEMS & PROSPECTS
Molasses is an important byproduct of sugar industry. It is a dark brown, viscous
liquid, obtained as a residue in the centrifugal process of crystallization of sugar.
The composition of molasses varies within vide limits and it is difficult to determine
average values. The specific gravity of molasses varies between 1.39 to 1.49 with
1.43 as an average. The viscosity is also variable and shows marked changes with
different temperatures and concentrations. The general composition % of molasses is
given, below.
Water 17-25
Sucrose 30-40
Dextrose 4-9
Fructose 5-12
Other reducing substances 1-5
Other carbohydrates 3-5
Ash 7-12
Nitrogenous Compounds 2-6
Non-Nitrogenous Acids 2-8
Wax, Steroids and Phospholipids 1-1
Molasses is thus a good source of carbohydrates and various other martinets. It is
widely used as renewable source of the raw material for various industries.

22
MOLASSES AVAILABILITY
India Is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world. The sugar industry is the
second largest agro based industry after textiles in India. The higher sugar production
has be achieved by increasing the capacity of existing units, and setting up new
sugar factories A liberalized sugar industry licensing policy announced by the
Government of India in this regards has helped in boosting the sugar production.
Further various incentives in terms of excise waiver, realistic statutory minimum,
price of sugar cane, remunerative price for levy sugar, realistic levy free ratio,
buffer stocks of sugar and expeditious and fuller utilization of sugar development
fund have also helped in achieving increase production of sugar.
The progress of the sugar industry during the plan period has been phenomenal. The
number of sugar units have increased from 138 in 1950-51 to 450 presently. The
production of sugar has increased from. 1.134 million tones in 1950-51 to 16.451
(1995-96) & 15.538 (1998.99) million tons and it is expected to reach a record of 26
million tons this year. The molasses production has also increased from 402,000 tons
in 1950-51 to 6.05 million tons in 1991-92, and a record of 8.285 million tons in
1995-96.
Though the molasses production has shown overall increasing trends, it has been
subject to yearly and sometimes wide fluctuations due to cane availability (cyclic
phenomenon) and diversion o£ cane to manufacture other sweetners and government
policies.
The molasses production and availability are quiet different in one state to another
state. Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujrat, Andhra Pradesh, & Bihar are
the largest producer of molasses, whereas other states are small producer or deficit in
molasses. Under the molasses control order the inter state movement of molasses was
not allowed freely. This has also caused a great difficulty in operating the molasses
based industries for the want of molasses.
CONTROL & DECONTROL OF MOLASSES
Prices and movement of alcohol & molasses have been controlled by the Central
Molasses Control order 1961 and the Ethyl Alcohol price Control order 1971 by the
Central Government. Further the state government had also controlled the molasses
and alcohol by charging various duties, levies & administrative fees for use in the
state and also interstate movements of the same from time to time. These controls did
help in the growth of various alcohol based chemical industries to utilize the molasses
in the absence of refineries based petroleum feed stocks since the implementation of
Dr Nagaraja Rao Committee's Report (1964).
DECONTROL SCENARIO
On June 10th 1993, the Central Government decided to remove the control on pricing
and movement of the molasses and alcohol. This decision was historic and steps
towards
!" Achieving maximization of sugar production.
!" Increase sugar production at least by 500,000 Tons.
!" Increase molasses availability in the state and other deficit states.
!" Help to develop sugar complex, diversification of sugar industry into byproduct
based industries.
!" Better utilization of distillery capacities and alcohol based chemical industries.
!" Better cane price to the farmers.
The Central Government decided to decontrol molasses which some states have
already implemented but others still continue with the policy of the partial decontrol.
Further some of the surplus states have not allowed the inter state movement of

23
molasses. U.P. Government decided to continue 30% of molasses under control and
70% under decontrol which was subsequently amended to keep 65% under control for
the distilleries using alcohol for captive consumption to produce the alcohol based
chemicals and the country liquor. It is feared that the state government will continue
to approach the matter in their own prospective , thereby causing difficulties for end
users.
A committee headed by the Karnataka Chief Minister, was set up. The committee
gave its report towards the end of 1994, recommending the 70% control of molasses.
The decision to re-impose control on molasses is understood to have been cleared by a
committee of secretaries called sometimes back by the cabinet secretary. It is learnt
that the committee has accepted the committee recommendation of imposing control
and earmarking quota for 70% of molasses produced in the country. The remaining
30% would be left for open sale. Thus reversing its earlier stand on the issue, the
central government is poised to re-impose control on the price and movement of
molasses. However, final decision in this regards has yet to; torn announced. The
reversal of the policy and re-imposition of total control or partial control on molasses
to accentuate the situation rather than solve the problem.
MOLASSES PRICE BEFORE & AFTER DECONTROL
Price of molasses has increased many fold after announcement of the decontrol order.
The delivered price of molasses has gone up from Indian Rupees 3,550 per ton to
Indian Rupees 3,500-4,000 per ton. The increase in molasses price has upset the
working of user industries particularly, the distilleries, fermentation, (yeast and citric
acid) feed, and alcohol based chemicals with an exception to the liquor manufacturers.
At what price should molasses be sold and be available has remained a question mark
since the imposition of the decontrol order. The Express Investment Week (EIW)
made an analysis and came out a figure of Indian Rupees 550 per ton, a fair price for
molasses before start of the crushing season 1993-94. It was far from price prevailing
at present .
The decontrol of molasses was done at an in appropriate time and in a lean year in
which the production of sugar was poor. They feel that the price of molasses would
not have escalated so high if all the states of the country had followed the policy as
said down by the Central Government in regard to decontrol and refrained from
imposing control on a part of molasses product in those states. However, the price of
molasses has now climbed down considerably and it has already reached a reasonable
level.
The decontrol of molasses has completely changed the utilization of molasses. This
warrants for use of a raw material, molasses, one time considered as the effluent and
low value by product of sugar industry.
PRODUCTS AFFECTING FERMENTATION
1. Calcium 0.50%
2. Sulphates 0.05% - 0.0%
3. Acetate, Propionate, VFA 0.01%
4. Nitrite 0.005%
5. Hydroxy methyl furfural 0.40%
6. Purity 29%
7. Total Ssugar 40%
8. Unfermentable Sugar 10%

24
Production of alcohol based on cane sugar molasses
Total Sugar % in molasses Production of alcohol Liters
/ ton of molasses
50 250
49 245
48 240
47 235
46 230
45 225
44 215
42 210
41 205
40 200

Quality of Water
Contents Optimum level for fermentation
Total hardness 150 mg / liter of CaO
Chlorides 20 mg / liter
Nitrates 50 mg / liter
Sulphates 5,000 mg / liter
Microbial Count at 25oC 100 / milliliter
Microbial Count at 37oC 10 / milliliter
Coliform 0
E Coli 0
Clostridium 0

Production of Alcohol from different crops on weight and Area basis

Serial No. Crop Alcohol Crop Yield Alcohol


Yields (tons / Production
(Liters / ton) hectare) (liters /
hectare)
1 Sugarcane 70 56.04 3,923
2 Cassava 180 8.75 1,575
3 Beet Sugar 110 30.21 32
4 Sweet Sorghum 60 1.32 80
5 Molasses 220
6 Wheat 340 1.78 605
7 Maize (Corn) 360 3.27 117
8 Barley 250 1.76 440
9 Potatoes 110 15.5 1,705
10 Sweet Potatoes 125 8.36 1,045
11 Rice 430 2.67 1,127
World average, according to FAO production year book.

25
CHAPTER 3
Feasibility of producing biodiesel as diesel substitute
While the country is short of petroleum reserves, it has large arable land as well as
good climatic conditions (tropical) with adequate rainfall in large parts of Southern
India. The area can be used for large bio-mass production each year. Since Edible Oil
demand is higher than its domestic production, there is no possibility of diverting
Edible Oil for production of biodiesel. Fortunately there is large degraded forest land
and unutilized public land, field boundaries and fallow lands of farmers where non-
edible oil-seeds can be grown. There are many tree species which bear seeds rich in
oil. Of these some promising tree species have been evaluated and it has been found
that there are a number of them such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot or VanErand) and
Pongamia Pinnata (Honge or Karanj) which would be very suitable in our
conditions. However, Jatropha curcas has been found most suitable for the purpose.
It will use lands which are largely unproductive for the time being and are located in
poverty stricken areas and in degraded forests. It will also be planted on farmers’ field
boundaries and fallow lands. They will also be planted in public lands such as along
the railways, roads and irrigation canals.
Field trials of biodiesel : Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) began in January 2004, field
trials of running buses on biodiesel, diesel doped with 5% biodiesel manufactured
from non-edible oils. Haryana Roadways buses were used for the project. About 450
kilolitres of bio-diesel was used in the pilot project. No changes or any modifications
in vehicles engine was required for the use of biodiesel. Already automobile
manufacturers like Mahindra & Mahindra, Tata Motors and Ashok Leyland have
endorsed biodiesel as fuel for their vehicles. Meanwhile planning commission has
asked states to grow more of Jatropha and Karanj on wasteland and semi rain fed
areas. The first successful trial run of the Amritsar-Shatabdi Express conducted by the
Indian Railways using biodiesel has been an encouraging development. Railways are
the largest user of Diesel, and are keen on using biodiesel.
Economics of Jatropha biodiesel in US : US produces biodiesel from edible oil
(mainly soy oil). 100% biodiesel costs around $1.25 to $2.25 per US gallon depending
upon purchase volume and the delivery costs and competes with low sulfur diesel oil.
However, it is costlier than normal diesel and the B20 blend costs 13 to 22 cents more
per gallon than normal diesel. It takes about 7.3 pounds of soy oil which costs about
20 cents / pound, to produce a gallon of biodiesel. Feed stock costs are therefore at
least $ 1.5 per gallon of soy diesel. Under the mustard seed program, oil can be
produced today for approximately 10 cents / pound and the total cost of producing
mustard biodiesel is around $ 1 per gallon. The mustard oils, a low value product
contains as much as 90% mono-saturated fatty acids which makes it perfect for
biodiesel, balancing cold flow issues with NOx emission issues. US is planning to add
5-10 billion gallons of biodiesel through mustard seeds having mustard meal a high
value pesticide that helps keep the price of mustard oil low. In India, it is estimated
that cost of Biodiesel produced by trans-esterification of oil obtained from Jatropha
Curcas oil seeds shall be approximately same as that of petroleum diesel. The bye
products of Biodiesel from Jatropha seed are the seed oil cake and glycerine, which
have commercial value. The seed oil cake is very good compost being rich in plant
nutrients. It can also yield biogas, which can be used for cooking and the residue will
be used as compost. Hence oil cake will fetch good price. Glycerine is produced as a
bye product in the trans-esterification of oil. These bye-products reduces the cost of
Biodiesel to make it at par with petroleum diesel. The cost components of Biodiesel
are the price of Plantation, Seed collection, Transport of seed, Extraction of oil,

26
Trans-esterification of oil and Transport and marketing of biodiesel. As mentioned
earlier, cost recovery will be through sale of oil-cake and of glycerine. Taking these
elements into account, the price of Biodiesel has been worked out assuming raw
material cost of Indian Rupees 6 per kg of seeds and varying prices of by-products.
The cost of Biodiesel varies between Indian Rupees 30 to 32 per liter, depending upon
the price assumed for the oil cake and glycerine. The use of Biodiesel is thus
economically feasible.
Economics of Jatropha Biodiesel: In India, it is estimated that cost of Biodiesel
produced by trans-esterification of oil obtained from Jatropha Curcas oil seeds shall
be approximately same as that of petroleum diesel. The cost of Biodiesel varies
between Indian Rupees 30 to 32 per liter. Assumptions are that the present seed
contains 30% oil, oil extraction will be 91-92%, 1.05 liter of oil will be required to
produce 1 liter of Biodiesel, recovery from sale of crude glycerine will be at the rate
of Indian Rupees 9-10 per Kg. The price of crude glycerine is likely to be depressed
with processing of such large quantities of oil and consequent production of crude
glycerine raising the cost of Biodiesel. However, new applications are likely to be
found creating additional demand for crude glycerine and stabilizing its price. With
rapid rise in the price of crude, the use of Biodiesel is economically feasible and a
strategic option.
BIOFUEL POLICY
BioFuel Policy in India revolves around Dry Anhydrous Ethanol for blending with
Petrol (Gasoline) and BioDiesel produced from Jatropha Oil for blending with Diesel.
BioDiesel is currently blended with Diesel in American and European countries,
where Kerosene is not used as household fuel. Kerosene is an important fuel in India
and it should be considered with the other two while considering BioFuel Policy. Like
Diesel, we import large quantities of Kerosene every year.
It will be possible to use Jatropha oil, as an extender for Kerosene without any
processing. It can and will be produced on small scale in Rural areas and will be used
locally for lighting lamps and as a cooking fuel.
American and European countries Indian and other developing countries
These countries follow BioDiesel In India we follow Jatropha and
route. This is because they are using Karanj Oil route. All other edible oils
Soya or Rape seed oil, for can not be used as fuel as these are
manufacture of BioDiesel. These oils expensive compared to Jatropha and
can not be blended directly and hence Karanj oils. Climatic conditions are
these countries have to go via favorable for Jatropha and Karanj in
BioDiesel route. most states, compared to other oils.
The viscosity of these oil is very high The viscosity of Jatropha and Karanj
and these increase the viscosity of oil is less and does not increase the
mix by a significant level. The viscosity of mix significantly. Cloud
problems of Cloud point and Pour point and Pour point is not a problem.
point are severe in winter.
Production of BioDiesel requires By product Glycerin of BioDiesel
Methanol to the extent of 15% by manufacture from Jatropha and
volume. Methanol production base in Karanj oil may have some toxic
India is small and hence it will have component and it will not be suitable
to be imported if it is used for for human consumption and will
manufacture of BioDiesel. If it is have to be used as fuel. The only by
manufactured locally, it will be product is oil cake which can be
manufactured from fossil fuels, which consumed locally as bio fertilizer.

27
is against BioFuel. The by-product If oil is blended as it is in Kerosine,
glycerin has now flooded the market there is no need of methanol and
and hence fetches low value. there is no by product glycerin. No
Manufacturing process produces it as processing is required.
a by product, which need to be treated
or disposed off.
In these countries farming is In India, the Jatropha and Karanj
Mechanized and low in employment farming will be manual. This will
generation. Hence only those crops generate employment opportunities
which can be mechanized will be for rural and unskilled workers.
grown.
Most of the production and storage of Jatropha and Karanj plantation will
oil seeds will be a large Centralized be scattered in rural and jungle areas.
operations. These oils do not Carrying seeds to a BioDiesel plant
decompose and hence these can be will be a big logistic problem. Its oil
crushed on fields and oil can be decomposes on storage and hence
transported to BioDiesel Plants. seeds need to be crushed in
processing unit and oil extracted just
before processing.
In Europe, where it rains throughout Since Jatropha and Karanj oils are
the year, seeds production is not a available during fruiting season, a
seasonal operation and oil seeds are large stock of seeds will have to be
available throughout the year. maintained to sustain year round
operation of BioDiesel Plant. If it is
used as oil as a extender of Kerosene,
it can be produced and sold as and
when and where it is locally
available.
Logistics of BioDiesel production and In India it can be used as substitute
transportation is easier. of Kerosene for lamps and stoves.

28
CHAPTER 4
Production of BioDiesel
Target of biodiesel production : It is estimated that Petroleum Diesel Demand by the
end of 10th Plan (in 2006-07) shall be 52.33 million tons. In order to achieve 5%
replacement of petroleum diesel by biodiesel by the year 2006-07, there is need to
bring minimum 2.29 million hector (1 hector = 2.5 acre) area under Jatropha curcas
plantation.
Production of Biodiesel: Many developed countries have active biodiesel program.
Currently biodiesel is produced mainly from field crop oils like rape seed, sunflower
etc., in Europe and soybean in US. Malaysia utilizes palm oil for biodiesel production
while in Tropical countries, it is Jatropha curcas oil.
Production of Vegetable oil : The global and Indian production figures of vegetable
oils are given in Tables that follow.
Global production of the major vegetable oils (2001)
Oil Production (million Tons)
Soya bean 27.8
Rape seed 13.7
Cottonseed 4.0
Sunflower 8.2
Peanut 5.1
Coconut 3.5
Linseed 0.6
Palm 23.4
Palm kernel 2.9
Olive 2.7
Corn 2.0
Castor 0.5
Sesame 0.8
Total 95.2
Source: Oilworld Weekly, 2002)
Vegetable oil production in India (2001)
Oil Production (million Tons)
Groundnut 1.40
Soya 0.82
Rape / mustard 1.55
Sunflower 0.30
Sesame 0.26
Castor 0.25
Niger 0.03
Safflower 0.09
Linseed 0.10
Cottonseed 0.44
Coconut 0.55
Rice bran 0.55
Oil from expelled 0.28
cake
Minor oilseeds 0.05
Total 6.67
Source: Solvent Extractors’ Association of India

29
Derivatives of triglycerides (vegetable oils) as diesel fuels: The alternative diesel
fuels must be technically and environmentally acceptable, and economically
competitive. From the viewpoint of these requirements, triglycerides (vegetable oils /
animal fats) and their derivatives may be considered as viable alternatives for diesel
fuels. The problems with substituting triglycerides for diesel fuels are mostly
associated with their high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character. The
problems have been mitigated by developing vegetable oil derivatives that
approximate the properties and performance and make them compatible with the
hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels through:
!"pyrolysis
!"micro emulsification
!"dilution
!"trans-esterification
Pyrolysis : It refers to a chemical change caused by the application of thermal energy
in the absence of air or nitrogen. The liquid fractions of the thermally decomposed
vegetable oil are likely to approach diesel fuels. These cracked product has lower
viscosity, flash point, and pour point than diesel fuel and equivalent calorific values.
The cetane number of the cracked product is lower. These cracked vegetable oils
contain acceptable amounts of sulfur, water and sediment and give acceptable copper
corrosion values but unacceptable ash, carbon residue and pour point.
Micro-emulsification : The formation of micro emulsions (co-solvency) is one of the
potential solutions for solving the problem of vegetable oil viscosity. Micro emulsions
are defined as transparent, thermodynamically stable colloidal dispersions. The
droplet diameters in micro-emulsions range from 100 to 1000 Å. A micro emulsion
can be made of vegetable oils with an ester and dispersant (co-solvent), or of
vegetable oils, an alcohol and a surfactant and a cetane improver, with or without
diesel fuels. Water (from aqueous ethanol) may also be present in order to use lower
proof ethanol, thus increasing water tolerance of the micro-emulsions.
Dilution: Dilution of vegetable oils can be accomplished with such materials as diesel
fuels, solvent or ethanol.
Trans-esterification: Trans-esterification, also called alcoholysis, is the displacement
of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a process similar to hydrolysis. This
process has been widely used to reduce the viscosity of triglycerides. The trans-
esterification reaction is represented by the general equation. RCOOR’ + R” #
RCOOR” + R’OH. If methanol is used in the above reaction, it is termed
methanolysis. The reaction of triglycerides with methanol is represented by the
general equation. Triglycerides are readily trans-esterified in the presence of alkaline
catalyst at atmospheric pressure and at a temperature of approximately 60 to 70°C
with an excess of methanol. The mixture at the end of reaction is allowed to settle.
The lower Glycerine layer is drawn off while the upper methyl ester layer is washed
to remove entrained glycerine and is then processed further. The excess methanol is
recovered by distillation and sent to a rectifying column for purification and recycled.
The trans-esterification works well when the starting oil is of high quality. However,
quite often low quality oils are used as raw materials for biodiesel manufacture. In
cases where the free fatty acid (FFA) content of the oil is above 1%, difficulties arise
due to the formation of soap which promote emulsification during the water washing
stage and at an FFA content above 2% the process becomes unworkable..
Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils and animal fats, which
are non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. Fats and oils are chemically
reacted with an alcohol (methanol is the usual choice) to produce chemical

30
compounds known as fatty acid methyl esters. Biodiesel is the name given to these
esters when they are intended for use as fuel. Glycerine (used in pharmaceuticals and
cosmetics, among other markets) is produced as a co-product.
Biodiesel can be produced by a variety of esterification technologies. The oils and fats
are filtered and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants. If free fatty acids are
present, they can be removed or transformed into biodiesel using special pretreatment
technologies. The pretreated oils and fats are then mixed with an alcohol (methanol)
and a catalyst (sodium or potassium hydroxide). The oil molecules (triglycerides) are
broken apart and reformed into esters and Glycerine, which are then separated from
each other and purified.
Approximately 55% of the biodiesel industry can use any fat or oil feedstock,
including recycled cooking oils. The other half of the industry is limited to vegetable
oils, the least expensive of which is jatropha oil. The jatropha oil industry has been
the driving force behind biodiesel commercialization because of large production
capacity, product surpluses, and declining prices. Similar issues apply to the recycled
oils and animal fats industry, even though these feed stocks are less expensive than
jatropha oils.
Process variables in trans-esterification: The most important variables that
influence trans-esterification reaction time and conversion are:
!"Oil temperature
!"Reaction temperature
!"Ratio of alcohol to oil
!"Type and concentration of Catalyst
!"Intensity of mixing
!"Purity of reactants
Oil Temperature : The temperature to which oil is heated before mixing with
catalyst and methanol, affects the reaction. It was observed that increase in oil
temperature marginally increases the percentage oil to biodiesel conversion as well as
the biodiesel recovery. However, the tests were conducted upto 60°C only, as higher
temperatures may result in methanol loss in the batch process.
Reaction temperature : The rate of reaction is strongly influenced by the reaction
temperature. Generally, the reaction is conducted close to the boiling point of
methanol (60 to 70°C) at atmospheric pressure. The maximum yield of ester occurs at
temperatures ranging from 60 to 80°C at a molar ratio (alcohol to oil) of 6:1. Further
increase in temperature is reported to have a negative effect on the conversion.
Studies have indicated that given enough time, trans-esterification can proceed
satisfactorily at ambient temperatures in the case of the alkaline catalyst. It was
observed that biodiesel recovery was affected at very low temperatures (just like low
ambient temperatures in cold weather) but conversion was almost unaffected.
Ratio of alcohol to oil : Another important variable affecting the yield of ester is the
molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil. A molar ratio of 6:1 is normally used in
industrial processes to obtain methyl ester yields higher than 98% by weight. Higher
molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil interferes in the separation of Glycerine. It was
observed that lower molar ratios required more reaction time. With higher molar
ratios, conversion increased but recovery decreased due to poor separation of
Glycerine. It was found that optimum molar ratios depend upon type & quality of oil.
Type and concentration of Catalyst : Alkali metal alkoxides are the most effective
trans-esterification catalyst compared to the acidic catalyst. Sodium alkoxides are
among the most efficient catalysts used for this purpose, although potassium
hydroxide and sodium hydroxide can also be used. Trans methylation occurs many

31
folds faster in the presence of an alkaline catalyst than those catalyzed by the same
amount of acidic catalyst. Most commercial trans-esterification is conducted with
alkaline catalysts. The alkaline catalyst concentration in the range of 0.5 to 1% by
weight, yields 94 to 99% conversion of vegetable oil into esters. Further, increase in
catalyst concentration does not increase the conversion and it adds to extra costs
because it is necessary to remove it from the reaction medium at the end. It was
observed that higher amounts of sodium hydroxide catalyst were required for higher
FFA oil. Otherwise higher amount of sodium hydroxide resulted in reduced recovery.
Mixing intensity : The mixing effect is most significant during the slow rate region of
the trans-esterification reaction. As the single phase is established, mixing becomes
insignificant. The understanding of the mixing effects on the kinetics of the trans-
esterification process is a valuable tool in the process scale-up and design. It was
observed that after adding methanol & catalyst to the oil, 5-10 minutes stirring helps
in higher rate of conversion and recovery.
Purity of reactants : Impurities present in the oil also affect conversion levels. Under
the same conditions, 67 to 84% conversion into esters can be obtained, using crude
vegetable oils, compared with 94 to 97% when using refined oils. The free fatty acids
in the original oils interfere with the catalyst. However, under conditions of high
temperature and pressure this problem can be overcome. It was observed that crude
oils were equally good compared to refined oils for production of biodiesel. However,
the oils should be properly filtered. Oil quality is very important in this regard. The oil
settled at the bottom during storage may give lesser biodiesel recovery because of
accumulation of impurities like wax etc.
Raw material and its quality for the production of biodiesel
Vegetable Oil: Any sediment would collect at the bottom of the reaction vessel
during settling of Glycerine and at the liquid interface during washing. This would
interfere with the separation of the phases and may tend to promote emulsion
formation. The oil must be free of moisture because every molecule of water destroys
a molecule of the catalyst thus decreasing its concentration. The free fatty acid content
should be less than 1%. It was observed that lesser the FFA in oil better is the
biodiesel recovery. Higher FFA oil can also be used but the biodiesel recovery will
depend upon type of oil and amount of sodium hydroxide used.
Alcohol : Methanol or ethanol, as near to absolute as possible, can be used. As with
the oil, the water affects the extent of conversion enough to prevent the separation of
Glycerine from the reaction mixture.
Catalyst : Sodium or Potassium Hydroxide, preferably the latter. The corresponding
alkoxides also can be used, but it is prohibitively expensive. Best results are obtained,
if the catalyst is $"85% potassium hydroxide. Best grades of potassium hydroxide
have 14-15% water, which can not be removed. It should be low in carbonate,
because the carbonate is not an efficient catalyst and may cause cloudiness in the final
ester. Sodium hydroxide pellets have given very good results. Because quantity of
catalyst used is quite less, good quality catalyst (in-spite of high cost) can be used.
Animal fats : The most prominent animal fat to be studied for potential biodiesel use
is tallow. Tallow contains a high amount of saturated fatty acids, and it has therefore a
melting point above ambient temperature.
Waste vegetable oils : Every year many millions of tons of waste cooking oils are
collected and used in a variety of ways throughout the world. This is a virtually
inexhaustible source of energy, which might also prove an additional line of
production for “green” companies. These oils contain some degradation products of
vegetable oils and foreign material. However, analyses of used vegetable oils indicate

32
that the differences between used and unused fats are not very great and in most cases
simple heating and removal by filtration of solid particles suffices for subsequent
trans-esterification. The cetane number of a used frying oil methyl ester was given as
49, thus comparing well with other materials.
Esters of vegetable oil : These make good biomass fuels as diesel substitutes,
provided the following factors receive special attention:
!""The yield of trans-esterified product should be >90%.
!""The fuel should be as neutral as possible (pH 6.5-8.0)
!""The fuel should be centrifuged at a temperature below the expected ambient
operating temperature. Winterization has been suggested as the ideal solution.
!""The neutralizing agent should form fuel low in soluble salts, free from carbonate
groups.
!""Ash content should be 0.01%. The fuel should be free from alcohol.
Storage of biodiesel : It was observed that when the biodiesel manufactured using
different oils were stored, their FFA as well as viscosity increases. However, FFA
remained below 1% even after one and a half years of storage. Minimum increase was
observed in Jatropha curcas oil biodiesel, followed by rice bran, sun flower and
linseed oil biodiesel. During storage, the biodiesel also gained some weight. It may be
mainly due to reaction with oxygen in the air.
Plants in operation / under construction : Different technologies are currently
available and used in the industrial production of biodiesel, which is sold under
different trademarks. For example, there is an Italian process of Novamont, and the
French IFP as given in table below. A number of units are manufacturing biodiesel
worldwide. These units are using sunflower oil, soy bean oil, rape seed oil, used-
frying oil, jatropha oil, etc. as a source of triglycerides as given in tables below.
More than 85 plants were identified including a few pilot plants, over 30 small
capacity plants (500-3000 tons) mostly with farmers’ co-operative as owner and
several big plants in the capacity range of 10,000 to 120,000 tons. Of these, 44 plants
were in Western Europe with Italy as the leading country with 11 plants, 29 plants in
Eastern Europe with Czech being the leading country with 16 plants, 8 plants in North
America and 4 plants in the rest of the world. Overall capacity grew from 111,000
tons per year in 1991 to 1,286,000 tons per year in 1997. USA is the fastest growing
newcomer and a number of companies are emerging there. Additional capacities are
expected in Japan and the palm oil producing countries like, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Actual production grew from 10,000 tons in 1991 to 661,000 tons in 1997. France is
the leading producer with 227,000 tons (in 1996). The table gives country wise
number of plants, production capacity and feedstock oil used.
Available biodiesel production technologies
Company Reaction conditions
P (atm) Temp(o C) Catalyst Mode of
operation
Trans-esterification
Comprimo / Vogel and 1 Ambient KOH Batch
Noot
Idaho university 1 Ambient KOH Batch
Novamont / Technimont 1 > Ambient Organic Batch
Conemann / Cold and 1 60-70 NaOH Continuous
Hann
Lurgi 1 60-70 Alkaline Continuous

33
IFP / Sofiproteal 1 50-130 Alkaline/ Batch
Acid
Gratech 3.5 95 Continuous
Desmet 50 200 Non alkaline Continuous
Others: Oleofina, Proctor
and Gamble, MEKFT
IICT, Hyderabad Catalyst free Batch
IIP Dehradun a) Base Batch
catalyst
b) Acid
catalyst
Punjab University 1 55-60 NaOH pellets Batch
( Source: Tadashi Murayama)
Country wise capacity of the biodiesel plants
Country Number of Total annual Oils used
plants capacity '000 tons
Austria 11 56.2 to 60 Used frying oil
Belgium 3 241
Canada 1
Czech republic 17 42.5 to 45 Used frying oil
Denmark 3 32
France 7 38.1
Germany 8 207
Hungary 17 18.8
India 4 450 Jatropha
Ireland 9 5 Used frying oil
Italy 9 779 Sunflower oil
Nicaragua 1 Jatropha
Slovakia 10 50.5 to 51.5
Spain 1 0.5
Sweden 3 75
Switzerland 1 2
U.K. 1
U.S.A. 40 190 Used frying oil
Yugoslavia 2 5
(Source: Anjana Srivastava and Ramprasad)
Work done in India
In India, attempts are being made for using non-edible and under-exploited oils for
production of esters. The non-traditional seed oils available in the country, which can
be exploited for this purpose, are Madhuca indica, Shorea robusta, Pongamia glabra,
Mesua ferra (Linn), Mallotus philippines, Garcinia indica, Jatropha curcas and
Salvadora.
Lab Scale Projects
Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) is actively involved in Research &
Development work on plant oils and their esters (biodiesel) as alternate fuel for diesel
engines since early eighties. Firstly a number of plant oils were used in blend with
HSD (high speed diesel) fuel and kerosene oil in the existing diesel engine. Then a
simple biodiesel production process was standardized in the laboratory. Based on that
a 12 liter batch reactor was developed and used for bulk production of biodiesel which

34
was later scaled up to 60 liters. Biodiesel has been prepared from a number of plant
oils (edible as well as non-edible) and used successfully in existing diesel engines.
Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP) is actively pursuing the utilization of non-edible
oils for the production of biodiesel, additives for lubricating oils, saturated and
unsaturated alcohol and fatty acids and many other value added products. The results
obtained so far are encouraging and need further investigations for commercial
exploitation of these products. Some of the products used as lube additives are being
produced commercially from non-edible oils based on IIP's technologies. IIP is
pursuing program sponsored by DBT on “Liquid fuels form Renewable Resources”.
The project has two parts:
Part – A deals with the indigenous technology development for biodiesel production
using Jatropha Curcas, Karanj Oil, Mahua Oil and Salvadora Oil, as a networking
project along with Central Salt & Marine Chemical Research Institute, Bhavnagar and
National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow.
Part – B deals with the recovery of Hydrocarbons from biomass and their conversion
to liquid fuel with Rajasthan University Jaipur as a networking partner. Rajasthan
University will be supplying the biomass to IIP for its extraction and conversion to
liquid fuels. Under this program bulk sample of biodiesel will be prepared using the
30 liter capacity batch pilot plant available at IIP.
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) extracted oil from Jatropha
curcas. The oil extraction was based on cooking of jatropha seeds with water
followed by drying and expelling of oil. A catalyst-free process (Indian patent filed,
US Patent being filed) that is insensitive to moisture or high FFA content has been
developed at IICT, and an oil of any FFA content can be converted to the alkyl ester.
Active work is also going on at IICT for the preparation of fatty acid esters from low
and high FFA vegetable oils using enzymes and solid catalysts.
Besides, preliminary studies on the utilization of non-edible oils such as Neem,
Mahua, Linseed etc. as fuel, are being carried out at Indian Institute of Technology,
Delhi and Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Indian Oil Corporation's Research
& Development center at Faridabad, is also doing some work on the trans-
esterification of vegetable oils. . Indian Oil Corporation's Research & Development
center at Faridabad has already set up a biodiesel production facility of 60 kg/day.
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd has a pilot plant utilizing Karanj for biodiesel production
in Mumbai. This plant has carried out successful trails on tractors using this fuel.
Parameters such as power, torque, fuel consumption, emissions, etc. have been found
quite satisfactory on tractors operating on this biodiesel. Field trials for about 30,000
kilometers have also been carried out on the tractors. In India most of the trials were
done using biodiesel from feedstock like Karanj and Jatropha. Biodiesel manufactured
from different feed stocks may vary in composition, lubricity, oxidation stability, etc
even after meeting American Standards for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. It is
desirable to carry out tests on biodiesel from all possible feed stocks available in India
and generate comparative data on fuel composition.
PLANT FOR TRANS-ESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLE OILS
1000 Liters per day Pilot Plant
A) Background : Alcohol trans-esterification of vegetable oils results in Glycerine,
and Fatty Acid Alcohol Ester, commonly known as BioDiesel.
B) Description : The plant is a single stainless steel vessel, pressurized, electrically
heated and isolated batch unit, capable of either base, or base / base processes for
trans-esterifying vegetable oil. The plant is skid mounted, self-contained, and can be
powered by either 240 or 440 Volts AC. Compressed air 0.75 bar must be provided.

35
The vessel has a 1500 liter capacity; it normally processes 1200 liters of vegetable oil
/ alcohol mix, delivering on average 1000 liters of Biodiesel and 180 liters of
Glycerine, per batch, in approximately 18 hours.
Vegetable oil and alcohol are pumped through ball valves and visual level gauges.
The alkali catalyst is pre-measured and then added to the alcohol. Proportions can be
modified by the operator to suit different feedstock. Operator pre-set temperature and
pressure values are kept automatically.
Instruments, fail-safe visual and sound alarms are incorporated into the control panel.
A pressure relief valve and vent manifold allow outside venting to a service line,
complying with both ambient and work safety requirements. Metal bodied, spherical
valves, are used throughout.
C) BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION : The alcohol is pumped into the vessel and
mixing starts with vent open. The catalyst is pre-measured first testing the feedstock,
and then poured into vessel. Finally the vegetable oil is pumped into, heaters turned
on and vent closed. The mixing continues under selected conditions of temperature
and pressure during a stated period.
Once finished, the mixture settles under pressure, until
stratification of the Glycerine and liquid alcohol ester
occurs.
The resulting Glycerine is first extracted under pressure,
and the remaining Biodiesel is pushed through a 5
microns filter before being stored.
Dimensions:
Length x breadth x height 1730 x 1360 x 2500 mm
Weight 1200 kg
Volume 1500 Liters total volume
Production 1000 Liters of Biodiesel
Glycerine production 180 kg
1.5 HP motor centrifugal mixer pump
½ HP motor centrifugal oil pump
9 Kw. Heaters
10 kwh energy consumption per batch

How the trans-esterification process works


What is meant by completion and equilibrium? The trans-esterification process
converts triglycerides (in other words vegetable or animal fats and oils) into alkyl
esters (biodiesel) by means of an alcohol reagent (usually methanol) and a catalyst
NaOH. It happens in three stages (this has nothing to do with the single-stage or two-
stage processes): first the TtriGlycerides (TGs) are converted to DiGlycerides (DGs),
then the DiGlycerides are converted to MonoGlycerides (MGs), and finally the
MonoGlycerides are converted to esters, with glycerine as the by-product on
completion. The problem is that it can run out of reagent or catalyst before it gets that
far, or agitation, temperature or processing time may be inadequate.
The result is unconverted or partly converted material. So what if the process isn't
completed? SVO (straight vegetable oil) is a good fuel anyway, so what's it matter if
some of it is unreacted? But it's not just unreacted material that's the problem so much
as the partly-reacted stuff. DiGlycerides and MonoGlycerides are bad things to put in
your diesel. DiGlycerides don't burn well and lead to cokeing problems,
MonoGlycerides can lead to corrosion and other problems like bad fuel. The level of

36
Glycerine, mono- and DiGlycerides at levels of 0.1% (a factor of 1/1000 or less of the
main ester components) or lower appears necessary for optimum engine performance.
In fact the process never reaches 100% completion, it always reaches equilibrium
first, so there will always be some unreacted glycerides left. The various biodiesel
standards stipulate just how much is allowable, and it's not very much at all:
DiGlycerides range from less than 0.4% to less than 0.1% by mass, MonoGlycerides
less than 0.8% by mass.
The first part of the process happens rapidly, which is why some people think it only
needs a thorough mixing and that's it. Not so. If it takes X minutes to convert half the
TGs to DGs, it takes almost as long, another X minutes, to convert half the remaining
TGs, then a further X minutes for the remaining half, and so on. So the process goes
more and more slowly, and end never quite arrives, there's always half left. Finally
comes a point when the remaining half is insignificant, and, indeed, within the
limitations set by the various quality standards.
What are Free Fatty Acids : Vegetable or animal oils and fats, are triglycerides,
composed of three chains of Fatty Acids (FAs) bound by a glycerine molecule. Free
Fatty Acids (FFAs) are FAs that have been separated from the triglycerides by
hydrolysis, via water in the foods cooked in the oil. Oxidation also plays a role,
especially at high temperatures and with continued use of the fry oil. The hotter the oil
gets and the longer it's cooked, the more FFAs it will contain.
As glycerine is an alcohol, a FA attached to it (a glyceride) forms an ester. A trans-
esterification is the conversion (switching) of one ester into another, a glyceride into
an alkyl ester in the case of biodiesel, where methanol (or ethanol) replaces the
glycerine.
An esterification is the conversion of a non-ester into an ester. A FFA is not an ester.
FFAs are converted into esters by acid esterification in the first stage of the two-stage
acid-base process, but can not be converted by the usual single-stage trans-
esterification biodiesel process. Here the FFAs must be removed from the process, or
they will dissolve in the alkyl-ester biodiesel being formed, yielding an acidic, poor-
quality fuel that will not meet quality standards.
In trans-esterification, extra NaOH is used to neutralize the FFA content of the oil,
turning it into soaps. These soaps drop out of the process as a by-product, joining the
so-called glycerine layer at the bottom, more often a soap layer as it may contain more
soap than glycerine.
The basic NaOH quantity used in trans-esterification acts as a catalyst, not a
neutralizer. NaOH attacks ester bonds, breaking the bond, and the alcohol drops off.
With triglycerides the alcohol that drops off is glycerine. The affinity of the
replacement methyl or ethyl alcohol for the resulting open bond is strong enough to
prevent the Glycerine reattaching to the open FA.
This is also why it is critical that a minimal amount of NaOH is used, as NaOH will
continue to attack ester bonds, even those of biodiesel. Too much NaOH will break
the biodiesel ester bonds; some of the broken bonds will mate with the NaOH and
form excess soap, and others will match up with a water molecule to form FFAs,
which dissolve back into the biodiesel. It is this excessive formation of FFAs that the
acid number reflects. While it is unavoidable that some FFAs are formed by biodiesel
ester bonds being broken, excess NaOH increases the proportion.
The single-stage process produces more and more uncertain results with higher FFAs.
The two-stage base-base method avoids the need for titration and produces good
results even with higher FFA levels. It's the method-of-choice for animal fats.

37
Growing numbers of biodiesel manufacturers are now turning to the two-stage acid-
base method, especially with high-FFA oils.
Here are some of the reasons : Less base catalyst needed. Less soap production.
Higher conversion rates as a result of less soap formation. Less emulsion formation in
the wash. Less loss of fuel in the wash as a result of emulsion formation. Less wash
water as a result of less soap formation. Less neutralizing acid needed for the wash.
Less acid needed to neutralize base during glycerine recovery. High-quality product.
The negatives : A little extra processing time. Even with higher-FFA oils, the
production rate should be 100% or more by volume (biodiesel has a lower density
than the original oil). In fact the same advantages apply to new oil, although to a
lesser extent. Many biodiesel manufacturers use the two stage method for high-FFA
oils and this can be used for all oils.
Catalyst
The catalyst used in trans-esterification of vegetable or animal fats and oils is either
sodium hydroxide (NaOH, caustic soda), or potassium hydroxide (KOH, caustic
potash). It is hygroscopic, it absorbs water from the atmosphere. So make sure you get
fresh material, and keep the container tightly sealed. When weighing it out, do not
leave it exposed to the air too long. In humid weather, weigh it out into plastic bags,
one on either side of the scale to equalize the extra weight of the bag. As soon as it's
weighed out, close the container, close the bag, and add the catalyst to the methanol as
quickly as possible.
It also absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and becomes carbonated if not
stored properly. Carbonated material is white, fresh material is almost translucent.
You can still use carbonated material, but you will have to use a bit more (add about
25%). Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is more readily available than potassium hydroxide
(KOH) and cheaper. It usually comes in three grades: flakes and 5mm pearls or half-
pearls are 96-97%, small pearls (1-2 mm) are 99%+, but more expensive. Either will
do.
KOH is not as strong as NaOH, you have to use 1.4 times as much KOH (actually
1.4025 times). Titration is the same, just use a 0.1% KOH solution instead of NaOH
solution, and use 1 gm of KOH for every milliliter of 0.1% solution used in the
titration. But instead of the basic 3.5 grams of NaOH per liter of oil, use 3.5 x 1.4 =
4.9 grams of KOH. So, if your titration was 5 ml, use 5 + 4.9 = 9.9 gm KOH per liter
of oil. One more complication, check the purity of your KOH, it's generally not as
pure as NaOH. Anhydrous grade KOH flake is usually about 92%, sometimes less,
check the label. Common one is half-pearls assayed at 85%. Adjust the basic quantity
accordingly: the basic 4.9 grams would be 5.8 (5.775) grams for 85% KOH, or 5.3
(5.33) grams for 92% KOH. KOH dissolves in methanol much more easily than
NaOH does, and doesn't clump together as NaOH can do.
First titration : An electronic pH meter is best, but you can also use pH test strips (or
litmus paper), or phenolphthalein solution. Dissolve 1 gram of KOH in 1 liter of
distilled or de-ionized water (0.1% lye solution). In a smaller beaker, dissolve 1 ml of
WVO oil from which moisture is removed in 10 ml of pure isopropyl alcohol. Warm
the beaker gently by standing it in some hot water, stir until all the oil dissolves in the
alcohol and the mixture turns clear. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein solution.
Using a graduated burette, add 0.1% lye solution drop by drop to the oil-alcohol-
phenolphthalein solution, stirring all the time, until the solution stays pink (actually
magenta) for 10 seconds. Take the number of milliliters of 0.1% lye solution you used
and add 3.5. This is the number of grams of lye you'll need per liter of oil. With a pH

38
meter or test strips, use the same procedure without adding the phenolphthalein. Add
the 0.1% lye solution drop by drop as before until the pH reaches 8.5.
Second titration : Unless you have a very accurate scale, it's not easy to measure
exactly 1 gram of sodium hydroxide. It's much easier to measure 5 gm than 1 gm, so
mix 5 gm of sodium hydroxide with 500 milliliters of distilled or de-ionized water.
Before titration measure out 5 ml of the stock solution, add 45 ml of distilled or de-
ionized water. This makes a 0.1% solution. It's also not easy to measure exactly 1
milliliter of oil. Instead of the usual 1 ml of oil and 10 ml of isopropyl alcohol, mix 4
ml of oil in 40 ml of isopropyl alcohol in a glass beaker. Warm the mixture gently by
standing the beaker in hot water, stir until all the oil disperses and it becomes a clear
mixture. Then titrate as usual, measuring milliliters of stock solution used. When it
reaches pH8.5 count up the number of milliliters used as normal and divide by 4. This
will give a much more precise measurement. To save on isopropyl alcohol, use 2 ml
of oil in 20 ml of isopropyl and divide the results by two, still twice as accurate.
High FFA levels : Most people find their used cooking oil generally gives a titration
of 2-3 ml, but some used oils can have much higher FFA levels than this. Titration
levels of 9.6 ml. This is not good because FFAs are not good for reaction. It is
difficult to succeed in making biodiesel with our 9.6 ml of titration level. It's not easy
to process oil like this with the usual single-stage base process. You're likely to end up
with about 50% production half the time, and maybe not a very good product, and
lump, the rest of the time. If you're really precise with everything you can do it, you
can manage to get a consistent 75% production with the single-stage base process,
good product, easy wash.
The oil has to be thoroughly dried first, traces of water make a big difference with
high FFA levels, because there is more catalyst for the water to react with. And the
reaction itself releases traces of water, especially with high levels of lye. The better
way is to use the two-stage acid-base method, which effectively handles high FFA
levels and still produces high production rates with low levels of reactants and easy
washing.
Removing fatty acids from Waste Vegetable Oils : In commercial oil refining, this
is done with NaOH. Use the titration amount of NaOH, 1 gram for 1 ml WVO, and
mix it with 40 ml of water per liter of oil. It gets hot. Using a stainless steel container,
it is mixed by stirring, Add the dissolved NaOH to the oil (room temperature), stir
gently by hand until thoroughly mixed. Settle overnight. This leaves soap stock at the
bottom. The water is apparently in the soap stock. Filter to remove the soap stock, no
need for fine filtering, fine steel mesh will do (like a fine tea strainer). Now process as
usual for virgin oil, 3.5 grams NaOH per liter of oil, but use 25% methanol, 55o C,
good and prolonged agitation as usual.
Production rate is around 80%. With oil like this, it's much easier process than the
normal single-stage, and it's nice not to have to make such strong methoxide as a
straight single-stage process would require with this oil, 13.1 grams of NaOH per liter
of oil, or more like 13.6 grams (needs a bit of excess NaOH). You can add the soap
stock to the glycerine layer after separation and neutralize as usual to separate
catalyst, glycerine and FFAs. It's an alternative. better than straight single-stage base
for oil like this, and while it won't get as a high a production rate as the acid-base
method, and it uses more catalyst and gives you more co-products, it's very quick and
simple. This is also useful if you're making ethyl esters biodiesel, using ethanol rather
than methanol, the ethyl esters process doesn't work well with oils with more than
about 2 ml titration.

39
The basic NaOH quantity of 3.5 grams : This is the amount of NaOH, (sodium
hydroxide) required as catalyst to trans-esterify 1 liter of virgin, uncooked oil. For
used oils, titration determines the amount of lye needed to neutralize the Free Fatty
Acid (FFA) content, and this quantity is added to the basic figure of 3.5 grams per
liter. In fact 3.5 grams is an empirical measure, an average. Different oils have
slightly different requirements, and even the same type of oil varies according to how
and where it's grown. Other estimates are 3.1 gm, 3.4 gm.
Different oils also require different amounts of methanol. For oils and fats requiring
more methanol, coconut, palm kernel, as well as tallow, lard, butter, use more NaOH,
up to 4.5 gm, even with new oils, and especially when it's used. Once again, do small
test batches first.
How much methanol should you use? : The stoichiometric quantity of methanol is
the amount needed to convert triglycerides (fats and oils) into esters (biodiesel), the
methyl portion of methyl esters. Excess of methanol is required to push the
conversion process towards completion, without the excess the process runs out
(reaches equilibrium) before all the triglycerides are converted to esters, resulting in
poor fuel that doesn't combust well and can be corrosive. The excess methanol acts
more like a catalyst, it encourages the process but does not become a part of the final
product and can be recovered afterwards.
Stoichiometric quantity : The stoichiometric quantity is usually said to be 12.5%
methanol by volume, that is, 125 milliliters of methanol per liter of oil. Some
manufacturers use it at 13%, or 13.5%, or even as low as 8%. In fact it depends on the
amounts of the various fatty acids in the oil, and varies from one oil to another.
Excess Methanol : How much excess is needed, to achieve 98% conversion? It
depends on several different factors like the type of oil, its condition, the type, size
and shape of the processor, the type and duration of agitation, the temperature of the
process. However, excess is usually between 60% and 100% of the stoichiometric
amount. So if the stoichiometric ratio of the oil you're using is 12.5%, that is 125 ml
of methanol per liter of oil, the excess would range between 75 ml and 125 ml, for a
total amount of methanol of 200-250 ml per liter of oil.
Oils with higher stoichiometric ratios seem to need higher excesses. So, for fresh oils,
you can try 60%, though 67% or more would be better. For palm kernel or coconut,
closer to 100% excess would be better. For tallow and lard, use higher excesses. For
used oil, WVO, waste vegetable oil, often contains animal fats from the cooking, use
67% minimum excess. For heavily used oils with high titration levels, use higher
excesses, up to 100%.
If you don't know what kind of oil your WVO is, try using 25% methanol, 250 ml
methanol to 1 liter of oil. If you've taken care with the titration, used accurate
measurements and followed the instructions carefully, you should get a good, clean
split, with esters on top and the glycerine and free fatty acids cleanly separated at the
bottom. If you have trouble washing it, with a lot of frothing, that could be because
the process didn't go far enough and unconverted material is forming emulsions, try
using more methanol next time. If everything works well, try using less methanol.
You will soon figure out what's best for you. With the acid-base two-stage method,
don't worry about it.
Ethyl esters : The same principles apply for making ethyl esters instead of methyl
esters, using ethanol rather than methanol, with some differences. Use 1.4 times more
ethanol than methanol. It won't work if there's any water in the ethanol or the oil. It
works much better with some methanol added, up to 3:1 ethanol : methanol. Virgin oil

40
is better, with waste oil (WVO) it won't work with FFA content much more than 1ml
by titration.
Reclaiming excess methanol
Depending on the kind of oil you use, it takes from 110-160 milliliters of methanol
per liter of oil to form the methyl esters molecule. But you also need to use an excess
of methanol to push the conversion process towards completion, the total used is
usually 20% and more of the volume of oil used, 200 ml per liter or more. Much of
the excess methanol can be recovered after the process for reuse, simply by boiling it
off in a closed container with an outlet leading to a simple condenser. Methanol boils
at 64.7o C, though of course it starts vaporizing well before it reaches boiling point.
Unlike ethanol, methanol does not form an azeotrope with water and relatively pure
methanol can be recovered, pure enough to reuse in the next batch.
Methanol can be recovered at the end of the process, or just from the glycerine by-
product layer, since most of the excess methanol collects in the by-product and it's
that much less material to heat. Start at 65 to 70o C, as the proportion of methanol left
in the by-product mixture decreases, the boiling point will increase, so you'll have to
raise the temperature to keep the methanol vaporizing, perhaps to as high as 100o C
or more, though the bulk of it should have been recovered by then. If you're planning
to separate the glycerine from the soaps (FFAs) and catalyst it's best to leave methanol
recovery to later as the glycerine probably won't separate without the methanol. The
excess methanol can then be recovered from the separated glycerine layer. To keep
costs down, biodiesel producers try to salvage the unreacted methanol. There are two
major methods to do this: heat extraction and vacuum/heat extraction.
Heat Extraction : Heat the second-stage product to 70oC in a sealed boiler or vessel
and lead the fumes into a condenser. Intercept the condensed methanol in a liquid
trap. Take great care because methanol is highly flammable and the fumes are
explosive.
Vacuum / Heat extraction : This is basically the same as heat extraction, but it
requires less energy. The drawback of this method is that you need a special vessel
and equipment to do this. When building your reactor it may be a good idea to take
one step at a time. Build the reactor, get confident with the process and eventually
upgrade to methanol recovery. At least a quarter of the methanol used can be
recovered, that is, 50+ ml per liter of oil / fat. Mix it with fresh methanol for preparing
the next batch of methoxide.
Glycerine : There is no set amount of by-product, such as 200 ml per liter, and there
is no rule that the by-product must be solid at room temperature. What is much more
important is that in each of the cases above, the test batch produced a good split, the
glycerine separated and settled to the bottom, and, if the directions are followed
carefully, the rest would have been good biodiesel, needing no more than settling and
washing. The rule of thumb is 79 milliliters of glycerine for every liter of oil used
(7.9%). And crude glycerine is not solid at room temperature. But the so-called
glycerine layer is not just glycerine, it's a variable mixture of glycerine, soaps, excess
methanol, and the catalyst NaOH. The quantity varies according to the oil used (more
with heavily-used oil), the process used (less with the acid-base two-stage method),
the amount of excess methanol used (most of the excess methanol ends up in the by-
product layer).
It's mainly the soaps combined with the glycerine that can cause it to solidify. Soaps
made from saturated fats such as stearin are harder than those made from unsaturated
fats such as olein, so the type of oil used makes a difference. More important is how

41
much soap there is, the more soap, the more likely the by-product layer will solidify,
no matter what oil you used.
Other factors are Excess methanol which makes the by-product layer thinner, Too
much NaOH creates excess soap, Potassium hydroxide (KOH) makes the by-product
slightly thinner than sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Manufacturing Process for BioDiesel
1. Filter the used cooking oil first as usual.
2. For a successful reaction the oil must be free of water. Here are two methods of
removing the water content
(a) Settling the water out : This method saves energy. Heat the oil to 60o C, maintain
the temperature for 15 minutes and then pour the oil into a settling tank. Let it settle
for at least 24 hours. Make sure you never empty the settling vessel more than 90%.
(b) Boiling the water off : Less-preferred method as it uses more energy and helps to
form more FFAs in the oil. Heat the oil to 100o C. As the heat rises water separates
out and falls to the bottom, drain it off to avoid steam explosions. Maintain the
temperature until no more steam bubbles rise.
First stage
3. Measure the volume of oil / fats to be processed (preferably in liters).
4. Heat the oil to 35o C, make sure that all solid fats are melted.
5. Methanol: use only 99%+ pure methanol. Measure out the methanol, 0.08 liters of
methanol for each liter of oil / fats (8% by volume). Add the methanol to the heated
oil.
6. Mix for five minutes, the mixture will become murky because of solvent change
(methanol is a polar compound, oil is strongly non-polar; a suspension will form).
7. For each liter of oil / fats add 1 milliliter of 95% sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Use a
graduated pipette. Take care when handling the concentrated sulfuric acid.
8. Mix gently at LOW rpm (don't splash!) while keeping the temperature at 35o C.
The rotation of your stirrer should not exceed 500 to 600 rpm, speed is not crucial and
splashed oil is a mess to clean.
9. Maintain the temperature at 35o C for one hour then stop heating. Continue stirring.
10. Stir the unheated mixture for another hour, a total of two hours, then stop mixing.
Let the mixture sit for at least eight hours, overnight is better.
11. In the meantime prepare the sodium methoxide: measure 0.12 liter of methanol for
each liter of oil / fat (12% by volume) and weigh 3.1 grams (up to 3.5 grams if purity
is in doubt) of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, per liter of oil / fat. Mix the NaOH into the
methanol until the lye is completely dissolved. This process uses only about half the
usual amount of NaOH as there is less fat left to trans-esterify. Use 99%+ pure
sodium hydroxide. After opening the container, close it again as quickly as possible to
prevent moisture getting in. Weigh NaOH carefully, using too much will complicate
the washing process later.
Methoxide : Mixing NaOH with methanol creates an exothermic reaction, generating
heat. It is nasty stuff and it is not easy to mix, and it must be thoroughly mixed before
you use it, with all the NaOH dissolved. This is a safe and easy way to do it. The
disadvantage is that you have to do it in advance, but that is easily arranged. Add the
required amount of NaOH, if you are doing large quantities, add it bit by bit rather
than all at once, agitate the container in between. Once it is all added, replace the lid,
and agitate the mixture about for a few seconds. Then let it stand. Do that a few more
times, every few hours or so (at least 4 to 6 times in all). It will be thoroughly
dissolved in 24 hours, or maybe a bit longer. The proportion of NaOH to methanol
used in making biodiesel is low.

42
12. After settling for eight hours, or the next morning, pour half of the prepared
methoxide into the unheated mixture and mix for five minutes. This will neutralize the
sulfuric acid and boost the base catalysis. If you have used solid fat, it probably
solidified during settling, gently melt the mixture first. Now you can continue with the
normal procedure with the lye as the second stage.
Second stage : This is the base-catalyzed stage.
13. Heat the mixture to 55o C and maintain for the whole reaction.
14. Add the second half of the prepared sodium methoxide to the heated mixture and
start mixing at the same low speed of not more than 500 to 600 rpm. Take care when
handling the sodium methoxide with full safety precautions.
15. If your reactor allows for it, start draining glycerine from the bottom, 20-25
minutes after the start of the base stage. (Pump-mixing works best for this.) Repeat
every 10 minutes. Take care, the glycerine is quite hot and caustic.
16. Take regular samples in a 25 to 40 mm diameter glass container. Watch for a
straw yellow color of the ester portion. Glycerine (brown and sticky) will settle at the
bottom of the jar. When this color is reached (usually in 1.5 to 2.5 hours) turn the heat
and mixer off. Instead of taking out samples to check the color you could use
translucent braided tubing for the pump.
17. Allow to settle for one hour.
18. For easier washing drain off the glycerine. Measure off 25% of the total glycerine
(including previously drained glycerine) and mix with 10 milliliters of 10%
phosphoric acid (H3PO4) per each liter of oil / fat processed. The mixing can be done
with a wooden spoon in a plastic container. Pour the acidified glycerine back into the
reactor and stir for 20 minutes, unheated. Allow to settle for at least six hours and then
drain the glycerine fraction completely. During the first stage, free fatty acids were
esterified and some triglycerides were trans-esterified. The base-catalyzed stage does
only trans-esterification, but it's much quicker and more complete.
Washing
19. Use the bubble wash method, but no need to monitor pH anymore. Just add a little
10% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) to the washing water first, 2.5 milliliters per liter. If
you are curious about the results of your wash, use ordinary litmus paper, it will tell
you the rough pH level (acidity/alkalinity). The end result should be neutral (pH 7) or
just below neutral.
20. Use one-third the volume of water as the amount of biodiesel to be washed. Make
sure both the water and biodiesel are roughly at the same (room) temperature. Pour
your biodiesel into the vessel with the water, and start pumping air through a
perforated stone assembly at the bottom. Let it bubble for 24 hours minimum. Turn
the pump off and let the mixture settle for half an hour. The water will fall to the
bottom, turning completely white, and the fuel will be much lighter in color now.
Drain the water, repeat the procedure two more times. Remove the biodiesel from the
vessel, taking care not to get any water with it.
21. Let the biodiesel stand for about a weeks and use only when it becomes crystal
clear; take a sample and wait until it is completely cleared.
Acid-stage questions : A question will probably arise : why not mix the methanol
with the sulfuric acid before adding them to the oil / fats? There are two major
reasons: (a) the reaction between methanol and concentrated H2SO4 is quite violent
and it could splash, which does not happen if you mix it as described; and (b)
dimethyl ether can form. Mixing alcohols with concentrated H2SO4 is a way to dry the
alcohols (which is good) and also a way to make di-alcohol ethers. It is not good for
dimethyl ether, since it is a gas, colorless and highly explosive.

43
Base-stage questions : The second-stage product should be quite murky. This is no
problem, as it will wash out. After the processed oil / fat has turned straw-yellow (step
16), you have let it settle for an hour and drained the glycerine, you should have a
total of about 120 ml of glycerine per liter of oil/fat used. If it's less than about 100 ml
per liter of oil, something's wrong, even if the color is right, the process hasn't gone
far enough.
This will almost certainly be due to carbonated NaOH. NaOH has a really limited
shelf life. CO2 from the air neutralizes it and forms sodium carbonate. Carbonated
NaOH is much whiter than pure NaOH, which is almost translucent. The carbonate in
the NaOH will not harm the reaction, but you will have to use more NaOH.
The solution is to repeat the procedure from step 13. Prepare a fresh batch of
methoxide with 0.03 liters of methanol and 0.75 grams of lye for each liter of oil / fat.
Reheat the biodiesel to 55o C, add the fresh methoxide and mix as before. No need
this time to remove glycerine during the processing as in step 15, and don't worry
about the colour. Mix for one hour, settle, drain off the extra glycerine, and proceed
from step 18. If you plan to continue using the carbonated NaOH, make sure to
increase the amount by 25% next time you make biodiesel. Store NaOH at room
temperature, in dry conditions if possible, with the container lid really tightly closed.
Other uses of BioDiesel
Wood treatment : Biodiesel is very useful to treat wood, floors included. The smell
soon goes away (and it's a pleasant enough smell anyway).
Lubricant : It is an excellent lubricant, very slippery indeed. It is better than
household lubricating oils, and it is non-obnoxious and non-toxic. It doesn't matter
much if the kids swallow some by mistake. Great for gardeners, especially organic
gardeners, nothing better for lubricating your tools and keeping them clean and rust-
free, and non-toxic. And great in the workshop.
You can also use biodiesel as a lubricating additive for low-sulfur fuels. With diesels,
engine parts are lubricated by the fuel itself. There are already indications that diesel
motors are not lasting as long as they did because of the lack of lubrication with low-
sulfur fuel (500ppm), let alone the new ultra-low-sulfur fuel (15 ppm), and biodiesel
can change that. Adding just 1% biodiesel improves the lubricity up to 65%. Research
suggests that just 0.4% to 0.5% is enough.
Biodiesel can be used as two-stroke oil in two wheelers, at a mix of 20 to 1 with
petrol. It works fine. Biodiesel does not travel up a wick very well, like kerosene oil
will, so it can not be used for ordinary wick lamps or stoves. However, tests have
found that it will travel about 7 cm up a wick but not more than that, and the wick
should preferably be thick (about 1 cm) and loosely wound, tightly-woven
commercial wicks will not work well. Biodiesel also might not work in some heating
furnaces or stoves, though some models work just fine, and others can be adjusted.
Petromax multi-fuel lantern works just fine on biodiesel. You need not have to re-
pressurize the lantern as often as you would using other fuel-types. The performance
is great, and the lantern is just as bright, and there is no Smell.
Better than detergent : The soap / water suspension pulls a good bit of the surface
oil off first, with the biodiesel removing the balance of the oil embedded and soaked
into the fibers. The suspension also seems to keep the oily effect of the biodiesel from
getting locked into the fiber, which can give the look of wet spots (oil soaked spots)
even when the garment is dry.

44
CHAPTER 5
Blending of Esters & Diesel
Blending conventional High Speed Diesel Fuel (HSD) with esters (usually methyl
esters) of vegetable oils is presently the most common form of biodiesel. The most
common ratio is 80% conventional diesel fuel and 20% vegetable oil ester, also
termed B20, indicating the 20% level of biodiesel. There have been numerous reports
that significant emission reductions are achieved with these blends.
No engine problems were reported in large scale tests with, for example, urban bus
fleets running on B20. Fuel economy was comparable to HSD, with the consumption
of biodiesel blend being only 2 to 5% higher than that of conventional HSD. Another
advantage of biodiesel blends is the simplicity of fuel preparation, which only
requires mixing of the components. Ester blends have been reported to be stable, for
example, a blend of 20% peanut oil with 80% HSD did not separate at room
temperature over a period of 3 months. A 50:50 blends of peanut oil with HSD was
also found quite stable. Several studies have shown that diesel / biodiesel blends
reduce smoke opacity, particulate, un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide emissions, but nitrous monoxide emissions are slightly increased. One
limitation to the use of biodiesel is its tendency to crystallize at temperatures below
0°C. Methyl and ethyl esters of vegetable oils will crystallize and separate from diesel
at temperatures often experienced in winter time operation. Such crystals can plug
fuel lines and filters, causing problems in fuel pumping and engine operation. One
solution to this problem may be the use of branched-chain esters, such as isopropyl
esters. The isopropyl esters of soy bean oil crystallize 7 to 11°C lower than the
corresponding methyl esters. Another method to improve the cold flow properties of
vegetable oil esters is to remove high melting saturated esters by inducing
crystallization with cooling, a process known as winterization.

45
CHAPTER 6
Storage of Biodiesel
Pure vegetable oils are completely harmless to the environment, especially the
groundwater. However, esterification of vegetable oil increases its water hazard.
German EPA classifies waste vegetable oil as a toxic waste. As a general rule blends
of biodiesel and petroleum diesel should be treated like petroleum diesel. It is
recommended to store biodiesel in clean, dry and approved tanks. Though the flash
point of biodiesel is high, storage precautions somewhat like that in storing the diesel
fuel still need to be taken Biodiesel can be stored for long periods in closed containers
with little head room but the container must be protected from direct sunlight, low
temperature and weather. Underground storage is preferred in cold climates but it can
be stored in open with proper insulation, heating and other equipment should be
installed. B20 fuel can be stored in tanks, above ground depending on the pour point
and cloud points of the blend. Low temperature can cause biodiesel to gel. Additives
can be used for low temperature storage and pumping. The biodiesel / its blends
should be stored at temperatures at least 15oC higher than the pour point of the fuel.
While splash blending the biodiesel, care should be taken to avoid very low fuel
temperatures, as the saturated compounds can crystallize and separate out to cause
plugging of fuel lines and filters. Condensation of water in the tank should be avoided
as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria and mould can grow and these use biodiesel as
food.
Biodiesel and its blends are susceptible to growing microbes when water is present in
fuel. Biocides, chemicals that kill bacteria and moulds growing in fuel tank, can be
added in small concentration. Biocides do not remove sediments. Moreover, storage
of biodiesel in old tanks can release accumulated deposits and slime and can cause
very severe filter and pump blockage problem. For long term storage stability of
Biodiesel and blends adequate data are not available. Based on experience so far it is
recommended that biodiesel can be stored up to a maximum period of 6 months.
Some anti-oxidant additives are also used for longer periods of storage. Similar
periods are applicable for storage of biodiesel and its blends in vehicle fuel tank. Due
to being a mild solvent, biodiesel has a tendency to dissolve the sediments normally
encountered in old tanks, used for diesel fuel and these cause filter blockage, injector
failures in addition to clogging of fuel lines. Brass, copper, zinc etc oxidizes diesel
and biodiesel fuels and create sediments. The fuel and fittings will start changing
color as the sediments are formed. Storage tanks made of aluminum, steel etc should
be used.

46
CHAPTER 7
Handling of Biodiesel
As a general rule blends of biodiesel and petroleum diesel should be treated like
Petroleum Diesel. Biodiesel, vegetable oil methyl esters, contain no volatile organic
compounds that can give rise to poisonous or noxious fumes. There are no aromatic
hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, xylene) or chlorinated hydrocarbons. There is no lead
or sulfur to react and release any harmful or corrosive gases. However, in case of
biodiesel blends significant fumes released by benzene and other aromatic chemicals
present in the petroleum diesel fuel can continue. On contact with eye, biodiesel may
cause irritation to eye. Safety glasses or face shields should be used to avoid mist or
splash on face and eyes. Fire fighting measures to be followed as per its fire hazard
classification. Hot fuel may cause burn. Biodiesel should be handled with gloves as it
may cause soft skin. Mild irritation on skin can occur.
Indian Explosive Regulations classify the product as C Class (Similar to Heavy oils
due to its high flash point). The glycerine also falls under same classification. There is
no risk of explosions from vapors of biodiesel as the flash point is high and the vapor
pressure is less than 1 mm Hg. Large biodiesel spills can be harmful. Biodiesel, while
not completely harmless to the larvae and fish, is less harmful than petroleum diesel
fuel.
Biodiesel methyl esters have very low solubility in water (saturation concentration of
7 ppm in sea water and 14 ppm in fresh water at 17oC) compared to petroleum diesel
that contain benzene, toluene, xylene and other more water soluble, highly toxic
compounds. However, when the biodiesel is vigorously blended into water, the
methyl esters form a temporary emulsion of tiny droplets that appear to be harmful to
the swimming larvae. The half life for biodegradation of vegetable methyl ester is
about 4 days at 17oC, about twice fast as petroleum diesel. In the laboratory tests, rape
seed methyl eater degraded by 95% while the diesel fuel degraded only 40% at the
end of 23 days.
Any accidental discharge / spill of small amounts of biodiesel should have little
impact on the environment compared to petroleum diesel, which contains more toxic
and more water-soluble aromatics. Nonetheless, the methyl esters could still cause
harm. Environmental Protection Agency still considers spills of vegetable oils and
animal fats as harmful to the environment. Spilling biodiesel in water is as illegal as
spilling petroleum. Biodiesel need to be handled like any other petroleum fuels and
laws should be reviewed to ensure that biodiesel is covered in the same class, if not
included already. When biocides are used in the fuel tank to kill bacteria, suitable
handling precautions like use of gloves and eye protection is must. One must check if
the laws on disposal of petroleum products are applicable to biodiesel also. Similarly
check if Laws for spill prevention and containment action for those who produce or
store biodiesel exists. Discharge of animal fats and vegetable oil are order of
magnitude less toxic than petroleum discharge, do not create carcinogenic compounds
and, are really biodegradable by bacteria thus minimizing physical impact on
environment.
Nevertheless, extreme discharges of animal fats, vegetable oils and biodiesel can
cause negative impact on aquatic life. Biodiesel spills compare more favorably to
petroleum oil spills. Moreover, likelihood of a vegetable oil or biodiesel oil spill being
comparable in magnitude to a petroleum spill is also very small due to differences in
volumes in the two industries. Petroleum tankers exceed 2,50,000 ton capacity
whereas vegetable oils are carried in tankers with 3,500 to 5,000 tons capacity.

47
There is a need to differentiate between the vegetable oils and petroleum oil through
the creation of separate classes for animal fats and vegetable oils from petroleum oils,
and apply separate standards based on the differences in physical characteristics
between the classes. Biodiesel is currently controlled in the same manner as animal
fats, vegetable oils and petroleum oils are controlled under oil spill laws and
regulations, biodiesel facilities and tanker vessels transporting biodiesel remain
controlled in the same manner as if they were petroleum oil facilities or tanker vessels
transporting petroleum oil.

48
CHAPTER 8
Analysis of technologies with reference to Indian resources & requirements
India has rich and abundant forest resources with a wide range of plants and oilseeds.
The production of these oilseeds can be stepped up many folds if the government
takes the decision to use them for producing biodiesel fuels. Economical feasibility of
biodiesel depends on the price of the crude petroleum and the cost of transporting
diesel to long distances to remote markets in India. Further, the strict regulations on
the aromatics and sulphur contents in diesel fuels will result in higher cost of
production of conventional diesel fuels.
The production of ethyl esters from edible oils is currently much more expensive than
hydrocarbon based diesel fuels due to the relatively high costs of vegetable oils. The
rising prices of crude petroleum, has now caused concern, and the cost of petroleum
diesel is quite comparable to that of biodiesel, if the price of crude petroleum oil
remains higher than US$ 60 per barrel. The cost of biodiesel can be reduced by using
non-edible oils, and used frying oils instead of edible oils. Non edible oils such as rice
bran, sal, neem, mahua, karanj, jatropha, etc. are easily available in many parts of the
world including India, and are very cheap compared to edible oils. The potential
availability of some non-edible oils in India is given in Table that follows.
Non-edible oil sources of India
Oil Botanical name Potential Utilized %
(Tons) (Tons) utilization
Rice bran Oryza sativa 474,000 101,000 21
Sal Shorea robusta 720,000 23,000 3
Neem Melia azadirachta 400,000 20,000 6
Karanj Pongamia glabra 135,000 8,000 6
(Source: Anjana Srivastava and Ramprasad)
The processing of oilseeds for the production of edible vegetable oils generates
byproduct streams, containing triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids. In
many cases these streams are of considerably lower value than the finished oil.
Successful development of a scheme for ester synthesis from low-value lipids could
address the economic barriers to a wider adoption of biodiesel.
Fatty acid methyl ester could be produced from tall oil, a by-product in the
manufacture of pulp by the Kraft process. Tall oil consists of free C18 unsaturated
fatty acids, resin acids and relatively small amounts of unsaponifiables. The fatty acid
fraction of tall oil contains mainly oleic acid, linoleic acid and its isomers.
With the mushrooming of fast food centers and restaurants in India, it is expected that
considerable amounts of used frying oils will be discarded into the drains. These can
be used for making biodiesel, thus helping to reduce the cost of water treatment in the
sewerage system and assisting in the recycling of resources. Acid oil, which is
cheaper than both raw and refined oils, is a major byproduct of the alkali refining
industries and is a potential raw material for making biodiesel.
It is also possible to use vegetable oils directly blended with diesel oil. With about
25% diesel oil mixed with vegetable oil, it is possible to achieve improved thermal
efficiency and lower smoke emissions. Heating the fuel to lower the viscosity and
then using vegetable oils directly as fuels is also an option.
Thermal and catalytic decomposition of vegetable oils to produce gasoline and diesel
fuel has been studied by a number of scientists using various methods with the
objective of finding a gasoline replacement, but the fuel obtained possessed an
inferior octane number. At the present, a hydrocarbon fuel with a similar volatility
and molecular weight as diesel fuel can be produced with an approximate volume

49
yield of 50% from the decomposition of vegetable oils. The method that appears most
promising is pre-hydrogenation followed by thermal or catalytic decomposition of
vegetable oils.
Biodiesel can be used as a pure fuel or blend with petroleum diesel depending on the
economics and emissions. The Indian Scenario is different from Europe and USA
where refined vegetable oils, waste frying oils and tallow are used to produce
biodiesel. In India, non edible oils are likely the preferred feed stock. The trans-
esterification of non-edible oils has been studied extensively with a view to produce
biodiesel. Data on oil characteristics, their behavior in trans-esterification and quality
of biodiesel produced from each oil is available for application of this process such as:
catalysts (basic, acidic, homogeneous / heterogeneous); continuous / batch operation;
scale of operation; by products valuation and utilization.
Available biodiesel production technologies
Reaction conditions
Company P Mode of
Temp(oC) Catalyst
(atm) operation
Trans-esterification
Comprimo / Vogel and Noot 1 Ambient KOH Batch
Idaho university 1 Ambient KOH Batch
Novamont / Technimont 1 > Ambient Organic Batch
Conemann / Cold and Hann 1 60-70 NaOH Continuous
Lurgi 1 60-70 Alkaline Continuous
Alkaline/
IFP / Sofiproteal 1 50-130 Batch
Acid
Gratech 3.5 95 Continuous
Non
Desmet 50 200 Continuous
alkaline
Others: Oleofina, Proctor and
Gamble, MEKFT
Catalyst
IICT, Hyderabad Batch
free
Alkaline/
IIP Dehradun Batch
Acid
Punjab University 1 55-60 NaOH Batch
The cheapest oils are Jatropha and Karanj. The jatropha oil industry will be the
driving force behind biodiesel commercialization when large production capacity is
set up and product is in surplus, which will lead to declining prices. Similar issues
apply to the recycled oils and animal fats industry, even though feedstock are less
expensive than jatropha oils.
BioDiesel Plant Suppliers
!" ENERGEA -- The next generation of biodiesel technology, Continuous Trans
Esterification Reactor (CTER) technology opens a new chapter in biodiesel
production. It has up to 50% lower cost of investment, turn-key modules are of
size of a container, multiple feed-stock is possible, production capacity can be
5,000 to 1,00,000 metric tons / year or more, and can produce high quality fuel
according to DIN 51 606, future CEN-standard. Web Site : http://www.energea.at/
Email: mail@energea.at,

50
!" Biofuel Systems provides state-of-the-art biodiesel process equipment which
meets all recognised international safety standards (eg. ATEX) and will produce
biodiesel from a range of feed stocks to meet recognised standards, including
ASTM 6751-03, EN 14214:2003, DIN V 51606. Company currently offers
systems from 900 litres per week upwards. Available in Europe through
Eurobiodiesel Ltd (http://www.eurobiodiesel.com), in Australasia through New
Zealand Biofuels Limited, and in the rest of world direct from Biofuel Systems,
58 Church Street, Ormskirk, Lancashire, ENGLAND L39 3AW. Fax: +44 1695
571222, Web Site : http://biofuelsystems.com, E mail: info@biofuelsystems.com
!" Biodiesel Technologies, Vienna, has Compact biodiesel manufacturing plants
installed in a 20-ft container frame, ready to operate, multi feed stock re-
esterification and final conditioning of biodiesel. Optional module offered is feed
stock oil purifier, dryer. Production capacity 500 to 1,000 liters per hour of
biodiesel (depending on model). Member of the Biodiesel Austria Group. Contact
Dr. L. Kondor, Managing Director, Tel: + 43 1 877 0553, Fax: + 43 1 877 8446,
Web Site : http://www.biodieselaustria.com, E-Mail: dr-kondor@eunet.at,
!" NOPEC Corporation (OceanAir Environmental Fuels) Lakeland, Florida has a
plant that is a world showcase of the latest processing technology, with a 10
million gallons / year capacity. Company provides contract manufacturing
services and biodiesel production technology and Flexible, multi-feed-stock
technology. Phone (863) 683-7199, fax (863) 683-1058, email Jim Davis, Wes
Berry or Mahesh Talwar, Web Site : http://www.oceanairenvironmental.com/. E
Mail : sales@oceanairenvironmental.com, or oceanair1@att.net.
!" Pacific Biodiesel offers plant installations in two configurations: 2,00,000 gallons
/ year (7,50,000 liters / year), expandable in 2,00,000 gallons / year increments to
maximum 8,00,000 gallons / year (30,00,000 liters / year); or 4,00,000 gallons /
year (15,00,000 liters / year) expandable in 4,00,000 gallons / year increments to
maximum 16,00,000 gallons / year (60,00,000 liters / year). Telephone: (808) 877-
3144, Fax: (808) 871-5631, Contact Bob King, President, E Mail :
bking@biodiesel.com or info@biodiesel.com, Web Site :
http://www.biodiesel.com
!" BioDiesel International of Austria uses re-esterification in its multi-feed stock
production system to handle fresh vegetable oils and / or waste cooking oils and /
or animal fats and / or fatty acids (as much as 20%), with no loss of free fatty
acids, 0% wastes, 0% waste water and no disposal costs, resulting in pure
biodiesel plus glycerine (for use in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries)
plus a solid fertilizer for agricultural use (potassium phosphate). Yield is 100% : 1
kg of raw material makes 1 kg of high-quality biodiesel. Web Site :
http://www.biodiesel-intl.com
!" Superior Process Technologies, USA, offers Multi-feed stock biodiesel processing
technology, turn-key engineering and design services. Superior's biodiesel
technology offers the highest efficiency and is scalable from the largest
continuous processing facilities in the world to small-scale alternative feedstock
facilities. Web Site : http://www.SuperiorProcessTech.com, E Mail :
sales@SuperiorProcessTech.com.
!" Crown Iron Works Company, USA offers enhanced continuous and batch methyl
ester production processes. The continuous process is a two-stage reaction system
followed by ester washing, drying and methanol recovery; batch process is
designed for smaller scale and / or multi-feed stock capability, several reactor
options. Glycerine recovery equipment capable of producing 99.7% USP

51
glycerine is also offered. Technology and design assistance to enhance existing
ester plants. P.O. Box 1364, Minneapolis, MN 55440-1364 USA. Tel : 1/651/639-
8900, Fax: 1/651/639-8051, Web Site : http://www.crowniron.com/index.html,
Email: sales@crowniron.com. Also in Europe, Australia, Honduras, China.
!" The Austrian Biofuels Institute, an international center of competence for liquid
biofuels offers production feasibility studies, process technologies for biofuels,
project management. It also offers feed stock supply of oil seed plant production
and oil-mill technologies, waste oil recycling, logistic systems for waste oil
collection. Web Site : http://www.biodiesel.at/index2.html

52
CHAPTER 9
Engine Development & Modifications
Studies conducted with biodiesel on engines have shown substantial reduction in
Particulate matter (25–50%). However, a marginal increase in NOx (1-6%) is also
reported. It may be noted that the marginal increase in NOx can be taken care of either
by optimization of engine parts or by using De-NOx catalyst. HC and CO emissions
were also reported to be lower. Non-regulated emissions like PAH etc were also
found to be lower.
Although, biodiesel is reported to have superior lubricity, its effect on lubricity of FIP
needs to be quantified for typical Indian feed stocks. Flash point of biodiesel is high
(> 100oC). Its blending with diesel fuel can be utilized to increase the flash point of
diesel particularly in India where flash point is 35oC, well below the world average of
55oC. This is important from the safety point of view. Most of the studies reported
had used methyl ester. However, ethyl ester can also be expected to give similar
results.
The viscosity of biodiesel is higher (1.9 to 6.0 centi Stokes) and reported to result into
gum formation on injector, cylinder liner etc. This needs to be studied on various
engine designs. 5-10% biodiesel can be used with HSD without any engine
modifications. The Emission norms of diesel cars and heavy-duty vehicles are given
in the next two Tables respectively.
Comparison of Indian & European Diesel specifications
Characteristics India- Bharat Bharat Euro-III Euro-III Euro-IV
2000 Stage-II Stage-III 1993 2000 2005
Cetane No. min 48 48 51 49 51
Cetane Index, min 46 46 46 46
Sulfur, ppm 2500 500 350 500 350 50
PAH, wt%, max 11 11
Viscocity @40oC 2-5 2 -5 2 - 2.5 2 - 4.5 2 - 4.5
3
Density, kg/m , max 860 860 845 860 845
T85, oC 350 350 350
T95, oC 370 370 360 370 360
Indian & European Vehicle Emission Norms Diesel Heavy Duty vehicles
Emissions Euro-I (1993) Euro-II (1996) Euro-III (2000) Euro-IV
India 2000 Bharat Stage-II Bharat Stage-III
(2000) (2005)
CO (g/kWh) 4.5 4 2.1 1.5
HC (g/kWh) 1.1 1.1 0.66 0.02
PM (g/kWh) 0.36 0.15 0.10 0.025
Nox (g/kWh) 8.0 7.0 5.0 3.5
Indian and European diesel fuel specifications are tabulated in following Table. It
may be noted that increasing demand on improving fuel quality with time due to
stringent emission norms requires heavy cost in terms of better vehicle technology
and refineries up gradation. Therefore, use of clean fuels like biodiesel becomes more
relevant in the present context.
Comparison of Indian & European Diesel specifications
Characteristics India- Bharat Bharat Euro-III Euro-III Euro-IV
2000 Stage-II Stage-III 1993 2000 2005
Cetane No. min 48 48 51 49 51
Cetane Index, min 46 46 46 46

53
Sulfur, ppm 2500 500 350 500 350 50
PAH, wt%, max 11 11
o
Viscocity @40 C 2-5 2 -5 2 - 2.5 2 - 4.5 2 - 4.5
Density, kg/m3, max 860 860 845 860 845
T85, oC 350 350 350
T95, oC 370 370 360 370 360
Indian & European Vehicle Emission Norms
Emissions Euro-I (1993) Euro-II (1996) Euro-III (2000) Euro-IV
India 2000 Bharat Stage-II Bharat Stage-III
(2000) (2005)
CO (g/km) 2.72 1.0 0.64 0.50
HC+Nox(g/km) 0.97 0.7 0.56 0.3
PM(g/km) 0.14 0.08 0.05 0.025
Biodiesel can be derived from restaurant greases and fats as well as many vegetable
oils, such as corn, cashew, oat, palm, lupine, rubber seed, coffee, linseed, hazelnut,
euphobia, pumpkin seed, sesame, kenaf, calendula, cotton, hemp, soybean, rape seed,
olive, castor, jojoba, pecan, palm, safflower, rice, sunflower, peanut, tung, jatropha,
macadamia nut, brazil nut, avocado, coconut, macuba palm, karanj etc. Vegetable oils
can be used as a fuel in diesel engines. The use of unrefined vegetable oil leads to
poor fuel atomization due to high viscosity resulting in poor combustion and also
more gum formation in fuel injector, liner etc. The results of emissions of using
unrefined vegetable oils were unfavorable and were also accompanied by deposit
formation. Therefore, it is necessary to esterify the vegetable oil for use in engines.
Most of the studies presented below are focussed on use of methyl ester and its blends
in engines. Methyl esters have high cetane number leading to low engine operating
noise and good starting characteristics. Some of the properties of Methyl esters are
shown in the following Table.
Properties of different Methyl esters compared to diesel fuel
Fuel property Soy bean Rape seed Diesel fuel
methyl ester methyl
ester
Formula C18 to C19 C18 to C19 C8 to C25
Carbon (% wt) 78 81 84-87
Hydrogen (% wt) 11 12 12-16
Oxygen (% wt) 11 7 0
Specific Gravity 0.87 0.88 0.81
o
Pour point ( C) -3 -15 -23
Viscosity mPa-s at 20oC 3.6 3.6 2.6-4.1
Lower heating value Kj/lit 32 37 35-37
o
Flash point C 179 74
Cetane number 52 62 40-55
A number of companies have conducted detailed experiments with biodiesel with
three engines (1997 Cummins N14, 1997 DDC Series 50, 1995 Cummins B5.9) with
neat biodiesel (B100) and biodiesel diesel blend (B20). The results of the engine
(DDC Series 50) are shown in the following Table.
Tests result for DDC series 50 engine at transient conditions are
Test fuel HC CO NOx PM
(g/hp-hr) (g/hp-hr) (g/hp-hr) (g/hp-hr)
Diesel 0.06 1.49 4.5 0.102

54
B20 0.06 1.38 4.66 0.088
B100 0.01 0.92 5.01 0.052
B100 with catalyst 0.02 0.76 4.9 0.03
These companies have investigated the effects of biodiesel on engine performance
and exhaust emissions with and without catalyst. The results show a significant
reduction in exhaust emissions. CO and HC emissions were significantly lower than
diesel operation. However, NOx emissions increased marginally. The particulate
emissions were generally lower (about 25 to 50%) due to higher oxygen content in
biodiesel. The non-regulated emissions like PAH and nPAH also decreased
significantly.
Apart from benefit in terms of emissions, the use of biodiesel is also reported to give
excess carbon deposit on injector, liner etc and the results in various studies had also
confirmed this problem. However, these problems can be addressed by use of a
suitable additives package. Engine oil dilution is a potential problem with biodiesel
since it is more prone to oxidation and polymerization than diesel fuel. The presence
of biodiesel in engine could cause thick sludge to occur with the consequence that the
oil becomes too thick to pump. Engine oil formulations need to be studied to
minimize the effect of dilution with biodiesel. The manufactures of Caterpillar engine
has recommended various suggestions to the users on the use of biodiesel in their
engines. The salient features of recommendations are
!" Biodiesel provides approximately 5-7% less energy than distillate fuels. One
should not change the engine rating to compensate for the power loss in order to
avoid engine problems.
!" At low ambient temperatures, the fuel system may require heated fuel lines, filters
and tanks. Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which may accelerate fuel
oxidation in the fuel system. Oxidation stability additive has to be used to avoid
long term storage problem.
!" They have set the Caterpillar biodiesel specification standards. In that, they
mentioned the fuel quality on use in Caterpillar engine should be sulfur content
maximum of 0.01% by weight, cetane number minimum of 45, flash point
minimum of 100o C etc.
Use of bio-fuels and their effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to atmosphere is
well updated in a Concave report. They studied the effects with ethanol and Rape seed
Methyl Ester (RME). They calculated net greenhouse gas in view of emissions from
bio-fuels production process and burning, and these were compared with fossil fuel at
same energy content. They reported that the CO2 emitted during combustion of the
bio-fuel does not enter into the balance, because it was absorbed from the atmosphere
by the growing crop. This point is well debated and concluded in the concave report.
The gain, in terms of GHG for the use of biodiesel, is not well established as lot of
uncertainties need to be cleared in estimating GHG.
It must be noted that the light duty diesel engines are sufficiently different from heavy
duty diesel engines in may aspects and one should not expect that the emission
behavior of the two types of engines would be same. This fact should be kept in mind
while transferring conclusions of studies done on one type of engine to other type of
engines.

55
CHAPTER 10
Environmental and Health Effects of Biodiesel
The use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of
unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. However,
Emissions of nitrogen dioxides are either slightly reduced or slightly increased
depending on the duty cycle and testing methods. The use of biodiesel decreases the
solid carbon fraction of particulate matter (since the oxygen in biodiesel enables more
complete combustion to CO2), eliminates the sulfur fraction (as there is no sulfur in
the fuel), while the soluble or hydrogen fraction stays the same or is increased.
Therefore, biodiesel works well with new technologies such as oxidation catalysts.
As per U.S.EPA biodiesel has been comprehensively evaluated in terms of emissions
and potential health effects under the Clean Air Act Section 211(b). These programs
include stringent emissions testing protocols required by EPA for certification of fuels
in the U.S. The data gathered through these tests include thorough inventory of the
environmental and human health effects attributes that current technology will allow.
The results of the emissions tests for pure biodiesel (B100) and mixed biodiesel (B20-
20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel) compared to conventional diesel are given
in Tables that follow.
Biodiesel Emissions Compared to Conventional Diesel
Emissions B100 B20
Regulated Emissions
Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -93% -30%
Carbon Monoxide -50% -20%
Particulate Matter -30% -22%
NOx +13% +2%
Non Regulated Emissions
Sulphates -100% -20%*
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)** -80% -13%
NPAH (Nitrated PAHs)** -90% -50%***
Ozone Potential of HC -50% -10%
Life Cycle Emissions
Carbon Dioxide -80%
Sulfur Dioxide -100%
*Estimated from B100 results., **Average reduction across all compounds measured.
***2-nitroflourine results were within test method variability.
Emission results of Biodiesel and blends tests on IDI diesel engine
Test Cycle : EEC+EUDC 90 kmph Cold Start All b/km
CO HC NOx HC + PM
NOx
BS-II Limit 1.5 1.2 0.17
Base line 0.77 0.37 0.79 1.16 0.129
With 10% blend 0.65 0.22 0.83 1.04 0.093
With 15% blend 0.62 0.16 0.89 1.05 0.080
% improvement with respect to the base line
10% blend 15% 41% -4% 10% 28%
15% blend 20% 50% -12% 10% 38%
(Source: Mahindra & Mahindra)
The life-cycle production and use of biodiesel produces approximately 80% less
carbon dioxide and almost 100% less sulfur dioxide compared to conventional diesel.

56
Biodiesel emissions are nontoxic. From Table that follows, it is clear that biodiesel
gives a distinct emission benefit almost for all regulated and non-regulated pollutants
when compared to conventional diesel fuel but emissions of NOx appear to increase
from biodiesel. NOx increases with the increase in concentration of biodiesel in the
mixture of biodiesel and petroleum diesel. This increase in NOx emissions may be
neutralized by the efficient use of NOx control technologies, which fits better with
biodiesel with almost nil sulfur then conventional diesel containing sulfur. It may also
be noted that emission of NOx also varies with the different family of feed stocks for
biodiesel. Moreover, the problem of increased NOx emission can be effectively
tackled by retarding the fuel injection timing.
Comparison of particulate composition Diesel Vs. Biodiesel
(Rape seed Methyl Esters, RSME)
When the engine is operated on RSME, soot emissions (insoluble) are dramatically
reduced, but the proportion of emissions composed of fuel derived hydrocarbons (fuel
soluble), condensed on the soot, is much higher. This implies that the RSME may not
burn to completion as readily as diesel fuel. It should, however, be noted that gaseous
HC emissions were reduced with RSME in the above tests. Since concern over
particulate arises partly from the potential harmful effects of the soluble fraction, it
might be suspected that emissions from RSME would be more harmful however data
shows no tendency for the mutagenicity of exhaust gas to increase for a vehicle
running on 20% RSME and 80% diesel blends.
Test Fuel Total Insoluble Fuel Lube Soluble
PM (g/mile) soluble soluble inorganic
(g/mile) (g/mile) (g/mile) fraction
%
Cold FTP Diesel 0.311 0.259 0.021 0.031 17
RSME 0.0258 0.118 0.104 0.036 54
Difference % -17% -54% +491% +16% +318%
Hot FTP Diesel 0.239 0.206 0.012 0.021 14
RSME 0.190 0.101 0.068 0.021 47
Difference % -21% -51% +567% +0% +335%
Toxicity & Safety issues
Biodiesel is non-toxic. The acute oral LD50 (lethal dose) is greater than 17.4-g / Kg
of body weight. It causes very mild human skin irritation, which is less than the
irritation produced by 4% soap and water solution. It is bio-degradable. There is no
tendency for the mutagenicity of exhaust gas to increase for a vehicle running on
biodiesel (20% RSME, 80% diesel). Biodiesel is considered as fairly safer fuel.
Biodiesel has a flash point of about 170oC well above conventional diesel fuel. The
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA lists its aquatic
toxicity as “insignificant” in its Registry of the Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
EPA rates biodiesel to have the same safety concerns to that associated with
conventional fuels. This product (biodiesel) is not “hazardous” under the criteria of
the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200. As per the
California Proposition 65- this product contains no chemicals known to the state of
California to cause cancer. This fuel is registered under Fuel and Fuel additives at 40
CFR79 of US-EPA.
Diesel emissions and cancer
According to a U.S. Department of Energy study completed at the University of
California at Davis, the use of pure biodiesel instead of petroleum-based diesel fuel
could offer a 93.6% reduction in cancer risks from exhaust emissions exposure.

57
The study, "Chemical and Bioassay Analyses of Diesel and Biodiesel Particulate
Matter", 1996, used a 1995 Dodge 3/4 ton pickup truck with a 5.9-litre Cummins B
Turbo diesel and tested 100% ethyl ester of rape seed oil (REE), 100% diesel 2-D
low-sulfur fuel and blends of 20% REE and 50% REE with the 2-D diesel fuel. An
EPA test cycle was followed throughout. In test after test the study found the highest
risk came from 100% diesel fuel, followed by the 20% REE blend, the 50% REE
blend and, lowest risk, the pure biodiesel. Use of the 100% REE fuel produced the
lowest genotoxic (DNA-damaging) activity in the tests. Blended fuels in the non-
catalyst-equipped engine produced less emissions than emissions than the 100%
diesel fuel. The use of the 100% REE fuel resulted in the lowest emissions compared
to the REE blends and 100% diesel fuels.
The highest relative specific mass mutagenic activity collected during either the hot or
cold test cycles was the particulate matter collected from the 100% diesel fuel
emissions. The lowest relative specific mass mutagenic activity was from the
particulate matter collected from emissions of l00% REE fuel. There's nothing special
about ethyl ester of rape seed oil biodiesel, other types of biodiesel have similar
results.
Greenhouse effect
Using vegetable oils or animal fats as fuel for motor vehicles is in effect running them
on solar energy. All biofuels, including ethanol, are derived from the conversion of
sunlight to energy (carbohydrates) that takes place in the green leaves of plants.
Plants take up carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere; burning plant (or animal)
products in an engine releases the CO2 uptake back into the atmosphere, to be taken
up again by other plants. The CO2 is recycled, atmospheric CO2 levels remain
constant. Thus biofuels do not increase the Greenhouse Effect, unlike fossil fuels,
which release large amounts of new (or rather very old) CO2 which has been locked
away from the atmosphere for thousands of years.
In fact biodiesel can actually reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere: growing soybeans
consumes nearly four times as much CO2 as the amount of CO2 produced in the
exhaust from soybean oil biodiesel.
NOx and biodiesel
Studies on Nitrous Oxide emissions with biodiesel, are reported in various scientific
and industry studies. Adjustment of injection timing and engine operating temperature
will result in these levels [of nitrous oxides with biodiesel] being reduced below
mineral diesel levels. It is reported by Dr Kerr Walker, Scottish Agricultural College,
1994, in "Biodiesel from Rape seed", Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of
England, Volume 155, p. 43-4.
Nitrous Oxides (NOx) are reported by several researchers to be increased with
Biodiesel. However, our own data shows a reduction in nitrous oxides, very
consistently, throughout all these [dynamometer] tests. NOx started at 6.2 gm/mile for
diesel and goes down to around 5.6 gm/mile with 100% ester (Biodiesel), with
slightly more reduction with REE (rape seed ethyl ester) than RME (rape seed methyl
ester)... Emissions results for 100 percent ester compared with diesel control fuel
show a 53% reduction in HC (Hydrocarbons), a 50% reduction in CO (Carbon
monoxide), 10% reduction in NOx and 13.6% increase in PM (particulate matter).
Toxicology, Biodegradability and Environmental Benefits of Biodiesel", Charles L.
Peterson and Daryl Reece, Professor and Engineering Technician, Department of
Agricultural Engineering, University of Idaho, 1994.
Fueling with biodiesel / diesel fuel blends reduced particulate matter (PM), total
hydrocarbons (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO), while increasing oxides of nitrogen

58
(NOx). Retarded fuel injection timing reduced NOx emissions while maintaining the
other emissions reductions. 6V-92TA DDC Engine Exhaust Emission Tests using
Methyl Ester [Biodiesel] is reported by L. G. Schumacher (Department of
Agricultural Engineering at the University of Missouri), D. Fosseen, W. Goetz, S. C.
Borgelt, W. G. Hires (1995) in Bioresource Technology, 1995.
As the concentration of biodiesel is increased, the emissions of oxides of nitrogen
[NOx] increased. The B20A20 [= a blend of 20% biodiesel and 20% heavy alkylate
with 60% conventional low-sulfur petroleum diesel fuel] fuel blend effectively
reduced the oxides of nitrogen emissions below that of baseline diesel fuel. Retarding
the timing was an effective way of reducing NOx emissions when fueling with the
biodiesel blends. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, can be successfully reduced below
that of baseline diesel fuel by either retarding injection timing or replacing 20 percent
of the baseline diesel fuel of the B20 blend with heavy alkylate. Engine Exhaust
Emissions Evaluation of a Cummins L10E When Fueled with a Biodiesel Blend was
carried out by William Marshall, Leon G. Schumacher, Steve Howell (1995), Society
of Automotive Engineers, SAE Paper # 952363. [B20 = a blend of 20% biodiesel with
80% conventional low sulfur petroleum diesel fuel. B20A20
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions from biodiesel increase or decrease depending on
the engine family and testing procedures. NOx emissions (a contributing factor in the
localized formation of smog and ozone) from pure (100%) biodiesel increased in this
test by 13 percent. However, biodiesel's lack of sulfur allows the use of NOx control
technologies that cannot be used with conventional diesel. So, biodiesel NOx
emissions can be effectively managed and efficiently eliminated as a concern of the
fuel's use. US National Biodiesel Board, Biodiesel Report, April 1998, named
Biodiesel First Alternative Fuel to Meet EPA Health Effects Requirement, Positive
environmental and health effects results for Biodiesel. [Sulfur content of methyl ester
biodiesel: less than 0.001 percentage weight. Sulfur content of low-sulfur
conventional diesel fuel: 0.05 percentage weight].
"There are reliable, proven methods for base lining or even reducing Nitrous Oxides
(NOx) produced when using biodiesel. I have certified emissions for the urban bus
retrofit program with EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) using this
technology. This package included use of an oxidation catalyst to maximize
Particulate Matter (PM) reductions (taking advantage of the high soluble organic
fraction of biodiesel) and a timing change to give up some PM reductions while
reducing NOx to baseline or even past baseline, the best case was a 28% NOx
reduction with a 25% PM reduction. (From a personal communication, Ming Tseng,
Aiko Associates LLC, USA, biodiesel suppliers).

59
CHAPTER 11
Research and Development Issues
A number of institutions have been engaged in India in looking in to the various
aspects of bio-fuels. For example, Indian Oil Corporation's Research & Development
Center has already set up a pilot biodiesel production facility and Mahindra &
Mahindra Ltd, have a pilot plant utilizing Karanj for biodiesel production. Some areas
where R&D efforts are needed in the fields of Ethanol and Biodiesel are mentioned
below. In the field of Biodiesel, presence of moisture or high FFA content has posed
problems. Other subjects needing attention are briefly mentioned below:
!""Raw Material (Jatropha curcas seed and oil) : Selection of improved germ plasm
material for quality and quantity of oil; developing agro-technologies for different
agro-climatic regions, total chemical analysis of all potential non-edible oils with
special reference to Jatropha curcas Oil. Testing of Biodiesel from various feed stocks
and generation of comparative data on fuel composition, emissions, material
compatibility etc.
!""Production Technology: Research efforts for perfecting an efficient chemical /
catalyst conversion process. Alternate uses of by-products i.e. glycerol and meal cake.
!""Utilization as Fuel: Data generation & production of biodiesel from all possible
feed stocks, response of different available additives and their dosages on the
biodiesel, effect of biodiesel on elastomers, corrosion etc, stability of Bio diesel
oxidation stability, thermal stability and storage stability; engine performance and
emissions based on different feed stock based Biodiesel; toxicological studies and
tests to check adulteration. Toxicological study is a pre-requisite for introduction of
any fuel and should be carried out. Procedure for detecting percentage of Biodiesel in
the blended fuel and to check adulteration of the fuel should also be developed.
!""Plants in operation / under construction: Plants with different capacities and
technologies are currently available and used in the industrial production of biodiesel.
A number of units are manufacturing biodiesel worldwide using various feed stock
including Jatropha oil.
!""Blending of Esters & Diesel: The most common blending ratio is 80%
conventional diesel fuel and 20% vegetable oil ester (biodiesel), also termed B20, as
significant emission reductions are achieved with these blends are stable, simple to
prepare and no engine problems are encountered. One limitation to the use of
biodiesel is its tendency to crystallize at low temperatures below 0°C. causing
problems in fuel pumping and engine operation. One solution to this problem may be
the use of branched chain esters, such as isopropyl esters. Another method to improve
the cold flow properties of vegetable oil esters is to remove high melting saturated
esters by inducing crystallization with cooling, a process known as winterization.
These aspects need to be studied.
!""Storage & Handling of Biodiesel: As a general rule blends of biodiesel and
petroleum diesel should be treated like petroleum diesel and pose no problems There
is no aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, xylene) or chlorinated hydrocarbons.
There is no lead or sulfur to react and release any harmful or corrosive gases.
However, in case of biodiesel blends significant fumes released by benzene and other
aromatics present in the base diesel fuel can continue.
!""Engine Development & Modifications: Engine oil dilution is a potential problem
with biodiesel since it is more prone to oxidation and polymerization than diesel fuel.
The presence of biodiesel in engine could cause thick sludge to occur with the
consequence that the oil becomes too thick to pump. Engine oil formulations need to
be studied to minimize the effect of dilution with biodiesel keeping in mind that the

60
light duty diesel engines are sufficiently different from heavy duty diesel engines in
many aspects including emission behavior.
!""Marketing & Trade: The role of marketing companies in distribution, pricing,
taxation,, interstate movement and the direct and indirect impact of biodiesel e.g.
employment generation, balance of trade, emission benefits etc need to be studied.
Research & Development
In India research on biodiesel is in infant stage, there is a dire need to adopt vigorous
programs on the technological development for its production, utilization of by
products and evaluation in engine with respect to shortcomings, emissions, additive
response etc. For efficient production of biodiesel, concerted R&D effort is needed to
produce high quality feedstock material and to develop an improved, cost effective
and efficient biodiesel production system. Biodiesel from different feed stocks may
vary in composition, lubricity, oxidation stability, etc. It is desirable to carry out tests
on biodiesel from all possible feed stocks available in India and generate comparative
data on fuel composition emissions and materials compatibility, etc. Toxicological
study is a pre-requisite for introduction of any fuel. It is recommended that such
studies in India should be initiated through concerned R&D centers. Procedure for
detecting percentage of biodiesel in the blended fuel and to check adulteration of the
fuel should also be developed. Emission norms for biodiesel vehicles may be similar
to that of the conventional diesel vehicles Research and Development needs in
broadly three areas viz. Raw Material, Production Technology and Utilization of
biodiesel as fuel have been considered. The major raw materials used for the
production of biodiesel are vegetable oil and alcohol. In India vegetable oils are costly
and are in short supply therefore, non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas. Pongaima,
Salvodra, Acacia, Madhuca latifolia, Saliciornia etc. are preferred feed stock for
biodiesel production. The potential of total non-edible oils in India is around 100,000
tons / annum. There is a need to increase the production of non-edible oil even to
achieve a humble target of 5.0% replacement of diesel with biodiesel.
The other R&D issues which need attention are seed resource assessment, collection
and their preservation, increasing availability of seed, seed setting, inter-cropping,
selection of high yielding crops, developing agro-technologies for different agro
climatic regions, oil quality, biodiesel production technology using new catalyst
systems like heterogeneous catalysts, lipase catalyst and supported catalysts on smart
polymers, utilization of by-products apart from issues related to utilization of
biodiesel as fuel including compatibility with additives and elastomers, engine
performance, toxicity adulteration etc.
Raw Material
Production of improved feed stock / raw-material
The major raw materials used for the production of biodiesel are (a) vegetable oil (b)
alcohol (methanol, ethanol etc.). Total vegetable oil production in India (2001-02) is
6.67 million metric tons (Source: Solvent Extraction Association of India) while
ethanol production is around 1.3 billion liters (Source: CBMD souvenir on Ethanol
and Biodiesel, Sept. 2002).
The studies all over the world on vegetable oils as the alternative fuels are mainly
concentrated on field crops like rape seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, Canola oil,
used fried oil etc. In India these oils are costly and are in short supply. For India it
appears that non-edible oils may be the choice feed stock for biodiesel production. At
present the most widely used raw material for biodiesel in India is Jatropha curcas and
Pongaima However, other species such as, Salvodra, Acacia, Madhuca latifolia,
Saliciornia etc. also offer enormous potential.

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The potential of total non-edible oils in India is around 100,000 tons / annum (Source:
Report on Role of NGOs, and Inform, vol. 13, 151-157, Feb. 2002). This quantity is
not even sufficient for 0.25 % replacement of diesel need of India There is a need to
increase the production of non-edible oil even to achieve a moderate target of 5.0%
replacement of diesel with biodiesel. There is need to increase the area under
utilization of genetically improved tree species which can produce better quality and
quantity of oil. This would require systematic efforts towards tree improvement
program, identification of Candidate Plus Tree (CPTs), standardization of nursery
raising techniques (i.e. Vegetative / seed / tissue culture) so that high yielding
genotypes could be produced for further plantation programs, which in turn could
yield better quality and quantity of oil.
National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oil Development Board (NOVOD), National
Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research
Institute, (CSMCRI) Bhavnagar leading universities and other R&D institutions
working in the similar field can play a leading role in developing high yielding
varieties of CPTS specially Jatropha Curcas. The other reachable issues, which need
attention, are seed resource assessment, collection and their preservation, increasing
availability of seed, seed setting, inter-cropping with TBOS (Tree Borne oil Seeds).
Selection of the crop for production of Biodiesel
This is perhaps the most important and also the most neglected issue. As mentioned
earlier for India it appears that non-edible oils is the choice feed stock for Biodiesel
production. There is a need to collect scientific data to get the realistic figures on the
yield pattern and on the oil content/ quality. Presently, most of such figures are just
based on preliminary studies and we have no pilot projects to support the data. To
begin with Jatropha Curcas seems to be the most potential candidate considering its
favorable properties. Some reports indicate that Jatropha gives yields varying from
1.5 tons / hectare to as high as 12 tons / hectares. However, the types of genetic
species, which give high yield, are not classified. There are enormous possibilities for
selecting and breeding crops with higher yields of suitable oil.
Biotechnology tools can be applied for producing high quality elite planting material.
Tissue Culture technologies help in mass-producing the elite identified clones.
Techniques of genetic engineering also offer a possibility of producing desirable
material. Research effort should continue for identifying new and potential sources of
raw material. NOVOD can help in this regard.
Developing agro-technologies for different agro-climatic regions
For maximum yield, proper agro-technologies are essential, research studies on
standardizing nursery practices need to be further strengthened. There is enormous
waste and marginal land available and technologies for utilizing this effectively are
required to be standardized for different potential crops to be grown in various
ecosystems. Proper scientific data is essential for planting density, fertilization
practices, planting procedure etc. Research being supported for developing complete
agro-technologies for potential crops for different agro-ecosystems, needs to be
strengthened. Demonstrations should be laid out pilot scale data collected. Complete
technology packages should be prepared for adoption at grass root level. This area
requires complete peoples participation. CSMCRI Bhavnagar, NBRI Lucknow
NOVOD, leading universities and other R&D institutions working in this area can
take up this work.
Oil Quality
The oil quality has a direct relationship with the technology of trans-esterification a
basic reaction in biodiesel production. Oils having high free fatty acids (FFA) need a

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different treatment of the oil from that of low FFA oils. Therefore, chemical analysis
of the oil, with respect to unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acids and composition of
fatty acids becomes very important. There is a need for total chemical analysis of all
potential non edible oils with special reference to Jatropha Curcas Oil for biodiesel
production prior to carrying out trans-esterification studies. Various aspects like,
characterization of the oil and pretreatment studies also require to be looked into. The
oils on storage for longer period get deteriorated so information is needed on their
storage stabilities especially with respect to the increased FFA content and sediments.
Improved storage practices should be developed.
Production Technology
Biodiesel production
Plant based oils can be converted to Biodiesel by processing of the oil so as to convert
triglycerides to fatty acid esters. This trans-esterification reaction is simple, however,
improved technologies would result in higher yield and better quality. Research
efforts for perfecting an efficient chemical / catalyst conversion process are ongoing
and need to be pursued further. Methyl as well ethyl esters can be used in the diesel
engine. It may be interesting to do studies to assess effect of type of esterification on
the final properties of the fuel using the same base feedstock. Indian Oil Corporation
should be requested to generate some data on this aspect. Even if India opt for foreign
technology for the production of biodiesel from non-edible oils their will be a need of
R&D to fine tune the foreign technology to suits the oils produced in India.
Biocatalyst
Conventionally biodiesel is produced through trans-esterification of oils with a short
chain alcohol in the presence of a homogenous catalyst. With this catalyst, water
treatment or neutralization is required. New tools / techniques can be applied using
heterogeneous catalysts, which will eliminate the pollution and handling problems.
Heterogeneous slurry catalysts are filterable from the oil. Fixed-bed system avoids the
catalysts removal step and also the catalyst could be potentially regenerated in-situ.
Research efforts have also been initiated for optimizing lipase catalyzed trans-
esterification conditions. This includes study on identifying the appropriate lipase,
purification of the enzyme through modern efficient techniques like expanded bed
chromatography, affinity precipitation and three phase partitioning. Lipase catalyzed
esterification / trans-esterification is reported to be a more efficient process than the
chemical / catalytic process. The data/ conditions optimized for lipase production
from different microorganisms, culture conditions, fermentation, lipase assay,
immobilized enzyme reaction etc. would be useful for efficient conversion.
Heterogeneous Catalyst
An emerging alternative technology is to use smart polymers. These are basically
soluble polymers whose solubility can be altered in a reversible fashion by the use of
a command. The command can be a change in pH, ionic strength, temperature or even
addition of an ion or chemical. Thus enzymes immobilized on such supports can be
used in soluble form with plant material, cellulose material and recovered after the
reaction by altering the conditions i.e. using a suitable command. The trans-
esterification reaction requires low water conditions otherwise product esters will be
hydrolyzed back. The protocols for such reactions are available but optimization in
terms of best enzyme, best immobilization form, best solvent etc are required with
each individual system. A number of lipase are commercially available and can be
used after limited purification.
A number of strategies have been worked out for enhancing enzymes activity under
anhydrous conditions. These involve pH tuning, salt activation and choosing the right

63
support for immobilization. All these need to be tried for maximizing biodiesel yield.
Indian Institute of Petroleum, Indian Oil Corporation's Research & Development
Center at Faridabad, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Hyderabad, Punjab
Agriculture University, Indian Institute of Technology at Delhi and some other
research organizations which are already working on this aspect are capable of
completing this work in a reasonable time frame.
Utilization of by-products
The cost of biodiesel production can be reduced by proper utilization of by-products
such as crude glycerine and seed cake apart from improving trans-esterification
process. Crude glycerine from biodiesel contain some peculiar impurities and may not
be suitable to process according to the usual technologies to produce pharmaceutical
or top grade product. There is a need not only to develop purification technology for
crude glycerine but also for its utilization as a raw material for the production of other
chemicals as large quantity (200,000 tons / year) of the glycerol will be available even
if 5 % diesel is targeted to be replaced by biodiesel against the present crude glycerine
demand in Indian which is the tune of 40,000 tons / year.
There is a need to find the use of meal cake, which will be available in large quantities
to reduce the cost of biodiesel. Meal cake may be used as fertilizer, as cattle feed after
detoxification, etc. CSMCRI, NBRI Universities and NOVOD may be approached for
R&D requirements.
Utilization as Fuel
Biodiesel Characterization
In India most of the trials has been carried out using biodiesel from feed stocks like
Jatropha Curcas and Karanj oils. Biodiesel from different feed stocks even after
meeting ASTM standards may very in composition, lubricity, oxidation stability etc.
It is desirable to carry out tests on biodiesel from all possible feed stocks available in
India and generate comparative data on fuel composition.
Compatibility with additives
Biodiesel may have different response with present day additives. There is a need to
study in detail the response of different available additives, their dosages on the
biodiesel e.g.
a) Biodiesel thickens at low temperature so it needs cold flow improver additives.
b) Pour point depressants commonly used for diesel may not work for biodiesel.
c) Poor oxidation stability of biodiesel may require increased amount of stabilizer.
d) To avoid growth of algae in presence of water, some biocide may be needed.
Some newer additives may have to be developed / required for biodiesel.
Compatibility with elastomers
Though biodiesel (B100) can be used as a replacement of petroleum diesel, further
study is needed to study the effect of biodiesel on elastomers, additive response,
corrosion etc. Minor modifications in the engine may also be required.
Stability of Bio diesel
Biodiesel ages more quickly than fossil diesel fuel due to the chemical structure of
fatty acid esters present in biodiesel. There are three types of stability criteria, which
need to be studied:
(a) Oxidation stability
(b) Thermal Stability
(c) Storage Stability.
Poor oxidation and thermal stability can cause fuel thickening, formation of gum and
sediments and may also affect engine oil due to dilution. Current knowledge and
database is still inadequate. It is desirable to carry out tests on biodiesel from different

64
feed stocks available in India and generate data in relation to fuel composition. Very
little data is available on the long-term storage stability of biodiesel. Effect of
presence of water, sediments, and additives on storage stability needs to be
investigated in detail.
Engine Performance
No or very little data on effect of biodiesel from Jatropha and Karanj Oil on emission
and engine performance using various proportion of biodiesel is available. This needs
validation on test engine beds. Apart from the study on engine performance on
different capacities of engines/ vehicles the following aspects need to be studied
further
a. Endurance tests for finding out wear on engine components like cylinder liner,
piston rings etc., analysis for carbon deposit on piston, value, injectors etc.
b. Analysis of crankcase lubricating oil for assessing the deterioration or
contamination due to blow by leakage.
c. Effect of additives to prevent gum formation need to be evaluated.
Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun & Indian Oil Corporation, Faridabad are the
best R&D institution having all facilities and expertise to take up R&D activity on all
the aspects related to the utilization of biodiesel as alternative fuel and potential
blending component for diesel.
Toxicological Studies
Toxicological study is a pre-requisite for introduction of any fuel. It is recommended
that such studies in India should be initiated through concerned R&D centers.
Adulteration
(1) Procedure for detecting percentage of biodiesel in the blended fuel and to check
adulteration of the fuel should be developed. FTL may be approached to develop
the procedure for checking the adulteration.
(2) Adulteration of Jatropha Curcas Oil in edible oils will be a very serious problem
after the start of this ambitious program of producing biodiesel from Jatropha
curcas oil as Jatropha Curcas oil will be available to common people in large
quantities at a very low price. Plans should be chalked out to check this
adulteration.
Biodiesel Publications
Some of the following documents are Acrobat PDFs.
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Human Health: Summary Report
September 16, 1999-January 31, 2003.
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality Task 1 Report: Incorporate Biodiesel Data
into Vehicle Emissions Databases for Modeling
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality Task 2 Report: The Impact of Biodiesel
Fuels on Ozone Concentrations
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality Task 3 Report: The Impact of Biodiesel
Fuels on Ambient Carbon Monoxide Levels in the Las Vegas Nonattainment Area
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality Task 4 Report: Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel
Use on PM
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality Task 5 Report: Air Toxics Modeling of the
Effects of Biodiesel Fuel Use on Human Health in the South Coast Air Basin Region
of Southern California
Biodiesel Offers Fleets a Better Alternative to Petroleum Diesel (PDF 441 KB) Clean
Cities Fact Sheet (May 2001)
ASTM Issues Biodiesel Fuel Standard a press release from the National Biodiesel
Board. The ASTM standard D 6751 can be ordered from the ASTM Web site.

65
An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles
Biodiesel--the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines
Biofuels for Your State: Helping the Economy and the Environment
Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines
Biodiesel-Clean Green Diesel Fuel: Great Fleet Fuel Gaining Popularity Rapidly.
Biodiesel - On The Road to Fueling The Future
A National Biodiesel Board publication (October 2001)
Roadmap for Biomass Technologies in the United States Biomass Research and
Development Initiative Report (December 2002)
Clean Alternative Fuels: Biodiesel
EPA Success Story (March 2002)
A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions, EPA Draft
Technical Report (October 2002)
Production of Biodiesels from Multiple Feedstocks and Properties of Biodiesels and
Biodiesel/Diesel Blends: Final Report, Report 1 in a Series of 6. 57 pp.; NREL Report
No. SR-510-31460.
Effect of Biodiesel Composition on Engine Emissions from a DDC Series 60 Diesel
Engine: Final Report, Report 2 in a Series of 6. 91 pp.; NREL Report No. SR-510-
31461.
NOx Solutions for Biodiesel: Final Report, Report 6 in a Series of 6. 49 pp.; NREL
Report No. SR-510-31465.
Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Human Health Summary Report; NREL
Report No. SR-540-33793.

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CHAPTER 12
Properties of Biodiesel
A general understanding of the various properties of biodiesel is essential to study
their implications in engine use, storage, handling and safety.
Density / Specific Gravity
Biodiesel is slightly heavier than conventional diesel fuel (specific gravity 0.88
compared to 0.84 for diesel fuel). This allows use of splash blending by adding
biodiesel on top of diesel fuel for making biodiesel blends. Biodiesel should always
be blended at top of diesel fuel. If biodiesel is first put at the bottom and then diesel
fuel is added, it will not mix. Density control is specified in European specifications
but not in ASTM specification. But for India it is proposed to keep density
specifications to check for contamination / adulteration.
Cetane Number
Cetane number of a diesel engine fuel is indicative of its ignition characteristics.
Higher the cetane number better it is in its ignition properties. Cetane number affects
a number of engine performance parameters like combustion, stability, drive ability,
white smoke, noise and emissions of Carbon Monoxide and Hydro Carbons. Biodiesel
has higher cetane number than conventional diesel fuel. This results in higher
combustion efficiency and smoother combustion. No correlation was found between
the specific gravity and the cetane number of various biodiesel. It is important to note
that Cetane Index, commonly used to indicate the ignition characteristics of diesel
fuels, does not give correct results for biodiesel. Hence Cetane Index is not specified
and a cetane number test is necessary. Even for a biodiesel blend, cetane index is not
applicable as it does give a correct approximation of cetane number of the blend.
Viscosity
In addition of lubrication of fuel injection system components, Fuel viscosity controls
the characteristics of the injection from the diesel injector (droplet size, spray
characteristics etc.). The viscosity of methyl esters can go to very high levels and
hence, it is important to control it within an acceptable level to avoid negative impact
on fuel injection system performance. Therefore, the viscosity specifications proposed
are same as that of the diesel fuel.
Distillation characteristics
The distillation characteristics of biodiesel are quite different from that of diesel fuel.
Biodiesel does not contain any highly volatile components, the fuel evaporates only at
higher temperature. This is the reason that sometimes sump lubrication oil dilution
observed in many tests. The methyl esters present in biodiesel generally have
molecular chains of 16 to 18 carbons which have very close boiling points. In other
words, rather than showing a distillation characteristics, biodiesel exhibits a boiling
point. Boiling point of biodiesel generally ranges between 330oC to 357oC. The limit
of 360oC is specified mainly to ensure that high boiling point components are not
present in biodiesel as adulterants / contaminants.
Flash point
Flash point of a fuel is defined as the temperature at which it will ignite when exposed
to a flame or spark. The flash point of biodiesel is higher than the petroleum based
diesel fuel. Flash point of biodiesel blends is dependent on the flash point of the base
diesel fuel used, and increase with percentage of biodiesel in the blend. Thus in
storage, biodiesel and its blends are safer than conventional diesel. The flash point of
biodiesel is around 160oC, but it can reduce drastically if the alcohol used in
manufacture of biodiesel is not removed properly. Residual alcohol in the biodiesel

67
reduces its flash point drastically and is harmful to fuel pump, seals, elastomers etc. It
also reduces the combustion quality.
A minimum flash point for biodiesel is specified more from the point of view of
restricting the alcohol content rather than a fire hazard. A minimum flash point of
100ºC is specified to ensure that excess methanol used for the esterification is
removed. Another important consideration is that the test method used to find out
flash point (ASTM D 93) gives high scatter in results at the flash point nears 100oC.
Due to this reason, the ASTM D 6751 standard issued in Feb, 2002 calls for a flash
point of min. 130oC though the intent is to get a min. value of 100oC (as specified in
1999 Draft standard PS 121)
Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP)
At low operating temperature fuel may thicken and not flow properly affecting the
performance of fuel lines, fuel pumps and injectors. Cold filter plugging point of
biodiesel reflects its cold weather performance. It defines the fuels limit of
filterability. CFPP has better correlation than cloud point for biodiesel as well as
diesel fuel. Biodiesel thicken at low temperatures so need cold flow improver
additives to have acceptable CFPP.
Pour Point
Normally either pour point or CFPP are specified. French and Italian biodiesel
specifications specify pour point whereas others specify CFFP. Since CFFP reflects
more accurately the cold weather operation of fuel, it is proposed not to specify pour
point for biodiesel. Pour point depressants commonly used for diesel fuel do not work
for biodiesel.
Cloud Point
Cloud point is the temperature at which a cloud or haze of crystals appear in the fuel
under test conditions and thus becomes important for low temperature operations.
Biodiesel generally has higher cloud point than diesel fuel. Cloud point limit is not
specified but ASTM D 6751 calls for reporting of the cloud point to alert the user of
possible problem under cold climatic conditions.
Aromatics
Biodiesel does not contain any aromatics, so aromatic limits are not specified. It may
be noted that conventional aromatic determination tests used for petroleum fuels does
not give correct results for biodiesel, hence aromatics in a biodiesel blend can be
determined only by testing the base diesel fuel before blending.
Stability
Biodiesel ages more quickly than fossil diesel fuel due to the chemical structure of
fatty acids and methyl esters present in biodiesel. Typically there are up to 14 types of
fatty acid methyl esters in the biodiesel. The individual proportion of presence of
these esters in the fuel affects the final properties of biodiesel. Saturated fatty acid
methyl esters (C14:0, C16:0,C16:0) increase cloud point, cetane number and improve
stability whereas more poly-unsaturates (C18:2,C18:3) reduce cloud point, cetane
number and stability. There are three types of stability criteria.
!""Oxidation stability – more related to engine operation as engine components attain
high temperatures during operation.
!""Storage stability
!""Thermal stability
Oxidation Stability
Poor oxidation stability can cause fuel thickening, formation of gums and sediments,
which, in turn, can cause filter clogging and injector fouling. Iodine number indicates
the tendency of a fuel to be unstable as it measures the presence of C=C bonds that

68
are prone to oxidation. Generally instability increase by a factor of 1 for every C=C
bond on the fatty acid chain. Thus, C18:3 are three times more unstable than C18:0
fatty acids. Oxidation stability of biodiesel varies greatly depending upon the
feedstock used. In one study of 22 biodiesel samples taken from 7 European
production sites, the induction period was found to vary from 1 hrs to 10 hrs.
Thermal Stability
Current knowledge and database is still inadequate. More information is needed in
this area.
Storage Stability
Very little data is available on the long-term storage stability of biodiesel. Effect of
presence of water, sediments, and additives on storage stability need to be
investigated more. Based on the data available so far it is recommended that biodiesel
and its blends should not be stored in a storage tank or vehicle tank for more than 6
months. Depending upon the storage temperature and other conditions use of
appropriate antioxidants (e.g. Tenox 21, t-butylhydroquinone etc.) is suggested. The
antioxidants must be properly mixed with the fuel for good effectiveness. To avoid
growth of algae in fuel, water contamination need to be minimized and if necessary
some biocide should be used.
Currently not all of the biodiesel standards issued, mention oxidation stability. Iodine
number, viscosity and neutralization number indirectly assesses it. Higher values are
indicative of poor oxidation stability. Iodine number test does not pick up the stability
additives if used. There is need to develop appropriate test methods for oxidation and
storage stability of biodiesel. ASTM D 2274 is a good candidate test method.
Iodine Number and polyunsaturated methyl ester(C 18:3+)
In diesel engines, Methyl esters have been known to cause engine oil dilution by the
fuel. A high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the ester (indicated by high Iodine
number) increases the danger of polymerization in the engine oil. Oil dilution
decreases oil viscosity. Sudden increase in oil viscosity, as encountered in several
engine tests, is attributed to oxidation and polymerization of unsaturated fuel parts
entering into oil through dilution. In saturated fatty acids all the carbon is bound to
two hydrogen atoms by double bonds. More the double bonds the lower is the cloud
point of oil. The tendency of the fuel to be unstable can be predicted by Iodine
number. Different biodiesel have different stability performance. When iodine is
introduced in the oil, the iodine attaches itself over a double bond to form a single
bond. Thus iodine number refer to the amount of iodine required to convert
unsaturated oil into saturated oil. It does not refer to the amount of iodine in the oil
but to the presence of unsaturated fatty acids in the fuel. ASTM D 1520 method for
measurement of Iodine number does not recognize the presence of stability additive.
Iodine number is not well suited to indicate the influence of methyl ester on engine.
One value of iodine number can be obtained by using several grades of unsaturated
acids. So an additional parameter, linolenic acid (C18:3) content is specified and
limited to 15% in Austrian Standard ON C 1191
Free and Total glycerol
The degree of conversion completeness of the vegetable oil is indicated by the amount
of free and total glycerol present in the biodiesel. If the actual number is higher than
the specified values, engine fouling, filter-clogging etc can occur. Manufacturing
process controls are necessary to ensure low free and total glycerin. Free glycerol if
present can build up at the bottom of the storage and vehicle fuel tanks.

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Mono-, Di-, and Triglycerides
Most of the biodiesel standards, except Austrian and ASTM, specify a max. limit of
0,08 for Mono-glyceride. Draft EU standard calls for same limit. Di-and Triglycerides
are also controlled in most of the standards. High levels of these glycerides can cause
injector fouling, filter clogging etc.
Ester content
France (96.5%), Italy (98) and Sweden (98) specify a minimum eater content whereas
Austrian and ASTM Standards do not specify any limit.
Alkaline matter (Na, K)
Alkaline matter is controlled mainly to ensure that the catalysts used in the
esterification process are properly removed.
Total contamination
Left over impurities at the time of manufacture (such as free proteins) may form solid
particles and clog the fuel lines. Filtration and washing treatments at manufacturing
level need to be robust.
Sulfur content
Biodiesel generally contain less than 15ppm sulfur. ASTM D 5453 test is a suitable
test for such low level of sulfur. ASTM D 2622 used for sulfur determination of diesel
fuels gives falsely high results when used for biodiesel. More work need to done to
assess suitability of ASTM D 2622 application to B20 biodiesel blend. The increase in
oxygen content of the fuel affects precision of this test method.
Lubricity
Wear due to excessive friction resulting in shortened life of diesel fuel pumps and
injectors, has some times ascribed to lack of lubricity in the fuel. Numerous premature
breakdown and in some cases, catastrophic failures, have occurred failures. All diesel
fuel injection equipment (fuel pump and injector) of the diesel engine have reliance
on diesel fuels for its lubrication, especially the Rotary (Distributor) and Common
Rail type systems. The lubrication of the pump is not provided by viscosity alone but
also by the lubricity property of the fuel. Even when the viscosity of the fuel is
correct, several parts of the pump can wear out due to lack of lubricity. The lubricity
of the fuel depends on the crude source, refining process to reduce sulfur content and
the type of additives used. BOCLE (Ball on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator) and HFFR
(High Frequency Reciprocating Rig) are commonly used for evaluating the lubricity
of the fuel. BOCLE is normally used for finding the lubricity fuel without additive, as
it does not properly characterize the lubricity of fuels with lubricity additives. HFFR
method has been adopted by Fuel Injection Manufactures for lubricity evaluation of
diesel fuels and they recommend a limit of 460 microns wear scar diameter (WSD).
Lower the WSD better is the lubricity of fuel. In case of BOCLE method a higher
value is better. Even with 2% biodiesel mixed in diesel fuel, the WSD values comes
down to around 325 micron and is sufficient to meet the lubricity requirements of the
fuel injection pump (460 micron max). B100 performs still better, with a WSD of
about 314 micron. With further reduction of sulfur content is diesel for Euro II and
Euro IV fuels, the lubricity loss due to sulfur removal can easily be compensated by
the addition of appropriate amount of biodiesel in diesel fuel.
2% addition into any conventional diesel fuel is sufficient to address the lubricity
problem. It also eliminates the inherent variability associated with use of other
additives to make fuel fully lubricious. Second the biodiesel is a fuel component
itself- any addition of it does cause any adverse consequences. Since pure biodiesel
has high lubricity, it is not specified in the specification. When biodiesel is used as

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lubricity blend (B2) or diesel fuel extender (B20), its lubricity characteristics has to
meet the specification for the base fuel.
Sulfated Ash
Sulfated ash is controlled to ensure that all the catalysts used in the trans-esterification
process are removed. Presence of ash can cause filter plugging and or injector
deposits. Soluble metallic soap, un-removed catalysts and other solids are possible
sources of sulfated ash in the fuel.
Acid number / Neutralization number
Acid number / Neutralization number is specified to ensure proper aging properties of
the fuel and / or a good manufacturing process. Acid number reflects the presence of
free fatty acids or acids used in manufacture of biodiesel. It also reflects the
degradation of biodiesel due to thermal effects. For example, during the injection
process several times more fuel returns from the injector than that injected into the
combustion chamber of the engine. The temperature of this return fuel can,
sometimes, be as high as 90o C and thus accelerate the degradation of biodiesel. The
resultant high acid number can cause damage to injector and also result in deposits in
fuel system and affect life of pumps and filters. Sodium hydro peroxide and sulfuric
acids are highly corrosive and can cause serious, many times permanent, injuries.
Water Content
Biodiesel and its blends are susceptible to growing microbes when water is present in
fuel. The solvency properties of the biodiesel can cause microbial slime to detach and
clog fuel filters.
Phosphorous Content
Phosphorous can come as impurity and can affect oxidation catalyst and cause
injector fouling. As more and more OEMs are going to use catalytic converters in
diesel engines, it is necessary to keep the level of phosphorous in fuel low. Usually
biodiesel have < 1 ppm phosphorus. The specification of minimum 10 ppm
phosphorous content is intended to ensure compatibility with catalytic converters
irrespective of the source of biodiesel.
Methanol / ethanol content
High levels of free alcohol in biodiesel cause accelerated deterioration of natural
rubber seals and gaskets. Damage to fuel pumps and injectors which have natural
rubber diaphragms has been very common type of failure Methanol is membrane-
permeable and can cause nerve damage. Therefore control of alcohol content is
required.
Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR)
Carbon residue of the fuel is indicative of carbon depositing tendencies of the fuel.
Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR) for biodiesel is more important than that in diesel
fuel because it show a high correlation with presence of free fatty acids, glycerides,
soaps, polymers, higher unsaturated fatty acids, inorganic impurities and even on the
additives used for pour point depression. Two methods are used to measure carbon
residue:
100 % residual
10 % residual
Since most of the biodiesel boils at almost the same temperature it is difficult to get a
10% residual upon distillation. Though the 10 % CCR test is easier to do, more work
need to be done before we use it in Indian specifications for biodiesel.
Equipments required in laboratory :
Soxhlet Apparatus for determination of oil content in seed / cake
Analytical Balance

71
Gas Chromatography for oil, biodiesel and biogas
Carl Fischer Titrator for moisture
pH Meter
Copper Corrosion test apparatus
Kinematic Viscocity apparatus
Oil Testing centrifuge for testing sediments
Cloud and Pour point apparatus
Flash point apparatus.

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CHAPTER 13
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
1. CHEMICAL PRODUCT
General Product Name: Biodiesel
Synonym: Jatropha Methyl Ester
Product Description: Methyl ester from Jatropha oil
CAS Number: 67784-80-9
2. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS : This product
contains no hazardous ingredients as defined under the Canadian Hazardous Products
Act S.C. 1987, C.30 (Part 1)
3. HEALTH HAZARD DATA
Inhalation : Negligible unless heated to produce vapors. Vapors or finely misted
materials may irritate the mucous membranes and cause irritation, dizziness, and
nausea. Remove to fresh air.
Eye Contact : May cause irritation. Irrigate eye with water for at least 15 to 20
minutes. Seek medical attention if symptoms persist.
Skin Contact : Not classified as a primary skin irritant or corrosive material.
Prolonged or repeated contact is not likely to cause significant skin irritation.
Ingestion : Ingestion incidental to industrial exposure is not anticipated to be
hazardous. Similar products have an acute oral toxicity LD50 > 17.4 g / Kg (Albino
rats).
4. FIRST AID MEASURES
Inhalation : Remove victim to fresh air. Seek medical attention.
Eye Contact: Flush eyes with plenty of cool water for 15 to 20 minutes. Do not let
victim rub eyes. Seek medical attention if irritation persists.
Skin Contact: Wash exposed areas with soap and water.
Ingestion : Call a physical or poison control center promptly.
5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
Flash Point (Method Used): >100o C (ASTM93)
Lower Flammable Limits in Air, % by volume : Not applicable
Upper Flammable Limits in Air, % by volume : Not applicable
Fire Fighting Procedures and Precaution : Use water spray (fog), dry chemical, foam
or carbon dioxide. Water stream can splash burning liquid and spread fire, but may be
used to keep fire exposed containers cool.
Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards : Soaked rags can cause spontaneous combustion
if not handled properly. Keep soaked rags in an approved container or let dry
individually in a well ventilated area. Before disposal, wash rags with soap and water
and dry in a well ventilated area. Firefighters should wear self-contained breathing
apparatus when there is the possibility of exposure to smoke, fumes or hazardous
decomposition products.
6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES / SPILL CLEAN-UP
PROCEDURES : Remove sources of ignition and contain the spill to the smallest
area possible. Stop leak if possible. Pick up small spills with absorbent materials such
as paper towels, oil absorbent granular products, sand or dirt. Wash hard surfaces with
a safety solvent or detergent to remove remaining oil film or a slippery surface will
result. Recover large spills for salvage or disposal. Follow municipal, provincial and
federal disposal regulations.
7. HANDLING AND STORAGE : Keep in closed containers between 10oC and
50oC. Keep away from oxidizing agents, excessive heat, and ignition sources. Store

73
out of sun. Store and use in well ventilated areas. Do not store or use near heat, spark
or flame.
8. EXPOSURE CONTROL / PERSONAL PROTECTION
Respiratory Protection : Handle in the presence of adequate ventilation. If vapors or
mists are generated, wear NIOSH approved organic/mist respirator.
Protective Clothing : Safety glasses, goggles, or face shield recommended to protect
eyes from mists or splashing. PVC coated gloves recommended to prevent skin
contact. Launder contaminated clothing before reuse.
9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling point, 760 mm Hg : > 200 oC
Specific Gravity : 0.87 at 25 oC
Vapor Pressure, mm Hg : < 2
Vapor density, Air = 1 : >1
Volatiles, % by volume : < 2
Solubility in H2O, % by volume : insoluble
Evaporation Rate, Butyl Acetate = 1 :< 1
Appearance and Odor : pale yellow liquid at room temp., mild odor
10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
General : This product is stable and hazardous polymerization will not occur.
Incompatible Materials and Conditions to Avoid : Strong oxidizing agents, strong
reducing agents, strong acids, strong bases, strong alkalis, strong mineral acids.
Hazardous Decomposition Products : Decomposition may produce oxides of carbon,
nitrogen, and various other hydrocarbons.
11. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION
UN Hazard Class : N/A
NMFC (National Motor Freight Classification)
Proper Shipping Name : Fatty Acid Ester
Identification Number : 144920
Shipping Classification : 65
12. OTHER INFORMATION : The information presented herein is believed to be
factual and accurate to the best of the company’s knowledge. However, no
representation, warranty or guarantee of any kind, express or implied, is made as to its
accuracy, reliability or completeness and we assume no responsibility for any loss,
damage or expense, direct or consequential, arising out of its use. It is the user’s
responsibility to satisfy himself as to the suitableness and completeness of this
information for his own particular use.
Specifications and Quality Standards
Standards are of vital importance for the producers, suppliers and users of bio-fuels.
Government Authorities need approval standards for the evaluation of safety, risks
and environmental protection. Standards are necessary for the approval and warrantee
commitment for vehicles operated with biofuels and are therefore, a pre-requisite for
the market introduction and commercialization of biofuels. Creation of standards shall
help expand the market for renewable sources of energy in India. Conventionally
Standards and codes for products have been developed, largely by examining the
existing standards and codes in different countries and then writing standards for own
country. With the formation of WTO, which seeks to eliminate discrimination of
products based on national origin, and the realization that, in future, biofuels like
ethanol and biodiesel, can become internationally traded commodities like petroleum,
it is essential that a worldwide view is taken while preparing a new national standard.

74
But at the same time, the local imperatives (such as type of raw materials etc.) must
be given due consideration.
In Europe biodiesel is predominantly made from rape seed oil and most information
and data available are dealing with the rape seed methyl ester (RME). Most of the
experience in Austria, Italy, is also on RME. Germany has developed a standard for
fatty acid methyl ester. Most of the Irish experience is on use of tallow fat for
manufacture of biodiesel. Very little experience is available on ethyl or propyl esters.
No matter what the process or feedstock used, the biodiesel produced must meet
rigorous specifications to be used as a fuel in a compression ignition engine. It is not
possible to recognize any blanket superiority of one feedstock over other since
feedstock does not reliably predict a fuel’s final properties. Knowing that fuel
adulteration is very rampant in India it is important that we ensure that chemical grade
fatty acid methyl esters used for purposes such as detergent manufacture must not be
allowed to use as engine fuel. A Worldwide survey of biodiesel specification was
done and an attempt was made to understand the rationale behind them before
proposing a norm for India.
ASTM has issued biodiesel standard D 6751 in December 2001, which covers the use
of pure biodiesel (B100) into conventional diesel fuel up to 20% by volume (B20).
This replaces the provisional specification PS 121 issued in1999. Austria (ON C
1191), France (JO), Italy (UNI 10635) and Germany (DIN E 51606) had issued
biodiesel standards in 1997, Sweden in 1996 and a common draft standard EN 14214
for the European Union has also been announced. The new Italian biodiesel standard,
which will replace UNI 10 635, has been finalized and will be released this year for
public. In India, we have lots of European Engine technologies, specially that for
older engines. We have also adopted the European Emission Regulations. Moreover,
compared to USA diesel engines are more popular in Europe. Europe has also done
expensive work on biodiesel. Production of biodiesel in Europe is much ahead of that
in USA. The result is the EN14214 standard is more comprehensive than the ASTM
standard. It is recommended that we adopt the EN1421112 standard for India
Test Methods for Biodiesel
Lot of work need to be done to clearly understand the requirements, accuracy and
precision, and applicability of these test methods for India. For India, as far as
possible, use the current BIS specifications or modify them to suit the requirements. It
is important to note that, several methods are under development or in proposal stage.
Proposed Biodiesel Specifications for India
Table below gives a comprehensive list of important fuel properties that have been
considered for inclusion in the biodiesel fuel specification. All these properties were
considered, sometime or another, by different countries but not necessarily included
in the final draft.
Fuel Properties considered
1 Density / Specific Gravity 17 Water Content
2 Kinematic Viscocity 18 Cloud point
3 Flash point 19 Ash
4 CFPP 20 Net Calorific Value
5 Pour point 21 Acid Number / Neutral Number
6 Cetane number 22 Ester content
7 Distillation characteristics 23 Methanol content
8 Conradson carbon residue 24 Mono glycerides
9 Sulfur content 25 Di glycerides
10 Copper corrosion 26 Tri glycerides

75
11 Total contamination 27 Iodine number
12 Phosphorous content 28 Poly-saturated ester (C18:3+)
13 Sulphated ash 29 Free glycerol
14 Thermal stability 30 Total glycerol
15 Oxidation stability 31 Alkaline material
16 Storage stability 32 Lubricity
Some of important properties specified are described below and reasons for the need
to incorporate it in the fuel specification are mentioned in short. Since our feed stocks
are going to be different from those used in developed countries, it was felt necessary
to include all the relevant properties in the initial list for evaluation. An attempt
should be made to reduce the final number of properties specified to the minimum
possible. Of course, before the proposed specification for India are frozen, more
deliberations would be necessary keeping in mind the local feed stocks,
manufacturing and quality control techniques used. In India, we have lots of European
Engine technologies, specially that for older engines. We have also adopted the
European Emission Regulations. Moreover, compared to USA diesel engines are
more popular in Europe. Europe has also done expensive work on biodiesel.
Production of biodiesel in Europe is much ahead of that in USA. The result is the
EN14214 standard is more comprehensive than the ASTM standard. It is
recommended that we adopt the EN1421112 standard for India. Table that follows,
gives the proposed specifications for India. The column for test method is
intentionally kept blank more work need to be done by the committee to understand
the applicability of BIS test standards.
Summary of Proposed BIS Standard for Biodiesel
Standard / Specification prBIS
Date TBD***
Density @15oC G/cm3 0.87-0.90
o 2
Viscosity @40 C Mm /s 3.5-5.0
o
Flash point C >100
o
CFPP C
Sulfur, max % mass 0.035
CCR, 100% Distillation Residue, max. % mass 0.05
Sulphated ash, max. % mass 0.02
(Oxid) ash, max. % mass ?
Water, max. mg/kg 500
Total contamination, max. mg/kg 20
o
Cu corrosion (3h/50 C), max. 1
Cetane number >51
Acid number mg KOH/g <0.8
Methanol % mass <0.02
Ester content % mass >96.5
Mono glycerides ** % mass <0.8
Di glycerides % mass <0.2
Tri glycerides % mass <0.2
Free glycerol % mass <0.02
Total glycerol % mass <0.25
Iodine value <115
Phosphorous Ppm <10
Alkaline matter (Na, K) <10

76
o
Distillation T 95% C <360
Cloud point *
* measure and report
** in the table means that this property needs further discussion.
***TBD means to be decided
Though the test methods used for petroleum products are available there is very little
experience in the use of materials like karanj, jatropha, rice brawn oil etc. These test
methods must be reviewed to ensure their applicability for biodiesel, the precision and
the accuracy achievable.
Engine Warranties and biodiesel approval
endorsements from engine manufacturers
Engines are designed, manufactured and warranted for a fuel that has certain specified
properties. The engine manufacturers give warranty for material and workmanship of
the products they make and typically recommend / define use of a fuel in their
manuals. They do not warrant fuel of any kind. If there is a problem due to fuel, the
fuel supplier must stand behind the customer. Therefore it is important to take
endorsements from engine manufacturers for use of biodiesel and their blends.
Caterpillar and several other engine manufacturers recognize biodiesel meeting
ASTM PS121, DIN 51606 Specifications. However, the stance taken by some
manufactures is rather vague, such as caterpillar says it neither approves nor prohibits
use of biodiesel in their engines. For some of their engines, a blend of 5% biodiesel
with diesel fuel (B5) is approved More than 5% biodiesel in diesel fuel is not covered
under engine warranty. John Deere takes similar stance. Several Marine engine
manufacturers of Japan, USA and Europe (like Mercuiser, Yanmar etc) endorse use of
B100 as fuel. Some engine manufactures warranties the newer engines and insists on
change of hoses, seals and rubber parts in their older engines. While other engine
manufactures give warranties on case-by-case basis. Most of the tractor companies in
Europe and U.S.A. permit use of biodiesel in their engines.
Fuel Quality Test Procedures
It is important to maintain the fuel quality within the fuel specification otherwise
severe engine problems can occur. Two types of test procedures are necessary for
ensuring good quality fuel to the customers:
1) Test procedures for production and supply quality of the biodiesel
2) Quick test procedures to check the quality of the fuel in field.
Table 17 gives the various test methods required to check the production and supply
quality of biodiesel. Biodiesel manufacturing is essentially a batch production
process. Therefore, better production and quality control methods are must for a
consistent fuel quality. There is an acute need to develop tests for procedures for field
testing of biofuels. This is very important in view of the large problems of fuel
adulteration in India. In BIS meeting it was agreed to do field trials on biodiesel. It is
recommended that these trials must investigate at least the effect of cetane number,
distillation, specific gravity, aromatics, oxygen and cloud point of biodiesel and its
blends.
Quality Standards & Specifications
The formulation of standards and specifications for biodiesel in its pure form and as
blends, neutral to feed stock used to produce biodiesel, is under the consideration of
the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). They are proposed to be based on standards
adopted by European Union. It is necessary that the consent of the vehicle, engine and
Fuel Injection manufactures is taken before finalizing the standards and introducing
change of fuel. Test methods also need to be prescribed.

77
Biodiesel specifications and testing results
Property ASTM Limits Methyl Esters of oils
(units) D-6751 Sunflower Palm Oil Jathropa Pongamia
Oil Oil Pinnata
Oil
Flash D-93 Min 130 73 127 163 92
point (°
C)
Phosphor D-4951 Max <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001
us (% 0.001
mass)
Water & D-2709 Max 0.04 0.01 0.05 0.03
sediment 0.050
(%vol)
CCR D-4530 Max 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0
100% (% 0.050
mass)
Sulphated D-874 Max 0.001 Not Not 0.002
ash (% 0.020 determined determined
mass)
Viscosity D-445 1.9-6.0 4.103 4.506 4.44 4.16
at 40° C
(cst)
Sulfur (% D-5453 Max 0.4 0.038 0.020 0.003
mass) 0.05
Cetane D-613 Min 47 55.6 54.6 57.1 55.1
number
Copper D-130 Max 3 1 1b 1b 1b
corrosion
Neutraliz D-664 Max 0.20 0.24 0.48 0.10
ation 0.80
value
Free D-6584 Max 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01
glycerin 0.020
(% mass)
Total D-6584 Max 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01
glycerin 0.240
(% mass)
Distillatio D-1160 90% 90% 90% 90% 90%
n temp
(360oC)

78
CHAPTER 14
Marketing & Trade
Barriers for Biodiesel introduction
Economics: In order to promote biodiesel and to help it compete with petroleum
diesel, several countries have drawn up tax support packages, for example, Germany
and Italy levies no tax on biodiesel, UK has 20% lower tax, several US States
imposed lower tax on fuels containing biodiesel. Soybean is the most investigated and
used for energy crop for production of biodiesel. All most all the biodiesel in US and
Brazil is of soybean origin. It is estimated that about 7.3 Pounds of soybean oil, which
cost about 20 cents / pounds, produce about one gallon of biodiesel. Therefore, the
feedstock cost currently is 1.5 US$ / Gallon of biodiesel and after processing the
biodiesel costs about 2 US$ / Gallon. However, US is currently working on mustard
seed program, which cost about 10 cents / Pound and cost of producing mustard
biodiesel shall be around 1.0 US$ / Gallon. This compares well with current cost of
petroleum diesel which is approximately 1.30 US$ / Gallon. The US program on
biodiesel is driven and supported by soybean lobby as US has excess production for
soybean. It is estimated that cultivation of soybean on set aside farmland in the US
can fulfill 5% biodiesel introduction targets in the US. Though biodiesel has proven
its credentials as a clean alternate fuel to the petroleum diesel, some barriers do
remain for its large-scale commercial introduction. The biggest barrier presently is its
high cost, which is approximately 1.5 times to that of petroleum diesel. The cost
estimate of biodiesel is only available from the studies in US and Europe, where
biodiesel has been produced on the commercial scale.
However, these estimates are based upon Soybean, Rape seed and Sunflower oil as
the primary feedstock. It has been estimated that the biodiesel from these feed stocks
competes with petroleum diesel at a crude price of 35 US$ / barrel and above. No
economic data is available on non-edible bio crops. Studies have been made to
evaluate direct and indirect impact of biodiesel program. The National Biodiesel
Board, US conducted a macro-economic study in 2001 to quantify direct and
secondary economic benefits i.e. employment generation, balance of trade, positive
effect on green house gas reduction and increased level of downstream processing
activity. It has been concluded that taken these secondary effects into consideration
the biodiesel competes with the petroleum diesel presentably and will have economic
benefits in longer run.
Present Availability of Non-edible oils
The second barrier for introduction of biodiesel on large scale is its present
availability. The biodiesel program in any country has a time lag between policy
planning and actual implementation and hence the introduction could be gradual,
gaining the maturity only after 4-5 years. This is especially applicable to India where
Biodiesel is proposed to be made from non-edible oils. Presently, the availability of
these oils is very limited and the price of such oils is quoted very high (Indian Rupees
25-40 per kg). For successful launch of Biodiesel availability of oil on large scale has
to be ensured at reasonable prices.
Marketing Frame Work for Biodiesel
Though in few isolated instances neat biodiesel (B100) has been used primarily in
diesel engines on-board marine equipment, generally a blend 5-30% biodiesel in
diesel has been used. France, Italy and Spain for example have been using 5%
biodiesel in all conventional diesels. Biodiesel at 1-2% level has also been used as a
lubricity additive for low sulfur diesel.

79
World experience has also indicated that biodiesel blends were first introduced either
in heavily polluted cities or in remote areas producing biodiesel. The big fleets like
bus companies and taxies were first to introduce biodiesel. Biodiesel mixes easily in
any proportions to the conventional diesel and by virtue of its high density it can be
easily mixed in a tank containing petroleum diesel. Its handling and storage is just like
the petroleum diesel and no separate infrastructure is required. Therefore, the
blending of biodiesel, which transported by tankers, is carried out at marketing
depots. The biodiesel blends do not need separate dispensing and existing diesel
dispensing station can also dispense biodiesel blends.
Amount of biodiesel to be blended in diesel
Use of biodiesel has been due to following factors :
!""Support to agriculture sector
!""Part replacement of imported crude
!""Emission benefit
!""Rural development program
!""Lubricity improver
If the main purpose of the use of biodiesel is emission benefits, then higher
percentage of biodiesel is generally used. World over about 20 – 40% biodiesel blends
(B20, B40) have been used for getting appreciable emission benefits. However, this
approach needs OEM’s approvals as some rubber seals etc. need changing for use of
higher percentage of biodiesel. The lubricity benefits of using biodiesel, specially in
ultra low Sulfur Diesel, can be obtained even at a very percent addition e.g. 0.5 to
1.0%. For support to agriculture sector and for part replacement of imported crude the
amount of biodiesel to be blended in diesel will depend upon :
a) Availability of biodiesel
b) Cost of biodiesel and
c) Technical acceptability
In Indian context, presently the availability of feed stock (non-edible vegetable oils) is
limited. However, with the massive plantation plans, it is envisaged that feed stock
shall be available in large amount. This full scale availability of feed stock can be
possible after a time lag of 4–5 years. It is also understood that a large emulsified
potential of various oil bearing seeds is available in the country and there are plans to
collect these materials. In view of above, it is recommended that biodiesel should be
introduced generally in our country starting from a low percent addition. The initial
%age could be as low as 2% to 5% of biodiesel and this can be gradually increased
when feed stock is available. France is using 5% biodiesel which is blended in all the
diesel sold in that country.
Marketing framework
The blending of biodiesel can be taken up at the depot level of the diesel distribution
and marketing company. However, it should be emphasized that marketing of
biodiesel blended diesel should be done as an organized trade and this activity should
be handed by the diesel distributing companies. The biodiesel to be blended has to
mandatory tested for its quality. This will also keep in check any adulteration activity.
The storage of biodiesel does not need any specialized tanking and the storage tanks
used for biodiesel can also be used for biodiesel. The blending of biodiesel is also a
simple affair and the circulatory pumps generally available in any diesel storage depot
are sufficient to make a homogenous blend. Another option for marketing of biodiesel
blended diesel is for specialized fleet operations e.g. bus fleets etc. For this blending
may be taken up at these locations.

80
Trade of Biodiesel
For making available fuel grade biodiesel the following sequence of events need to be
firmed up.
a) Availability of raw material of desired quality
b) Chemical treatment to produce biodiesel
c) Testing of biodiesel
d) Transportation of biodiesel to selected locations for blending
e) Blending of Biodiesel into diesel
f) Financial support
Availability of raw material of desired quality
For a National level Biodiesel program availability of raw vegetable oil for
conversion to Biodiesel needs to be ensured. Presently, the oil is available in limited
quantity and that to on seasonal basis. There is need to identify the oil seeds extractors
and the parties working in the area of extraction of oils may be contacted.
Chemical treatment to produce Biodiesel
Vegetable oil once extracted from the seed need a chemical treatment called Trans-
esterification with lower alcohol (Methanol or Ethanol) in order to make fuel grade
Biodiesel. Presently this technology is available only at laboratory scale or at best on
the bench scale. Though this chemical process is simple and well understood whoever
there is a need to develop commercial scale plants. These plants could be integrated
with oil extractions plants so as to reduce cost by sharing of utilities. Though both
batch scale and continuous type plants are used world over, it may be better to start
with batch type plants in order to reduce initial cost. An estimate of 1 ton per day
batch plant by IISC Bangalore, is Rs. 650,000.
Testing of Biodiesel: Biodiesel produce must meet the specifications (ASTM D6751)
in order to use it as a fuel component for transportation fuel. This specification
requires elaborate testing and these tests can be done with the association of diesel
marketing companies. It is recommended that some critical tests for example water
content and acidity may be done at the plant level while the other test could be done at
the centralized location.
Transportation of biodiesel to selected locations for blending
Transportation of Biodiesel does not require any special precautions and can be
transported by tankers just as the diesel. In order to reduce the cost the initial
introduction of Biodiesel should be done at locations near to the production site.
Blending of Biodiesel into diesel
Blending at depot level may be a good solution for initial selective introduction of
Biodiesel at some locations. Biodiesel does not require any special storage or
handling precautions whoever storage tanks and circulatory pumps for mixing need to
be stationed at the blending site.
Financial support
Taxation and cross-country movement of materials would need attention. The price of
biodiesel would have to be worked out. Though it is expected to be with in a narrow
range of HSD, the duty structure will have to be so designed that the price of
Biodiesel is slightly lower than that of the HSD. Every country which has promoted
the use of biodiesel has followed this route in order to make biodiesel compete with
diesel. However, macro-economics studies have proved that direct and indirect impact
of biodiesel e.g. employment generation, balance of trade, emission benefits etc are
substantial and need to be accounted for while considering the duty structure on
Biodiesel and HSD.

81
CHAPTER 15
Conclusion
It is clear by now that for us blending of Biodiesel produced from non-edible
vegetable oil with conventional diesel i.e. H.S.D. is unavoidable to achieve the
objectives of emission standards, regeneration of degraded lands, poverty alleviation,
employment generation, better use of natural resources etc. A National Mission is,
therefore, proposed to be launched. The potential, viability and details of the National
Mission are discussed hereafter.
Since diesel constitutes 50% of oil consumption chiefly for transportation and other
purposes, its demand is integrally related to economic growth and is seen as a growth
inducing factor. The estimated increase of demand for diesel from the 2001-02 level
of 38.815 Million tons to 52.324 Million tons in 2006-7 and 66.095 Million tons
shows a massive hike of 34% to 70% respectively over 2001-02 level in physical
terms which will lead to increase of crude oil import from the present level of 85
Million tons to 147 Million tons per annum raising the oil import bill from US $ 13.3
Billion to over US $ 20 Billion. As emissions from automotive engines using diesel is
a major source of air pollution in urban areas, enforcement of stricter emission norms
has become a national priority. Biodiesel has been accepted as clean alternative fuel
all over the world. Though biodiesel could be produced from soya bean, rape seed,
sunflower, the source of edible oil, existing shortage of edible oil in the country and
its price, would not make these crops viable for use as feed stock for production of
biodiesel. Similarly the existing output of 5.253 Million tons of Tree borne oil seeds
have been put to different uses and cannot contribute to organized production of bio
diesel on account of a number of factors including scattered location, low yield and
consequently low level of seed collection of 15-20% of total exploitable seeds.
The rationale of taking up a major program for the production of biodiesel in India for
blending with diesel lies in the context of:
!""Biodiesel being superior fuel from the environmental point of view;
!""use of biodiesel becomes compelling in view of the tightening of automotive
vehicle emission standards and court interventions;
!""addressing global concern relating to containing Carbon emissions for mitigation of
climate change;
!""providing nutrients to soil, by using oil cake as manure;
!""reducing import of oil and consequentially reducing import and improving energy
security;
!""greening the country through Jatropha curcas plantation; and
!""generation of gainful employment to the people.
Similar to the ethanol for blending with petrol, bio diesel is a substitute for petroleum
diesel, the main liquid fuel for our heavy vehicles, railways, trucks, tractors, marine
engines etc.
Recommendations
It is clear that the country must move towards the use of biofuels, ethanol as substitute
for motor spirit and biodiesel for diesel. It implies the production of biodiesel in 2011-
12 and coverage of land with Jatropha curcas as below:
!""3.25million metric tons for blending @ 5% and coverage of area of 2.9 million
Hector
!""6.5 million metric tons for blending @ 10% and coverage of area of 5.8 million
Hector

82
!""13 million metric tons for blending @ 20 %, and coverage of area of 11.2 million
Hector.
Recommendations For Biodiesel
!" A National Mission on Biodiesel should be launched immediately with the
objective of producing biodiesel required for blending to the extent of 20% with
HSD in 2011- 12.
!" As its Phase I, a demonstration project may be taken up on 400,000 hectors in
eight States. Of this area 200,000 hectors of plantation may be taken up on under
stocked forest lands placed under the management of Joint Forest Management
Committees in four States (Tamilnadu, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Tripura) and
200,000 hectors of plantation on non forest lands spread over four states (U.P.,
Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh). In addition, the Ministry of
Rural Development may take up plantation under the IWDP and other poverty
alleviation programs as the program elements of the two programs are similar.
!" The biodiesel demonstration project is expected to produce 1.5 million tons of
seed and 0.48 million tons of oil from the year 3 and will generate by 2007
employment of 127.6 million man-days in plantation and 36.8 million man-days
per annum on sustained basis in seed collection and 3,680 Person Years of
employment for running seed collection and oil extraction centers. On an overall
basis, the employment under the Project will directly enable 550,000 rural poor
families to escape poverty. The entire project will be community and farmer
driven from plantation up to primary processing stage involving seed collection,
procurement and oil extraction at the village level. The esterification factory will
be set up by a private entrepreneur availing financing facilities under the existing
policies.
!" The national Mission on Biodiesel may be based on Jatropha as it has many
advantages over other species including Karanj (Pongamia Pinnatta). To mention
a few, it has very high oil content, has very small gestation period, is hardy, grows
on good and degraded lands and in low and high rainfall areas, the seed comes in
non rainy season and the tree is not very high making collection of seed
convenient.
!" The Demonstration Project may be completed by 2007. The next phase of the
National Mission should be people driven and should involve a self sustaining
expansion of plantation and setting up of corresponding facilities for seed
collection, oil extraction, esterification etc. The Government should act mainly as
a facilitator providing incentives as may be necessary.
!" Efforts should be made to get external funding for Phase II of the national
Mission.
!" The Demonstration Project under the National Mission may be funded by the
Government.
!" As the implementation of the Demonstration Project makes progress and Biodiesel
starts becoming available, a beginning should be made with 5% blending in areas
where the production of Biodiesel is taken up by the year 2005.
Micro missions Under National Mission
The National Mission may be implemented in a mission mode. The Demonstration
Project may consist of a number of micro-missions as below:
!""Micro mission on Plantation on Forest And Adjoining Lands This plantation
may be undertaken by the Forest Departments in the four states included in the

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Demonstration Project through the JFM Committees. The Ministry of Environment &
Forests will be the nodal Agency for this micro mission.
!""Micro mission on Plantation on Non-forest Lands – Implementation by
NOVOD: The plantation on non-forest lands in four States identified under 6.9.2 (b),
the Demonstration Project may be undertaken with NOVOD under the Ministry of
Agriculture playing the nodal role.
!""Micro mission on Plantation Not Covered By The Above Two Micro missions:
Implementation by Ministry of Rural Development: Since Jatropha curcas
plantation has all round implications for poverty alleviation and upgradation of land
resources, various programs; such as IWDP, SGSY, SGRY, PMGY etc. could include
Jatropha plantation as a part of their program to help the farmers to escape poverty for
which necessary funds are already provided under the Plans of the respective
Ministries. Similarly, KVIC, SIDBI, NABARD can step in to support procurement of
seeds, oil extraction activity at the village level. The Ministry of Rural Development
and its two departments namely the Department of Rural Development and the
Department of Land Resources and CAPART may be made responsible for plantation
in degraded and wastelands through out the country but not included in the Micro
mission to be implemented by NOVOD. Districts outside the districts included in
Micro mission to be implemented by NOVOD through the Panchayats and NGOs by
using the funds available under IWDP, SGRY and SGSY etc
!""Micro mission on Procurement of Seed and Oil Extraction: KVIC under the
Department of Agro and Rural Industries should be the nodal agency for encouraging
and supporting this activity. It will do the extension work, provide all help in the
setting up of the Seed procurement and oil Expelling Centers, identify suitable
technology of oil expelling units and assist in obtaining finance from the financial
institutions.
!""Micro mission on Trans-esterification, Blending and Trade: Arrangements to
ensure creation of facilities for trans-esterification of oil in to biodiesel and its
blending with diesel may be the responsibility of the Ministry of Petroleum.
!""Micro mission on Research and Development: The problems needing solution as
identified above will need R&D. The institutions under ICAR, ICFRE, CSIR,
Research and Training Institutions supported by the Government of India, State
Agriculture Universities and interested institutions in the industry – both public sector
and private sector- other organizations will be invited to make their contribution.
Financing for Demonstration Project
!""The total cost has been estimated to be Indian Rupees 14.96 Billion.
!""For the plantation component of the Demonstration Project (Indian Rupees 12
Billion), the funds need to come from the Government. As yet, the people are not
aware of the potential of Jatropha curcas to give economic return and that too in a
short time from degraded / unproductive lands, fallow lands and field boundaries.
Hence to begin with, the funds should be provided by the government. There will be a
number of options for raising the required funds. The manner in which the required
funds would be mobilized will be decided by the Coordination Committee.
!""For the component of setting up Seed Collection Center and Oil extraction unit, the
funds could be a mix of entrepreneurs’ own contribution (margin money), subsidy and
loan from NABARD and SIDBI in the ratio of 10:30:60. The amount of subsidy will
again have to be provided by the Government.
!""For the Trans-esterification Unit, it is a commercial venture involving relatively
large sum of money (Indian Rupees 750 Million). It is expected that the oil companies

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guided by the Ministry of Petroleum will induce private sector to set up such plants
with their own funds being supplemented by funds from Financial Institutions.
!""The Administrative Expenses of the mission should be borne by the Government.
!""Funds for R&D will need to be provided under the Mission. Funds available for
R&D with the various Ministries, Industry and their Associations, R&D institutions
should be used. However, dedicated funds to be provided by the Government for
R&D have been proposed.
Assumptions
!"The propagation of Jatropha curcas will be done through nursery to ensure
superior germ plasm, high rate of survival, planting of a healthy and vigorously
growing plant and achieve start of production of seed in the second year of planting.
!"The plant density will be 2,500 per hectare.
!"For mixed plantation or agro forestry 2,500 plants will be deemed to cover one
hectare of land even though the total coverage is much more. Hence wherever
‘hectare’ is used in the context of jatropha plantation it is notional hectare.
!"While under very good conditions the seed production is reported to be as high as
5 kg / tree or 12.5 tons per hectare and in rain fed and poor soils as low as 1.5 tons /
hectare, we have assumed average conditions and soils and the production of seed as
1500 gms per tree corresponding to 3.75 tons per hectare.
!"The oil content will be 35% by weight of seed and extraction efficiency will be
91%. This works out to oil recovery of 32% implying that one kg of oil will be
produced by 3.125 kg of seed. The price of seed has been assumed to be Indian
Rupees 5 per Kg.
!"One hectare of Jatropha Plantation on an average will produce 3.75 tons of seed
yielding 1.2 tons of oil.
!"At the end of two years Jatropha plant will give seed to its full potential. Hence
400,000 hectares will produce 480,000 tons of oil and 1.02 million tons of compost.
!"After the program has been approved nurseries will be set up and the seedlings
will be available next year for plantation. The availability of biodiesel will start in the
year 2005-6.
Financing for Phase II, Self sustaining Expansion of Biodiesel
Preparation of Project
In the last year of the Demonstration Project i.e., in 2006-07, on the basis of
experience gained, a project will be formulated for Phase II of the National Mission.
The villagers are expected to grow Jatropha curcas plantation on their fields as agro-
forestry crop. A scheme of margin money, subsidy and loan may need to be instituted.
Companies having lands could be encouraged to undertake Jatropha curcas plantation.
They may be given technical advice and elite planting material.
Funds for plantation in degraded forests through JFM could come from the JFM
members, provided free seed can be given to each member who may be then induced
to spend his own money as margin money and the remainder could be a combination
of subsidy from the government and loan from financial institutions.
The funds for the Seed Collection Centers and oil extraction units, Trans-esterification
units and R&D will be mobilized in the same manner as during the Demonstration
Project (Phase I).
External Funding
It is also noted that since biodiesel program will address global environmental
concerns and will make a definite impact on poverty alleviation within a short period
it is likely to attract the support of bilateral and multilateral funding agencies. While
there is no need for external funding at the stage of the Demonstration Project, for

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Phase II, efforts should be made to obtain external funding on the basis of the project
that will be formulated.
Institutional; Arrangement For the National Mission & Demonstration Project
A Coordination Committee under the Chairmanship of the Deputy Chairman of the
Planning Commission and a Steering Committee of officials to be served by a
compact cell in the Planning Commission may be set up.
Legislative Aspects
In the beginning there is need for flexibility as a very rigid legal regime may hamper
the development of biofuels in India. Hence it is proposed that a separate legislation
on biofuels need not be considered at this stage and the needed legal requirements
may be met by using the already available statutes.

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CHAPTER 16
BIODIESEL PROJECT REPORT
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION AND USES
Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils,
or recycled restaurant oils. Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces serious air pollutants such
as particulate, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxic. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80%
petroleum diesel (B20) can generally be used in unmodified diesel engines. Biodiesel can also be
used in its pure form (B100), but it too may require certain engine modifications to avoid
maintenance and performance problems.
Biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) is a cleaner-burning diesel replacement fuel made from natural,
renewable sources such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats. Just like petroleum diesel,
biodiesel operates in compression-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% biodiesel (mixed with
petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most
storage and distribution equipment. These low level blends (20% and less) generally do not require
any engine modifications. Biodiesel can provide the same payload capacity and as diesel.
Using biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned
hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. These reductions increase as the amount of biodiesel
blended into diesel fuel increases. The best emissions reductions are seen with B100.
The use of biodiesel decreases the solid carbon fraction of particulate matter (since the oxygen in
biodiesel enables more complete combustion to CO2) and reduces the sulfate fraction (biodiesel
contains less than 24 ppm sulfur), while the soluble, or hydrocarbon, fraction stays the same or
increases. Therefore, biodiesel works well with new technologies such as diesel oxidation catalysts
(which reduce the soluble fraction of diesel particulate but not the solid carbon fraction).
Emissions of nitrogen oxides increase with the concentration of biodiesel in the fuel. Some
biodiesel produces more nitrogen oxides than others, and some additives have shown promise in
modifying the increases. More R&D is needed to resolve this issue.
Biodiesel has physical properties very similar to conventional diesel. Biodiesel's Physical
Characteristics:
Specific gravity 0.87 to 0.89
Kinematic viscosity @ 40°C 3.7 to 5.8
Cetane number 46 to 70
Higher heating value (btu/lb) 16,928 to 17,996
Sulfur, wt % 0.0 to 0.0024
Cloud point °C -11 to 16
Pour point °C -15 to 13
Iodine number 60 to 135
Lower heating value (btu/lb) 15,700 to 16,735
BioDiesel is packed in 35 kg carboys, 225 kg MS Barrels and Bulk in Tankers.
How is Biodiesel made : Biodiesel fuel can be made from new or used vegetable oils, which are
non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable resources. Fats and oils are chemically reacted with an alcohol
(methanol is the usual choice) to produce chemical compounds known as fatty acid methyl esters.
Biodiesel is the name given to these esters when they are intended for use as fuel. Glycerol (used in
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, among other markets) is produced as a co-product.
Biodiesel can be produced by a variety of esterification technologies. The oils and fats are filtered
and preprocessed to remove water and contaminants. If free fatty acids are present, they can be

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removed or transformed into biodiesel using special pretreatment technologies. The pretreated oils
and fats are then mixed with an alcohol (usually methanol) and a catalyst (usually sodium or
potassium hydroxide). The oil molecules (triglycerides) are broken apart and reformed into esters
and glycerol, which are then separated from each other and purified.
Approximately 55% of the biodiesel industry can use any fat or oil feedstock, including recycled
cooking oils. The other half of the industry is limited to vegetable oils, the least expensive of which
is Jatropha oil. The Jatropha oil industry has been the driving force behind biodiesel
commercialization because of large production capacity, product surpluses, and declining prices.
Similar issues apply to the recycled oils and animal fats industry, even though these feedstock are
less expensive than Jatropha oils.
Biodiesel Benefits : Biodiesel is a substitute or extender for traditional petroleum diesel and you
don't need special pumps or high pressure equipment for fueling. In addition, it can be used in
conventional diesel engines, so you don't need to buy special vehicles or engines to run biodiesel.
Scientists believe carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases contributing to global
warming. Neat biodiesel (100 percent biodiesel) reduces carbon dioxide emissions by more than 75
percent over petroleum diesel. Using a blend of 20 percent biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide
emissions by 15 percent.
Biodiesel also produces fewer particulate, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide emissions, all
targeted as public health risks by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Since biodiesel can be used in conventional diesel engines, the renewable fuel can directly replace
petroleum products; reducing the country's dependence on imported oil.
Biodiesel offers safety benefits over petroleum diesel because it is much less combustible, with a
flash point greater than 150°C, compared to 77°C for petroleum diesel. It is safe to handle, store,
and transport.
Biodiesel can help reduce our dependence on foreign oil and help us leverage our fossil fuel
supplies. It can also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as public health risks associated
with air pollution. It is nontoxic and biodegradable. Biodiesel contains only trace amounts of sulfur,
typically less than the new EPA standards that will go into effect in 2006 for diesel fuel. It is safe to
handle, transport, and store, and has a higher flash point than petroleum diesel. It can also be stored
in diesel tanks and pumped with regular equipment except in colder weather, where tank heaters or
agitators may be required. Biodiesel mixes readily with petroleum diesel at any blend level, making
it a very flexible fuel additive.
Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, so it contributes to a more complete fuel burn and a greatly
improved emissions profile. The more biodiesel used in a blend, the higher the emission reductions.
One of the unique benefits of biodiesel is that it significantly reduces air toxic that are associated
with petroleum diesel exhaust and are suspected of causing cancer and other human health
problems. NOx emissions are an exception to the rule, since biodiesel tends to increase NOx
emissions. Recent research has shown a number of ways to mitigate this problem.
You can use pure biodiesel in most engines made after 1994 with some limitations. Engine
performance (fuel economy, torque, and power) can be less than that of diesel by 8% to 15%,
because of the lower energy content of the biodiesel (about 93%). Consumers should be aware of
potential cold weather problems during vehicle operation and fuel storage. Consumers should also
watch for obvious signs of damage around seals and gaskets. You can use pure biodiesel in older
engines, but the seals and gaskets are more likely to be damaged by biodiesel. Also, it helps to start
out with a clean storage tank if pure biodiesel is used.

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Most people use a blend of 20% biodiesel with petroleum diesel (B20) to avoid the problems listed
above. Engine performance with B20 is virtually the same as with petroleum diesel. Problems
associated with storage, seals and gaskets, and cold weather are minimal. Even very low amounts
of biodiesel (1% to 2%) can provide substantial lubricity benefits to premium diesel fuels.
Every liter of biodiesel displaces 0.95 liter of petroleum-based diesel over its life cycle. It is also
very energy efficient. For every unit of fossil energy used to produce biodiesel, 3.37 units of
biodiesel energy are created. Additionally, biodiesel reduces the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2)
being released into the atmosphere. It releases less fossil CO2 than does conventional diesel, and
the crops used to produce biodiesel absorb large amounts of CO2 as they grow. And because
biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable, it is an excellent fuel for use in fragile environments such
as estuaries, lakes, rivers, and national parks.
Description: BioDiesel is a manufactured product, slightly yellow in color, oily liquid with a slight
aromatic odor and a bitter taste.
Applications : It is commonly used as fuel for stationary diesel engine like Pump sets and other
agricultural implements and also in Diesel cars.
Standards : Specifications for Biodiesel (B100): provided by the National Biodiesel Board.
Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels — provided by
ASTM International.
Biodiesel Production and Quality: provided by the National Biodiesel Board.
Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines
Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines - Japanese version.
Pure biodiesel (B100) needs to meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 to avoid engine operational
problems. To obtain a copy of ASTM's Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend
Stock for Distillate Fuels, visit the ASTM International Web site. This table summarizes the
requirements for B100.
Keep up with the latest biodiesel activities by reading the National Biodiesel Board's newsletter,
Biodiesel Bulletin.
Transport information : Hazardous for air, sea and road freight.
Personal protection : Safety glasses, adequate ventilation.
Consumer Safety : BioDiesel is used as substitute for Diesel and all safety precautions are same as
that of Petroleum diesel.
MARKET SURVEY AND DEMAND SUPPLY POSITION
Recent trends are indicative of tremendous increase in the production of Commercial Vehicles and
the consumption of Diesel. The import bill is mounting and the availability is going down. New
sources will have to be developed and new units have to be put up in the next decade to
manufacture BioDiesel which will substitute imported diesel in large quantities to meet the
domestic demand where by causing smaller drain of our limited sources of foreign exchange.
The growth of Automotive industry, particularly in the last 15 years, has been spectacular. It is not
the magnitude of volume only, but also the diversity of products (Commercial vehicle, cars,
two/three wheelers), which have been impressive. The proposed product, i.e. BioDiesel also shows
a good potential growth for demand.
Existing Manufacturers : Presently there are no manufacturers and a number of small scale units
manufacturing this product will be set up, all over the country in next few years.

89
Installed Capacity And Production : This product is manufactured depending on availability of
local raw material supply and local demand to substitute petroleum diesel. The production of last
few years is given below:
Year Production Kilo liters /year
2002-2003 Nil*
2003-2004 500*
* estimated
So the present total production in India, of BioDiesel is estimated to be 500 Kilo liters per year.
Future Demand : The major user of BioDiesel will be small farmers as well as for blending with
diesel in petroleum refinery. The demand for the product will grow with the increase in production
of Oil Engines. Due to shortage and irregular supply of electrical power, the growth rate for oil
engines, is expected to be very high in coming years for states where electrical power is not easily
available. Looking at the tremendous growth in Automotive and Stationary Oil Engines, which is
projected to be 10% pa in terms of number of new engines, large quantities of Diesel oil will be
required. Taking into account the potential for BioDiesel units, the total capacity of these BioDiesel
plants will substitute only a tiny fraction of the total diesel requirement.
Conclusion : From the demand and supply position, it appears that there should be a good scope for
a number of new venture with a capacity of 1 to 30 Kilo liters per day.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Raw Materials : To manufacture 1 Kilo liters of BioDiesel, consumption of raw materials is as
follows :
Methyl Alcohol (98 %) 150 liters.
Vegetable Oil 1,050 liters.
Caustic Potash 3.8 Kgs.
Input Materials Preparation: Jatropha or Physic Nut Oil is the input material oil can be crude but
should be filtered first if recently obtained from oil press. The feedstock should be free of water
and other foreign materials. In case the temperature causes the vegetable oil to gel up or become
solid, the material should be liquefied by heating up to 40oC in the reactor tank. (Oilseed Crushing
Plant is an Optional Activities for input requirements).
Methanol, MeOH – Anhydrous and at least 98% pure, and container grounded to protect from
sparks.
Potassium Hydroxide, KOH – At least 85% in purity in flakes, powder or pellets. It is very
sensitive to atmospheric moisture and must be stored in air-tight containers. It can be purchased in
20 kg plastic bags.
First, an acid value test is run then a bench-scale batch (50 ml to 200 ml input oil) should be
conducted to determine optimum amount of MeOH and KOH for successful operation for every
batch of incoming vegetable oil or animal fat (30 minutes esterification or mixing).
Chemical Reaction : The chemical reaction involved in the manufacture is as follows :
Catalyst
(CnHn+2)COOH + CH3OH = H3C-OOC(CnHn+2) + H2O.
Brief Process Description :
Trans-esterification (for a series of batches or semi-continuous process): Required amount of
MeOH and KOH are mixed in catalyst reactor (takes about 10 minutes), until KOH has completely
dissolved, (the solution becomes potassium methoxide). Vegetable oil is then poured or transferred
to main reactor having desired amount of vegetable oil or animal fat. (Reactor tank is calibrated to
allow faster determination of volume.)

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The methoxide is then poured into the reactor and mixing is started immediately. It is mixed for 60
minutes (esterification process). The ester material is then transferred (by pump or gravity) into the
settling tank(s). In semi-continuous process, mixing of MeOH and KOH can be simultaneously
done during the esterification step.
Settling/Phase Separation: The mixture is settled for 6-18 hours. Two phases or layers will be
observed. (Settling tank has a viewing mechanism, either a clear hose, sight glass or window strip).
The bottom phase (crude glycerin) is drained, or pumped out into the glycerin container for
purification or removal of excess MeOH. The upper phase (BioDiesel) is transferred into a washing
tank for washing.
BioDiesel Sweetening/Refining: Excess MeOH in the BioDiesel is removed using either vacuum
or by heating. The BioDiesel may be washed with acidified water. This can be accomplished by
mixing acetic acid (tannic or acetic acid) with water. Volume of water is about 40 % that of
BioDiesel. The acidified water is stirred into the BioDiesel as aeration stones near the bottom of
the tank bubble water and air up through the fuel. After settling overnight the water is drained off
the bottom. If necessary the fuel is then dried with heat, stirring and aeration. This step may me
omitted if settling time is over 18 hours, or KOH in the BioDiesel is below 50 ppm or 0.005% and
filtered using at least 2 microns. The BioDiesel is pumped into the storage or packaging container.
The pump should be equipped with at least 2 microns filter.
Optional Activities: Methanol Recovery: Methanol recovered from BioDiesel and crude glycerin
may be used back in the esterification process. Recovered methanol must be anhydrous and 98%
pure, for effective use.
Crude Glycerin Purification/Disposal: MeOH is removed from crude glycerin by vacuum or
heating. Glycerin may be purified using ion-exchange method (Bulgarian Process) or tower
distillation method (High heat traditional method). Glycerin may be shipped to a glycerin
purification plant nearby.
Oilseed Crushing Plant: For a 500 L per day BioDiesel plant (with 21 days per month or 250 days
operation per year), the crushing plant should be able to provide at least 125,000 L per year. This
requires at least 72 hectares of area planted with Jatropha. For Jatropha at 80% oil expelling
efficiency and 30% oil content, the crushing plant needs 1150 kg. of Jatropha seeds per day
(200kg/hr expeller is needed), at 8 hours/day operation. For semi-continuous 4 batch/day these
amounts will increase by four times.
BioDiesel Process in Detail
Ingradients
Reaction raw materials : Jatropha Oil, Methanol (CH3OH) 99%+ pure, Potassium hydroxide
(must be dry).
Titration : Isopropyl alcohol 99%+ pure, Distilled water, Phenolphthalein solution (not more than
a year old, kept protected from strong light).
Washing : Vinegar, Water.
Procedure
Filter oil to remove any solid particles. Heat oil to remove any water content (optional). Perform
titration to determine how much catalyst is needed. Prepare potassium methoxide. Heat oil if
required, mix in the potassium methoxide while stirring. Allow to settle, remove the glycerine.
Wash and dry. Check quality.

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This procedure is called transesterification, similar to soap making. (To make soap you take a
transfatty acid or triglyceride oil and blend it with a solution of potassium hydroxide and water.
This reaction causes the ester chains to separate from the glycerine. These ester chains are what
becomes the soap. They are also called lipids. Their unique characteristic of being attracted to polar
molecules such as water on one end and to non-polar molecules like oil on the other end is what
makes them effective as soap.)
In transesterification, KOH and methanol are mixed to create potassium methoxide (K+ CH3O-).
When mixed in with the oil this strong polar-bonded chemical breaks the transfatty acid into
glycerine and also ester chains (biodiesel), along with some soap if you are not careful. The esters
become methyl esters. They would be ethyl esters if reacted with ethanol instead of methanol.
1. Filtering : Filter the oil to remove solid particles. You may have to warm it up a bit first to
get it to run freely, 35 deg C should be enough. Use a double layer of cheesecloth in a
funnel, or a restaurant or canteen-type coffee filter.
2. Removing the water : Heat the oil first to remove any water content. Waste oil will
probably contain water, which can slow down the reaction and cause saponification (soap
formation). The less water in the oil the better. Raise the temperature to 100 deg C, hold it
there and allow any water to boil off. Use a mixer to avoid steam pockets forming below the
oil and exploding, splashing hot oil out of the container. Or drain water puddles out from
the bottom as they form, you can save any oil that comes out with the water later. When
boiling slows, raise the temperature to 130 deg C for 10 minutes. Remove heat and allow to
cool. Regular source of oil does not need to have the water boiled off, in which case do not
do it, boiling means extra energy and time.
3. Basic titration : Dissolve 1 gram of KOH in 1 liter of distilled or de-ionized water (0.1%
KOH solution). An electronic pH meter is best, but you can also use pH test strips (or litmus
paper), or phenolphthalein solution to get end point. In a smaller beaker, dissolve 1 ml of
dewatered oil in 10 ml of pure isopropyl alcohol. Warm the beaker gently by standing it in
some hot water, stir until all the oil dissolves in the alcohol and the mixture turns clear. Add
2 drops of phenolphthalein solution.
Using a burette, add 0.1% KOH solution drop by drop to the oil alcohol phenolphthalein
solution, stirring all the time, until the solution stays pink (magenta) for 10 seconds. Take
the number of mls of 0.1% KOH solution you used and add 5.0. This is the number of
grams of KOH you will need per liter of oil.
With a pH meter or test strips, use the same procedure without adding the phenolphthalein.
Add the 0.1% KOH solution drop by drop as before until the pH reaches 8.5.
4. Test batches : The first few times you do this process, it is a good practice to first try out
your KOH amounts on a 1 liter batch. This works really well and you do not need to heat up
the oil too much, just enough so it will spin well. Start by mixing up the KOH and
methanol. First make sure that vessels used are dry. Forming the exothermal potassium
methoxide polar molecule will heat up the vessel a bit. Keep mixing until all the KOH has
been dissolved.
Once the potassium methoxide is prepared, add to 1 liter of oil. Make certain all your
weights and volumes are precise. If you are unsure of the titration result then use 5.0 grams
of KOH per liter of oil. Smaller batches need only be run for about 15-20 minutes for
separation to be completed before switching off. The settling takes some time to complete.
The solution can be poured from the vessel into another container right after switching off
the agitator. It is good to do a few batches with varying amounts of KOH recorded, so later

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when checking results one can choose the KOH quantity that did the best job. When too
much KOH is used the result can be a troublesome gel that is tough to do anything with.
When not enough KOH is used the reaction does not go far enough so some unreacted oil
will be mixed with the biodiesel and glycerine. This will form three levels with biodiesel on
top above unreacted oil with glycerine on the bottom. If there is too much water in the oil it
will form soaps and settle right above the glycerine forming a fourth level in the container.
This layer is not too easy to separate from the unreacted oil and glycerine layers.
5. Preparing the potassium methoxide : Generally the amount of methanol needed is 20% of
the oil by mass. The densities of these two liquids are fairly close, so 20% of methanol by
volume should be about right. To be completely sure, measure out a half-liter of both fluids,
weigh, and calculate exactly what 20% by mass is. Different oils can have different
densities depending on what type of oil it originally was.
Example: When transesterifying 100 liters of oil, use 20 liters of methanol. The methanol is
mixed into a solution with the KOH, creating potassium methoxide in an exothermic
reaction (it gets warm from bonds forming). Keep all utensils the KOH comes in contact
with as dry as possible.
CAUTION : Treat potassium methoxide with extreme caution! Do not inhale any vapors! If
any potassium methoxide gets splashed on your skin, it will burn you without your feeling it
(killing the nerves). Wash immediately with lots of water. Always have a hose running
when working with potassium methoxide. Potassium methoxide is also very corrosive to
paints. KOH reacts with aluminum, tin and zinc. Use glass, enamel or stainless steel
containers, stainless steel is best.
6. Heating and mixing : Pre-heat waste vegetable oil 48-54 deg C. A propeller coupled to a
electric motor works fine as a mixer. Too much agitation causes splashing and bubbles
through vortexing and reduces mix efficiency. There should be a vortex just appearing on
the surface. Adjust the speed, or the pitch or size of the stirrer to get the right effect.
Alternately an electric pump plumbed to form a mixing loop for stirring the oil would do a
nice job. Mount the pump above the level that glycerine will gel at, to prevent clogging up
the pump.
Add the potassium methoxide to the oil while stirring, stir the mixture for 50 minutes to an
hour. The reaction is often complete in 30 minutes, but longer is better. The
transesterification process separates the methyl esters from the glycerine. The CH3O of the
methanol then caps off the ester chains and OH from the KOH stabilizes the glycerine.
7. Settling and separation : Allow the solution to settle and cool for at least eight hours,
preferably longer. The methyl esters (biodiesel) will be floating on top while the denser
glycerine will have congealed on the bottom of the container forming a hard gelatinous
mass (the mixing pump must be mounted above this level). An alternative method is to
allow the reactants to settle for at least an hour after mixing while keeping the mixture
above 38 deg C, which keeps the glycerine semi-liquid (it solidifies below 38 deg C). Then
carefully decant the biodiesel. This can be done by draining the reactants out of the bottom
of the container through a transparent hose. The semi-liquid glycerine has a dark brown
color and the biodiesel is honey-colored. Keep a watch on what flows through the sight
tube. When the lighter-colored biodiesel appears divert it to a separate container. If any
biodiesel stays with the glycerine it is easy to retrieve it later once the glycerine has
solidified. If you left the mixture in the tank until the glycerine gelled, reheat the tank just
enough to liquify the glycerine again. Do not stir it! Then decant it out as above.

93
8. Glycerine : The glycerine from oil is brown and usually turns to a solid below about 38o C.
Glycerine from fresh oil often stays a liquid at lower temperatures. Reclaimed glycerine is
composted after being vented for three weeks to allow residual methanol to evaporate off or
after heating it to 66oC to boil off any methanol content (the boiling point of methanol is
64.7oC). The excess methanol can be recovered for re-use when boiled off if you run the
vapors through a condenser. Another way of disposing of the glycerine, though a great bit
more complicated, would be to separate its components, mostly methanol, pure glycerine (a
valuable product for medicines, tinctures, hand lotions, dried plant arrangements and many
other uses) and wax. This is often accomplished by distilling it, but glycerine has a high
boiling point even under high vacuum so this method is difficult. Other idea for disposing of
the glycerine is breaking it down to usable methane gas, with a Bio Gas methane digester.
9. Soap residue : Suspended in the biodiesel will also be some soapy residues. These are the
result of K+ ions from the KOH reacting with water created when the methanol bonds with
the ester chains along with any other water that was suspended in the oil. If the reaction
produces more than the usual amount of soap, this happens when KOH comes into contact
with water before it has a chance to react with the oil. In this case the excess water should
have been boiled off first.
The part of the process where it is vital to keep all water out of the reaction is when making
the potassium methoxide. Keep the vessels KOH comes in contact with as dry as possible.
The chances of a good clean splitting of ester from glycerine with little soap by-product are
much better on a warm dry summer day than on a damp winter day.
10. Washing and drying : The biodiesel from this stage can be used to the fuel tanks of
vehicles. It is to let it settle for a while (about 2 days), allowing the majority of the soap
residues to settle before running the biodiesel through a filtration system then into the
vehicle fuel tank. Another method is to wash the soaps out of the fuel with water, one or
more times. When washing biodiesel the first time it is best to add a small amount of dilute
acetic acid before adding the water. The acetic acid brings the pH of the solution closer to
neutral because it neutralizes and drops out any KOH suspended in the biodiesel.
A simple way of washing is using a PVC container with a valve 3-4 inches from bottom.
Fill with water until it is halfway between the container's bottom and the valve, then fill up
with the biodiesel to be washed. After a gentle stirring (keep it gentle, do not agitate up
soaps) followed by 12-24 hours of settling, the oil and water will separate, the cleaned oil
can be decanted out the valve, leaving the denser soapy water to be drained out the bottom.
This process might have to be repeated two or three times to remove close to 100% of
soaps. The second and third washings can be done with water alone. After the third washing
any remaining water gets removed by re-heating the oil slowly, the water and other
impurities sink to bottom. The finished product should have a pH of 7, checked with litmus
paper or with a digital pH tester.
The water from the third wash can be used for the first or second washes for the next batch.
The impurities can be left in the re-heater for the next batch and removed when it
accumulates. Transesterified and washed biodiesel will become clearer over time as any
remaining soaps drop out of the solution.
Quantity of methanol to be used
The stoichiometric quantity of methanol is the amount needed to convert triclycerides (oils) into
esters (biodiesel), the methyl portion of methyl esters. You also need an excess of methanol to push
the conversion process towards completion, without the excess the process runs out (reaches

94
equilibrium) before all the triglycerides are converted to esters, resulting in poor fuel that does not
combust well and can be corrosive. The excess methanol acts more like a catalyst. It encourages the
process but does not become a part of the final product and can be recovered afterwards.
1. Stoichiometric quantity : The stoichiometric quantity is usually said to be 12.5% methanol
by volume, that is, 125 ml of methanol per litre of oil. In fact it depends on the amounts of
the various fatty acids in the oil, and varies from one oil to another. Calculate the average
proportions of the different fatty acids in each of the more common oils, calculate their total
molecular weights, and from this calculate the stoichiometric amount of methanol required
to convert them. The amount varies from 11.3% for rapeseed oil (canola) to 16.3% for
coconut oil. These figures are averages, fatty acid quantities vary somewhat when oil crops
are grown in different conditions in different parts of the world. But they are close enough
for our purposes, and a lot more accurate than the general figure of 12.5%. If you have an
analysis of the fatty acid content of your oil, you can calculate the correct stoichiometric
ratio.
2. Excess : How much excess is needed depends on several different factors: the type of oil, its
condition, the type, size and shape of the processor, the type and duration of agitation, the
temperature of the process, and it does not make much sense anyway if the stoichiometric
ratio is wrong in the first place. However, excess is usually between 60% and 100% of the
stoichiometric amount. The stoichiometric ratio of Jatropha oil is 12.5%, that is 125 ml of
methanol per litre of oil, the excess would range between 75 ml and 125 ml, for a total
amount of methanol of 200-250 ml per litre of oil. oils with higher stoichiometric ratios
seem to need higher excesses. So, for fresh soy or canola, you can try 60%, though 67% or
more would be better. For palm kernel or coconut, closer to 100% excess would be better. If
you do not know what kind of oil it is, try using 25% methanol, 250 ml methanol to 1 litre
of oil. If you've taken care with the titration, used accurate measurements and followed the
instructions carefully, you should get a good, clean split, with esters on top and the
glycerine and free fatty acids cleanly separated at the bottom. If you have trouble washing
it, with a lot of frothing, that could be because the process did not go far enough and
unconverted material is forming emulsions, try using more methanol next time. If
everything works well, try using less methanol. You will soon figure out what's best for
you.

95
Biodiesel specifications and testing results
Property (units) ASTM Limits Methyl Esters of oils
D-6751
Sunflower Palm Oil Jathropa Pongamia
Oil Oil Pinnata
Flash point (% C) D-93 Min 130 73 127 163 92

Phosphorus (% mass) D-4951 Max 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001


Water & sediment (%vol) D-2709 Max 0.050 0.04 0.01 0.05 0.03
CCR 100% (% mass) D-4530 Max 0.050 0.01 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01

Sulphated ash (% mass) D-874 Max 0.020 0.001 n.d n.d. 0.002

Viscosity at 40% C (cst) D-445 1.9-6.0 4.103 4.506 4.440 4.16

Sulphur (% mass) D-5453 Max 0.05 0.04 0.038 0.020 0.003


Cetane number D-613 Min 47 55.6 54.6 57.1 55.1
Copper corrosion D-130 Max 3 1 1b 1b 1b

Neutralization value D-664 Max 0.80 0.20 0.24 0.48 0.10


Free glycerin (% mass) D-6584 Max 0.020 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01
Total glycerin (% mass) D-6584 Max 0.240 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01

Distillation temp (3600C) D-1160 90% 90% 90% 90% 90%


TREATMENT OF LIQUID EFFLUENTS
There is only one point from where the effluent is discharged with traces of catalyst. The methanol
will be recovered and will be absent in effluent. It is lead to collection tank. It is then allowed to

96
settle. The clear treated water which will be within limits for BOD and COD will be used for
gardening purposes.
POWER REQUIREMENT
The requirement of electrical power will be 20.5 KW of connected load, which is available from
local electrical supply agency.

Details of power requirement for the equipments is given below :


Sl.No. Equipments Quantity Power HP
1 Catalyst Reactor Pump 1 1.00
2 Main Reactor Pump 1 1.00
3 Washing Vessel Pump 1 2.00
4 Settling Tank Pump 1 2.00
5 Heaters 1 15.00
6 Lighting 0.50
7 Miscellaneous 2.00
8 Air Compressor 1 2.00
9 Cooling Water Pump 1 2.00
- - -
TOTAL HP. 27.50

Requirement of connected load = 27.50 x 0.75 KW


= 20.63 KW
Requirement of Fuel Oil = 0.2 KL.
Requirement of Water = 50 cu.m.
UTILITIES SPECIFICATIONS
Process Water : Process water should be free of mud and suspended particles. It should be
available at a pressure of 3 Kg/sq.cm.
Electricity : It shall be available at 440 volts, A/C supply at 50 Hz. frequency and 3 phase supply.
Cooling Water : It should be available at 30o C and a return temperature of 37o C at a pressure of 4
/cm2.
Steam : It should be available at 10 Kg/sq.cm pressure.
MARKET AND SELLING ARRANGEMENTS
The item will be manufactured by a few units. This will help in selling product, taking advantage
for schemes in remote area. The entrepreneur is well connected with consuming industry. The
product will be mostly sold in local area.
The product will be sold directly to bulk customers and in certain cases through agents and
suppliers allowing some commission. Competition is proposed to be met by aggressive marketing,
maintaining good quality and cheaper rates.
Negotiations are being made with various prospective customers and they are found interested in
purchasing the product for their annual requirements.
PRODUCTION CAPACITY AND TARGET
Year I II III IV V VI VII

Capacity 70 80 90 100 100 100 100


Utilization %
BIODIESEL

97
Production 175 200 225 250 250 250 250
Kl./year
Crude GLYCERINE
Production 41 46 52 58 58 58 58
tons/year
COST OF PROJECT AND MEANS OF FINANCE
A. COST OF Rs.
FINANCE
1 Land and site 5300
2 Building and Civil Work 98400
3 Plant And Machinery 978652
4 Utilities 340000
5 Knowhow and Engineering Fees 50000
6 Misc. Fixed Assets 171673
7 Prelim. & Preoperative Expences 46980
8 Contingencies and Escalation 97700
9 Margin Money for working Capital 348206

Total 2136911

LAND
a Cost of 100 sq.mt. land @Rs. 40/sq.m. 4000
b Cost of Leveling and Land Development
@Rs. 2.0 per sq.m. 200
c Cost of Construction of Roads 500
d Cost of Fencing 500
e Cost of Gate 100

Total Rs. 5300


BUILDING

Area Rate Total


sq.m. Rs/sq.m. Rs.

a Factory Building with 30 2500 75000


Staircase and water Tank
Office Building
b Watchman's Cabin 5 2000 10000
c Equipment foundations,
Sewers, drains etc. 2500
d Effluent Tanks 5000
e Misc. Civil Work 5000
f Architect and structural
Engineers' fee 900

Sub Total 98400

98
Total of Land & Building 103700

PLANT & MACHINERY


Sl. Equipm Specific Capacity Qty Price Rs
ent ations
No. Liters Nos.

A. MAIN PLANT
1 Catalyst Reactor made of SS304 340 1 50000
2 Main Reactor made of SS 304 1500 1 100000
3 Vapour Condenser of 1 50000
area 1 sq.m. of MS
4 Settling Tank made of SS 304 1500 1 150000
5 Settling Tank made of SS 304 2000 1 200000
6 Micron Filters made of SS 304 20000

Total R s. 570000
B. STORAGE TANKS
1 Methyl Alcohol Storage Tank 5000 1 30000
2 Product Storage Tank 5000 1 30000
3 Vegetable Oil Storage Tank 5000 1 30000

Total Rs 90000

C. PUMPS
1 Catalyst Reactor Pump 1 5000
2 Main Reactor Pump 1 5000
3 Washing Vessel Pump 1 10000
4 Settling Tank Pump 1 10000

Total Rs 30000

Total P lant co st (A+ B+C) 690000


Add: C Excise @ 15.75 % 108675

798675
Add: M.Sales Tax @ 10 % 79868

878543
Add: Insurance @ 1% 8785

Add: Transportation, Freight, 887328


Packing, Loading, Forwarding,
Unloading Charges to Factory Site @ 4 % 35493

99
922821
Add: Erection and Commissioning charges @ 5 % 46141

968962
Add: Painting/Coating Charges 9690

Grand Total Rs. 978652

COST OF UTILITIES
Sl.. Description Capacity Rate Cost
No. Rs. Rs.

1 Boiler 100 Kg/hr 5000 300000


2 Air Compressor 10000 10000
3 Cooling Tower for 20
Cooling Water USGPM 20000 30000
- -
Total Rs. 340000
- -
Add : Transport, Erection,
Fitting, Insurance etc.
@5% 17000
- -
Total Rs. 357000

100
CHAPTER 17
Bio-Gas Plant
Disposal of Cake of Jatropha Seed is one of the major problems being faced by
BioDiesel Producers across the world. Seed cake is not a problem but it is a big asset.
There are two ways of processing these to produce Organic Fertilizer.
BioGas Plant : In this case the Biomass is digested in a simple plant and BioGas
produced is stored and used. The area required for plant is very small.
Composting : Here the Biomass is digested underground but BioGas produced is
wasted. It needs large area of land.
A 1 ton per day biodiesel plant, produces 3.5 to 4 tons of seed cake. If we carefully
analyze this waste, we will realize, that majority of it is biodegradable. Oil seed cake
is a by-product obtained from the oil extraction process and can be converted to
valuable organic fertilizer. The cake has the following properties and nutrients:
Moisture : 4.58 %
Nitrogen : 3.2 - 6.0 % (N2)
Phosphorus : 1.4 - 2.75 % (P2O5)
Potassium : 0.94 - 1.68 % (K2O)
Crude Protein : 58 %
When compared with other organic sources, (manure, seed and oil cakes), oil seed
cake from Jatropha provides essential nutrients at comparable levels. The seed cake is
unusable as feed for livestock due to its toxicity. This biodegradable waste, if handled
properly would maintain the natural balance of essential elements and thereby
promote more harvests from nature. Disposal of Seed Cake of Jatropha, can be
achieved by several other means like incineration, landfills, dumping in the sea or
other water bodies etc. These methods have their own hazards. Incineration can lead
to respiratory illnesses. Moreover, it may lead to disruption of biogeochemical cycles
of several elements and will have long term effects on biosphere. Landfill and
dumping can pollute water bodies.
Bio Gas Plant would serve many purposes such as
!" Environment friendly disposal of waste, which is the need of the hour considering
mass pollution everywhere.
!" Generation of fairly good amount of fuel gas, which will definitely support the
dwindling energy resources.
!" Generation of high quality manure, which would be weedless and an excellent soil
conditioner. This is very important for replenishing fast decreasing resources of
productive soils. It must be noted that need for replenishing the soil with high
quality organic manure has been identified in plan documents.
!" Biogas is a colourless, odourless and inflammable gas. The gas generated in this
plant can also be used as a source of natural gas.
The composition of biogas is
Methane (CH4) : 70-75 %
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) : 10-15 %
Water vapours : 5-10 %
Operation
The material to be processed is brought to the plant site every day. Two workers are
needed for the operation of the plant. The important tasks to be done are :
!" Transport of waste materials
!" Processing the waste in mixer
!" Routine operations for pre-digester and digester tanks
!" Manure pits

101
Infrastructure Required
Infrastructures required to set-up a Bio gas plant of a capacity of 1 ton/day of Oil
Cake is as follows :
Area of Plot : 300 m2
Manpower : Two unskilled persons
Power supply : 1 KW
Water Supply : 1,200 liters
Cost : Indian Rupees 5,00,000
Construction of a Bio-gas Plant
Criteria for Bio-gas Plant
!" BioDiesel plant owner who wants to build a bio-gas plant must have oil seed cake
to sustain the operation of the plant. The minimal amount of cake should be 3 to 4
tons per day.
!" Cake storage enclosure which is not more than 20 meters from the bio-gas
construction area.
!" There must be drainage alley from cake storage area, connected directly to the
bio-gas plant.
!" Access to ground water all year round and the water source should not be farther
than 20 meters from the bio-gas plant.
!" Biogas usage should not be placed further than 100 meters form the plant.
!" The owner must have interests in using gas, fermented manure and want to build a
bio-gas plant to reduce the pollution in environment.
!" Required budget, materials and labour to build bio-gas plant.
!" Time and labour in maintenance bio-gas plant.
Design of Bio-gas Plant
The fixed dome of bio-gas plant is buried underground. There are 3 main connecting
parts :
!" Mixing chamber : where oil seed cake is mixed with water before it is poured into
digester chamber.
!" Digester chamber : where oil seed cake is fermented. Methane and other gases
will be produced in the chamber and these gases will push manure and slurry at
bottom of the floor into expansion chamber.
!" Expansion chamber : which collects excess manure and slurry. When gas is being
used, manure and slurry will flow back into digester chamber to push gas up for
usage. When the excess manure exceeds the volume of the chamber, the manure
will be drained out.
This system is called dynamic system, when gas is produced inside the pit, the gas
pressure will push manure and slurry at the bottom of the pit to flow up into
expansion chamber. When this gas is used the slurry in the expansion chamber will
flow back into the digester chamber to push the gas up for usage. This happens
consistently. The plant will be operated efficiently for a long period of time if the gas
pit does not get cracked and the system runs regularly. In each case the strength of the
plant depends on fine construction, specification of materials, and strict adherence to
the maintenance of the bio-gas plant.
Location of the Bio-gas Plant
The plant should not be located farther than 5 meters from the oil seed cake enclosure.
The digester chamber must be in an open area and should not be near any water
source or natural water, as water coming out from BioGas plant may seep into
underground water. The plant should also be situated on a slope and not on the low

102
land to avoid the danger of floods. The excess manure from expansion chamber
should flow into the open pit or the storage tank and not into natural water bodies
such as rivers to avoid the risk of pollution. The bio-gas plant must have a concrete
slab floor enclosure with a drainage alley with 1 % gradient. If the floor is not on
slope, it must be elevated. For larger plants, a continuous rotary vacuum filter can be
installed to filter out water from cake, for reuse.
Construction of BioGas Plant
!" Locate the lowest point of drainage alley and mark 30 cm above this point. Mark a
peg on the opposite side and balance the level between the peg and the mark over
the alley with level adjusting hose. From the mark on the level line, set the center
of digester chamber on the ground surface by using plumb. Draw the line to mark
the size of digester chamber.
!" To locate the storage tank, measure from the center of digester chamber. Find the
lowest point to set the outlet point which is 60 cm lower than the level line and at
least 15 cm over the ground to prevent the outside water to flow into the chamber.
If the lowest point can not be located, check the drainage alley for the possibility
of being elevated or excavated. When the outlet point is found, the temporary
level line becomes level line. Cross another permanent level line to the first line at
the center of the digester chamber to locate the center of digester chamber. The
location of expansion chamber should be on the opposite side of the mixing
chamber or not over 45o
!" Think before excavating : Ensure that the diameter of the pit is excavated
consistently with diameters begin equal at the top and the base, and at depth below
level line. Place excavated soil 50 cm away from the edge of the pit and do not put
it on the ground where the expansion chamber, mixing chamber or outlet pipe will
be constructed. It is a waste of time to have to remove this pile of soil later. Do not
excavate deeper as the base of the chamber may not be strong enough. If there is
any seepage, a small trap pit must be dug next to the outer edge of digester
chamber base. The floor of the trap pit should be lower than the digester chamber
so that ground water can flow into the trap pit. When the required final depth is
obtained, set the center at the base of digester chamber by crossing the level line
and use a plumb to locate the center of the digester chamber. Excavate soil in the
outer circle to a depth of 25cm deep and draw another circle. Excavate soil in the
inner circle to a depth of 5 cm deep.

103
CHAPTER 18
GLYCERINE
General
Glycerine (glycerin, glycerol) is the main by-product of making biodiesel. The name
comes from the Greek word glykys meaning sweet. It is a colourless, odourless, viscous,
nontoxic liquid with a very sweet taste and has literally thousands of uses. That is, pure
glycerine has thousands of uses -- the biodiesel by-product is crude (and it's not colorless,
and it's not only glycerine).
Lots of information on glycerine, from a Japanese manufacturer (in English) -- Sakamoto
Yakuhin Kogyo Co., Ltd.: http://www.sy-kogyo.co.jp/english/sei/1_gly.html
Glycerin -- King's American Dispensatory, by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri
Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898.
http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/eclectic/kings/glycerinum.html
Burning glycerine
The glycerine burns well, but unless it's properly combusted at high temperatures it will
release acrolein, which is toxic. Some waste oil burners are suitable. Some biodiesel
manufacturers are burning the by-product raw to provide heat for the biodiesel process.
They use pot burners with a forced air supply piped in from an external fan. There are
various designs being used, and a variety of ways of controlling the fuel supply and pre-
heating the by-product so it flows evenly to the burner. The separated free fatty acids
(FFA) from the by-product also work well in such burners, and so does WVO.
Separating the glycerine
What sinks to the bottom of the biodiesel processor during the settling stage is a mixture
of glycerine, methanol, soaps and the lye catalyst. Most of the excess methanol and most
of the catalyst remains in this layer. Once separated from the biodiesel, adding
phosphoric acid to the glycerine layer, precipitates the catalyst out and also converts the
soaps back to free fatty acids (FFA), which float on top. You are left with a light-colored
precipitate on the bottom, glycerine / methanol / water in the middle, and FFA on top.
The glycerine will be approximately 95% pure, a much more attractive product to sell to
refiners.
Separating glycerine / FFA
A commonly asked question is how much glycerine do you get? A better question would
be, how much of the glycerine layer is actually glycerine? The rule of thumb is 79
milliliters of glycerine per liter of oil used, 7.9%. In fact there is usually more soap and
the glycerine layer is more of a soap layer than anything else, unless you use acid-base
two-stage process.
Purifying glycerine
Biodiesel can be made with ethanol, instead of methanol (which is toxic, fossil-fuel
derived). But the ethanol has to be anhydrous (free of water) which can not be achieved
by distillation. One way to dry it is to use the by-product of biodiesel, ie, glycerine. See
Absolute Alcohol Using Glycerine by Mariller-Granger Processes, from E. Boullanger:
Distillerie Agricole et Industrielle (Paris: Ballire, 1924). Mariller's absolute alcohol
production process by dehydration using glycerine, various systems examined and
explained. Translation from the French by F. Marc de Piolenc.

104
But the glycerine has to be 99%+ pure. Purifying it is no simple matter, it is difficult to
distill it because glycerine has a very high boiling point (290o C). Set the temperature and
leave it alone. It will purify the glycerine, at a price.
Paintbrush cleaner
There is another use for the by-product glycerine. It can clean paint brushes which have
been used with oil-based paints. It is superior to turpentine, and does not harden the brush
from residual paint. With the oily brush, dilute the paint in the brush (with biodiesel or
turpentine) until it is runny when the brush is pushed onto a firm surface. Work the brush
to ensure that the bristles are fully moistened. Remove from dilution liquid. Rinse brush
under water until all milkiness is removed. If brush still shows signs of paint, repeat
glycerin stage with fresh glycerin. Check that brush does not smell of paint and store
brush as usual.
Soap
The crude glycerine by-product from homemade biodiesel makes a powerful degreaser.
Heat it to 65-70oC in a closed vessel and recover the methanol via a simple condenser. If
you separate the glycerine by-product from the impurities, you will be left with about
95% pure glycerine. You can add it to plain liquid soap to make a high-glycerine shower-
soap or shampoo. It does not need much, 10 to 20cc per 500cc of liquid soap, and add
some essential oils for fragrance.
Glycerine is a natural by-product of the soap making process. Glycerine moisturizes the
skin, but commercial soap manufacturers remove the glycerine for use in lotions and
creams, which are more profitable. Handcrafted soap retains the glycerine and is soft and
kind to the skin.
Glop soap
If you use too much NaOH when trying to make biodiesel, it will not separate into
biodiesel and glycerine but turn instead into a sort of gloppy jelly, maybe with some soap
solidified at the bottom. You can turn it into soap. Pour off the jelly and heat it to 65-70o
C for 10-15 minutes to boil off any methanol residue. To turn the jelly into high-glycerine
soap you need 135 grams of lye (caustic soda or sodium hydroxide, NaOH) per litre,
minus the amount of NaOH you used in the first place. Soap making purists will object
that the amount of NaOH needed depends on the saponification value of the type of oil or
fat being used, but this is probably used oil anyway, and 135 grams per litre is about
average and should work. You also need a third as much water as jelly. The water should
be lukewarm. Slowly add the NaOH to the water, stirring until it dissolves (avoid fumes,
take safety precautions). This heats the water, let it cool to lukewarm again. Heat the glop
to about 45oC (no more) in a pot, and carefully add the water and NaOH, stirring
constantly for 15-20 minutes, maintaining the heat, until the mixture starts to thicken.
High-explosives
The most earth-shattering use of glycerine remains that discovered by Italian chemist
Ascanio Sobrero, 150 years ago when he subjected it to nitration to make the world's first
real high-explosive, nitroglycerine, one of the most dangerous substances ever concocted.
Sobrero's face was badly scarred in an explosion during an early experiment. He said
nitroglycerine was so dangerous it was useless, and it had killed so many people he was
ashamed to be its discoverer. But Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel set about mass-
producing the stuff, in spite of several explosions, one of which killed his brother. Nobel
discovered that nitroglycerin could be mixed with silica (diatomaceous earth) to form a

105
stable high-explosive which he called dynamite. It made him one of the richest men of
the age. Nitroglycerine is extremely powerful. A mere 10 ml will expand 10,000 times
into 100 liters of gas at an explosive velocity of 7,700 meters per second (17,224 miles
per hour) more powerful than TNT.
Heart disease drug
In one of the more curious coincidences of science, the first modern high explosive,
nitroglycerine, also became one of the very first man-made drugs. To this day, it remains
the most common place treatment for chronic angina, the chest pain of heart disease.
Nitroglycerine is a vasodilator, it relaxes the blood vessels, reducing the pressure on the
heart. There can be side-effects, some patients get killer headaches, others low blood-
pressure and dizziness, and it can clash seriously with other drugs. It comes in the form of
tablets for under the tongue, ointment and skin patches, and it cannot be turned into an
explosive.
Love potion
Nitroglycerine's action as an effective vasodilator led in 1998 to the release of
RESTORE, the first ever fully tested, effective topical cream for the safe treatment of
male erectile dysfunction (impotence). Restore contains 1% nitroglycerin and is effective
within minutes of application of achieving an erection of up to 45 minutes duration. No
significant side effects were reported.
Safe sweetener
Glycerine is an alcohol (glycerol) and is used as a preservative in the food industry, as
well as a sweetener. It is very sweet, yet it contains no sugar. This makes it an ideal
sweetener for patients who can not take sugar, such as the increasing number of Candida
sufferers. Vegetable glycerine is said to be the only acceptable sweetener for Candida
patients.
Health supplement
Health supplement for sportsmen, Glycerine increases blood volume, enhances
temperature regulation and improves exercise performance in the heat, or so it is claimed.
It helps hyper hydrate the body by increasing blood volume levels and helping to delay
dehydration. Following glycerine consumption, heart rate and body core temperature are
lower during exercise in the heat, suggesting an performance enhancing effect. In long
duration activities, a larger supply of stored water may lead to a delay in dehydration and
exhaustion.
Other uses
Glycerine is also a source of lecithin (used in foods as a fat emulsifier, and a vital
component of all cell membranes in the body) and of tocopherols (vitamin E). It is used
in skin moisturizers, lotions, deodorants, makeup, toothpaste, sweets and cakes,
pharmaceuticals and patent medicines, in paper manufacturing, printing ink, in textiles,
plastics, and electronic components.
Disposal
Failing all else, you can compost excess glycerine, it is nontoxic and biodegrades quickly.
It will need to be mixed thoroughly with other materials so that the air and bacteria can
get at it, rather than a sticky mass. Composting should be hot compost, aerobic,
thermophilic compost that reaches high temperatures.

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PURIFICATION
Description of the Plant
Total distillation is done, during the first phase, in order to separate glycerol and other
constituents which have a close, boiling points, from salt and those other organic
constituents which confer glycerine its dark and unpleasant odour. In order to reduce
glycerine partial pressure, during glycerine-liquid equilibrium phase, operations are
carried out at high vacuum bubbling steam for striping process.
Following this procedure, it is possible to evaporate glycerine at low enough
temperatures, to allow the use of heating steam at an intermediate pressure of (800 to
1200 kPa), so avoiding, at the same time, the polymerization and breaking down of the
product, which would not only affect the distilled product quality, but also the operation
satisfactory performance.
By working at reduced pressure (6 to 7 Torr) at the still, it is always possible to distill at
temperatures of approximately 155ºC, using a very low proportion of striping steam.
Such a proportion affects very remarkably the motive steam consumption of the vacuum
system thermo-compressor. This operation requires the use of a still, with a heating coil
and a bubble steam injection system through a well dimensioned nozzle, of the mixing
ejector. The nozzle makes it possible to inject a well measured quantity of steam steadily,
while the mixing ejector guarantees a perfect mixture. This greater mixture efficiency,
makes smaller steam consumption than in traditional plants. The glycerine steam mixture
goes to an efficient multi-layers separator which generates a large evaporation surface for
glycerine and water vapors detaching. On the other hand the periodical elimination of
salt, and organic impurities in the still, that are part of the distillation residue, also helps
operating at a lower temperature, with consequently less risk for the Glycerin to get
burned. The feeding of the load is performed in a steady way, regulated by a level control
device, that keeps the still content constant.
Detaching vapors go through a low load loss drop separator of the demister type, which
sends the impure entrained liquid particles, back into the boiling mass. There is a deposit
connected to the lower side of the still, which can be set apart by means of valves, which
facilitates the elimination of waste at regular periods of time.
The second phase process consists in fractionation up the vapor coming from the still.
This operation is performed by means of a fractionation column with high efficiency and
low loss of head filling. On the upper part of this column there appears a partial contact
type condenser, operating at well regulated temperature so that undesirable impurities
might not return with the reflux, but remain vaporized to be separated in the next
equipment. The partial condenser circuit, where through concentrated glycerin runs,
consists of a collecting plate, a receiver vessel, a circulation pump, a heat exchanger, an
atomizing station and a packed bed. The condensed product flows on the plate, where
from, the most of it goes back to the buffer vessel and the pump and the rest of goes back
to the fractionation column, as part of the reflux, by means of a distribution system that
spreads it on the filling. Highly concentrated glycerine coming out from the bottom is
gathered in the collector receiver, where from it is pumped to the bleaching set up.
90% of the still distilled products derive from the bottom layer, (from the tail) as
pharmacopoeia suitable products, the remaining 10% approximately, are head products
consisting in water, glycerine, and impurities, the boiling points of which come closer to
that of the glycerine.

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The above described system, that implies the incorporation of a fractionation phase
guarantees greater purification, better pharmacopoeia type glycerin yielding performance,
than with the traditional methods, which only operated with partial condensation
resource, because, as it is widely known, it results in a greater differentiation between
bottom and top products.
Vapours coming from the Fractionation column go over to a second partial condenser
passing first through a demister type drop separator, placed on the first condenser
distributor. This second condenser operates in a similar way to the first one, by means of
an industrial glycerine close circuit, made up of a collector tank, a circulation pump, and
a heat exchanger. The circulating liquid, at low temperature, condenses practically all of
the glycerine and the volatile impurities, having similar molecular weight, and part of the
water. Some of the main distilled product, about the 10 %, is extracted as industrial
glycerine, the concentration of which ranges between 90 and 94%. Secondary partial
condenser, is the same type as the first one, that is, it is made up of an atomizing station,
for the good distribution of the liquid on the filling, a packed bed, and on the upper part, a
high efficiency, low head loss, demister type drop separator.
Water vapor, containing some glycerol traces, coming out or the partial condenser, is
eliminated by means of a thermo compressor, which, at this point sets an absolute
pressure of 4 to 5 Torr. Vacuumed vapor, together with motive steam, is condensed at a
barometric condenser, using water coming from the cooling tower. Non-condensable gas
is eliminated, by means of a two phase ejector, with an inter-condenser, that keeps main
condenser at a pressure of 40 to 60 Torr.
Bleaching Equipment
Elimination of colour and odour traces from the main distilled matter is done by adding
activated carbon into a conical bottom tank, equipped with mixing eductor that keeps
particles in suspension. A circulation pump makes glycerine steadily run through a heat
exchanger to adjust temperature at 80 / 90ºC, value that allows a fast an efficient
discoloration. After half and hour treatment, the same pump sends the mixture to a press
filter, where from pharmacopoeia quality glycerine comes as a finished product.
Since this plant may produce glycerine at a concentration which can reach up to 99%, we
might consider incorporating an extra and last concentration adjusting tank to slightly
dilute glycerine, if this proved convenient.
Performance and Consumption Indexes
For every 100 kg of feed in raw glycerine consumes:
Half pressure steam (8 to 12 bar) 230 kg., Cooling water (30ºC) 17 m3
Electric energy 2 Kwh
Performance: Greater than 97% glycerol contained in raw glycerine.

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CHAPTER 19
D1 Oil PLC of UK
Meeting Growing Global Demand for Biodiesel
The objective is to become a global, sustainable producer of competitively priced
biodiesel. Company aims to meet the world's growing demand for more green
transport fuel. Company intends to deliver a consistent high volume output of
sustainable vegetable feedstock oils and high quality biodiesel. Company is building a
global portfolio of planting and refining operations and believes that production in
volume for the long term is the most profitable way to maintain lead over competitors.
It is commercially driven with a business model that addresses the pressing global
issues of fuel supply security, climate change and sustainable development.
The Birth of a Global Biodiesel Business
Its activities were founded in 2002 to design and build a modular biodiesel refinery
for the transport industry. It initially investigated edible oil as its primary feedstock.
However, the high cost of edible oils and the shortage of land for increased edible oil
production prompted the search for alternative energy crops.
It was identified that Jatropha Curcas tree produces seeds with a high content of
inedible oils. The oil is extracted by crushing the seeds and can be refined into high
quality biodiesel. Jatropha grows in climatic conditions commonly found in the
developing world. It chose jatropha as its primary feedstock due to its high oil
content, an ability to tolerate a wide range of climates, and its productive life that
spans over 30 years. Its first priority was to establish operations in Africa, India and
the Philippines to source a supply of crude jatropha oil and initiate the planting of
jatropha in order to secure and maintain sufficient supply. Operations were
established in these regions by the summer of 2004.
In October 2004, D1 Oils plc was listed on the Alternative Investment Market of the
London Stock Exchange with an initial market capitalisation of £34 million. D1
completed a second round fundraising in June 2005, raising a further £26 million on a
market capitalisation of around £100 million.
MANAGEMENT
Directors
Karl E. Watkin MBE, Chairman, an entrepreneur, was the founder of D1 Oils plc. He
developed the alternative feedstock strategy for D1 and built the team behind it. With
26 years international business experience, Karl was UK Export Manager of the year
in 1985, North East Businessman of the year in 1992 and received an MBE for
services to UK exports in 1993. Karl led the management buyout, turnaround and
floatation of Crabtree, a major international supplier to the can making industry. He
conceived and led the World Can Making Machinery organisation for five years,
created and floated the UK’s first B2B business exchange, J2C Plc, as well as
building several other businesses. Karl also created the Manufacturing Challenge and
has contributed to UK Government white papers on competitiveness.
Philip Wood, Chief Executive Officer, is a qualified Chartered Accountant with a first
class degree in Physics from Oxford University. Before joining D1, Philip enjoyed a
fourteen year career at Reuters, joining as Group Financial Director and leading a
global team as the Managing Director for Business Development. Prior to Reuters he
spent fourteen years at Price Waterhouse, where he was promoted to partnership in
1988 at the age of 33. Philip is a director of TIBCO Software Inc, a US based supplier
of software with a market capital of $1.4 billion, where he chairs the Audit
Committee. He was formerly a Director of Instinet Corporation, a global equities
broker and electronic marketplace headquartered in New York, and of ITN

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(Independent Television News). He was a member of the Schools Examination and
Assessment Council, a government quango, from 1992 to 1994.
Address : 100 Pall Mall, St James's, London, SW1Y 5HP, United Kingdom,
Telephone: +44 (0)20 7321 3885, Fax: +44 (0)20 7321 3886, Email:
jholland@d1plc.com
Mark LM Quinn, Founder Director, began his career in the United States, owning and
managing a retail trading exchange servicing over 2500 domestic and international
clients. From 1993 to 1998, he served as President and Director of Global Trade
Group, an authorised IBM Business Partner and Sales Affiliate, set up to promote
trade based marketing strategies for IBM clients. Mark's experience has included
being the primary developer of the ORBIT® System, a state-of-the-art internet based
e-commerce application utilised in the management, control and trading of corporate
capital assets. He was also a founder of AssetTRADE.com, a joint venture with
Internet Capital Group, Henry Butcher International, and Michael Fox International,
and GlobalPowerAssets.com.
Peter Campbell, Chief Operating Officer, until recently, held the position of
Managing Director of Methanex Europe, responsible for importing and marketing
more than 2 million tons of chemicals per annum and responsible for sales of $400
million to 80 customers throughout Europe. From 1989 to 2000, Peter held several
positions within ICI Petrochemicals, including commercial director, where he was
responsible for $100 million of sales representing 500,000 tons of product throughout
Europe. He also previously held senior positions at Marathon Oil and Phillips
Petroleum.
Eliott Mannis, Chief Financial Officer, is a Chartered Account with a degree from the
University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Elliott was the Group Finance
Director at AWG Plc (the holding company for Anglian Water Plc) for six years prior
to joining D1. He also held senior positions, including Group Finance Controller, at
Aegis plc, where he worked from 1993 to 1998. Before joining Aegis, Elliott spend
nearly a decade at Price Waterhouse in Vancouver, Canada.
Non-Executive Directors
J. Barclay Forrest OBE, is a British farmer and developer of one of the UK’s first
drying, storage and haulage businesses for barley, wheat and rape seed. Barclay is
Vice President of the China Britain Business Council and a past chairman of British
Cereal Exports. He is also a past chairman of the Oxford Farming Conference and the
present Vice Chairman of the Farmers Club, actively promoting UK farm trade and
services abroad.
Dr. Clive Morton OBE, has a twenty year record of achievement in revitalising public
and private organisations. He holds a PhD in Industrial Relations from the London
School of Economics, and is the founder of the Morton Partnership, specialists in
organisational transformation. He is also Managing Director of Board performance
Limited, Chairman of Peterborough Hospitals NHS Trust, and a visiting professor at
three British Universities. Clive is the former Chairman of Whitwell Learning and
Chairman of the Association of Management, Education & Development. He has also
recently been a non-executive director of Hartlepool Water Plc and the London
Underground PPP. Clive is a current member of the DTI Partnership Panel.
Previously, he held the position of Business Development Director at Anglian Water
Plc and the Personnel Director at each of Northern Electric Plc, Rolls-Royce
Industrial Power Group, Anglian Water Services and Komatsu UK Ltd.
Peter Davidson FREng, is a chartered chemical engineer, with wide experience in
chemical plant technology, design, commissioning, operations and research and

110
development. He has been the Process Engineering Manager of ICI Engineering and
has managed the Research and Development of a number of ICI businesses including
Katalco, Tioxide and Quest Foods, and has been a long established member of the ICI
Technology Board. He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and a
Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers.
Alex D. Worrall, Chief Financial Officer, has been a professional accountant and
senior industrial manager for over thirty years. After gaining his accountancy
qualifications, Alex spent three years with Ford Motor Company at its European
headquarters before joining ICI in mergers and acquisitions. Alex joined Tallent
Engineering in 1979 in a strategic role that saw turnover grow from £1 million to over
£100 million per annum. In 2003, Alex left Tallent and took over the role of
Chairman of the ThyssenKrupp UK Plc, which is the holding company of 52 UK
subsidiary companies including Tallent. ThyssenKrupp UK Plc has a total annual
turnover of £1.2 billion and approximately 9,200 employees.
Consultancy Panel
Sir Donald Curry KB CBE, chaired the Policy Commission on the Future of Farming
and Food which reported to Government in January 2002. Donald is Chairman of the
NFU Mutual Insurance Company and is a serving Crown Estate Commissioner. He
was awarded a CBE for his services to Agriculture in the 1997 and a Knighthood in
2001. He was a founder and Chairman of ‘At Home in the Community’, a charity
providing care in the North East of England for people with learning disabilities. In
December 2000 he was the first recipient of The Royal Smithfield Club’s Bicentenary
Trophy, awarded for his major contribution to the British meat industry. In June 2004
he was awarded The Royal Agricultural Society’s National Agricultural Award.
Lance Browne CBE, is Chairman of Standard Chartered Bank in China, where he
began his career in 1979 in engineering and finance. Past appointments in China
include Chairman of the British Chambers in Shanghai and Beijing, Chief
Representative of the 48 Group and Chairman of the Foreign Bankers Association. He
was made an Honorary Citizen of Shanghai and was appointed CBE for his
outstanding work and accomplishments in China. Lance speaks fluent Chinese.
Rémi Burdairon has been the Managing Director of Louis Dreyfus Africa in
Johannesburg, since 1998. Born in Senegal, Rémi has spent more than 12 years in
Africa. He is a member of the South African executive board of the French Foreign
Trade Advisor (CCEF). He is a member of the Executive Committee of SACOTA,
(South African Cereals & Oilseeds Trade Association) as well as member of SAFEX
(South African Futures Exchange) Agricultural Products Division Advisory
Committee. The Louis Dreyfus Group is a major international trading company
actively involved in agricultural commodities, energy markets, shipping and
telecommunications. Louis Dreyfus Africa (Pty) Ltd is a market leader in Southern
and Eastern Africa, specialising in trading, merchandising, distributing, importing and
exporting of agricultural commodities.
Joseph Mollo was until recently the Vice President of Public Policy at BHP Billiton,
South Africa. He was educated in South Africa and Canada. Joseph has held
numerous ambassadorial positions throughout Europe for the Lesotho Government,
and also held the position of Trade Representative. His responsibilities with the
Ministry of Finance included work with the IMF and World Bank.
Senior Management
United Kingdom
Bill Bates, Managing Director, D1 (UK) Limited is an experienced Chartered
Mechanical Engineer with an impressive track record of business start-ups and the

111
development of major investments. After twelve years at Kodak, he moved to
Monsanto Chemicals to manage the installation and commissioning of a 450,000
tonne per year chemical plant. Following career advancement to the USA, Bill
returned to the UK to establish a polyethylene duct manufacturing plant. He was the
founding Director of Comcast Ltd, a major telephone and cable TV network, later
integrated into the NTL Group.
Steve Douty, Regional Director, D1 Oils plc
Kerri Lynn Hauck, Senior Project Manager,, D1 Oils plc
Africa
Demetri Pappadopoulus, Chief Executive Officer, D1 Oils South Africa (Pty) Limited
was born in Zimbabwe and educated at the University of Cape Town, where he
achieved degrees in law and economics. In 1997 he was appointed Legal Adviser and
company secretary to Steers, South Africa's largest fast food industry franchise,
becoming the company's youngest ever board Director. Since his departure from
Steers in 2002, he has established over 70 businesses in Africa, ranging from fast food
outlets and bakeries to industrial chemical companies.
India
Sarju Singh, Chairman and Managing Director, D1 Oils India (Private) Limited, is the
former Chairman of Hindustan Paper Corp., one of India’s largest paper companies.
Sarju has successfully carried out large scale engineering projects throughout India,
including water supply and treatment plants, river valley and harbour development,
and other environmental projects. He is the recipient of numerous national awards for
excellence and is an active member of planning and advisory committees for the UN
and other global organisations.
Dr Arumagam, Science Director, D1 Oils India (Private) Limited, holds a PhD in
Biotechnology and Medicinal Plants, and an MSc in Agri Plantations. His expertise in
cultivation techniques includes tissue cultures, biofertiliser and biocontrol agents. He
has developed high yield, high quality and disease resistant strains of spices,
sugarcane and other crops. He is presently a Director of Green World Biotech and
previously held a senior executive role at Ramco Biotech.
Asia Pacific
Miguel Patolot, Chairman, D1 Oils Asia Pacific, Inc., is an internationally
acknowledged expert in offset financing and countertrade. Miguel was appointed by
the Philippine government to the post of Vice President of Countertrade for the
Philippine International Trading Corporation. Successfully negotiating over $426
million of international countertrade and organised debt swap agreements, his work
helped to liquidate outstanding Philippine debt with Romania, China and Iraq. He co-
authored the charter of ASEAN Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and was elected
to the roster of experts of the UN Conference on Trade and Development. Miguel is a
regular guest speaker for the UN on counter trade in developing countries.
Jatropha Curcas
A Global Source of Renewable Fuel
As diminishing fossil fuel reserves and climate change become major global concerns,
a little-known tree has the potential to become one of the world’s key energy crops.
Vegetable oil, extracted from the seeds of the jatropha tree, can be refined into
biodiesel for transport either in its pure form or as a blend with mineral diesel.
Biodiesel can also power off-grid electricity generation. Jatropha biodiesel is a clean
fuel which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport that contribute to
global warming. By using biodiesel to meet a portion of their transport fuel needs,
countries can reduce their reliance on increasingly scarce and expensive high carbon,

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mineral diesel. Jatropha grows in tropical and subtropical climates typically found
throughout much of the developing world. Consequently, planting and cultivating
jatropha, and the process of refining it into biodiesel, will potentially provide jobs and
incomes for millions of agricultural workers and farmers across the developing world.
History
From Folk Medicine to Green Fuel
Jatropha originated in South America, where trace amounts of its leaves and seeds
were historically used to treat a bewildering variety of medical ailments, from
stomach aches to sore eyes. However, the seeds and leaves of jatropha are poisonous
if ingested in large quantities. As a result, animals will not graze it, and jatropha has
been widely used as a hedge to protect crops from foraging livestock. Portuguese
sailors took jatropha to Africa and India in the 16th century, and it now grows across
two-thirds of the globe, from the forests of Brazil to the tropical islands of Fiji. The
seeds and leaves of jatropha are still used for traditional medicinal remedies in India,
Africa, and the Philippines.
It was discovered that scientists in Africa and India were researching non-edible oils,
such as jatropha, as fuel feed stocks. Jatropha can grow from either cuttings or seeds.
It is drought-resistant and tolerates climatic conditions ranging from very dry to moist
tropical, subtropical and wet rain forest. Under optimum subtropical conditions, with
plenty of rainfall, jatropha seeds yield up to 40% oil content.
Because it requires minimal rainfall, jatropha can be grown successfully on marginal,
degraded, or even desert land. The trees also help prevent soil erosion. In addition to
yielding oil for refining into biodiesel and glycerin for use by the cosmetics industry,
the residual oil cake is excellent organic fertilizer. Research is underway into
alternative uses for the residual seedcake, such as animal feed, briquettes for power
generation and nutraceuticals, which will increase crop values to farmers.
Jatropha Byproducts
Every hectare of jatropha can typically produce annual harvests of approximately 6.9
tons of seeds, which will yield about 2.7 tons of vegetable oil. This can be refined into
2700 litres of biodiesel with the same energy potential and fuel quality as regular
mineral diesel.
Jatropha Biodiesel
The ‘Alternative’ Fuel
Jatropha biodiesel is a clean fuel which will reduce green house gas emissions from
transport that contribute to global warming. By using biodiesel to meet a portion of
their transport fuel needs, countries can reduce their reliance on increasingly scarce
and expensive high carbon, mineral diesel. The production of jatropha biodiesel also
offer benefits for the developing world. Jatropha is not a food crop and need not be
grown on prime agricultural land. It can produce competitive harvests on marginal
and degraded land, while restoring that land to fertility and arresting desertification.
Growing jatropha as an energy crop will enable developing countries to make use of
the large areas of marginal and degraded land that have fallen out of production or
become unsuitable for agriculture. Jatropha will potentially create millions of rural
jobs and increase farm incomes. It will enable developing countries to obtain supplies
of local biodiesel, reducing dependence on expensive imports of mineral diesel, while
producing surpluses of vegetable oil and refined biodiesel for export.
Greener Fuel
In comparison, when used either in its pure form or blended with mineral diesel,
biodiesel produces significantly lower harmful emissions. Pure biodiesel (B100)
reduces carbon monoxide emissions by 50%, and particulate matter by 30%. A 20%

113
biodiesel blend (B20) reduces these emissions by 20% and 22% respectively.
Biodiesel is virtually free of sulfur and does not contribute to acid rain. The
production of unburned aromatics is also significantly reduced. Biodiesel does result
in slight increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, due to the nitrogen contained in
all plant matter, but this can be counteracted with exhaust modifications.
As with other energy crops, the overall impact of emissions from jatropha biodiesel is
reduced because jatropha trees capture CO2 as they grow. According to research
conducted by the US DOE and USDA, the lifecycle of biodiesel crops can reduce
CO2 emissions by up to 78% compared to mineral diesel. Jatropha biodiesel has
energy content similar to mineral diesel, and can be processed to comply with the
current European EN 14214 standard. Jatropha biodiesel contains more oxygen, and
its cetane value, or combustion quality (equivalent to octane value for petrol), is
higher than mineral diesel, enabling a cleaner burn at higher temperatures. When
mixed with mineral diesel, both fuels combust more cleanly. Jatropha biodiesel has
greater lubricity, which reduces engine wear. It also has a higher flash point, making
handling and transport far safer. Pure jatropha biodiesel is non-toxic.
Jatropha biodiesel does not require modifications in modern engines. Many
manufacturer warranties now cover the use of B5 (5%) biodiesel blends and above.
However, engines made over 10-15 years ago require rubber seals to be replaced with
synthetic ones to stop degradation from B100 (100%) biodiesel.
D1 20 Modular Biodiesel Refinery
D1 Oils’ modular biodiesel refinery, the D1 20, is a stand-alone skid-mounted
continuous trans esterification unit, capable of producing a nominal 8,000 tons per
year of biodiesel from a range of vegetable oil feedstock. The result of several years
research and development in the UK, the D1 20 runs on processes which are
proprietary to D1. The unit is compact and portable, weighing a little less than 15
tons, is mounted on a skid for easy loading and can be shipped around the world
easily by road, rail and sea. Optional feedstock pre-processing skid-mounted units are
also available if required to cater for degumming or free fatty acid reduction in order
to handle a wider range of feed stocks. Each pre-processing unit weighs
approximately 11 tons.
All modules are complete with their own control panels and can run independent of
each other. The customer can choose between steam, hot oil or electricity as the
heating medium for the process streams depending upon availability. Typical feed
stocks processed include rape seed oil, jatropha and palm oils with a FFA of 5% or
less. The D1 20 runs at low temperatures and pressures and is classed as “Low
Impact” for Environmental rating. It recycles both water and methanol continuously.
Site requirements include a suitable hard-standing area on which to position the main
processing module, a 3-phase electricity supply either via the grid or a portable diesel
generator and a water supply. Feedstock, catalyst and product off-take tanks are
required as part of the site installation. D1’s technical team can advise further,
although a thorough proposal can only be determined following analysis of proposed
feedstock, available utilities and location. A site visit may be required. D1 plans to
deploy its first overseas refineries in South Africa and India around the end of 2005.
The D1 20 is not currently available for sale to third parties, however, D1 20's may be
available as part of a joint venture operating company. Please contact D1 Oils for all
inquiries regarding potential joint ventures.
History
D1 was founded in Newcastle, in the North East of England and embodies the
traditions of entrepreneurship and engineering that are the foundations of the

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industrial culture of the region. The D1 20 refinery was designed and built on Teeside,
an area world renown for its chemical area expertise. It was commissioned in the
North West and at present the refinery is providing biodiesel for a national fleet of car
transporters.
The UK offers D1 a springboard to European and global markets and has the potential
to become a major biodiesel refining center to rival the established biodiesel
industries of France and Germany. D1 Oils plc listed on the Alternative Investment
Market of the London Stock Exchange in October 2004. In June 2005, D1 succeeded
in raising a further £26 million to fund its business expansion.
India : Potential for Lead in Production of Biodiesel
India is a key location for D1. It has established jatropha planting and refining
operations in what it believes, will be one of the world’s most exciting biodiesel
markets. It also intend to make India a center of excellence for the science of jatropha
production that will support D1's operations in Africa and Asia Pacific. India has
growing energy and transport fuel needs and its domestic mineral oil production is not
sufficient to meet rapidly increasing demand. However, the Indian government has
one of the most developed biodiesel promotion programs in the world, with jatropha
feedstock playing a major role.
Since its introduction by Portuguese traders in the 16th century, jatropha has been
grown in India as a medicinal plant and hedge crop. Hundreds of species of jatropha
now thrive in India's varied regional climates, and Indian agronomists are already
experienced in the science of jatropha cultivation. India has the potential to become
not only a major consumer of biodiesel, but also one of the world’s leading producers.
D1 Oils India : Vision
India is the center of most ambitious jatropha planting program. Its Indian joint
venture, D1 Mohan Bio Oils, aims to plant 100,000 hectares of land with jatropha in
2005, and has set a target of 5 million hectares to be planted over the next five years.
If our Indian operations achieve their full potential, it will have made a significant
step to establishing D1 as one of the leading businesses in planting and refining
biodiesel in Asia. It expects that our operations will be able to meet a major portion of
India’s demand for biodiesel. Its first refinery should be producing biodiesel in
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, by 2006.
India already has a lead in the research and development of jatropha biodiesel
feedstock. Compnay's aim is to become the world’s leader in the agronomy of
biofuels: improving the characteristics of jatropha, refining propagation and planting
techniques, and maximising production of its byproducts. India’s economy is diverse
and complex. Despite having some of the world’s leading technology services, more
than 70% of India’s one billion people are dependent on agriculture. Farming
contributes 25% of India's GDP. Rural poverty and unemployment are widespread;
the need for sustainable agricultural development remains great.
Company's business will gainfully use millions of hectares of waste or marginal land
across India and help alleviate rural poverty by generating thousands of rural jobs and
offering farmers an additional source of income. The 100,000 hectares it plans to
plant in India this year could generate up to 50,000 jobs in rural communities. It
estimate that our five year planting program could generate over a billion man days of
employment.
Business : Working with Partners
Given the importance placed by the Indian government on the development of
biofuels, many leading Indian companies are taking a keen interest in the biofuels
sector. This is giving D1 the opportunity to develop partnerships with established

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companies across India. D1 will provide its partners with high quality seeds and
seedlings, growing medium and technical support on how to improve yields and oil
content.
D1 Mohan Bio Oils
Its Indian joint venture, D1 Mohan Bio Oils Limited, was established with Mohan
Breweries & Distilleries Ltd, a leading Indian brewer based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
D1 Mohan has increased its planting targets to 100,000 hectares, a twenty-fold
increase over initial targets. However, this is just the beginning. D1 Mohan has set a
cumulative target of five million hectares to be planted over the next five years. It is
anticipated that the initial 100,000 hectare plantation, upon reaching maturity, could
produce higher than average yields of up to 270,000 tons of crude jatropha oil.
D1 Mohan will purchase all jatropha seeds harvested by the farmers. Besides assisting
local farmers to extend their jatropha planting, the financing enables D1 Mohan to
expand more rapidly as the working capital requirements for each hectare are reduced.
D1 is in discussion with other financial institutions to obtain funding for farmers to
plant the remaining 60,000 hectares. D1 Mohan intends to locate at least one modular
D1 20 refinery at the port of Chennai in 2005.
The Science of Jatropha
Having once suffered famines and chronic food shortages, India is now a net exporter
of agricultural products. This turnaround is in part due to the abilities and expertise of
Indian agronomists, who are now turning their attention to biofuel crops, particularly
jatropha.
Since jatropha was introduced into India over 500 years ago by Portuguese sailors,
hundreds of sub-species have developed through cross-fertilization and adaptation to
the subcontinent's very varied climatic conditions. As a result, jatropha oil yields and
growing characteristics vary from region to region. D1 is researching the qualities and
characteristics of jatropha varieties that flourish in different locations. D1 will select
and propagate strains of jatropha that produce the best quality seeds and the highest
oil yields under different climatic conditions. D1 is currently exploring micro-
propagation techniques for mass production of seedlings with the necessary
characteristics for each planting area.
D1 Mohan Bio Oils Ltd., D. Aristotle, General Manager, Rayala Tower, 2nd Floor,
158 Anna Salai, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600 002, India, Telephone: +91 44 28521238 /
28520054 / 28521246, Fax: +91 44 28521266, Email: daristotle@d1mohan.com.
D1 Product Development Center, G. Arumugam, Science Director, 100 VCS
Bungalow, Ganambikamills Post, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 929, India,
Telephone: +91 422 2643990, Fax: +91 944 3267360, Email:
garumugam@d1plc.com.
AFRICA Growing Jatropha : Cairo to Capetown
D1 has made South Africa the headquarters for its African operations. D1 Oils Africa
(Pty) Limited will oversee and manage the cultivation of jatropha, the procuring of
secure supplies of crude jatropha oil and the production of biodiesel across sub-
Saharan Africa. D1 is working with governments, businesses and communities across
the continent as African nations establish national biodiesel policies and programs.
The African continent has a climate well suited for jatropha, and jatropha can flourish
across the African continent from Egypt to South Africa. D1 intends to cultivate
jatropha throughout rural Africa which is often underdeveloped and impoverished.
Growing biodiesel crops could have a major impact on living standards and economic
development in Africa. There are millions of hectares of land across Africa suitable
for jatropha cultivation which currently are under utilised, barren or under threat from

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erosion and desertification. Its vision is to turn a portion of that land over to jatropha
planting that will potentially create thousands of jobs, provide additional income to
communities, and produce clean, competitively priced diesel fuel for local use and
export.
Burkina Faso : A Million Hectare Target
Every liter of diesel consumed in Burkina Faso has to be imported by sea and then
transported by truck tanker over hundreds of miles of often poor quality road from the
African coast. Producing biodiesel domestically will develop new agricultural and
biodiesel industries which will improve the economic development and living
standards of this sub-saharan country.
Jatropha already grows wild across Burkina Faso and organised planting could ease
some of this landlocked country's fuel needs while mitigating the impact of soil
erosion through drought and desertification. D1 plans to form D1 Oils Burkina Faso
with Biodiesel Corporation, a local company, to develop a 10,000 hectare jatropha
plantation, with the option to extend planting on up to a further 990,000 hectares.
Biodiesel Corporation will supply farm management services. Seeds, seedlings and
growing medium for planting will be supplied by D1.
Lesotho : Perfecting Upland Planting
While Africa is seldom associated with the cold, temperatures in the uplands of
southern Africa can fall sharply at night. However, if proper care is taken, this need
not be a barrier to growing tropical energy crops. D1 is working with tribal chiefs and
local communities in the Kingdom of Lesotho to plant jatropha on the north faces of
hills which will prevent damage from frost. The planting will enable Lesotho to grow
jatropha to produce biodiesel domestically and help prevent hillside erosion while
encouraging reforestation.
Planting has commenced for a pilot jatropha project on 10,000 hectares of land owned
by local tribes to be completed over the next four years. D1 intends to plant 100
hectares in 2005. Six hectares of jatropha were planted in the first quarter of 2005,
and planting of the remaining hectares will recommence in October after the rainy
season.
Madagascar : Jatropha Island
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in Africa, and is beset by soil erosion and
deforestation. However, it has an exceptional climate for the cultivation of jatropha,
and has the potential to become a major production center for crude jatropha oil and
refined biodiesel. Madagascar farmers already use jatropha trees as supports on which
to grow vanilla pods. As jatropha is fast growing and requires minimal water, it does
not compete with the vanilla for available moisture and nutrients from the soil.
However, the farmers to date have made no use of the jatropha seeds. D1 has
identified large areas of such supports and it is appraising options that would allow it
to access their output in collaboration with USAID funded projects in the vicinity.
The first crop of oil-bearing seeds is expected to be available for harvest by the end of
this year, and D1 is targeting 5,000 tons of crude jatropha oil per annum from this
source. D1 has opened an office in Madagascar and iis working with local farm
cooperatives and NGOs to develop further jatropha production on a much larger scale
in five regions of Madagascar over the next five years. Harvested jatropha seeds will
be pressed locally, and the crude oil produced not required in the area will be
exported. D1 plans to bring refinery technology to Madagascar to produce the
biodiesel domestically.

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Malawi : Working with Tobacco Farmers
A land-locked African nation, Malawi has recently experienced soaring crude oils
prices. At the same time, Malawi has been experiencing acute foreign currency
shortages which make the import of raw goods and materials exceedingly difficult. As
one of Africa’s largest tobacco farmers, Stancom Tobacco Limited of Malawi controls
large areas of land and employs thousands of farmers. Given the ability of jatropha
trees to rejuvenate the soil, and for biodiesel refined from jatropha oil to provide
additional income to farmers, Stancom is supporting D1’s efforts to plant jatropha on
unused land alongside tobacco plantations.
D1 entered a ten-year plantation management and supply agreement with Stancom,
with an initial pilot scheme of 5,000 hectares that will expand to 35,000 hectares if
successful. Initial planting on 1,500 hectares commenced in early 2005 and will
resume in October after the rainy season. The scheme will expand to a further 35,000
hectares upon the success of the pilot project. In due course, D1 has plans to supply a
D1 20 and other equipment to convert the crude jatropha oil to biodiesel. D1 is
building relationships with NGOs active in the region to further the development of
jatropha plantations throughout Malawi.
South Africa : Biodiesel is a National Priority
South Africa is a major consumer of energy and has the continent’s highest
greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing emissions, cutting local pollution levels and
creating employment opportunities in rural areas are priorities for the South African
government. South Africa has tremendous potential to produce energy crops and the
government is making biodiesel production a national priority.
The government has established a national biodiesel standard based on the EU’s
EN14214 standard, and is expected to introduce a mandatory 1-3% biodiesel blend for
all diesel sold from the end of 2006. Biodiesel will provide a clean alternative fuel
source for the energy needs of South Africans and its huge resource industries,
particularly mining.
D1 South Africa : The size and strength of South Africa’s economy and its well
developed infrastructure make South Africa potentially the major biodiesel market
within Africa. D1 has made South Africa the headquarters for all African operations
of D1. D1 Oils South Africa (Pty) Limited will oversee and manage the cultivation of
jatropha, the harvesting of seeds, the processing of crude jatropha oil, and the
establishment of refining operations.
It plans to expand our refining and planting operations in parallel, deploying the first
D1 20 refinery in Durban around the end of 2005. Rolls-Royce has provided a credit
facility of US$1 million in offset financing towards the cost of the refinery. D1
believes that given the large amount of outstanding offset obligations globally, it will
be able to replicate such financial arrangements for its portfolio of D1 20s. PetroSAF,
D1's Black Economic Empowerment Partner, holds a 10% share of D1 Oils South
Africa.
Jatropha in South Africa : Although jatropha is not indigenous to Africa, it grows wild
throughout much of the continent, including South Africa’s Kwazulu Natal and North
West Provinces. The South African government does not consider jatropha to be an
invasive species. However, environmental assessments must be carried out before
widespread planting can begin.
Following completion of a general environmental assessment, D1 is evaluating the
wide scale growing of jatropha in line with government guidelines on cultivation and
management. D1 expects full approval to plant to be granted in early 2006. Planting
will commence in October and small nurseries will be established in regions

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earmarked for large scale jatropha plantations and granted to D1. Many provincial
governments have pledged their support for D1’s plans for jatropha cultivation and
D1 is in discussions to obtain land for plantations in each province.
Jatropha : Social Entrepreneurship in South Africa
Changing economic and social conditions in Africa are placing rural communities
under intense pressure, and it is often women who are most vulnerable to the impact
of these changes. It is estimated that 20% of African households are now headed by
women. Many of these households are poor. Particular problems result when large
numbers of men are forced to migrate to cities to find work, placing an undue balance
of social and economic responsibilities on the women remaining at home.
African governments and NGOs are responding to the social and economic problems
that result from the growth of female-headed households with initiatives based on the
concept of ‘social entrepreneurship’. Social entrepreneurship aims to provide rural
communities with training that will improve their knowledge and skills base through
new business practices, such as sustainable farming.
D1 hopes to work with governments and NGOs to introduce social entrepreneurship
projects among women in rural communities in Ghana and Malawi based on a
training and education scheme for the local production of sustainable energy crops,
particularly jatropha. Jatropha, which can be grown on land unsuitable for traditional
crops, can enable rural households to supplement their income through the farming of
energy crops. Local training schemes can teach women the skills and knowledge
needed for jatropha farming.
Social entrepreneurship is becoming a key driver of economic growth in the greater
African economy. The planting programs that D1 will implement are effective
mechanisms to encourage unemployed and under-employed rural women and
communities to build the farming and small business skills that are positive for future
economic growth.
By facilitating partnerships with African communities and promoting collaboration
with governments, NGOs and local business and financial institutions, D1 hopes to be
a position to make a significant contribution to the welfare of rural families in Africa.
Swaziland : Working with Tribal Chiefs : D1 is working with a prominent local
company to develop jatropha plantations in Swaziland. With the cooperation of the
local tribal chiefs and the permission of the government, D1 and its partner company
are laying the ground work for the plantations and planting is due to commence on
5,000 hectares in October of 2005.
Zambia : Working with Tobacco Farmers : The climate and land resources of Zambia
offer significant potential for growing energy crops, particularly jatropha and D1 is
seeking to initiate a pilot project of 10,000 hectares. In addition to its project with
Stancom Tobacco in Malawi, D1 is also working with the tobacco company on a
1,000 hectare project to plant jatropha on land adjacent to tobacco plantations.
Contact Address : D1 Oils Africa (Pty) Ltd, D1 Oils South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Demetri
Pappadopoulos, Chief Executive Officer, D1 Oils South Africa (Pty) Ltd 52
Grosvenor Road, Sable House, Fairway Office Park, Bryanston, Johannesburg, South
Africa, Telephone: +27 (0)11 267 5770, Fax: +27 (0)11 267 5765, Email:
caren@d1plc.com.
D1 Asia Pacific : Strong Demand for Biodiesel
Future demand for biodiesel in Asia Pacific is expected to be strong. The region relies
heavily on imported mineral oil for its transport systems and many countries are
considering the issues of energy security and import substitution for fossil fuels.
Pollution is a serious problem in cities, and transport accounts for much of the

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region’s greenhouse gas emissions. Asian nations are introducing biodiesel blends as
key elements in their transport and environmental policies.
D1 Asia Pacific has established its offices in the Philippines, which is perfectly
located as a hub for expanding regional planting, refining and shipping operations, as
well as having enormous potential as a location for the production of jatropha
biodiesel.
Asia Pacific has the ideal climatic conditions required to grow jatropha, and also has
large areas of unused or degraded land. However, these are not the only factors that
make the region a favorable production location for fuel crops. Equally important are
Asia Pacific’s well developed infrastructure. Nowhere else on the globe can you find
the conditions and resources to grow jatropha so close to developed urban fuel
markets, with excellent port and distribution facilities, and a first-world financial
network able to back investment opportunities.
D1 is building strong relationships with governments throughout the region. Coupled
with our expertise in the agronomy of jatropha seed and plant propagation and the
region’s well developed infrastructure, Asia Pacific will become a major center for
the production, refining and trans-shipment of oil regionally and worldwide.
Jatropha : Asia’s Green Fuel Revolution
The Asian Pacific region has tremendous natural resources, but it also has serious
development issues. If the region’s resources are mobilized to grow, process and
refine biodiesel, the development impact could be huge. Poverty still persists in rural
and upland areas across the region. Planting, harvesting and processing jatropha seeds
to produce vegetable oil for refining into biodiesel offers rural communities the
chance to enjoy improved economic circumstances.
Although not indigenous to Asia Pacific, hundreds of varieties of jatropha have spread
widely across the region due to its rich tropical and semi-tropical climates. Asia offers
one of the most favourable environments in the world for growing jatropha. Asia is
also home to many indigenous oil-bearing crops, including palm and coconut, which
can be blended with jatropha oil and refined into biodiesel. Jatropha can be
productively inter cropped with other crops, including fuel crops such as coconut
palm. Inter cropping offers farmers the opportunity to gain additional income.
Asia has benefited from fifty years of tremendous economic development. However,
this has left many countries with large areas of degraded, deforested and marginalized
land. D1 is actively developing relationships with companies engaged in activities that
have resulted in environmental land damage, such as mining, logging, and cattle
grazing, to assist them in rehabilitating degraded land. It is also establishing
partnerships with upland farming communities in Asia’s many mountainous
hinterlands, which often suffer from deforestation.
In addition to working with our commercial partners, it is working extensively with
NGOs and non-profit organizations throughout the region to enable jatropha to create
the thousands of new jobs, enhance rural incomes, promote reforestation and prevent
soil erosion.
Jatropha : Inter cropping
Jatropha is able to grow productively with only minimal water and limited nutrients.
As a result, jatropha can be easily inter cropped with other food and fuel crops that
require more water and nutrition. This offers farmers the opportunity to gain
additional income. Jatropha can be inter cropped with high value crops such as sugar,
coconut palm, oil palm, and various fruits and vegetables, enabling farmers to
enhance their incomes. In particular, it is pursuing jatropha cultivation amongst
coconut palms. Jatropha could be blended with coconut oil to create hybrid biodiesel.

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D1’s Product Development Center (PDC) in India, supported by the know-how
available in Asia’s leading agricultural schools and universities, will enable it to
expand jatropha planting based on new methods of mass production of jatropha
seedlings such as germ plasm and tissue culture. It intends to establish a seed bank
network as a major element in our planting infrastructure.
Philippines : A Major Center for Biodiesel Production : The Philippines has excellent
growing conditions for jatropha and other vegetable oil resources, particularly
coconut palm, and could become a significant producer of biodiesel. D1's
headquarters for the Asia Pacific region is located in Manila. D1 expects the
Philippines to be both a major production center for jatropha biodiesel and a hub for
coordinating planting and refining activities across the region.
The government of the Philippines is promoting biodiesel to improve air quality to
meet standards laid down by the Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999. The government
aims to reduce the nation’s dependence on imported diesel fuel. The National
Coconut Biodiesel Program is seeking to make a biodiesel blend of 1-2% coconut
methyl ester (CME) mandatory for all government vehicles.
D1 is establishing a series of model farms across the Philippines in cooperation with
government and commercial partners to demonstrate jatropha planting. D1 is also
investigating the use of jatropha in bio remediation projects to restore land degraded
by mine workings.
Philippines Model Farm and Training Center : Training farmers is an essential step to
establishing jatropha plantations in the Philippines. D1’s new 5 hectare model farm
and training center at T’boli in Mindanao, the second largest island in the Philippines,
will do just that. In cooperation with the Philippines Agrarian Reform Board (ARB),
the model farm will be a springboard for D1’s rollout program in Mindanao.
Model farms will enable D1 and its partners to demonstrate the physical
characteristics of jatropha as a fuel crop and create training and marketing centers to
raise regional awareness of the crop’s potential. Central to the T’boli model farm are
jatropha test plots of a hectare each, where seedlings from India, Philippines and
Tanzania can be evaluated for their yields and growth rates.
NGO’s and farm co-operatives can visit the center to learn about the potential and
benefits of jatropha planting, and can also receive training to pass on to staff and
members. Intensive courses will also be offered to farmers. The training center will
also be an assembly point for D1 Agri-Box kits for farmers, and a seed collection
point and seed storage depot for the surrounding area. D1 is working with
government, industry and agricultural groups in the Philippines to establish three
more model farms, each approximately five hectares.
Mindanao : T’boli is at the center of the main agricultural farming area in south
Mindanao. Farming in T’boli ranges from small scale subsistence farming to large
commercial plantations run by international agricultural companies. The area of the
model farm was previously small banana, corn and pineapple fields. Local farmers are
relatively poor and jatropha planting could provide a means to help them move out of
poverty.
T’boli is about 500 metres above sea level with a hot and humid climate all year
round that is perfect for jatropha. Jatropha is already grown in small quantities by
most households in Mindanao for a bewildering variety of medicinal purposes,
including the treatment of headaches, sprains and bruises, insect bites and skin
ailments.
Philippines Jatropha Planting to Restore Degraded Land : The restoration of land
degraded by mineral and industrial workings has become a priority for governments

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throughout Asia Pacific. D1 is working with Atlas Mining Group, a major Philippines
mining company, to undertake a study to assess the potential of jatropha planting to
rehabilitate degraded land on mining sites using bioremediation techniques. Jatropha
trees will be planted to reforest the land, improve soil quality and produce biodiesel
for use as both transport fuel and to power the generation of electricity, an important
requirement for off-grid mining facilities.
A model farm of five hectares will be set up within six months of the completion of
the study. D1 will consult Atlas on the planting and propagation of jatropha. Atlas has
identified a 3,000 hectare site where jatropha could be cultivated to supply fuel for the
transport and electrical needs of the mining site.
Philippines Coconuts and Jatropha Seeds : Vegetable oil from coconut palm is an
excellent biodiesel feedstock, having a lower NOx content than other vegetable oils.
NOx is the only regulated pollutant that is higher for biodiesel than regular diesel, and
blending coconut with jatropha oil significantly reduces the refined biodiesel’s NOx
content. D1 is working with the government to pioneer the joint cultivation of
jatropha and coconut oil, including the intercropping of jatropha trees amongst the
coconut palms.
D1 and the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) have agreed to set up a model farm
to demonstrate the characteristics and commercial potential of jatropha. If the model
farm is successful in raising awareness in the region, D1 and the PCA hope to
establish a 10,000 hectare plantation on the Bondoc Peninsula in Quezon Province.
D1 will provide a purpose-built, modular D1 20 refinery at the Port of Subic Bay
when sufficient feedstock is available for refining.
Thailand : Creating a Biodiesel Industry
With a fast-growing economy and growing transport needs, the Thai government has
legislated a 10% biodiesel blend to be introduced nationally from 2012 and is likely to
increase the target to 20%. The Thai Ministry of Energy is now actively investigating
the creation of a national biodiesel industry.
The Thai government has welcomed D1's participation in its National Alternative
Fuels Stategy. The Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency
(DEDE), part of the Thai Energy Ministry, and the UK’s Department of Trade and
Industry have jointly sponsored a five hectare pilot plantation, to be planted and
managed by D1. Seeds and growing medium for the project will be provided by D1,
which will have the right to buy all the harvested seeds. The pilot project will raise
awareness of jatropha as part of Thailand’s biofuels strategy.
D1 will implement a second model farm at its own cost and is investigating joint
ventures with some of Thailand’s largest private companies to develop jatropha
plantations and install biodiesel refineries in Thailand and neighbouring countries.
Contact Address : D1 Oils Asia Pacific, Inc., Miguel Patolot, Chairman, D1 Oils Asia
Pacific, Inc., Unit 1801 One San Miguel Avenue Condominium, No. 1 San Miguel
Avenue corner Shaw Boulevard, Ortigas Center, Pasig City, Metro Manila,
Philippines, Telephone: +632 6876357 / +632 6876360, Fax: +63267007634, Email:
mpatolot@d1plc.com.
CHINA : Let a Hundred Jatropha Trees Bloom
In an exciting move towards establishing a global presence, D1 has concluded a 50-
year joint venture agreement with a Chinese joint venture partner. The joint venture
agreement gives D1 access to up to 2 million hectares of land suitable for the
cultivation of jatropha in Sichuan Province. D1 will provide seeds, growing medium
and technical expertise, and purchase the output of the plantations.

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Jatropha grows widely in China and D1 hopes to produce more that 500,000 tons of
biodiesel per annum from the collection of seeds from existing trees and the
establishment of new plantations. D1 is undertaking an assessment of the potential
harvest from existing jatropha planting in China.
GULF : From Black Gold to Green Gold
You might think that the Middle East would not need any more oil given that enough
oil still lies under the sand to last for hundreds of years. But while many countries in
the region may not have a problem with security of a domestic oil supply, local
pollution and rising green house gas emissions have become a huge concern.
Consequently, bold initiatives are being introduced across the Middle East to
introduce biodiesel blends for transport. Countries such as Egypt, which lack large
domestic oil reserves, are also considering biodiesel for import substitution.
The entire Middle East faces water shortages, but in addition many countries also face
significant problems over the disposal of waste, washing and drinking water. In
certain Middle Eastern countries, water cannot be recycled for human use,
consumption or the irrigation of food crops due to religious beliefs.
Jatropha could offer a solution to these problems. Jatropha grows well on marginal
and semi-desert land with low rainfall, offering the Middle East a good potential
feedstock for biodiesel. Its ability to tolerate extremely dry conditions makes it
suitable for planting in desert land with limited water supply. As a non-food crop, it
can be irrigated with waste water for which presently there is no other use. In addition
to producing clean biodiesel for fuel, jatropha planting could reclaim large areas of
desert for agriculture. D1 is pioneering jatropha desert plantations using waste water
in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia : Turning the Desert Green
Saudi Arabia does not have an oil supply problem, but it does have a problem
disposing of waste water. For religious reasons, waste water cannot be recycled for
human use or consumption or for food crop irrigation. Consequently, the safe disposal
of waste water is becoming problematic. However, as jatropha is not a food crop, it
can be irrigated with waste water. In addition, as jatropha is tolerant of desert and
semi-desert conditions, desert jatropha plantations irrigated with waste water have the
potential to reclaim desert for future use as agricultural land.
D1 Oils Arabia, a joint venture with Saudi Arabian company Jazeera For Modern
Technology (JMT), is pioneering jatropha planting irrigated with waste water in the
desert outside Riyadh. JMT will contribute 5,000 hectares of land for a pilot
plantation, plus working capital. The goal of the joint venture is to plant a further
100,000 hectares if the pilot proves successful. D1 Oils will provide the technical
knowledge for the planting and crop maintenance. A D1 20 refinery will be
commissioned in 2006 when sufficient quantities of oil become available.
D1 is using jatropha cultivation to implement a new means of managing waste water
in Saudi Arabia. In partnership with Abdullatef Al-Rajhi International Group (AAIG),
a major Saudi Arabian trading company, D1 is designing and developing waster water
management facilities and infrastructure that will enable the reclamation of up to
300,000 hectares of land suitable for producing jatropha on desert land. AAIG will
provide finance and land for the project with D1 providing tissue culture seedlings
and technical support for planting and maintenance.

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CHAPTER 20
Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel
Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) results are Available for B100, B20, and petroleum diesel.
These results allow us to make a nominal comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel.
By nominal, we mean that LCIs calculated for each fuel reflect generic national average
models. The only exception to this statement is jatropha agriculture data, which is not
easily available. In such a nominal comparison, there are no regional differences that
could affect any stage of each fuel’s life cycle. There will, of course, be differences that
will affect each fuel.
In most cases, biodiesel is interchangeable with petroleum diesel without any need to
modify today’s diesel engine. However, one key issue for biodiesel use that should be
explicitly stated up front is the effect of regional climate on the performance of the fuel.
This fuel’s cold flow properties may limit its use in certain countries during Winter. This
should be kept in mind. Means of mitigating biodiesel’s cold flow properties are being
evaluated by researchers, though no clear solution is at hand. Low-sulfur diesel fuel has
similar limitations that are currently addressed today with the use of additives and by
blending this fuel with diesel fuel.
The results include estimates of :
!" Overall energy requirements
!" CO2 emissions
!" Other regulated and non-regulated air emissions
!" Water emissions
!" Solid wastes.
Base Case Results : A comparison of petroleum diesel and biodiesel is presented using
the base-case assumptions for each fuel.
Sensitivity Studies: The purpose of conducting sensitivity studies on the life cycle of
biodiesel is to establish the potential range for improvement in the fuel and to establish
the range of possible error associated with the assumptions made in the model. The LCI
assumes a current time frame that is, we are looking at the present structure of
agriculture, jatropha oil recovery, conversion technology, and engine technology within a
short-term horizon. This sets realistic limitations on the bounds of the assumptions used
in the model. In each step in the life cycle, we have considered where the potential for
near-term improvement is. Two main areas were identified. First, we felt it was important
to understand the impact of location on biodiesel production. This allows us to consider
the benefits of the best of agricultural productivity available and the shortest distances for
transport of fuel and materials. This sets an upper bound on biodiesel benefits from the
perspective of current agricultural practices and transportation logistics. Second, we
identified the conversion of jatropha oil to biodiesel as an aspect of the life cycle that has
significant impact on energy use and emissions and that has a broad range of efficiencies,
depending on the commercial technology used. Changes in engine technology may also
be an avenue for improving biodiesel on a life cycle basis. We opted to forego this area in
our sensitivity analysis. Thus, we present in this report the results of two sensitivity
studies.
The base case for B100 is compared with the LCI for an optimal biodiesel location .

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!" The choice of optimal location is based on an evaluation of regions with the most
efficient production of jatrophas and with close access to jatropha production and
end-use markets for urban buses.
!" Results for a range of high and low energy demands for jatropha conversion to
biodiesel are compared to determine the impact of this stage of the biodiesel life cycle
on overall emissions and energy flows. Low and high values for energy consumption
were based on a survey of technical literature on the most recent technology
commercially available.
Base Case Results
The LCIs for B100, B20, and 100% petroleum diesel are summarized in the following
subsections. All of the energy and environmental flows for these fuels are allocated on a
mass basis among the various coproducts that result from each process in the fuels’ life
cycles.
Life Cycle Energy Balance
LCIs provide an opportunity to quantify the total primary energy requirements and the
overall energy efficiencies of processes and products. Understanding the overall energy
requirements of biodiesel is key to our understanding the extent to which biodiesel made
from jatropha oil is a “renewable energy” source.
Put quite simply, the more fossil energy required to make a fuel, the less we can say that
this fuel is renewable. Thus, the renewable nature of a fuel can vary across the spectrum
of “completely renewable” (i.e., no fossil energy input) to nonrenewable (i.e., fossil
energy inputs as much or more than the energy output of the fuel). Energy efficiency
estimates help us to determine how much additional energy must be expended to convert
the energy available in raw materials used in the fuel’s life cycle to a useful
transportation fuel. The following sections describe these basic concepts in more detail,
as well as the results of our analysis of the life cycle energy balances for biodiesel and
petroleum diesel.
Types of Life Cycle Energy Inputs
In this study, we track several types of energy flows through each fuel life cycle. For
clarity, each is defined below.
!" Total Primary Energy. All raw materials extracted from the environment can contain
energy. In estimating the total primary energy inputs to each fuel’s life cycle, we
consider the cumulative energy content of all resources extracted from the
environment. This last statement is an oversimplification. We consider the energy
trapped in jatropha oil to be renewable because it is solar energy stored in liquid form
through biological processes that are much more rapid than the geologic time frame
associated with fossil energy formation. Also, other forms of nonrenewable energy
besides fossil fuel exist. The energy “contained” in a raw material is the amount of
energy that would be released by the complete combustion of that raw material. This
“heat of combustion” can be measured in two ways: as a higher heating value or a
lower heating value. Combustion results in the formation of CO2 and water. Higher
heating values consider the amount of energy released when the final combustion
products are gaseous CO2 and liquid water. Lower heating values take into account
the loss of energy associated with the vaporization of the liquid water combustion
product. Our energy content is based on the lower heating values for each material.

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!" Feedstock Energy. Energy contained in raw materials that end up directly in the final
fuel product is termed “feedstock energy.” For biodiesel production, feedstock energy
includes the energy contained in the jatropha oil and methanol feedstocks that are
converted to biodiesel. Likewise, the petroleum directly converted to diesel in a
refinery contains primary energy that is considered a feedstock energy input for
petroleum diesel. Feedstock energy is a subset of the primary energy inputs.
!" Process Energy. The second major subset of primary energy is “process energy.” This
is limited to energy inputs in the life cycle exclusive of the energy contained in the
feedstock (as defined in the previous bullet). It is the energy contained in raw
materials extracted from the environment that does not contribute to the energy of the
fuel product itself, but is needed in the processing of feedstock energy into its final
fuel product form. Process energy consists primarily of coal, natural gas, uranium,
and hydroelectric power sources consumed directly or indirectly in the fuel’s life
cycle.
!" Fossil Energy. Because we are concerned about the renewable nature of biodiesel, we
also track the primary energy that comes from fossil sources specifically (coal, oil,
and natural gas). All three of the previously defined energy flows can be categorized
as fossil or nonfossil energy.
!" Fuel Product Energy. The energy contained in the final fuel product, which is
available to do work in an engine, is what we refer to as the “fuel product energy.”
All other things being equal, fuel product energy is a function of the energy density of
each fuel.
Defining Energy Efficiency
We report two types of energy efficiency. The first is the overall “life cycle energy
efficiency.” The second is what we refer to as the “fossil energy ratio.” Each elucidates a
different aspect of the life cycle energy balance for the fuels studied. The calculation of
the life cycle energy efficiency is simply the ratio of fuel product energy to total primary
energy: Life Cycle Energy Efficiency = Fuel Product Energy/Total Primary Energy
It is a measure of the amount of energy that goes into a fuel cycle, which actually ends up
in the fuel product. This efficiency accounts for losses of feedstock energy and additional
process energy needed to make the fuel.
The fossil energy ratio tells us something about the degree to which a given fuel is or is
not renewable. It is defined simply as the ratio of the final fuel product energy to the
amount of fossil energy required to make the fuel:
Fossil Energy Ratio = Fuel Energy/Fossil Energy Inputs
If the fossil energy ratio has a value of zero, then a fuel is not only completely
nonrenewable, but it provides no useable fuel product energy as a result of the fossil
energy consumed to make the fuel. If the fossil energy ratio is equal to 1, then this fuel is
still nonrenewable. A fossil energy ratio of one indicates that no loss of energy occurs in
the process of converting the fossil energy to a useable fuel. For fossil energy ratios
greater than 1, the fuel actually begins to provide a leveraging of the fossil energy
required to make the fuel available for transportation. As a fuel approaches being
“completely” renewable, its fossil energy ratio approaches “infinity.” In other words, a
completely renewable fuel has no requirements for fossil energy.
From a policy perspective, these are important considerations. Policy makers want to
understand the extent to which a fuel increases the renewability of our energy supply.

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Another implication of the fossil energy ratio is the question of climate change. Higher
fossil energy ratios imply lower net CO2 emissions. This is a secondary aspect of the
ratio, because we are explicitly estimating total CO2 emissions from each fuel’s life
cycle. Nevertheless, the fossil energy ratio serves as a check on our calculation of CO2
life cycle flows (since the two should be correlated).
Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle Energy Consumption
The LCI model shows that 1.2007 MJ of primary energy is used to make 1 MJ of
petroleum diesel fuel. This corresponds to a life cycle energy efficiency of 83.28%. 93%
of the total primary energy is for the extraction of crude oil from the ground. About 88%
of the energy shown for crude oil extraction is associated with the energy value of the
crude oil itself. The crude oil refinery step for making diesel fuel dominates the
remaining 7% of the primary energy usage.
Removing the feedstock energy (of the crude oil) from the total primary energy demand
allows us to analyze the relative contributions of the remaining process energy from each
step of the life cycle.
Process energy demand represents 20.1% of the energy ultimately available in the
petroleum diesel fuel product. About 90% of the process energy consumed is in refining
(60%) and extraction (29%). The next largest contribution to process energy demand is
for transport of foreign crude oil to domestic petroleum refiners.
There are some significant implications in the process energy results regarding trends for
foreign and domestic crude oil production and use. Transportation of foreign crude oil
carries with it a fourfold penalty for energy consumption compared to domestic
petroleum transport. The reason for this is overseas transport of foreign oil by tanker
increases the travel distance for foreign oil by roughly a factor of four, relative to the
distances required for transport of domestic fuel.
At the same time, domestic crude oil extraction is more energy intensive than foreign
crude oil production. Advanced oil recovery practices represent 11% of the total
production volume, compared to 3% for foreign oil extraction. Advanced oil recovery
uses twice as much primary energy per kg of oil compared to conventional extraction.
Advanced crude oil extraction requires almost 20 times more process energy than
onshore domestic crude oil extraction per kg of oil out of the ground because the
processes employed are energy intensive and the amount of oil recovered is low
compared to other practices. Domestic crude oil supply is essentially equal to foreign oil
supply (50.26% versus 49.74%, respectively) in our model, but its process energy
requirement is 62% higher than that of foreign crude oil production.
If our present trend of increased dependence on foreign oil continues, we can expect the
life cycle energy efficiency of petroleum diesel to worsen due to the higher energy costs
of transporting foreign crude. In addition, as the practice of advanced oil recovery
increases, domestic crude oil extraction may become less energy efficient.
Petroleum diesel uses 1.1995 MJ of fossil energy to produce 1 MJ of fuel product energy.
This corresponds to a fossil energy ratio of 0.833796. Because the main feedstock for
diesel production is itself a fossil fuel, this ratio is almost identical to the life cycle energy
efficiency of 83.28%. In fact, fossil energy associated with the crude oil feedstock
accounts for 93% of the total fossil energy consumed in the life cycle. Fossil fuel use is
slightly less than the total primary energy consumption because there is a very small

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contribution to the total primary energy that is met through hydroelectric and nuclear
power supplies related to electricity generation.
Fossil Energy Ratio = 1 MJ of Fuel Product Energy/1.1995 MJ of Fossil Energy Input.
The transport distances are calculated in the LCI model using PADD data for modes of
transportation and distances.
Biodiesel Life Cycle Energy Demand
One MJ of biodiesel requires an input of 1.2414 MJ of primary energy, resulting in a life
cycle energy efficiency of 80.55%. Biodiesel is only slightly less efficient than petroleum
diesel in the conversion of primary energy to fuel product energy (80.55% versus
83.28%). The largest contribution to primary energy is the jatropha oil conversion step
because this is where we have chosen to include the feedstock energy associated with the
jatropha oil itself98. The conversion step consumes 87% 98 Energy contained in the
jatropha oil itself represents, in effect, the one place in the biodiesel life cycle where
input of solar energy is accounted for. Total radiant energy available to jatropha crops is
essentially viewed as “free” in the life cycle calculations. It becomes an accountable
element of the life cycle only after it has been incorporated in the jatropha oil itself. This
is analogous to counting the feedstock energy of crude petroleum as the point in its life
cycle where solar energy input occurs. Petroleum is essentially stored solar energy. The
difference between petroleum and jatropha oil as sinks for solar energy is their time scale.
While jatropha oil traps solar energy on a rapid (“real time”) basis, petroleum storage
represents a process that occurs on a geologic time scale. This Life Cycle Inventory of
Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel of the total primary energy in the biodiesel life cycle. As
with the petroleum life cycle, the stages of the life cycle that are burdened with the
feedstock energy overwhelm all other stages. Had the jatropha oil energy been included
with the farming operation, jatropha agriculture would have been the dominant consumer
of primary energy. This is analogous to placing the crude oil feedstock energy in the
extraction stage for petroleum diesel fuel. The next two largest uses of primary energy
are for jatropha crushing and jatropha oil conversion. They account for most of the
remaining 13% of the total demand.
The difference in the dynamic nature of solar energy utilization is the key to our
definitions of renewable and
nonrenewable energy.
Ranking of Primary Energy Demand for the Stages of Biodiesel Production
When we look at process energy separately from primary energy, we see that process
energy demands is not dominated by jatropha oil conversion. The jatropha crushing and
soy oil conversion steps use the most process energy (34.25 and 34.55%, respectively, of
the total). Agriculture accounts for the most of the remaining process energy consumed in
life cycle for biodiesel (almost 25% of total demand). Each transportation step is only
2%-3% of the process energy used in the life cycle. Because 90% of its feedstock
requirements are renewable (that is, jatropha oil), biodiesel’s fossil energy ratio is
favorable. Biodiesel uses 0.3110 MJ of fossil energy to produce one MJ of fuel product;
this equates to a fossil energy ratio of 3.215. In other words, the biodiesel life cycle
produces more than three times as much energy in its final fuel product as it uses in fossil
energy. Fossil energy used for the conversion step is almost twice that of its process
energy consumption, making this stage of the life cycle the largest contributor to fossil
energy demand. The use of methanol as a feedstock in the production of biodiesel

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accounts for this high fossil energy use. We have counted the feedstock energy of
methanol coming into the life cycle at this point, assuming that the methanol is produced
from natural gas. This points out an opportunity for further improvement of the fossil
energy ratio by substituting natural gas-derived methanol with renewable sources of
methanol, ethanol or other alcohols.
Effect of Biodiesel on Life Cycle Energy Demands
Compared on the basis of primary energy inputs, biodiesel and petroleum diesel are
essentially equivalent. Biodiesel has a life cycle energy efficiency of 80.55%, compared
to 83.28% for petroleum diesel. The slightly lower efficiency reflects a slightly higher
demand for process energy across the life of cycle for biodiesel. On the basis of fossil
energy inputs, biodiesel enhances the effective use of this finite energy resource.
Biodiesel leverages fossil energy inputs by more than three to one.
Fossil energy can be used in the form of feedstock energy or process energy. Generally,
for biodiesel production, process energy is the main consumer of fossil energy. However,
methanol used in the conversion process energy which contains fossil energy that shows
up as feedstock energy. Thus, the usage of fossil energy in the conversion step is much
higher than the total process energy consumed in this step.
Fossil Energy Requirements for the Biodiesel Life Cycle
Stage Fossil Energy (MJ per MJ of Fuel) Percent
Jatropha Agriculture 0.0656 21.08%
Jatropha Transport 0.0034 1.09%
Jatropha Crushing 0.0796 25.61%
Soy Oil Transport 0.0072 2.31%
Soy Oil Conversion 0.1508 48.49%
Biodiesel Transport 0.0044 1.41%
Total 0.3110 100.00%
CO2 Emissions
Accounting for Biomass-Derived Carbon
Biomass plays a unique role in the dynamics of carbon flow in our biosphere. Biological
cycling of carbon occurs when plants (biomass such as jatropha crops) convert
atmospheric CO2 to carbon-based compounds through photosynthesis. This carbon is
eventually returned to the atmosphere as organisms consume the biological carbon
compounds and respire. Biomass derived fuels reduce the net atmospheric carbon in two
ways. First, they participate in the relatively rapid cycling of carbon to the atmosphere
(via engine tailpipe emissions) and from the atmosphere (via photosynthesis). Second,
these fuels displace the use of fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon that
took millions of years to be removed from the atmosphere, while combustion of biomass
fuels participates in a process that allows rapid recycle of CO2 to fuel. The net effect of
shifting from fossil fuels to biomass-derived fuels is, thus, to reduce the amount of CO2
in the atmosphere.
Because of the differences in the dynamics of fossil carbon flow and biomass carbon flow
to and from the atmosphere, biomass carbon must be accounted for separately from
fossil-derived carbon. The LCI model tracks carbon from the point at which it is taken up
as biomass via photosynthesis to its final combustion as biodiesel used in an urban bus.
The biomass-derived carbon that ends up as CO2 leaving the tailpipe of the bus is
subtracted from the total CO2 emitted by the bus because it is ultimately reused to

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produce new jatropha oil. In order to ensure that we accurately credit the biodiesel LCI
for the amount of recycled CO2, we provide a material balance on biomass carbon.
Lower blend rates proportionately lower the amount of biomass carbon credited as part of
the recycled CO2. Carbon incorporated in the meal fraction of the jatropha is not included
in the carbon balance. Only carbon in the fatty acids and triglycerides that are used in
biodiesel production are tracked. The Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum
Diesel calculation of the carbon content of the fatty acids and triglycerides is based on
average composition data for jatropha oil100.
Biomass Carbon Balance for Biodiesel Life Cycle (g/bhp-h)
Life Cycle Stage g carbon per bhp-h g CO2/bhp-h
Jatropha Production 169.34 621.48
Uptake of carbon in triglycerides and fatty Acids 169.34 621.48
Jatropha Crushing 160.81 590.16
Release of carbon via residual oil in meal (7.73) (28.36)
Release of carbon via waste (0.81) (2.97)
Biodiesel Production 148.39 544.60
Release of carbon via glycerine (8.26) (30.32)
Release of carbon via wastewater (2.36) (8.67)
Release of carbon via solid waste (1.74) (6.40)
Release of carbon in soapstock (0.05) (0.17)
Combustion in Engines
Release of carbon in biodiesel (total) (148.39) (544.60)
Release of carbon in CO2 (148.05) (543.34)
Release of carbon in HC (0.04) (0.16)
Release of carbon in CO (0.28) (1.01)
Release of carbon in PM (0.02) (0.08)
Release of carbon in HC, CO, and PM (0.34) (1.26)
Not all the carbon incorporated in fatty acids and triglycerides ends up as CO2 after
combustion of biodiesel. Some oil loss occurs in the meal by-product. Glycerol is
removed from the triglycerides as a by-product. Finally, fatty acids are removed as soaps
and waste. The calculation of carbon released as residual oil in the meal after crushing is
described in the section on jatropha crushing. Calculation of the carbon released as by-
products and waste from biodiesel production is described in the section on jatropha oil
conversion. Finally, carbon released in combustion ends up as CO2, CO, HC, and PM.
Highlighted life cycle stages show cumulative carbon moving through the life cycle.
Jatropha production shows a net inflow of 169 grams of carbon for 1 bhp-h of engine
work. Each subsequent stage consumes carbon, so that, at the point of end-use
combustion, the carbon which remains is zero. Inflows of carbon are shown as positive
numbers and outflows are shown as negative numbers (in parentheses).
Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel
Of the 169.34 grams of carbon absorbed in the jatropha agriculture stage, only 148.39
grams (87%) end up in biodiesel. After accounting for carbon that ends up in other
combustion products, 148.05 grams of carbon end up as 543.34 grams of tailpipe CO2.
This CO2 is subtracted from the diesel engine emissions as part of the biological recycle
of carbon. No credit is taken for the 13% of the carbon that ends up in various by-
products and waste streams.

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Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle Emissions of CO2
CO2 emissions for the petroleum life cycle is from biomass and fossil derived sources. In
the petroleum life cycle, the contribution of CO2 from biomass is zero. Only combustion
of fossil fuel-derived carbon generates CO2.
The dominant source of CO2 is the combustion of petroleum diesel in the bus. CO2
emitted from the tailpipe of the bus represents 86.5% of the total CO2 emitted across the
entire life cycle of the fuel. Most remaining CO2 comes from emissions at the oil
refinery, which contributes 9.8% of the total CO2 emissions. Foreign crude oil production
and foreign crude oil transport represent the third largest sources of CO2 emissions
(2.22%). The energy numbers, transport of foreign crude generates roughly four times the
amount of CO2 emitted by domestic crude transport.
All numbers presented as carbon equivalent. To calculate actual CO2 emissions, multiply
carbon equivalent numbers by 3.67 (the ratio of the molecular weight of CO2 divided by
the molecular weight of carbon).
Foreign oil production generates 68% higher emissions of CO2 than domestic crude oil
production. This is contrary to what might be expected based on the energy consumption
numbers presented in the previous section. Domestic crude oil production uses 68% more
energy than foreign crude oil production because of the greater reliance on more energy
intensive advanced oil recovery technologies used. The increased CO2 emissions
resulting from the higher energy consumption of advanced oil recovery are offset by the
practice of CO2 re-injection, which effectively sequesters carbon. A second factor leads
to higher CO2 emissions in foreign oil production: the flaring of natural gas at the well
head. Conventional crude oil extraction for foreign production generates 50% more CO2
than does its domestic counterpart. This is true for both onshore and offshore production.
The key difference appears to be the fact that foreign oil producers, on average, flare four
times as much natural gas as domestic producers because there are fewer market
opportunities for this gas. To test the effect of this practice, we ran the LCI model with an
assumption of no flaring of natural gas in foreign operations. As with the energy
efficiency results, we can see that there are significant implications of our CO2 results for
projections of foreign oil dependence. Foreign oil production introduces two penalties for
CO2 the review process. They suggested the idea of allowing for sequestration of carbon
in advanced oil recovery based on estimates, which they provided. Their comments
indicate that 0.75 metric tons of CO2 are injected in the well per metric ton of oil
recovered, and that half of this CO2 remains sequestered in the oil reservoir.
Emissions: CO2 emissions due to well head flaring practices and CO2 emissions from the
transport of oil. Thus, the CO2 emissions from petroleum diesel can be expected to
increase as our reliance on foreign oil increases.
Biodiesel Life Cycle Emissions of CO2
The biomass carbon mass balance was used to account for the carbon taken up in the
production of jatrophas and subsequently released in the combustion of biodiesel. Of the
169 grams of carbon taken up by the jatropha plants in the agriculture stage, we take
credit for only 148.05 grams of carbon. This is equivalent to 543.34 grams of CO2
removed from the atmosphere for every brake horsepower-hour of delivered biodiesel
engine work. The remaining uptake of CO2 is associated with by-products and waste
streams in the jatropha crushing and conversion stages of the life cycle for biodiesel. We
did not feel it was appropriate to take credit for this carbon.

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As with the petroleum diesel life cycle, most of the CO2 emissions are from the diesel
engine tailpipe; 85% of the emissions occur at this point. The remaining CO2 comes
almost equally from jatropha agriculture, jatropha crushing, and conversion of soy oil to
biodiesel.
The Effect of Biodiesel on CO2 Emissions from Urban Users
At the tailpipe, biodiesel emits almost 10% more CO2 than petroleum diesel, most of
which is renewable. Biodiesel generates 573.96 gCO2/bhp-h, compared with 548.02
gCO2/bhp-h for petroleum diesel. The higher CO2 levels result from more complete
combustion and the concomitant reductions in other carbon-containing tailpipe emissions.
The overall life cycle emissions of CO2 from 100% biodiesel are 78.45% lower than
those of petroleum diesel. The reduction is a direct result of carbon recycling in jatropha
plants. B20, the most commonly used form of biodiesel today, provides a 15.66%
reduction in net CO2 emissions compared to petroleum diesel. When biodiesel is blended
with diesel fuel, reductions in CO2 emissions are proportional to the amount of biodiesel.
LCI model indicates that CO2 emission reductions vary linearly from the maximum of
79% for pure biodiesel to zero for the case of normal petroleum diesel.
Life Cycle Consumption of Primary Resources
Primary resources consist of raw materials that are extracted from the environment.
Because these resources are finite, it is important to understand the kinds of demands that
are placed on these resources by each fuel. LCIs provide a way to quantify the total
impact of these fuels on natural resources. The raw materials included the LCI model are:
!" !Primary energy resources (coal, oil, natural gas and uranium)
!" !Phosphate rock
!" !Potash
!" !Perlite (silicon oxide ore)
!" !Limestone
!" !Sodium chloride
!" !Water.
Life Cycle Consumption of Primary Resources for Petroleum Diesel
As the primary energy feedstock for diesel production, petroleum consumption is, by
definition, almost exclusively reflected in crude oil extraction. Foreign and domestic
crude production are 98.2% of the total oil use. A small amount of petroleum
consumption is associated with refining, where crude oil is used directly as an energy
source as well as a feedstock for diesel production. A small consumption of crude oil is
also associated with diesel fuel used in transport steps.
Refining and extraction account for 98% of the natural gas consumption. These two parts
of the life cycle almost split the demand for natural gas (56% for extraction and 42% for
refining). Natural gas is used directly in these steps as a source of process energy. There
is also indirect consumption of natural gas associated with electricity purchased off the
grid. Domestic crude production uses twice as much natural gas as foreign crude
production, reflecting its greater reliance on energy-intensive advanced recovery
schemes. The distribution of coal consumption tracks with electricity demand. Again,
crude oil extraction and refining consume the larger amount of coal, in total representing
81% of the life cycle use of coal. Refining accounts for 43% of the coal use; extraction
accounts for 38%.

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98% of the demand for water is in crude production. Water use is four times higher for
domestic crude production than for foreign crude production because of a higher reliance
on advanced recovery processes. A very small amount of water is required for offshore
conventional oil recovery. None is required for onshore conventional recovery. Perlite is
used for catalyst production in the oil refining step. Thus, it shows up primarily in the
refinery, and secondarily as an indirect consumption associated with diesel fuel used in
transport steps.
The consumption of coal is affected by our simplifying assumption that the mix of
primary energy sources for electricity generation is the same for foreign oil production as
it is for U.S. oil production. The same caution applies for uranium consumption as was
discussed for coal.
Life Cycle Consumption of Primary Resources for Biodiesel
As with the petroleum diesel life cycle, coal consumption tracks electricity usage. The
coal and oil estimates for jatropha crushing and jatropha oil conversion are both related to
electricity. Petroleum oil consumption in the other parts of the life cycle reflect the use of
diesel and gasoline. The use of tractors, trucks and other farm equipment makes
agriculture the largest consumer of petroleum oil. Agriculture represents 67.6% of the
petroleum oil used in the biodiesel life cycle.
Use of natural gas includes the production of process energy used directly in each step, as
well as natural gas used to produce electricity and methanol. The combination of soy oil
conversion and jatropha crushing represents the greatest requirement for use of natural
gas, consuming 91% of the total life cycle input of natural gas. The conversion step alone
accounts for almost two-thirds of the natural gas used in the life cycle. The use of
methanol as a feedstock in conversion of soy oil to biodiesel makes the conversion step
the highest consumer of natural gas on a life cycle basis.
Uranium is used to produce energy, the pattern of uranium use across the life cycle
should track with coal consumption. The model shows almost twice the level of uranium
consumption expected for farming. The unusually high uranium consumption can be
traced back to the use of a data source for the production of agro-chemicals. This data
source is based on a plant, where the electricity supply is predominantly nuclear. The
electricity inputs were integrated into the Eco-balance data for this facility, and were not
readily separated. The uranium consumption estimates for farming are artifacts of this
problem with the data.
Water is the largest of these. Its consumption for biodiesel is dominated by the use of
water for agriculture. Farming accounts for 99.87% of the water consumed in the life
cycle.
On the basis of natural gas used directly in each stage, the jatropha crushing and
conversion steps use similar amounts of natural gas. In the life cycle calculation,
however, natural used to make the methanol is an indirect consumption associated with
the conversion step.
The Effect of Biodiesel on Primary Resource Consumption
The use of B100 as a substitute for petroleum diesel effects a 95% reduction in life cycle
consumption of petroleum. The 20% blend of biodiesel provides a proportionate
reduction of 19%. Consumption of coal and natural gas is a different story. The use of
B100 increases coal consumption by 18.6%. This reflects the higher overall use of
electricity in the biodiesel life cycle, relative to petroleum diesel. Electricity consumption

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in the jatropha crushing stage is the dominant factor for biodiesel because of the
mechanical processing and solids handling equipment involved. Natural gas use increases
by 89.5% for B100 versus petroleum diesel. Two factors contribute to this increase:
1) The assumed use of natural gas for the supply of steam and process heat in jatropha
crushing and conversion,
2) The use of natural gas to produce methanol used on the conversion step.
Water consumption is higher for biodiesel, than for petroleum diesel. Water use for
petroleum diesel is not even visible for biodiesel use That is because the biodiesel life
cycle uses water at a rate that is three orders of magnitude higher than that of petroleum
diesel. The impact of this water use is not clear. For instance, when water use is
compared to total wastewater generated, it appears that the biodiesel life cycle generates
far less wastewater. Although water designated as waste is produced in crude oil
production, it can also be used to increase oil recovery by well re-injection. In the
biodiesel life cycle it is consumed during agriculture, and is generally recycled into the
environment for other uses. We offer no simple way to compare water use between the
two life cycles because no simple equivalency exists in its use and final disposition.
Life Cycle Emissions of Regulated and Non regulated Air Pollutants
Regulated air pollutants include the following:
!" !CO
!" !NOx
!" !PM
!" !NMHC
The emissions of these air pollutants are regulated at the tailpipe for diesel engines. SOx
does not have specific tailpipe limits, but it is controlled through sulfur content of the
fuel. Other air emissions included in this study are CH4, benzene, formaldehyde, N2O,
HCl, HF, and NH3. N2O is associated with agricultural field emissions. HCl and HF are
associated with coal combustion in electric power stations. NH3 release occurs primarily
in fertilizer production. In this section, we discuss only those pollutants for which the
most comprehensive and consistent data are available. These include the regulated air
pollutants listed above. PM and HC are reported in different forms, depending on the data
sources available. Benzene and formaldehyde emissions are not consistently reported.
Life Cycle Air Emissions from Petroleum Diesel Life Cycle
The steps of the life cycle included in these results are:
!" !Foreign and domestic crude oil extraction
!" !Transport of crude oil to the refinery (for both foreign and domestic oil)
!" !Production of diesel fuel from crude oil at a domestic oil refinery
!" !Transport of the diesel fuel to bus fleet operators
!" !Diesel fuel use.
It is found that CO2 emissions from the petroleum life cycle were dominated by
emissions at the tailpipe, but this was not true for Total Hydro Carbons (THC). The
largest contributor of THC is the oil refinery, which emits 40.4% of the total life cycle
flow. Domestic and foreign crude production represent the next largest contribution, at
29%. Tailpipe emissions account for 17% of the total. Transport of foreign crude oil is
also a significant contributor, accounting for 10% of the THC released in the life cycle.
THC is the sum of benzene, formaldehyde, hydrocarbons (unspecified), NMHC (Non
Methane Hydrocarbons), and CH4. Similarly, data we report in other parts of this study

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for TPM (total particulate matter) represent the sum of PM and Particulates (unspecified).
This latter category represents the type of particulates measured was not specified.
Unspecified hydrocarbons are not the sum of NMHC and CH4. This is because the
unspecified category of emissions is ambiguous. We do not know if original data sources
were referring to total hydrocarbons or NMHC. This ambiguity is a common problem in
life cycle analysis because of the need to use data collected across a wide range of
sources. The THC emissions that occur before the fuel’s end-use contain a significant
amount of CH4, which comprises 42% of the THC emissions that occur in the diesel fuel
production and distribution steps. Life cycle CH4 releases are credited to oil extraction
and oil refining activities. CH4 emissions in foreign crude oil extraction account for
85.5% of the THC released during this step. Domestic oil production is similar, with CH4
making up 76% of its THC emissions. The rather high percentage of CH4 in the THC
emissions of crude oil extraction reflects the practice of natural gas venting, which is
done to a greater extent in foreign oil production than it is in domestic oil production.
There are two major sources of CH4 emissions for the oil refinery: the direct use of
natural gas and electricity. Both sources involve indirect emissions of CH4 are associated
with the production of natural gas. In total, CH4 represents 34% of the THC released
throughout the life cycle.
CO emissions from the end-use of the fuel overwhelm the contributions of CO from any
other part of the life cycle. CO from the combustion of diesel in the bus represents 94.5%
of the total life cycle emissions. The relative size of the contributions from these steps is
similar to what has been shown for THC. Refining is the next largest contributor after
combustion, representing two-thirds of the non-end-use CO. Total CO emitted from
foreign and domestic crude oil extraction is about half the level of refinery emissions.
In the case of the diesel fuel emissions, the TPM includes only PM, and thus does not
reflect emissions of coarser particulates. The engine tailpipe and the oil refinery are the
two dominant sources of TPM (37% and 38% of the TPM emissions for the life cycle,
respectively). Foreign and domestic crude oil production together contributes 15% of the
life cycle TPM emissions. A comparison of the TPM emissions and SOx emissions for
the petroleum diesel life cycle reveals that these emissions seem to track each other very
closely. The relative contributions for each of these pollutants are similar, especially for
the fuel production and distribution parts of the life cycle. This close tracking of SOx and
PM emissions is not surprising because sulfates are major contributors to the formation of
particulates. The largest contribution of SOx emissions comes from the oil refinery, which
accounts for 48% of the total. Crude oil production contributes another 23%. The
distribution of SOx emissions in the production and distribution stages closely mirrors
that of the process energy requirements for petroleum diesel shown in Figure 88. Diesel
fuel combustion accounts for only 19% of the total SOx emissions.
NOx emissions for the petroleum diesel life cycle are reported. in detail. As with the CO
emissions, NOx emissions are overwhelmed by the impact of the fuel’s end-use. NOx
emissions from the tailpipe of the bus are 96% of the total. Oil refining makes up the bulk
of the remaining 4% of NOx emissions. The distribution of emissions is similar to that of
CO. Oil refining is the dominant source of emissions, accounting for 62% of the non-end-
use combustion emissions of NOx. The importance of NOx emissions from diesel fuel
combustion in diesel engines again increases the impact of diesel fuel transport. This
same effect was observed with CO emissions.

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HCl and HF emissions for the petroleum diesel life cycle are reported. in detail. The
relative contributions of HCl and HF from each step in the life cycle track each other
exactly. These emissions result from the combustion of coal used in electric power
generation. These emissions are indicators of electricity consumption in each step of the
life cycle. Most (81%) of the emissions occurs in crude oil refining and crude oil
production, split almost equally between the two. No discussion is presented on the
emissions of N2O, benzene, formaldehyde, and NH3 because few consistent data were
available on these pollutants across the life cycle of petroleum diesel.
Life Cycle Emissions of Air Pollutants for Biodiesel
The following provides a summary of all of the life cycle air emissions inventories for
biodiesel. The basic steps included are:
!" Jatropha agriculture
!" Transport of beans to jatropha processor (crushing facility)
!" Jatropha oil recovery (at the crusher)
!" Transport of Jatropha oil to a biodiesel facility
!" Conversion of Jatropha oil at a biodiesel facility
!" Transport of biodiesel
!" Use of biodiesel by urban users.
Blends of biodiesel and petroleum diesel such as B20 will have emissions that lie
between those of diesel and biodiesel, in proportion to the percentage of biodiesel
included. Overall emissions for the B20 blend are discussed in the next section on
comparisons of emissions for petroleum diesel and biodiesel blends. As with the
petroleum life cycle discussion, results are analyzed for those pollutants or groups of
pollutants for which a consistent and comprehensive set of data is available.
Combustion of biodiesel accounts for only 8% of the THC emissions. The jatropha
crushing operation contributes 49% of the THC emissions. Jatropha agriculture
contributes 25% of the total life cycle emissions of THC. The next largest contributor to
THC emissions is the soy oil conversion step, representing 17% of the total.
Transportation of seeds, Jatropha oil and biodiesel contribute very little to the overall life
cycle emissions of THC (totaling around 1.5%).
Though we would expect THC emissions to track energy consumption through the life
cycle, this is not the case for jatropha crushing. Even though energy consumption in the
jatropha crushing operation is less than that of biodiesel conversion, jatropha crushing
has emissions of THC that are more than double those of conversion.
Note that THC is the sum of benzene, formaldehyde, hydrocarbons (unspecified), NMHC
(Non Methane Hydrocarbons), and CH4. Similarly, data we report in other parts of this
study for TPM (total particulate matter) represent the sum of PM and Particulates
(unspecified). This latter category represents data in which the type of particulates
measured was not specified. Unspecified hydrocarbons are not the sum of NMHC and
CH4. This is because the unspecified category of emissions is ambiguous. We do not
know if original data sources were referring to total hydrocarbons or NMHC. This
ambiguity is a common problem in life cycle analysis because of the need to use data
collected across a wide range of sources.
The emissions are associated with the production of steam, electricity, natural gas, and
hexane, in addition to the actual crushing operation itself. The crushing operation is
directly responsible for 85% of the THC emissions. Virtually all these emissions are

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attributable to the loss of hexane through vents and leaks in the crushing operation. THC
from jatropha agriculture is predominantly from volatilization of applied chemicals
during farming, which represent 54% of the THC. The combustion products from
gasoline and diesel equipment represent the next largest contributions to THC emissions
from farming. Tractor and truck operations produce 21% of the THC emissions from the
farm. The remaining 25% of farm emissions of THC come from indirect emissions
associated with production of fertilizers and agro-chemicals.
CH4 emissions for the biodiesel life cycle are reported. CH4 is 25% of the THC emissions
from the life cycle for biodiesel, and makes up 27% of the THC emissions from the fuel
production and distribution steps. The biodiesel conversion step is responsible for 51% of
all of the CH4 emissions. Almost all the THC from the conversion step are CH4. This step
introduces indirect emissions of CH4 associated with the production of methanol, which
is used as a co-reactant with jatropha oil in the production of biodiesel. Methanol usage
accounts for 64% of the CH4 emissions from this step. Steam and electricity account for
the rest (27% and 9%, respectively). The relatively large contribution from steam is
because steam production is assumed to use natural gas as its primary energy source. The
sources of CH4 emissions for methanol and steam production are indirect emissions of
natural gas associated with extracting and recovering of natural gas itself.
As with petroleum diesel, biodiesel life cycle emissions of CO are dominated by end-use
combustion of the fuel, which accounts for 77.6% of the total. 73% of the remaining CO
is generated in the jatropha agriculture step, related to the operation of diesel powered
vehicles.
TPM emissions from the life cycle of biodiesel are also reported. Two-thirds of the TPM
are in the unspecified category. PM from the end-use combustion of biodiesel represent
only 18% of the total emissions. Jatropha agriculture emissions are split half-and-half
between PM and unspecified particulates. Half the particulates are from vehicle use and
half are associated with the production of fertilizers used on the farm. Unspecified
particulates from jatropha crushing and soy oil conversion are a result of electricity and
steam consumption. Of the two, electricity production introduces the bulk of the
particulates. This is because steam production is modeled assuming only natural gas as
the primary energy source; electricity from the grid is based on a national average mix of
coal, oil, gas, nuclear, and hydroelectric sources.
SOx emissions from the life cycle for biodiesel are also reported. Jatropha oil conversion
to biodiesel is responsible for 58% of the emissions. The large contribution of SOx from
this step is related to steam production and indirect emissions associated with methanol
production. The use of methanol accounts for 66% of the SOx emissions from this step.
The jatropha crushing step generates SOx through the consumption of steam, natural gas,
and electricity. Farming introduces SOx primarily through consumption of diesel fuel in
tractors and consumption of nitrogen fertilizer. The life cycle emissions are dominated by
emissions from end-use combustion of the fuel. This represents 92% of the total. The
remaining emissions track energy consumption for each step, except the agriculture step.
Emissions on the farm are disproportionately higher because of the contribution of NOx
from diesel tractor emissions.
In the case of petroleum diesel, both of these emissions tracked precisely with electricity
consumption. For biodiesel, this is not the case. HF emissions track very well with
electricity. HCl emissions for soy oil conversion do not track electricity. HCl emissions

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occur as part of sodium methoxide, sodium hydroxide, and HCl production. These
emissions are not related to electricity, but are specific to the production processes for
these raw materials.
Comparison of Life Cycle Air Emissions from Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel
The effect of blending is linear. Thus, increases in HCs for B20 are around 7%. The THC
include CH4. CH4 emissions for B100 and B20 actually drop slightly (2.56% and 0.5%,
respectively). All the CH4 savings occur in the fuel production and distribution steps. The
largest contributor to CH4 emissions in the biodiesel life cycle is the production of
methanol required in the trans-esterification. Thus, another opportunity for reducing
emissions is to substitute current methanol technology with a renewable process that does
not start with natural gas as a feedstock. Likewise, substituting ethanol for methanol
would reduce this source of CH4 emissions. The effect of using ethanol or renewable
methanol is not clear, however. A better understanding of life cycle flows for these
alcohols is needed. Furthermore, ethanol has other effects on the conversion technology
for biodiesel that would have to be assessed.
Life Cycle Emissions of CH4 for Petroleum Diesel, B20, and B100
CO emissions for petroleum diesel, B20, and B100 show dramatic differences in life
cycle emissions. B100 has 34.5% lower emissions of CO on a life cycle basis. Because
tailpipe emissions dominate both petroleum and biodiesel life cycles, the reductions in
CO that occur at the end-use step are key factors in establishing life cycle emissions.
Interpreting the results of the TPM emissions inventories is complicated by the nature of
the data collected. TPM data have been reported as PM (particulate matter of 10 microns
or less) and unspecified particulates. The most prudent way to compare these inventories
is on the basis of TPM, which is the sum of both these types of PM. TPM drop 32.41%
for B100 compared to petroleum diesel. Reductions in PM look better. B100 provides a
44.6% reduction in PM, though this result is ambiguous because of the lack of consistent
data on PM throughout the life cycles of both petroleum diesel and biodiesel.
Comparison of SOx emissions for petroleum diesel and biodiesel blends is done. Even
though biodiesel completely eliminates SOx emissions from the tailpipe, its impact on life
cycle emissions is not that great. B100 reduces SOx emissions by 8.03% compared to
petroleum diesel. There are two reasons for this. First, the relative contribution of SOx
emissions from the tailpipe in the petroleum life cycle is small. Second, SOx emissions in
the fuel production and distribution steps for all these fuels very much depend on process
energy consumption. Biodiesel and petroleum diesel have very similar process energy
demands; thus, they exhibit relatively similar levels of SOx emissions.
Biodiesel increases NOx emissions in diesel engines unless adjustments are made to the
engine, such as retarding of engine timing. Research is already underway to understand
what causes NOx to increase when biodiesel is used and to develop changes to the fuel to
eliminate this problem. The results of this study underscore the importance of this kind of
research for biodiesel. Our engine combustion model predicts a 8.89% increase in NOx at
the tailpipe when B100 is used, but the life cycle emissions for this fuel increase by
13.35%. The increased level of NOx emissions for the life cycle versus the tailpipe
emissions is caused by diesel fuel use in the agriculture step. Blending biodiesel with
petroleum diesel mitigates NOx emissions. B20 has life cycle emissions of NOx that are
2.67% higher than petroleum diesel.

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This affect appears to be smaller based on testing with newer engines. If most new
engines demonstrate the same trend, life cycle NOx emissions for biodiesel may approach
those of petroleum diesel.
Biodiesel reduces HF emissions; by 15.5% for B100 and 3.1% for B20. HF emissions
correlate strongly with electricity consumption. The reduced emissions result from a
reduction in electricity usage compared to petroleum diesel.
Biodiesel has 13.54% higher emissions of HCl on a life cycle basis than petroleum diesel.
In the case of petroleum, HCl emissions correlated with electricity consumption, but
biodiesel’s emissions did not. The use of sodium methoxide, sodium hydroxide, and HCl
increases emissions for biodiesel above those normally associated with power generation.
Potential Effects of Biodiesel as a Diesel Substitute on Life Cycle Air Emissions
One way to summarize the comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel life cycle air
emissions is to consider the relative change in life cycle emissions for each of the two
biodiesel fuels, B20 and B100, using petroleum diesel as a baseline. These changes
demonstrate that all the trends for life cycle emissions predicted by the LCI model are
linear functions of biodiesel blend rate. This should be the case, because the emissions
were modeled independently for each fuel, and no interacting effects associated with
blending of the fuels was assumed. The most important assumption in this regard is for
air emissions. The engine emission tests analyzed for this study support the assumption of
linearity.
The largest difference in air emissions for the two life cycles is for CO. Reductions in CO
reach 34.5% when using B100. In terms of total emissions from diesel fuels, CO is also
the second largest of all the air emissions on a mass basis. CO is a major target of EPA
air quality standards because of its inherent health-related impacts in urban areas. It also
plays a role in smog formation. Biodiesel could, therefore, be an effective tool for
mitigating CO in EPA’s designated CO non-attainment areas. The next largest difference
in air emissions for the two life cycles is for TPM. B100 exhibits life cycle emissions of
TPM that are 32.41% lower than those of petroleum diesel. This improvement is a direct
result of reductions in PM at the tailpipe of the bus. PM emitted from mobile sources is
also a major EPA target because of its role in respiratory disease. Urban areas represent
the greatest risk in terms of numbers of people exposed and level of PM present. Use of
biodiesel in urban buses is potentially a viable option for controlling the emissions of
PM. On a life cycle basis, B100 increases life cycle THC emissions substantially,
compared to petroleum diesel. The major cause of this increase is the release of hexane at
the jatropha crushing facility. It is important to keep in mind that tailpipe emissions of
THC are lower for biodiesel-fueled buses than those for petroleum diesel-fueled buses.
Where localized effects such as ground level ozone formation are concerned, biodiesel
may prove to be beneficial because of its ability to reduce THC emissions that may
contribute to smog in urban areas. Our results point out the need for research and
development on jatropha processing to look for ways to reduce or eliminate the emissions
of hexane.
Life cycle emissions of CH4 emissions are slightly lower for biodiesel, compared to
petroleum diesel. All these emissions occur in the fuel production and utilization steps.
B100 has life cycle emissions of CH4 that are 2.56% lower than those of petroleum
diesel. CH4 has. Among the options under consideration by EPA are regulations that
would control levels of PM. That is, EPA is focusing its attention on the very smallest

139
particles in ambient air. Data collected in this study focus on PM. While our results bode
well for lowering levels of PM, no information is available on the effect of biodiesel on
this new class of smaller particles.
It has long been recognized as a greenhouse gas, with much greater greenhouse gas
potential than CO2. Thus, even though the relative reductions of CH4 are small, the
benefits of biodiesel’s impact on greenhouse gas effects could be substantial. Perhaps the
next most critical pollutant from the perspective of human health and environmental
quality is NOx. The triumvirate of CO, THC, and NOx is the key to controlling smog in
urban areas. The relative importance of each of these precursors is not at all clear,
because they interact in a complex set of chemical reactions catalyzed by sunlight. When
biodiesel is used as a substitute for petroleum diesel, it effectively reduces tailpipe
emissions of two of the three smog precursors (CO and THC). However, it increases NOx
emissions. B100 exhibits 13.35% higher emissions of NOx than petroleum diesel on a life
cycle basis, mostly due to increases of NOx that occur at the tailpipe. It is almost an
aphorism in the engine industry that PM and NOx emissions are two sides of a technology
trade-off. Biodiesel seems to fit this observation. Dealing with this trade-off involves a
combination of fuel research and engine technology research. With these two degrees of
freedom, solutions are potentially achievable that meet the tougher future standards for
NOx without sacrificing the other benefits of this fuel. Life cycle emissions of SOx are
reduced by only 8% when B100 is used as a diesel fuel substitute. This is a relatively low
reduction given that biodiesel completely eliminates SOx at the tailpipe. The amount of
SOx in the emissions from a diesel engine is a function of sulfur content in the fuel. With
this in mind, EPA regulates sulfur content in diesel fuel, rather than regulating the
tailpipe emissions. The latest requirements for diesel fuel include 0.05 wt% sulfur for on-
highway fuel. Biodiesel can eliminate SOx emissions because it is sulfur-free.
HCl and HF are emitted in very low levels as a part of the life cycles of both petroleum
diesel. Both occur as a result of coal combustion in electric power generation. HF levels
drop with biodiesel in proportion to the amount of electricity consumed over the life
cycle of the fuel. This amounts to 15.51% reductions for B100. HCl emissions, on the
other hand, increase with biodiesel blend. Biodiesel has additional sources of HCl
associated with the production and use of inorganic acids and bases used in the
conversion step. B100 increases emissions of HCl by 13.54%.
Tailpipe Emissions for Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel
Unlike CO2 emissions, the air pollutants from diesel engines that are regulated by EPA
tend to have more localized effects. Effects of CO, THC, NOx, and TPM (particularly PM
below 10 micron) are acutely important in localized urban areas. Therefore, it is
important to understand emission levels at the engine tailpipe as well as on a life cycle
basis. Furthermore, as the previous discussion illustrates, life cycle emissions of the
regulated air pollutants are substantially different from what is seen at the tailpipe. With
these points in mind, we present in this section a discussion centered on a comparison of
the tailpipe emissions from biodiesel and petroleum diesel. We contrast life cycle and
tailpipe emissions for each pollutant, with some indication of the relative importance of
one versus the other. The tailpipe emissions presented here are based entirely on the
extensive review of engine performance and engine emissions data for petroleum diesel
and biodiesel, as presented in the section on urban bus operations.

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While methane is a more potent greenhouse gas, its half-life in the atmosphere is less
than that of carbon dioxide. These complications in understanding the impact of each
pollutant illustrate why we have avoided making quantitative judgements about the life
cycle impacts of biodiesel. We leave it to others to evaluate the comparative inventories
of biodiesel and diesel in terms of their positive and negative impacts.
The bus engines emissions were used as a baseline for modeling diesel engine emissions
for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. The emissions of NMHC, PM, CO and NOx are
actually monitored by EPA on a normalized basis of 1 bhp-h of delivered work (the same
functional basis used in the LCI for this study). The SOx emission shown in this table is
based on diesel engine performance for current low-sulfur diesel as designated for on-
highway use.
Changes in performance for the engines when operated on biodiesel were predicted using
generalized correlations of engine emissions data to predict relative changes for a given
engine. The results of the LCI model should only be used to evaluate comparative
performance of diesel engines operating petroleum diesel and biodiesel. Emission results
presented here should not be used to judge absolute performance of engines operating on
these fuels against EPA regulations, because they do not reflect emission levels of
specific engines.
Tailpipe emissions for these regulated pollutants are studied for petroleum diesel, B20,
and B100. Biodiesel’s greatest impacts are, in order of importance, on SOx, PM, NMHC,
and CO emissions. SOx emissions are completely eliminated when neat biodiesel is used
because biodiesel is sulfur free. By contrast, the life cycle reductions of SOx for B100 are
only 8%. B20 provides a 20% reduction in sulfur. B100 and B20 reduce tailpipe
emissions of PM by 68% and 13.6%, respectively. NMHC is reduced by 36.70% when
B100 is used, and by 7.3% when B20 is used. CO emissions from the tailpipe drop by
46.23% and 9.3%, respectively, when B100 and B20 are used. Biodiesel’s effects on CO,
NMHC, and PM are due to the fact that this fuel contains molecular oxygen, and thus
improves overall combustion. Biodiesel actually causes an increase in NOx emissions.
B100 has tailpipe emissions that are 8.89% higher than those of petroleum diesel. At the
lower level of biodiesel in B20, this effect is reduced to about 2%. Changes in engine
timing can effect a trade-off between TPM and NOx emissions on current engines.
Smaller changes in NOx emissions for B100 and B20 have been observed in current
research programs on new engine models, but it is still to early to predict whether all or
just a few future engines will display this characteristic.
Not only does biodiesel reduce the total level of particulates emitted at the tailpipe of a
diesel engine, but it also changes the character of the particulates emitted. As discussed in
the section on urban bus operations, PM consists of a soot fraction and a VOF. The soot,
which is carbon produced by pyrolysis reactions during combustion, drops dramatically
as biodiesel is added to the fuel blend. Biodiesel has a greater impact on soot. B100 emits
83.6% less soot than petroleum diesel. B20 reduces soot by 22%. Although the
environmental impacts of reducing soot versus TPM are not clear120, there is an
aesthetic benefit associated with significantly less visible smoke observed from the
tailpipe. For urban bus operators, this translates to improved public relations.
Mauderly, in a recent paper from Lovelace Laboratories, a leading research firm in health
effects of diesel and biodiesel particulate matter, provides a theory and data that claim

141
soot leads to cancerous growths in mice populations. The effect on human populations is
under debate.
A number of waterborne effluents were tracked, through the life cycles for petroleum
diesel and biodiesel such as BOD and COD. Specific data are presented for each part of
the life cycles in the previous sections. However, relatively few data were consistently
available. Therefore, the comparisons of the two life cycles are limited to total flow of
wastewater. Foreign and domestic crude oil extraction account for 78% of the total
wastewater flow. Only about 12% is associated with the refinery.. Two-thirds of the total
wastewater flows in the life cycle for biodiesel come from the soy oil conversion process.
This step in the life cycle generates relatively dilute wastewater containing oil and soap
from the processing of the jatropha oil.
Life Cycle Flows of Solid Waste
Solid waste from the two life cycles is classified as hazardous or non-hazardous.
Hazardous waste is derived almost entirely from the crude oil refining process. The minor
levels of solid waste that show up in foreign crude transport and diesel fuel transport are
indirect flows of solid waste attributable to diesel fuel consumption in the transportation
process. Total hazardous waste generation amounts to 0.41 g/bhp-h of engine work.
Just over half of the non-hazardous waste is generated in the crude oil refining step.
Another one-third is generated in the foreign and domestic crude oil extraction steps.
Total nonhazardous waste generation is 2.8 g/bhp-h.
Hazardous waste amounts to only 0.018 g/bhp-h of engine work. Surprisingly, the most
significant source of this hazardous waste is farming. Jatropha agriculture produces 70%
of the hazardous waste from the entire life cycle. An inspection of the sources of
hazardous waste from farming reveals that these flows are indirect charges against
agriculture for hazardous waste flows associated with the production of diesel and
gasoline used on the farm. Likewise, the remaining hazardous waste in the life cycle for
biodiesel stems from fuel use for transport of materials. Non-hazardous solid waste from
the biodiesel life cycle is summarized in Figure 160. Biodiesel generates 6.1 grams of
non-hazardous waste per brake horsepower-hour of engine work. B100 reduces
hazardous waste by 96% compared to petroleum diesel. Non-hazardous waste, on the
other hand, is twice as high for B100. Given the more severe impact of hazardous versus
non-hazardous waste disposal, this is a reasonable trade-off.
Sensitivity Studies
The purpose of conducting sensitivity studies on the life cycle of biodiesel is to establish
the potential range for improvement in the fuel, and to establish the range of possible
error associated with the assumptions made in the model. The LCI assumes a “current”
time frame that is, we are looking at existing agriculture, conversion technology, and
engine technology within a short-term horizon. This sets realistic limitations on the
bounds of the assumptions used in the model. In each step in the life cycle, we have
considered where the potential for near-term improvements is. In agriculture, there is
certainly the possibility of genetic engineering designed to improve the per acre yield of
oil in jatropha. The potential for such improvements is probably outside the time frame of
this study, especially because any such changes in the jatropha will be carefully
considered against the risk of reducing meal productivity. Meal is the primary product
from jatropha, and any alterations that switch the product mix from beans toward oil may
not be desirable to the economics of the crop. In looking at the range of potential

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improvements in agriculture, we therefore limited ourselves to the range of possible
efficiencies in jatropha farming today in the United States. We chose to study the effect
of producing and selling biodiesel in an optimal jatropha-growing region. This puts the
marketplace close to one of the most efficient jatropha-growing regions.
Jatropha crushing operations are based on well-established technology. Our model for
jatropha crushing is based on detailed operating information on a current jatropha
processor. Our results compare well with other published data on material and energy
balances for this type facility. We did not consider any scenarios for improving the
jatropha crushing process. Future efforts in evaluating the life cycle of biodiesel
production should look at this part of the life cycle. Alternatives to current hexane-based
technology exist. These alternatives, as well as strategies for controlling hexane
emissions from existing plants, should be explored since hexane emissions represent the
bulk of the life cycle THC emissions. Biodiesel conversion technology is also quite old.
The commercial facility used in the LCI model is more than 40 years old. The technology
developments for trans-esterification of jatropha oil date back to the
early part of this century. At first glance, it would appear that there is little potential
variation for this part of the biodiesel life cycle. This turns out not to be the case. The
recent interest in trans-esterification technology for biodiesel production has spurred a
great deal of technology development in the past 15 years. Much of this activity has
occurred in Europe, where new biodiesel production facilities have come on line in great
numbers. Therefore, we decided that this area warranted further evaluation because if the
industry expands, we assume investors and developers will choose to use the most
efficient technologies available compared to the older technology currently in place in the
United States. Like biodiesel production technology, diesel engine technology has gone
through rapid change in the past decade, driven for the most part by the demand for
improved emissions. We nevertheless chose not to evaluate this area. A great deal of new
information is soon to be available on the performance of new engines designed to meet
stricter standards for PM and NOx. Rather than try to predict where this technology is
going, and what its impact on biodiesel might be, we simply state here that new engines
are being tested that may solve the problem of increased NOx emissions.
The Effect of an Enhanced Location for Biodiesel Production and Use
As indicated in the previous section, we studied the effect of placing biodiesel production
and use in an ideal location, in lieu of the assumed national average conditions used in
the base case inventory. The location provides a good outlet for biodiesel sales for the
urban bus end-use we modeled. More importantly, it allows us to consider near-term
access to some of the best jatropha farmlands. This scenario reduces the distances
required to move beans, oil, and biodiesel, and allows us to take advantage of high
yielding jatropha agriculture. The reduced distance for shipping of jatropha oil is based
on an evaluation of the location of crushing facilities to potential market locations. The
results of the model with these assumptions is presented for B100, with the understanding
that the improvements or worsening in life cycle emissions relative to petroleum diesel
are proportional to the blend level.

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CHAPTER 21
CULTIVATION of JATROPHA CURCAS

Introduction : The Greening represents a huge challenge for the Indian Government.
Forestation has a very important role in meeting this challenge. Several initiatives
have been taken in recent years in different parts of the country to promote
forestation. The Indian Administration is now taking up cultivation of Jatropha
curcas in many sites of the country, especially due to use of Jatropha curcas oil for
the fuel manufacture.
Botanical Features : It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes
a whitish colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five
meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable
conditions.
Leaves : It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to
five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis.
Flowers : The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in
the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually
slightly larger and occurs in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth
occurs, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher
number of female flowers.
Fruits : Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce
several crops during the year, if soil moisture is good and temperatures are
sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more
ovoid fruits. A three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy
exocarp dries.
Seeds : The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow,
after two to four months from fertilization. The blackish, thin shelled seeds are oblong
and resemble small castor seeds.
Ecological Requirements : Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere, even on
gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow
even in the crevices of rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch
around the base of the plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-
worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the
fertility of the soil. Climatically, Jatropha curcas is found in the tropics and
subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can
withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long
periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss.
Jatropha curcas is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes.
Analysis of the Jatropha curcas seed shows the following chemical composition:
!" Moisture 6.20 %
!" Protein 18.00 %
!" Fat 38.00 %
!" Carbohydrates 17.00 %
!" Fiber 15.50 %
!" Ash 5.30 %
The oil content is 25 – 32% in the seeds and 50 – 60% in the kernel. The oil contains
21% saturated fatty acids and 79% unsaturated fatty acids. There are some chemical
elements in the seed which are poisonous and render the oil not appropriate for human
consumption.

144
Oil as Raw material : Oil has a very high saponification value and is being
extensively used for making soap in some countries. Also, the oil is used as an
illuminant as it burns without emitting smoke.
Medicinal plant : The latex of Jatropha curcas contains an alkaloid known as
jatrophine, which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. It is also used as an
external application for skin diseases and rheumatism and for sores on domestic
livestock. In addition, the tender twigs of the plant are used for cleaning teeth, while
the juice of the leaf is used as an external application for piles. Finally, the roots are
reported to be used as an antidote for snake-bites.
Raw material for dye : The bark of Jatropha curcas yields a dark blue dye which is
used for colouring cloth, fishing nets and lines.
Soil enrichment : Jatropha curcas oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and
potassium and can be used as organic manure.
Feed : Jatropha leaves are used as food for the tusser silkworm.
Insecticide / pesticide : The seeds are considered anthelimintic in Brazil, and the
leaves are used for fumigating houses against bed-bugs. Also, the ether extract shows
antibiotic activity against Styphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
Alternative to Diesel : It is significant to point out that, the non-edible vegetable oil
of Jatropha curcas has the requisite potential of providing a promising and
commercially viable alternative to diesel oil since it has desirable physicochemical
and performance characteristics comparable to diesel. Cars could be run with
Jatropha curcas without requiring much change in design.
The chemical analysis of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand) oil
ITEM VALUE
Acid value 38.2
Saponification value 195.0
Iodine value 101.7
o
Viscosity (31 C) cp 40.4
Fatty acids composition
Palmitic acid % 4.2
Stearic acid % 6.9
Oleic acid % 43.1
Linoleic acid % 34.3
Other acids % 1.4
The comparison of properties of Jatropha curcas oil and standard specifications
of diesel oil :
Standard
Standard specification of
Specification specification of
Jatropha curcas oil
Diesel
Specific gravity 0.9186 0.82 / 0.84
°
Flash point 240 / 110 C 50°C
Carbon residue 0.64 0.15 or less
Cetane value 51.0 > 50.0
°
Distillation point 295 C 350°C
Kinematics Viscosity 50.73 cs > 2.7 cs
Sulfur % 0.13 % 1.2 % or less

145
Calorific value 9,470 kcal/kg 10,170 kcal/kg
°
Pour point 8C 10°C
Colour 4.0 4 or less
Physical and chemical properties of diesel fuel and Jatropha curcas oil.
Property Jatropha curcas Oil Diesel Oil
Viscosity (cp) (30°C) 52.6 (5.51) 3.60
Speciflc gravity (15°C/4°C) 0.917/ 0.923(0.881) 0.841 / 0.85
Solidfying Point (°C) 2.0 0.14
Cetane Value 51.0 (38) 47.8 to 59
Flash Point (°C) 110 /340 80
< 0.05 to
Carbon Residue (%) 0.64
< 0.15
Distillation (°C) 284 to 295 < 350 to < 370
Sulfur (%) 0.13 to 0.16 < 1.0 to 1.2
Acid Value 1.0 to 38.2
Saponification Value 188 to 198
Iodine Value 90.8 to 112.5
Refractive Index (30°C) 1.47
As one of the most important oilseed grower, producer, importer and exporter, India is
one of the four major players in the vegetable oil scenario of the world. Vegetable oil
scenario is complex and is highly influenced by market sources, conflicting interests,
policies of the government, income of the consumers, demands of industry,
economies of production, correction and processing vagaries of weather, technology
and various biotic and abiotic problems.
For mitigating climate change by reducing emission of green house gases, meeting
rural energy needs, protecting the environment and generating gainful employment,
Jatropha curcas has multiple role to play. All attempts to increase its production and
productivity, oil extraction by application of appropriate technology, product
development and diversification and policies that will protect and promote national
interest would be welcome.
Undertaking plantation of Jatropha curcas and collection of seed, processing of seeds
for producing oil will be a part of processing it to biodiesel. The oil cake is rich in
nutrients and will give bio-gas and very good compost for our soils which are getting
increasingly deficient in carbon and nutrients. Every component of the program will
generate massive employment for the poor belonging to the Scheduled Tribes,
Scheduled castes and other under privileged categories living mostly in backward
areas which have experienced the adverse impact of forest degradation, and loss of
natural resources.
Jatropha Curcas – Source of Biodiesel: There are many tree species which bear
seeds rich in oil. Of these some promising tree species have been evaluated and it has
been found that there are a number of them such as Jatropha curcas and Pongamia
Pinnata (‘Honge’ or ‘Karanja’) which would be very suitable in our conditions.
However, Jatropha curcas has been found the most suitable tree specie for the
reasons summarized below:
!""It can be grown as a quick yielding plant even in adverse land situations, viz.
degraded and barren lands under forest and non-forest use, dry and drought prone
areas, marginal lands and as agro forestry crop. It can be planted on fallow lands and

146
along farmers field boundaries as hedge because it does not grow too tall as well as on
vacant lands alongside railways, highways, irrigation canals and unused lands in
townships etc. under Public / Private Sector Undertakings.
!""The seeds of Jatropha are available during the non-rainy season, which facilitates
better collection and processing. The cost of plantation is largely incurred in the first
year and improved planting material can make a huge difference in yield.
!""Raising Jatropha plant and its maintenance creates jobs for the rural poor,
particularly the land less, in plantation and primary processing through expellers.
!""It has multiple uses and after the extraction of oil from the seeds, the oil cake left
behind is an excellent organic manure, the bio mass of Jatropha curcas enriches the
soil and it can also be put to other uses.
!""Retains soil moisture and improve land capability and environment.
!""Jatropha adds to the capital stock of the farmers and the community, for sustainable
generation of income and employment.
Jatropha Curcas was the most neglected plant so far. It can grow wildly. Now it has
acquired significance, because
!" It can provide raw material for the production of Bio-Fuels.
!" Low demands in terms of cultivation, water and soil quality with resulting
suitability for degraded, unused and drought prone lands.
!" Leaves and fruits are non edible, which stop stress passing (if grown on hedges)
and browsing by animals, but can be used as nutrient rich fertilizer and as
windbreak, thus conserving soil humidity.
!" A nut, whose oil can be used or processed for any energy purposes, such as,
lighting, soap manufacture and for pharmaceuticals, varnish and plant protection.
!" Wooden parts of the plant can be used for reforestation, home for bees and birds,
and as firewood in rural areas.
BioDiesel is being manufactured in a number of Developed countries, who depend on
Developing countries for supply of raw oil. Due to this, Jatropha Plantation is
suddenly in Limelight. It is the widely talked about plant in the world today.
Reasons for Past Failures :
!" Inconsistent approaches and exaggerated expectations concerning yields, input-
output relations and resulting incomes.
!" Lack of knowledge and wrong and misleading information about requirement of
water, sunlight, nutrients & fertilizer, pruning of branches to get better fruit yield.
The main tree born seeds with potential for biodiesel manufacture are
!" Jatropha curcas or Ratanjyot
!" Pongomia pinnata or Karanj
!" Mahuca indica or Mahua
!" Neem
The advantage is clearly in favor of Jatropha due to the following reasons.
!" Oil yield per hectare of plantation, is among the highest of tree borne oil seeds.
!" It can be grown in areas of low rainfall (at least 500 mm per year) and in
problem soils. In high rainfall and irrigated areas, it can be grown with much
higher yields. Therefore, it can be grown in most parts of the country.
!" Jatropha is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and is hardy.
!" Jatropha lends itself to plantation with advantage on lands developed on
watershed basis and on low fertility marginal, degraded, fallow, waste and
other lands such as along the canals, roads, railway tracks, on borders of
farmers’ fields as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid / semi-arid areas

147
and even on alkaline soils. As such it can be used to reclaim waste lands in the
forests and outside.
!" Jatropha fruits are easy to collect as they are ready to be plucked after the
winter season and as the plants are not very tall.
!" Jatropha is not browsed by animals.
!" Being rich in nitrogen, the seed cake is an excellent source for manufacture of
Bio Fertilizer.
!" Seed production ranges from about 0.4 ton / hector per year to over 12 tons /
hector per year.
!" The plant gives seeds in a maximum period of two years after planting.
!" Raising plants in nurseries, planting and maintaining them and collection of
seed are labor intensive activities. Except for the cost of seeds, plastic bags,
fertilizer and transportation of the plants from the nursery, all the activities in
the nurseries and in planting consist of labour. It requires 311 mandays of
work to plant in 1 hector of land.
!" Various parts of the plant are of medicinal value, its bark contains tannin, the
flowers attract bees and thus the plant has potential of production of honey.
!" Like all trees, Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere, stores it in the
woody tissues and assists in the build up of soil carbon. It is thus environment
friendly.
!" Jatropha can be established from seed, seedlings and vegetatively from
cuttings. Use of branch cutting for propagation is easy and results in rapid
growth.
!" The plant is undemanding in soil type and does not require much tillage.
Most of the soils in South India are favorable for Jatropha Plantation. The plantation
and down stream processing is going to provide large scale opportunities for poorer
sections of society. In places like Rajasthan in India, there are large plantations of
these, which proves that it can grow well in desert lands using drip irrigation facility.
References are found in Ayurved (Indian Medicinal Practice) about Jatropha. Plenty
of information is available in it, especially about its medicinal value. Now it is gaining
popularity as a sturdy bush which can grow in scanty rain fall areas, and providing
rich dividends.
Portuguese seamen brought some varieties of this plant to India from tropical
countries of Central America in 16th century. Its origin lies in Central America and
Africa. Portuguese imported and cultivated this plant in India for its medicinal values.
It was propagated all over India only for its medicinal values. Today these grow
wildly in all Tropical and sub-tropical regions.
There are a number of varieties of Jatropha. Some of them are
!" Jatropha curcas (nontoxic)
!" J. curcas x J integrerrima
!" Jatropha gossypifolia
!" Jatropha glandulifera
!" Jatropha tanjorensis
!" Jatropha multifida
!" Jatropha podagrica
!" Jatropha integerrima
It has 200 names in different languages and in different parts of the world. This shows
how far and wide it has spread.
In India it is known by different names in Regional Languages.

148
1. Sanskrut : Kanan-Erand, Parvat-Erand
2. Hindi : Bhagirend, Jangli-Erand, Safed-Erand
3. Marathi : Van-Erand, Ran-Erand, Mogli-Erand, ChandraJyot, Chandri
4. Gujrathi : RatanJyot, JamalGota, ParshiErand, KalaErand
5. Telgu : Nepalamu, Paddanepalamu, AdaviyaHaralu,
6. Tamil : KadalaManuku, RatManukku,
7. Kannada : KadhalaVanakka, BettadaHaralu, Marahalu, Karnochi
8. Odiya : KattaVanakka, KadhalaVanakka, Jahangba
9. Asami : Bongoli Bhotora
10. Punjabi : JamalGota, KalaErand.
It is classified under a generic name of ERAND. It grows wildly as a big tree, or as a
cluster of number of bushes, packed very closely, in wild. Whether it is a tree or a
bush, it is always green. Depending on local climatic conditions, these can grow 7 to
10 meters tall, but in rain-fed areas these grow only 2 to 3 meters tall. In jungle, 3 or 4
plants grow together, as if it is one tree. In case of plantation, it is grown as 1 trunk
and 2 branches at every node. In jungle its trunk can be 200 to 250 mm in perimeter,
but in plantation it can be only 100 to 120 mm. On fully grown trunk and branches,
there are layers of darker color. These peel out if you rub on it. If trunk, branches or
leaves are cut, an off-white latex flows down the tree. The leaves are 100 to 150 mm
or 70 to 100 mm in size. These are broad, egg-shaped with a heart shape. Its ends are
lobes of 3 to 5 fingers. The periphery of the leaves are cut like saw-teeth. The edges
are sharper. The surface of the leaves is extremely soft and sticky. Since the leaves are
bitter in taste, no cattle likes to eat it.
Bunches of flowers grow at the end of the branches. The central bunches generally
have female flowers while the outer ones are male flowers. The fruits are 25mm long
and oblong. In the beginning these are green. As these ripen, these turn yellowish with
golden tinge. On drying, these darken and when fully dry, these are black. When these
dry fruits are peeled, 1 seed each are found in 3 pockets. These fresh seeds are oblong,
gray in color and resemble castor seeds. But it is smaller than castor seed. The seeds
are 10 to 20 mm long and weigh 0.5 to 0.7 grams. In India, number of flowers peak in
July / August and these start ripening in September. Maximum seeds are available in
the month of October to December.

149
CHAPTER 22
Oil Bearing Trees
Jatropha curcas
One of the main crops currently being promoted for biodiesel production in several
countries, globally, is Jatropha curcas. There have been substantial political and social
pressures to promote the growing of such crops (in particular Jatropha curcas) in
India, as a means of economic empowerment, social upliftment and poverty
alleviation within marginalized communities.
Jatropha is a valuable multi-purpose crop to improve soil degradation, desertification
and deforestation, which can be used for biodiesel to replace petroleum diesel, for
soap production and climatic protection, and hence deserves specific attention.
Jatropha can help to increase rural incomes, self-sustainability and alleviate poverty
for women, elderly, children and men, tribal communities, small farmers. It can as
well help to increase income from plantations and agro-industries.
Government of India has selected the plant for National Program compared to others
due to followings:
!" Low cost seeds
!" High oil content
!" Small gestation period
!" Growth on good and degraded soil
!" Growth in low and high rainfall areas
!" Seeds can be harvested in non-rainy season
!" Plant size is making collection of seeds more convenient
Of all the above prospective plant candidates as bio-diesel yielding sources, Jatropha
curcas is standing at the top and sufficient information on this plant is already
available. There are a number of concerns regarding the use of Jatropha curcas for the
production of biodiesel. These are
!" potential invasiveness
!" potential impact on hydrology
!" economic viability
!" potential social impact
!" demand and marketability
!" use and disposal of by-products
!" suitable cultivation regions and requirements.
The strategy to promote the crop should include evolving optimum agronomic
practices under irrigated and rain fed cultivation. The yield potential may be recorded
for direct sowing of seeds and using cuttings. Proper extension service would be
crucial especially in the new areas. To realize better returns marketing support at least
in the initial years would be necessary. Some arrangements need to be made to ensure
disposal of crop produce. Finally, supply of healthy seeds / cutting would be an
important factor for the successful adoption and diffusion of this new plantation crop
enterprise.
The cultivation of jatropha on wasteland has the potential both to produce a green fuel
that will reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and create much-needed rural jobs. India
has the potential to be a leading world producer of diesel, but farmers need to know
that there is going to be a good market for what they produce. We are very keen to
build that confidence and promote jatropha cultivation by assisting planting, buying
the seeds for refining and providing the refining technology to enable growers to
make their own biodiesel.

150
There are many tree species which bear seeds rich in oil having properties of an
excellent fuel and which can be processed into a diesel-substitute. Of these some
promising tree species have been evaluated and it has been found that there are a
number of them such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge or Karanj) and Jatropha curcas
which would be very suitable in our conditions: However, to start the program, the
advantage is clearly in favour of Jatropha due to the following reasons.
!" Oil yield per hectare is among the highest of tree borne oil seeds.
!" It can be grown in areas of low rainfall (200 mm per year) and in
problematical soils. In high rainfall and irrigated areas too it can be grown
with much higher yields. Therefore, it can be grown in most parts of the
country.
!" Jatropha is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and is hardy.
!" Jatropha lends itself to plantation with advantage on lands developed on
watershed basis and on low fertility marginal, degraded, fallow, waste and
other lands such as along the canals, roads railway tracks, on borders of
farmers’ fields as a boundary fence or live hedge in the arid/semi-arid areas
and even on alkaline soils. As such it can be used to reclaim waste lands in the
forests and outside.
!" Jatropha seeds are easy to collect as they are ready to be plucked before the
rainy season and as the plants are not very tall.
!" Jatropha is not browsed by animals.
!" Being rich in nitrogen, the seed cake is an excellent source of plant nutrients.
!" Seed production ranges from about 0.4 tons per hectare per year to over 12
tons / hector.
!" The plant starts giving seed in a maximum period of two years after planting.
!" Raising plants in nurseries, planting and maintaining them and collection of
seed are labour intensive activities. Except for the cost of fertilizer and
transportation of the plants from the nursery, all the activities in the nurseries
and in planting consist of labour.
!" Various parts of the plant are of medicinal value, its bark contains tannin, the
flowers attract bees and thus the plant has honey production potential.
!" Like all trees, Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere, stores it in the
woody tissues and assists in the build up of soil carbon. It is thus environment
friendly.
!" Jatropha can be established from seed, seedlings and vegetatively from
cuttings. Use of branch cutting for propagation is easy and results in rapid
growth.
!" The plant is undemanding in soil type and does not require tillage.
The experience in India and elsewhere, a plant density of 2500 per hectare (spacing of
2 X 2 meters) has been found to be optimal - although in one trial in rain-fed areas on
poor soils a lower plant density of 1666 has been felt to be more desirable. In suitable
plantation Jatropha gives about 2 kgs of seed per tree. In relatively poor soils such as
in Kutch (Gujrat) the yields have been reported to be 1 kg per plant while in lateritic
soils of Nashik (Maharashtra), the seed yields have been reported between 0.75 kg to
1.00 kg per tree. If planted in hedges, the reported productivity of Jatropha is from 0.8
kg. – 1.0 kg. of seed per meter of live fence This is equivalent to seed production of
between 2.25 tons / hector and 5 tons / hector, depending upon whether the soils are
poor or average for plantations and between 2.5 tons / hector / annum. and 3.5 tons /
hector / annum for hedges. Assuming a square plot, a fence around it will have a

151
length of 400 sq. meters and a production of 0.4 MT of seed. A hedge along one
hectare will be equal to 0.1 hectare of block plantation.
Assuming oil content of 35% and 94% extraction, one hectare of plantation will give
1.6 MT of oil if the soil is average, 0.75 MT if the soil is lateritic, and 1.0 MT if the
soil is of the type found in Kutch (Gujarat). One hectare of plantation on average soil
will on an average give 1.6 Metric Tons of oil. Plantation per hectare on poorer soils
will give 0.9 MT of oil.
It can meet a number of objectives such as meeting domestic needs of energy services
including cooking and lighting; as an additional source of household income and
employment through markets for fuel, fertilizer, animal feed medicine, and industrial
raw material for soap, cosmetics, etc. in creating environmental benefits – protection
of crops or pasture lands, or as a hedge for erosion control, or as a windbreak and a
source of organic manure.
Intercropping
Castor is the best crop for intercropping. In India, it is grown on 713,000 hectors of
rain fed land and it yields 575,000 tons of castor seeds per year. Exports of castor oil
from India are to the tune of 200,000 to 225,000 tons. India is the largest producer and
exporter of castor oil and its share is 60 to 70% of world trade. It has large export
potential, as a raw material for manufacture of BioDiesel.
Since the roots of castor penetrate deep into soil, and get water from deep soil, it is
good for drought prone areas. The oil is currently used for medicinal purposes and as
lubricant or as raw material for colours, soap as well as manufacture of castor oil
derivatives. There is a great demand from industrialized countries for the castor oil.
India exports large quantities of castor oil. The cake is used as organic fertilizer.
In India, it is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujrath, Tamilnadu, Maharashtra
and UP. It is largely cultivated in drought prone areas where rain fall is 380 to 500
mm per year. This can be cultivated as cash crop in areas where rainfall is good and
reliable. The crop needs hot and humid climate. It can grow in lands with small soil
layer on rocks.
The land is fertilized with 60 kgs of N and 40 kgs of P per hector. Half of this amount
is spread very close to seeds just before the time of plantation. Rest half is spread just
at the time of flowering, or after 45 days of plantation.
Plantation is done by putting seeds in the soil on the onset of monsoon. If monsoon is
delayed, it is planted later. Western 6 or other hybrid verities are generally planted. It
is planted in square formation of 900 x 450 mm. 2 seeds are planted 30 to 50 mm
deep. 10 to 20 kgs of seeds is required per hector of plantation. For Aruna castor, it is
planted in square formation of 600 x 300 mm. 20 to 22 kgs of seeds is required per
hector of plantation. Girija Aruna verity can yield production in 160 days. In good
soil, it can bear fruits a bit later. Hence you can get higher production. This verity can
yield crop for a number of years.
After 10 15 days, the saplings can be replanted in square formation of 300 x 450 mm.
One good sapling is retained at the point and other weaker sapling is removed. The
weeds in the field are removed every 15 days.
Castor requires 500 to 650 mm of rain water. The crop is sensitive to high rain fall.
Short height hybrid verities are good for low water supply. If water supply is more,
the flowering is delayed. To avoid this water supply is stopped for some time. This
leads to higher rate of flowering and higher yields. Water should be available during
flowering period.

152
Before collection of fruits and seeds, water supply should be cut off for 3 to 4 weeks.
Once the fruits are formed, it does not require water supply. It can anyway absorb
water from the soil.
It is infected by some insects and camel worms, and it results in loss of production. If
some insects or camel worms are found after 15 days of plantation, pesticides such as
sumithion or quinolphos are sprayed on it. Sumithion 50 EC is mixed with 200 ml of
water or quinolphos 25 EC is mixed with 500 ml of water and sprayed on the crop. If
camel worms spreads very widely, it has to be picked manually and destroyed in
kerosene pot. It needs to be protected for first 1 to 2 months from camel worm. Later
it is not attacked by camel worm. Some pests might attack the fruits, which can be
destroyed using same pesticides.
Fruits dry on the plant. These are then plucked and dried for 4 to 5 days. These can be
dehulled by machine or manually. Seeds are separated and cleaned. 1,000 to 1,500
kgs of seeds can be cultivated from 1 hector of rain fed good quality soil and 800 to
1,000 kgs from medium quality soil. If it is irrigated, there can a number of crops, and
it can yield 2,000 to 2,500 kgs of seeds.
Comparison with other crops : It can yield crop in 5 to 6 months. 7.5 to 10 kgs of
seeds are required for plantation in 1 hector. It can be cultivated round the year. Since
roots penetrate deeper, less water is sufficient. Seeds can be stored for 2 years. Less
problems from pests compared to other crops. It can sustain changes in weather very
easily.
SPECIFICATION FOR RAW JATROPHA OIL.
Specific Gravity: 0.840 - 0.920
Saponification number: 189 - 195
Iodine number: 90 - 102
Unsaponifiable matter: % < 1.0
FFA preferably < 2.0% w/w
Water content < 1000 ppm
Phosphorus < 20 ppm w/w
Sulphur < 50 ppm
Iodine Value (mg / 100g) < 120
Fatty Acid Profile:
Myristic Acid: 0.38 %
Palmitic Acid: 16.0 % max.
Palmitoleic Acid: 1 - 3.5 %
Stearic Acid: 6 - 7.0 %
Oleic Acid: 42 -43.5 %
Linoleic Acid: 33 - 34.4 %
Linolenic Acid: >0.80 %
Arachidic Acid: 0.20 %
Gadoleic Acid: 0.12 %
Jatropha oil is hygroscopic – absorbs water and needs nitrogen blanketing on steel
tanks. We are learning more and more about the properties of Jatropha. One issue
that is quite clear is that, because Jatropha is high in acid, it has the tendency to
degrade quickly, particularly if not handled properly through the supply chain. Right
from the time of expelling, the oil needs to be kept in storage conditions that prevent
undue degradation. Exposure to air and moisture must be minimized - hence the need
for nitrogen blanket on the tanks.
The range of fatty acids present in the various seeds will differ but the oil and
biodiesel that is produced must be acceptable. However, this assumes that that oil is

153
fully degummed. The degumming may well be more of a problem than making
biodiesel.
The phospholipid, protein and phorbol ester contents in edible Jatropha seem to be
quite different to non-edible. It needs to determined if this affects the degumming
method. The degumming removes lecithin and other related compounds, so if these
are high than a modified degumming method may be needed
If the oil is properly dried after degumming and kept under nitrogen blanketing this
may suffice. Bio diesel companies are investigating storage requirements and
oxidative stability of Jatropha.
Seeds degrade as soon as they are picked and so careful storage and handling is
required. In the warm humid atmosphere in Tropical countries the degradation of
seeds can be rapid. Even in the UK seeds storage is a problem. The yeasts grow on the
seeds.
Hence in Tropical countries at temperature of >30°C the problems can be greater.
Since the JC seeds are toxic attack by animals and rodents is unlikely to be a problem.
Rubber Nitrile tanks are perfect for container shipping as there is no exposure to the
atmosphere or the air, this is because it is collapsible and always works in a vacuum.
These can be fitted in a 20ft – 30 ton container. Each container would hold about 22.4
tons Jatropha Curcas crude oil. Indian suppliers of these rubber tanks have been
identified.
Pongamia pinnata
Pongamia pinnata is one of the few nitrogen fixing trees (NFTS) to produce seeds
containing 30-40% oil. It is often planted as an ornamental and shade tree but now-a-
days it is considered as alternative source for Bio- Diesel. This species is commonly
called pongam, karanja, or a derivation of these names.
Botany : Pongam (Leguminoceae, subfamily Papilionoideae) is a medium sized tree
that generally attains a height of about 8 m and a trunk diameter of more than 50 cm.
The trunk is generally short with thick branches spreading into a dense hemispherical
crown of dark green leaves. The bark is thin gray to grayish- brown, and yellow on
the inside. The taproot is thick and long; lateral roots are numerous and well
developed
The alternate, compound pinnate leaves consist of 5 or 7 leaflets which are arranged
in 2 or 3 pairs, and a single terminal leaflet. Leaflets are 5-10 cm long, 4-6 cm wide,
and pointed at the tip. Flowers, borne on racemes, are pink, light purple, or white.
Pods are elliptical, 3-6 cm long and 2-3 cm wide, thick walled, and usually contain a
single seed. Seeds are 10-20 cm long, oblong, and light brown in color.
Ecology : Native to humid and subtropical environments, pongam thrives in areas
having an annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 2500 mm. in its natural habitat, the
maximum temperature ranges from 27 to 38oC and the minimum 1 to16oC. Mature
trees can withstand water logging and slight frost. This species grows to elevations of
1200 m, but in the Himalayan foothills is not found above 600 m.
Pongam can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clay, including
Verticals. It does not do well on dry sands. It is highly tolerant of salinity. It is
common along waterways or seashores, with its roots in fresh or salt water. Highest
growth rates are observed on well drained soils with assured moisture. Natural
reproduction is profuse by seed and common by root suckers
Distribution : The natural distribution of pongam is along coasts and river banks in
India and Burma. Native to the Asian subcontinent, this species has been introduced
to humid tropical lowlands in the Philippines, Malaysia, Australia, the Seychelles, the
United States and Indonesia

154
Uses : Wood: pongam is commonly used as fuel wood. Its wood is medium to coarse
textured. However, it is not durable, is susceptible to insect attack, and tends to split
when sown. Thus the wood is not considered a quality timber. The wood is used for
cabinet making, cart wheels, posts, agricultural implements, tool handles and combs.
Oil: A thick yellow-orange to brown oil is extracted from seeds. Yields of 25% of
volume are possible using a mechanical expeller. However, village crushers average a
yield of 20% (ICFRE, undated). The oil has a bitter taste and a disagreeable aroma,
thus it is not considered edible. In India, the oil is used as a fuel for cooking and
lamps. The oil is also used as a lubricant, water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap
making and tanning industries. The oil is known to have value in folk medicine for the
treatment of rheumatism, as well as human and animal skin diseases. It is effective in
enhancing the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies (ICFRE
undated). The oil of Pongam is also used as a substitute for diesel.
Fodder and feed : Opinions vary on the usefulness of this species as a fodder .The
leaves are eaten by cattle and readily consumed by goats. However, in many areas it is
not commonly eaten by farm animals. Its fodder value is greatest in arid regions. The
oil cake, remaining when oil is extracted from the seeds, is used as a poultry feed.
Other uses : Dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored grains. The oil cake,
when applied to the soil, has pesticidal value, particularly against nematodes and also
improve soil fertility.
Pongam is often planted in homesteads as a shade or ornamental tree and in avenue
plantings along roadsides and canals. It is a preferred species for controlling soil
erosion and binding sand dunes because of its dense network of lateral roots. Its root,
bark, leaf, sap, and flower also have medicinal properties.
Agro-practices : Sowing and Germination : Pongam is easily established by direct
seeds or by planting nursery-raised seedlings or stump cuttings of 1-2 cm root-collar
diameter. In peninsular India, the seeding season is April to June, and the seed yield
per tree ranges from about 10 kg to more than 50 kg. There are 1500-1700 seeds per
kg. Seeds, which require no treatment before sowing, remain viable for about a year
when stored air-tight containers. Seed germinates within two weeks of sowing.
Seedlings attain a height of 25-30 cm in their first growing season.
Transplantation : Transplanting to the field should occur at the beginning of the next
rainy season when seedlings are 60 cm in height (GOI 1983). Seedlings have large
root systems. Soil should be retained around the roots during transplantaion.
The spacing adopted in avenue plantings is about 8 m between plants. In block
planting, the spacing can range from 2 x 2 to 5 x 5 m. Pongam seedlings withstand
shade very well and can be interplanted in existing tree stands
Management : Pongam should be grown in full sun or partial shade on well-drained
soil. A relatively low maintenance tree once established, is resistant to high winds and
drought but is susceptible to freezing temperatures below 30-degrees F. Pongam will
show nutritional deficiencies if grown on soil with a pH above 7.5. Space major limbs
along the trunk to increase the structural strength of the tree. Keep limbs less than
two-thirds the diameter of the trunk to help ensure that branches are well secured to
the tree.
Pests : No pests are of major concern, but caterpillars occasionally cause some
defoliation.
Diseases : No diseases are of major concern.
You can plant 200 plants per acre in the formation of 5 m x 4 m. You can get yield of
25 to 40 kgs per tree with 30 to 35% oil content. One person can collect 180 kgs of

155
seeds in 8 hours of a day. Seed collection season in India is from December to April.
Seed collection cost is Rs. 4 per kg.

Year Expenses Rs. Yield in Kgs Income in Rs.


1 5500
2 2100
3 2750
4 3150
5 4150 1000 6000
6 1400 1400 8400
7 2000 2000 12000
8 2500 2800 11200
9 3500 4000 24000
10 4200 5000 30000

Is Karanj is better than Jatropha?

Continuous increase in demand of petroleum products has encouraged the experts to


search new alternatives of petroleum products. It is the result of their search that today
we are having many alternatives of petroleum products. There are many alternatives
in the name of Bio-diesel. India has also taken initiative in this field and today the
whole world is looking to the Indian’s bio-diesel plans. The Indian experts have
identified many plants that can be used as source to Bio-diesel. For different agro-
climatic situations they have suggested different types of plants. But ignoring these
recommendations every where the promotion of single species Jatropha is in progress.
No one is thinking about other alternatives. Although in media the name of Jatropha is
in top but in fact its nearer relative Karanj (Pogamia pinnata) is having immense
potential as bio-diesel plant. And for real development the promotion of Karanj is
must. From scientific point of view Karanj is far better than Jatropha.
Very few people know that Jatropha is exotic plant. It is native to Tropical America.
Karanj is native plant and it is present in our homeland since generations. The modern
research have proved it that the introduction of new component in any ecosystem
affects the life of each and every component from top to bottom i.e. from other plants
to microorganisms. Jatropha is known as plant having dominating nature. This plant is
rich in allelochemicals. This is the reason the traditional healers of Chhattisgarh have
named it as Raja Van (King Plant) .It suppresses the growth of other plants. Due to its
aggressive nature and harmful impact on flora it is declared as problematic weed in
many countries. There is no such problem from Karanj. Karanj is an integral part of
our ecosystem and it supports the growth of many plants as well as microorganisms in
nature.
Jatropha is poisonous plant. This is the reason that there is a recommendation of its
plantation in places far from human population. Jatropha is a big danger for small
children. They like its tasty seeds very much. Four seeds are enough to take the life.
Not only in India but also in African countries where Jatropha was planted decades
back the scientific literatures are full of information regarding Jatropha poisoning
specially poisoning in small children. Today the authorities are planning for Jatropha
plantation in millions of hectares. Please think how we will be able to protect our
children from this toxic plant? On the other side all plant parts of Karanj possess
valuable medicinal properties. The reference literatures related to different systems of

156
medicine in India specially related to Ayurveda are full of miraculous therapeutic
properties of Karanj. Then why we are ignoring this useful tree?
The research in Thailand initially and later around the world have now proved that
Jatropha oil can cause skin cancer. Its chemicals are having tumor promoting
properties. Prestigious cancer journal of Japan has published many research papers on
this aspect. The planners are encouraging Indian farmers to cultivate Jatropha and
extract the seed oil for use at their farm. It will increase the chance of contact with
seed oil and more and more farmers will get affected by this oil. On the other side the
seed oil of Karanj is used in treatment of skin troubles. In many parts of India the
traditional healers use Karanj oil in treatment of cancer. It is really surprising that why
the planners are hiding the bare fact about Jatropha oil?
Are you aware that what will be the effects of Jatropha seed oil fumes when our
vehicles will run from this oil? No body knows. Even our planners are not aware of it.
Without conducting systematic trials on its impact on humanbeings, animals and
environment health the planners have decided to promote its plantation in thousands
of acres. The initial research works conducted in many parts of the world have
revealed that biodiesl like Jatropha can cause lung related troubles if fumes are
inhaled. On the other side the fumes of Kanaj seed oil are used in treatment of many
diseases. Please think seriously why our planners want to pollute our environment
with Jatropha fumes?
In general Jatropha starts giving commercial production three years after the planting.
In case of Karanj there is no need to wait for three long years. Millions of Karanj trees
are already present in India. We have not to invest millions of rupees for its
plantation. The seed collection procedure will generate much employment
opportunities. The planners are claiming that Jatropha plantation will generate much
employment but seeing its harms to public health it is not advisable from any angle to
promote its plantation.
Neither Jatropha nor Karanj seed oil will be used as pure diesel. It will be added in
small amount in conventional diesel. The international experts have accepted that
Jatropha biodiesel is very costly than the conventional diesel and to reduce the cost
they are asking for subsidy. Karanj biodiesl is far cheap, ecofriendly and safe.
Most of the Jatropha promoters are talking about ten years plan for Jatropha biodiesel
project. Their primary aim is to plant Jatropha in commercial scale. They are not
much interested in Karanj because there is no chances of purchase the plants. In many
states where Jatropha is under promotion the corruption in purchasing of Jatropha is
in peak. Most of the planners have to earn from Jatropha planting material business.
Very few are thinking of using the oil as biodiesel. They have no worry about the
environment. After earning from this business they will forget the Jatropha like other
exotic herbs like Lantana, Water Hyacinth, Ipomoea carnea ,Eucalyptus etc..

Rape Seed
Rape seed oil is the most favored vegetable oil for the manufacture of Biodiesel and is
in great demand. Rape seed is a major crop in India, grown on 13% of cropped land.
Rape seed was the third leading source of vegetable oil in the world in 2000, after soy
and palm. Rape seed is the world's second leading source of protein meal, although
only one-fifth of the production of the leading soy meal. In Europe, rape seed is
primarily cultivated for animal feed (due to its very high lipidic and medium proteinic
content), and for the production of vegetable oil for human consumption, and
biodiesel.
Natural rape seed oil contains erucic acid, which is mildly toxic to humans in large

157
doses but is used as a food additive in smaller doses. Canola is a specific variety of
rape seed bred to have a low erucic acid content. Canola was developed in Canada
and its name is a combination of "Canada" and "Oil" (Canadian oil low acid, more
precisely). The name was also chosen partly for obvious marketing reasons. The rape
seed is the valuable, harvested component of the crop. The crop is also grown as a
winter-cover crop. It provides good coverage of the soil in winter, and limits nitrogen
run-off. The plant is ploughed back in the soil or used as bedding. Processing of rape
seed for oil production provides a rape seed animal meal as a by-product. The by-
product is a high-protein animal feed.
Rape seed has been linked with adverse effects in asthma and hay fever sufferers.
Some suggest that oilseed pollen is the cause of increased breathing difficulties. This
is unlikely however, as rape seed is an entomophilous crop, with pollen transfer
primarily by insects. Others suggest that it is the inhalation of oilseed rape dust that
causes this, and that allergies to the pollen are relatively rare. There may also be a
another effect at work - since rape seed in flower has a distinctive and pungent smell,
hayfever sufferers may wrongly jump to the conclusion that it's the rape seed that's to
blame simply because they can smell it. There is also some recent evidence that the
extensive use of this and similar vegetable oils in food is leading to a significant
increase in cases of macular degeneration of the eye. Some varieties of rape seed are
sold as greens in asian groceries. Rape seed (or canola) is a heavy nectar producer,
and honeybees produce a light colored, but peppery honey from it. It must be
extracted immediately after processing is finished, as it will quickly granulate in the
honeycomb and will be impossible to extract. The honey is usually blended with
milder honeys, if used for table use, or sold as bakery grade. Seed producers contract
with beekeepers for the pollination of the seed.
Rape seed (also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapa seed and for some
cultivars Canola) known scientifically as Brassica napus, is a bright yellow flowering
member of the brassicaceae (also known as the mustard family). The name is derived
through Old English from a term for turnip, rapum. Some botanists include the closely
related Brassica campestris within B. napus. Rape seed is the third most important
source of vegetable oil in the world, after soybean and palm oil. During the past
twenty years, it has passed peanut, cottonseed, and most recently, sunflower, in
worldwide production. This is almost entirely due to the plant breeding work which
greatly reduced the levels of two anti-nutritional compounds, erucic acid in the oil and
glucosinolates in the meal, creating a new, high-value oil and protein crop.
Double low rape seed, as defined by European Community standards, has less than 35
µmol of total glucosinolates tel quel. The term "industrial rape seed" does not have
any regulatory basis but refers to any rapeseed with a high content of erucic acid in
the oil. For most purposes, the limit is 45%, although higher contents are considered
desirable. The term "single low" refers to high glucosinolate rapeseed with low erucic
oil. High erucic cultivars with low glucosinolate content also exist.
Botanical Features
Rape seed is derived from two Brassica species, B. napus L. and B. rapa L. To
distinguish between them B. rapa is often called turnip rape and B. napus is called
Swede rape. Spring and winter types exist of both species. The rape seed oil of world
commerce comes from these two species and to a minor extent also from the
mustards, especially B. juncea Coss. (brown mustard) and Sinapis alba. L. (yellow
mustard).

158
Taxonomy
In addition to B. napus L. and B. rapa L., Brassica includes cultivated species B.
carinata Braun (Abyssinian mustard), B. nigra Koch, and B. oleracea L. The four
most widely cultivated species, B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, and B. rapa are
highly polymorphic including oilseed crops, root crops, and vegetables such as
Chinese cabbage, broccoli, and Brussel sprouts.
The relationships among the cultivated species were largely clarified by cytological
work of Morinaga (1934). According to his hypothesis, the high chromosome number
of species B. napus (2n = 38, AACC), B. juncea (2n = 36, AABB), and B. carinata
(2n = 34, BBCC) are amphidiploids combining in pairs the chromosome sets of the
low chromosome number species B. nigra (2n = 16, BB), B. oleracea (2n = 18, CC),
and B. rapa (2n = 20, AA). This hypothesis was verified by U (1935) with successful
re-synthesis of B. napus. Re-synthesis of B. juncea and B. carinata was accomplished
later by Frandsen (1943, 1947). The low chromosome number species may have
developed from ancestral species with even lower chromosome numbers as suggested
by Robbelen (1960).
Origin
Brassica crops may be among the oldest cultivated plants known to man. In India, B.
rapa is mentioned in ancient Sanskrut literature from ca. 1500 BC and seed of B.
juncea have been found in archaeological sites dating back to ca. 2300 BC (Prakash
1980). Rapeseed production has a long history in China. The Chinese word for
rapeseed was first recorded ca. 2500 years ago, and the oldest archaeological
discoveries may date back as far as to ca. 5000 BC (Yan 1990).
Historically, B. rapa seems to have the widest distribution of Brassica oilseeds. At
least 2000 years ago, it was distributed from northern Europe to China and Korea,
with primary center of diversity in the Himalayan region (Hedge 1976).
Brassica napus has probably developed in the area where the wild forms of its
ancestral species are sympatric, in the Mediterranean area. Wild forms of B. napus are
unknown, so it is possible it originated in cultivation. Production of oilseed B. napus
probably started in Europe during the middle-ages; B. napus was introduced to Asia
during the 19th century. The present Chinese and Japanese germplasm was developed
crossing European B. napus with different indigenous B. rapa cultivars (Shiga 1970).
Distribution
World rape seed production exceeds 20 million hectares, making it the third most
important oil plant in the world after palm oil and soybean. The leading producers in
1991 were China, India, European Community, and Canada with estimated areas of
6.13, 6.10, 2.43, and 3.14 million hectares, respectively (Oil World Statistics Update
1992). The European Community figure includes only the major producers Denmark,
France, Germany, and U.K. and would be somewhat higher if smaller producers such
as Italy and Spain were included. Because of its high yields, European Community
was the leading producer of rape seed oil in 1991.
Winter type B. napus is the main rape seed crop in most of Europe, in parts of China
and also in the eastern United States. Spring type B. napus is produced in Canada,
northern Europe, and China. Where winters are mild enough (e.g. southeastern United
States) spring type B. napus can be grown in the fall. In the future we should see
distinct varieties developed for these areas.
Spring type B. rapa occupies approximately 50% of the Canadian rape seed area and
is also grown in northern Europe, China, and India. Winter type B. rapa has largely
been replaced by more productive winter type B. napus and spring crops in its

159
traditional production areas and has no significant impact on the world's rape seed
production at the present.
Only spring types exist of B. juncea. It is the leading Brassica oilseed in India and
also produced in Canada and Europe but only for condiment use. Recently, low
erucic, low glucosinolate types of B. juncea have been developed and it is possible
that in the future it will be an important oilseed crop for the more arid areas of Canada
and the northern United States.
The transition from high erucic to low erucic rape seed, and the simultaneous rapid
growth in the global rape seed production began in Canada in 1968, with commercial
release of single low cultivar 'Oro' followed by several other single low cultivars and
the first canola Cultivar 'Tower' in 1974. In Europe, the transition started later with
the release of the first single low cultivars in 1974. Almost all rape seed produced in
Canada and Europe is canola. The introduction of low erucic rape seed is now
underway in China and India.
This change in crop quality has created a need for specialized production of industrial
rape seed. Improved cultivars for this purpose have been developed in Canada, the
United States and now in Europe. Because of the relatively small demand for high
erucic oil and, consequently, for industrial rape seed in comparison with edible rape
seed, most plant breeders now work exclusively on canola. This has led to a shortage
of competitive new industrial rape seed cultivars and, consequently, complicated
industrial rape seed production further.
Cultural and Environmental Requirements
Heat Tolerance
Rape seed grows best in mild maritime climates. Historically, the highest rape seed
yields have been produced in England and the Netherlands, a phenomenon which has
more to do with climate and soil conditions than sophisticated crop management.
The growth of rape seed is most vigorous in temperatures between 10° and 30°C with
the optimum around 20°C. Rape seed is very sensitive to high temperatures at the
blooming time even when ample moisture is available. Long periods of over 30°C can
result in severe sterility and high yield losses. During the pod-filling period rape seed
is somewhat more tolerant to high temperatures. The seed oil content, however, is
highest when the seeds mature under low temperatures (10° to 15°C). Extended
periods of high temperature during the seed-fill period invariably result in low oil
contents and poor seed quality.
Cold Tolerance
The rape seed plant's ability to tolerate low temperatures depends essentially on its
development and the degree of hardening it has achieved. Unhardened plants can
survive -4°C, while fully-hardened spring type rape seed can survive -10° to -12°C.
Hardened winter rape seed can survive short periods of exposure to temperatures
between -15° and -20°C. Dehydration during sunny and/or windy days while the soil
is frozen can cause extensive winter kill in much higher temperatures even when the
plants are optimally developed and fully hardened.
The hardening requirements of rape seed have not been fully characterized. Some
time in temperatures below 10°C is, however, typically required. Winter types tend to
harden faster, achieve higher degree of cold tolerance and unharden slower than
spring types (Paul Raymer pers. commun.), but it is likely that variable hardening
requirements could also be found within both types. Some differences in cold
hardiness have been observed among both winter spring types. Whether these are due
to differences in ultimate achievable cold hardiness or differences in hardening
requirements only is unclear.

160
The plants are typically best adapted to survive the winter in rosette stage with 6 to 8
leaves. Smaller plants are usually not as capable of surviving over-wintering, while
plants with more leaves often start the stem elongation prematurely, exposing the
meristem tissue to cold, making it more susceptible to damage.
Unhardening happens fairly fast after the plants initiate active growth. Winter type
rape seed can generally still survive temperatures down to 12°C just before the
blooming begins (Cramer 1990).
Winter survival is greatly reduced by environmental factors such as occurrence of
diseases and pests, grazing, inadequate, excessive or unbalanced soil fertility, and
poor drainage conditions. The absence of snow cover during the coldest period of the
winter decreases the plants' chances to survive. Ice formation on the soil surface can
damage the crown area of the plants and reduce survival rate.
Vernalization Requirement
Most winter rape seed cultivars will require three weeks of near-freezing temperatures
in the field to get fully vernalized and start rapid generative growth. In controlled
environments, eight weeks at 4°C temperature is sufficient for full vernalization. In
spring planting, winter rape will typically start slow generative growth after the
prolonged rosette stage, and some cultivars may start blooming towards the end of the
growing season. Differences in this respect are sometimes useful in distinguishing
between similar cultivars. Differences in vernalization requirements are apparent
among winter rape cultivars.
Some spring type cultivars do not exhibit any vernalization response at all, but in
some cases the generative development can be accelerated with brief chilling
treatment. In spring planting, only a few cool nights are usually needed for this.
Vernalization response in spring types also tends to disappear in a long day
environment (Raymer pers. commun.). In spite of the variability in vernalization
requirements within both types, the differences between the types are fairly clear with
no overlap in the initiation of blooming in either spring or fall planting.
A high vernalization requirement does not necessarily result in good winter hardiness,
as many of the winter type cultivars from extreme maritime environments, such as
Japan, require a long vernalization period yet have little tolerance for low
temperatures.
Site Selection and Cultural Practices
Good drainage is an essential. Winter rape in particular has little tolerance for heavy,
wet soils and a high water table. Wet soil can significantly reduce winter survival and
contribute to root disease. Establishment of uniform stands is often difficult in heavy
soils. Rape seed grows best in sandy loams, loams with high organic matter, and
loamy sands. Light soils are acceptable, and even ideal when adequate moisture and
nutrients are available. Boron deficiency can cause significant yield losses even if no
morphological deficiency symptoms are visible.
Utilization of the Product
Canola Oil
Well-developed rape seed seed contains 40 to 44% oil. The fatty acid composition of
the oil is genetically more variable than probably the composition of any other major
vegetable oil. Canola oil today contains only traces of erucic acid, 5 to 8% of
saturated fat, 60 to 65% of monounsaturated fats, and 30 to 35% of polyunsaturated
fats. Mutants with significantly elevated monounsaturate levels exist.
Canola oil is widely used as cooking oil, salad oil, and making margarine. Of all
edible vegetable oils widely available today, it has the lowest saturated fat content,
making it appealing to health-conscious consumers. Its use in continuous frying and

161
some other industrial uses is somewhat limited by its high linolenic acid (C18:3)
content (usually 8 to 12%) and, consequent, fairly high oxidation tendency. Mutant
materials with only 2 to 3% of linolenic have also been developed.
The use of canola oil in non-edible uses has been studied fairly extensively and it is at
the present used to some extent in lubricants and hydraulic fluids especially when
there is a significant risk of oil leaking to water ways or to ground water.
High Erucic Acid Rape seed (HEAR) Oil
High erucic rape seed oil is used in lubricants, especially where high heat stability is
required. Because of its high polarity, uniform molecule size, and long carbon chains
it has greater affinity to metal surfaces and better lubricity than mineral oils. It is
easily biodegradable which makes it especially appealing in environmentally sensitive
uses. Although HEAR oil in many applications is superior to vegetable oils with
shorter average fatty acid chain length, such as canola, it can sometimes be replaced
by these. The surplus of low erucic oil in European Community countries has
especially increased industry's interest in Europe to use it in place of HEAR oil. This
situation has also increased public interest in promoting the production of industrial
rape seed to lower the surpluses of low erucic rape seed.
In the oleo-chemical, industry high erucic oil is used as a source of erucic acid to
produce a slipping and anti-blocking agent used in plastic foils, foaming agents used
for instance in mining industry, and many other chemicals for both food and non-food
industries. The long chain length of erucic acid makes it a unique raw material in oleo
chemical industry. Although in some oleo chemical processes it is virtually
irreplaceable, the total demand for erucic acid is fairly low and not expected to grow
radically in the near future. Most likely, growth rate is approximately equal with the
general growth of oleo chemical industry, which again, as typical for mature
industries, is likely to be approximately equal with the overall economic growth.
Significant changes to this scenario will depend on inventions and technical
breakthroughs which defy prediction. There is, however, a trend visible that is likely
to work in favor of increased use of high erucic oil in future, both in oleo chemical
and other uses. The development of "green technology" with increased emphasis on
renewable resources and biodegradability is likely to increase interest in raw materials
such as high erucic oil.
Rapeseed Meal
Rape seed meal contains approximately 40% of protein which rates among the
nutritionally best plant proteins. For monogastric diets it has better amino acid
balance than soybean meal.
In traditional rape seed cultivars the seed solids contained over 100 µmol/g of
glucosinolates. The hydrolysis products of glucosinolates give cruciferous vegetables
their characteristic flavor and mustard it's pungency. Some of these hydrolysis
products, however, are toxic or at least anti-nutritional. Also, many of the
glucosinolate derivatives decrease the palatability of the meal and, consequently, the
voluntary uptake of the feed by animals. For these reasons, the use of conventional
rape seed meal was limited mainly to cattle supplementary protein formulas and had
relatively low value.
With the quality of canola, significant amounts of meal can be used in virtually all
animal feeds and economical disposal of the crushing residue is typically not a
problem. Since some of the glucosinolates are destroyed in the crushing process, the
meal of future canola cultivars will be almost glucosinolate free and can be used in
feed formulas without any special limitations.
Crude Rape Seed Oil

162
SPECIFICATIONS:
Density ( at 15° C): 900-930kg/m3.
Flash Point: 220°C ( closed up, Pensky-Martens method)
Calorific value: 35.000 kJ/kg
Kinematic viscosity: 38 mm2/3 (40°C)
Cold procedure: The procedure should be positive
Ignition tendency: procedure still under development (Cetan number )
Coke deposit: 0,4 mass-% (Conradson procedure)
Iodine value: 100-120g/100g
Sulphur content: 20mg/kg
Neutralisations number: 2,0mg KOH/g
Phosphoros content: 15mg/kg
Water content: 75mg/kg
Ash: 0,01mass-%

163
CHAPTER 23
Types of Lands where It can Grow With advantage and Potential of Plantation
The list of advantages mentioned above make Jatropha plantation very attractive on
the kinds of lands mentioned below. The potential for coverage of each kind of land in
India, is as follows.
!" Forests cover 69 Million hectares of which 38 million hectare is dense forest
and 31 million hectare is under stocked. Of this 14 million hectares of forests
are under the Joint Forestry Management. About 3.0 million hectare (notional)
of land in forests should easily come under Jatropha curcas plantation.
!" 142 million hectare of land is under agriculture. It will be reasonable to
assume that farmers will like to put a hedge around 30 million hectare of their
fields for protection of their crops. It will amount to 3.0 million hectare
(notional) of Jatropha curcas plantation.
!" The cultivators are expected to adopt it by way of agro- forestry. Considerable
land is held by absentee land lords who will be attracted to Jatropha curcas as
it does not require looking after and gives a net income of Indian Rupees
15,000 per hectare. Two Million Hectare of notional plantation is expected.
!" Culturable fallow lands are reported to be 24 million hectare of which current
fallow lands are 10 million hectares and other fallows are 14 million hectares.
Ten percent of such land (2.4 million hectare) is expected to come under
Jatropha curcas plantation.
!" On wastelands under Integrated Watershed Development and other poverty
alleviation programs of Ministry of Rural Development a potential of 2
million hectare of plantation is assessed.
!" On vast stretches of public lands along railway tracks, roads and canals. One
million hectare of notional coverage with Jatropha curcas is a reasonable
assessment.
On the basis of above analysis it should be reasonable to assume that with proper
extension, research, availability of planting material and funds plantation of Jatropha
curcas on 13.4 million hectares of land is feasible in the immediate future.
Institutional finance for private plantation and governmental allocation for public
lands will have to be provided. Once success is achieved on the lands described above
it should be possible to include very low fertility soils which are classified
unculturable in this program. A significant proportion of such lands can also be
brought under Jatropha curcas plantation in an economically feasible manner. It will
result in their (degraded lands) rehabilitation also.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
Most parts of tropical and sub-tropical areas are ideal for Jatropha Plantation. These
can grow in areas where minimum rainfall is 500 to 750 mm. However these can
grow in desert areas around towns, which can be watered by domestic waste water
from towns around these plantations. It can also grow in drought prone areas and
where rainfall is scanty. In such areas, the seed production is less. The plant
germinates in hot and humid atmosphere. As temperature starts dropping it blooms
with flowers and fruits grow in winter. It can not tolerate very harsh winter or fog. At
the time of start of flowering, atmosphere should be dry with bright sunshine.
Jatropha can bear fruits for 25 years. It can withstand drought for 3 consecutive years.
If the soil is bad and if rainfall is unreliable, these plants need to be watered for first 2
to 3 years. Later on it can survive.

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SOIL
Soil is the most important factor in cultivation. Its natural fertility and useful fertility
are the two most important aspects of the health of the soil. Proper maintenance of
soil, proper and timely use of fertilizers, proper supply of water and protection from
pests are most important aspects to get high yields. Soil is tested to check its nutrients
content, pH, water retention and drainage capacity, type etc. After testing, the quality
of soil can be improved by proper administration of fertilizers at proper time. Soils
formed from same type of rock are not the same. It varies due to rain fall, climate,
natural vegetation and elevation and slopes. Its pH can change due to all these factors.
It can grow in soft, rocky, sloping soils along a mountain as well as medium fertile
lands. These can be grown along canals, water streams, boundaries of crop fields,
along the roads, along railway lines. In short, the least fertile lands are best for this
plant. However, fertile lands in which water does not accumulate, can also be used for
Jatropha Plantations. Highly fertile black cotton soils, which hold water and alkaline
soils are not good for Jatropha Plantations. Once the roots penetrate deeper, Jatropha
can tolerate acidic or salty soils. The soil productivity and fertility is low in the initial
stage. It needs to be improved by compost fertilizer, cow dung and other fertilizers.
Some micro nutrients are also helpful in improving productivity.
Soils that should be avoided are those containing 10 to 40% sand, 60 to 90% normal
soil. These are black in color, hold water and cracks are found in these soils in
summer. The roots of Jatropha plants are shallow in the beginning, hence these can
grow in cracks of rocky mountain slopes. The pH of soil is an important consideration
for the survival of the plant. Some soils are highly acidic due to accumulation of salts.
Some soils are alkaline due to calcium and aluminum deposits in the soil. It should be
ideally 5.5 to 6.5.
PRE-PLANTATION ACTIVITIES
The entire land should be fenced before plantation. Stones lying around can be used to
create a wall around the plot. Considering the slope of land, flow of water streams,
small walls should be erected along to the contours. On top of this dead fencing, a live
fence is created by growing plants of cactus varieties. Though plantation can be done
without any cleaning activities, but it is advisable to partly clean up the area. Tall
trees can be left as it is. All small shrubs and bushes on the soil should be cut above
the roots. It stops soil erosion. The left over roots eventually die and provide green
manure or composting fertilizer.
The soil should be tilled and it should be porous. Inter crops are planted in these lands
for first 3 to 4 years. All weeds and fungus should be completed rooted out. In case of
plantation, it is advisable to keep the plants short in height. This can be achieved by
cutting branches from time to time. In this case the distance between 2 plants is less.
Days in June and July, on the onset of monsoon rains in India, is the ideal period for
Jatropha Plantation. Land should be tilled in the months of April and May, and all dry
vegetation should be burnt and destroyed before plantation.
GERMINATION AND PLANTING
Jatropha Plantation can be done by sowing seeds or by planting branches of existing
trees. The land is marked in squares of 2 meters x 2 meters all along. 2 seeds or one
branch is inserted at each intersection. Plants grown from seeds or branches in plastic
bags can also be planted. This method has advantage that, these can be cultivated
throughout the year, and can be watered easily in a small area. Good quality seeds of
attractive color should be selected for germination. For this purpose, good quality
fruits should be collected in the months of September or October and these should be

165
dried in shade for 3 to 4 days, after de-pulping. It should then be soaked in water for 4
days.
A good seed is one which gives out oil if pressed by nail. Cracked, scratched or
infected seed should not be used for germination. 5 to 6 kgs of seeds are enough for
plantation in one hector of land.
Plantation from Branches : Half to one meter long branches can be used for
plantation. These are planted on the onset of monsoon rains. Plants grown from such
branches can yield 50 fruits in 8 months time.
Plantation in Plastic Bags : Good quality seeds are planted in black polythene bags
having size of 70 x 100 mm. A good soil mix is prepared by mixing 2 kgs of compost,
1 kg of filtered sand. Some insecticide and Weedicide is then sprayed on it.
While filling the bags, top 20 to 30 mm is not filled. That portion is folded, which
gives a good strength to the bag. Each bag should be filled with soil enriched by 500
gms of cow dung, 100 gms of 7:10:5 NPK and 400 gms compost fertilizer. 2 seeds
should be planted 50 to 60 mm deep in each bag. After a month, the weaker plant of
the two is eliminated.
PLANTATION
Pits of standard sizes, are dug initially, based on the slope of land, availability of
water and quality of soil. Pits of 300 mm long, 300 mm wide and 300 mm deep are
dug in square formation. The distance between the two pits is 2 meters. It can be less
in poor soils. A layer of dry leaves is spread at the bottom up to about 50 mm and
insecticide is sprayed on it. Along with the compost fertilizer and cow dung, 20 gms
of urea, 120 gms of single super phosphate and 16 gms of potassium nitrate is added
in each pit.
In the initial phase of growth, roots grow very rapidly and try to penetrate in soil to
suck nutrients from the soil. For this the pits should be filled with good, fertile soil.
Initial growth is very important, and hence nutrients should be provided from time to
time in initial years. If soil is poor in nutrients, the pit should be filled with excess
compost fertilizer and cow dung.
The requirement of chemical fertilizers per hector per year is 50 kgs of urea + 300 kgs
of single super phosphate + 40 kgs of potassium nitrate.
MAINTANANCE OF SOIL
All the weeds around the plant should be removed. Initially for 3 to 4 months, land
should be tilled 2 or 3 times after 20 days, to remove weeds. 10 gms of urea should be
mixed in the soil, for each plant, one month after plantation. Later, it should be
repeated after one and half month.
The soil between two plants, should be tilled lightly, and should not be tilled deep.
Branches of jatropha, that have dried up should be cut and disposed off. Branches that
have grown improperly or those leaning down, should also be removed.
Some natural materials can be used to cover the land between the two plants. This can
be husk, small branches, stocks of rice and wheat etc. This reduces evaporation of
water from the soil.
MAINTANANCE OF PLANTS
The rising top of the tree should be cut once the tree is 1 meter tall. This will lead to
branching of the tree. More the branches, more the production of fruits and seeds.
Every year branches grow near the base, and these should be removed and replanted
elsewhere. It is very important to cut the tree in time and keep it in proper shape. The
plant tops should be cut in proper way, so that it will grow like an umbrella. Care
should be taken from the beginning.

166
Normally Jatropha can naturally flower only once a year, but with modern techniques
it can be forced to flower twice or thrice a year. To do this watering of the plants is
stopped for a period. During this period half the leaves are shed by the tree. Water
supply is restarted at this point and tree starts flowering again. When watering is
started again, the quantity of water is increased slowly day by day and NPK fertilizers
are provided. Normally, flowering takes place after 21 days.
FERTILZERS
In case of regular plantation, organic and chemical fertilizers should be provided in
proper quantity as per the age of the tree. Lot of nutrients are required in the initial
phase of plant. Growth and bearing of good fruits depend on the nutrients and
weather. Out of NPK, Nitrogen is required in larger quantity. NPK ratio should be
46:48:24 kgs per hector. As the roots grow longer, fertilizers are applied away from
the base of the tree.
WATER MANAGEMENT
Plants get the nutrients from soil as water solution. Hence its successful growth
depends on water content of soil, or timely watering of the plants. In the initial stages
it is sensitive and hence, water should be provided as per the requirement. Watering
for poorer soils is done every 5 to 6 days, medium soils 7 to 10 days, and good soils
every 10 to 12 days. In monsoon the trees bloom and flowering and bearing of fruits
can be achieved with rain water.
For plantations, it is necessary to erect small boulder check dams, to create small and
big water bodies. This water can be used after the monsoon. Drip irrigation can
enhance the yield. Through this controlled amount of water and fertilizer can be
provided all the time. With drip irrigation, 3 crops can be obtained in a year. Water
should wet only the area under the tree and rest should be dry. Hence initial
requirement of water is very small. If monsoon rain is at regular interval of few days,
rain water is sufficient for it.
PLUCKING OF FRUITS
Fruits should be plucked at appropriate time and in appropriate manner. Plucking time
is generally at the end of December or beginning of January. All the fruits on tree are
not ready for plucking and only ripe one should be plucked. Latex drops down from
the point of plucking of fruit and care should be taken that it does not fall on body.

167
CHAPTER 24
Nursery Raising and Plantation
You can set up nurseries which will supply plants to the beneficiary to ensure success
of plantations and quick return. It will also result in seed production at the end of the
first year itself. Nurseries will supply seedlings to the farmers in their village. A
seedling will start yielding seed after a year of its plantation. It is planted at a spacing
of 2m X 2m and 2,500 plants will be grown in 1 hectare of Jatropha plantation.
Although using a seedling of 4 to 6 months grown in a nursery should not result in the
usual rates of mortality of plantations, it will be reasonable to assume that 20% of the
plants will need replaced.
A nursery can produce 2 million plants a year. Hence over a period of 3 years it will
produce 6 million plants and will be sufficient to cover 2,000 Hectares of plantation.
For the non-forest area 1,500 nurseries will be required. For the plantation in forest
and adjoining areas one thousand nurseries will be established These nurseries may be
developed by the individuals.
Cost of Plantation
The cost of plantation has been estimated to be Indian Rupees 30,000 per hectare.
inclusive of plantation and maintenance for one year, training, overheads etc. It
includes elements such as site preparation, digging of pits, fertilizer & manure, cost of
plants and planting, irrigation, de-weeding, plant protection, maintenance for one year
i.e., the stage up to which it will start seed production etc. The cost of training,
awareness generation, monitoring & evaluation is also included.
Employment Generation and Costs in Jatropha Plantation
Cost Employment
(Indian in person
Sl. Rupees) days
Item
No
Year Year
Ist IInd Ist IInd
1 Site preparation i.e. cleaning and leveling of field – 10 MD 600 10
2 Alignment and staking - 5 MD 300
Digging of pits (2500 Nos) of 30 Cm3 size @ 50 pits per
3 3,000 50
MD - 50 MD
Cost of manure (including carriage) 2 Kg. per pits during 1st
4 year (2 MT) 1 Kg. per pit during second year onwards @ Rs. 2,000 20
400/MT
Cost of fertilizer @ Indian Rupees 6 per kg (50 gm. Per plant
5 during 1st year and 25 gm from 2nd year onward and 2 MD 870 495 2 1
for each application.
Mixing of manure, insecticides fertilizers and refilling of pits
6 1,500 25
@100 pits per MD 25 MD
Cost of plants (including carriage) 2500 Nos. during first
7 year and 500 Nos. of plants during second year for 10,000 2,000 100 20
replanting @ Indian Rupees 4.0 per plant.
Planting and replanting cost 100 plants per MD.- 25 MD and
8 1,500 300 25 5
5 MD, respectively
Irrigation - 3 irrigation during 1st and one irrigation during
9 1,500 500 5 2
2nd year @ Indian Rupees 500/- per irrigation.
10 Weeding and soil working 10 MD. x 2 times for 2 years 1,200 1,200 20 20

168
11 Plant protection measure 300 1
Sub total 22,770 4,495 263 48
Contingency (approx. 10% of the above) 2,230 505
Grand Total 25,000 5,000 263 48

Non-Forest Areas proposed for Jatropha curcas Plantation


200 districts in 19 potential states have been identified on the basis of availability of
wasteland, rural poverty ratio, below poverty line (BPL) census and agro-climatic
conditions suitable for jatropha cultivation. Each district will be treated as a block and
under each block 15,000 hectors jatropha plantation will be undertaken through
farmers (BPL). Proposed to provide green coverage to about 3 Million hectors of
wasteland through plantation of jatropha in 200 identified districts over a period of 3
years.
Andhra Pradesh Adilabad, Anantapur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Karim Nagar,
Mehboob Nagar, Nellore, Nalgonda, Prakasam, Visakhapatnam, Warrangal.
Bihar Araria, Aurangabad, Banka, Betiah (West Champaran), Bhagalpur, Gaya,
Jahanabad, Jamui, Kaimur, Latehar, Muzzaffarpur, Munger, Nawada.
Chhattisgarh Bastar, Bilaspur, Dantewada, Dhamtri, Durg, Jagdalpur, Janjgir-
champa, Kanker, Kawardha, korba, Mahasaund, Rajnandgaon, Raipur, Raigarh,
Surguj.
Jharkhand Bokaro, Chatra, Daltenganj, Devgarh, Dhanbad, Dumka, Garhwa, Godda,
Giridih, Gumla, Hazaribag, Jamshedpur, Koderma, Pakur, Palamu, Ranchi,
Sahibganj, Singbhum(East), Singbhum(West).
Gujarat Ahmedabad, Amerli, Banaskantha, Bhavnagar, Junagarh, Jamnagar, Kutch,
Rajkot, Surendranagar, Surat.
Goa Panaji, Padi, Ponda, Sanguelim.
Himachal Pradesh Bilaspur, Nahan, Parvanu, Solan, Unna
Haryana Ambala, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jind, Jhajjar, Mohindergarh,
Punchkula, Rewari, Rohtak.
Karnataka Bijapur, Bellary, Bangalore, Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga,
Daksina Kannada, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Hassan, Kolar, Mysore, Raichur, Tumkur,
Udupi.
Kerala Kottayam, Quilon, Trichur, Thiruvananthapuram.
Madhya Pradesh Betul, Chhindwara, Guna, Hoshingabad, Jabalpur, Khandwa ,
Mand Saur, Mandla, Nimar (Khargaon), Ratlam, Raisena, Rewa, Shahdol, Shajapur,
Shivpuri, Sagar, Satna, Shahdol, Tikamgarh, Ujjain, Vidisha.
Maharashtra Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, Amrawati, Akola, Beed, Buldana, Dhule,
Nasik, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Pune, Ratnagiri, Raigad, Thane, Yavatmal.
Orissa Bolangir, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Ganiam, Gajapati, Jajapur, Koraput, Keonjhar,
Kalahandi, Nowrangpur, Nawapra, Phulbani, Puri.
Punjab Ferozpur, Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Patiala, Sangrur.
Rajasthan Ajmer, Alwar, Barmar, Bilwara, Bikaner, Churu, Chittorgarh, Jaisalmer,
Jodhpur, Kota, Sikar, Sawai Madhopur, Udaipur.
Tamil Nadu Coimbatore, Chenai, Dharmapuri, Erode, Madurai, Perigar, Salem,
Tirunelvelli, Vellore.
Uttar Pradesh Allahabad, Agra, Balia, Bulandshare, Bhadohi, Baharaich, Chhitrakut,
Deoria, Ferozabad, Faizabad, Ghazipur, Hardoi, Jaunpur, Jhansi, Kausambi, Lalitpur,
Mainpuri, Partapgarh, Raibareli, Sultanpur, Shahjahanpur.

169
Uttaranchal Chamoli, Dehradun, Pithoragarh, Rishikesh, Udhamsingh Nagar,
Uttrakashi.
West Bengal Balurghat, Barasat, Burdwan, Cochbehar, Darjeeling, Hoogly, Howrah,
Jalpaiguri, Medinipur, Murshidabad, Malda, West Dinajpur, 24-Parganas South.
Some of the suppliers of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand) Seeds and samplings.
1. Birajdar Agro Farms, 14-A, Shayog CHS, Behind IT Office, Tarabai Park,
Kolhapur, 416003. gkptel@rediffmail.com. Contact Persons : Mr. S.R.
Birajdar / B.R. Birajdar, Tel : 91-231-2664700. At Mumbai : Shubhada
Jahagirdar, shubhjahagirdar@hotmail.com Tel : 91-22-24140916 and 91-
9892210198, At Sangli Tel : 91-233-5603514.
2. Mr. Ramakrishna More, 591 Maurya Chambers, Rasta Peth, Pune, 411 011.
Tel : 91-20-5622 3196, 91-20-5622 3197, Mobile : 91-93250 01293.
info@dineshhousing.com
3. Mr. Santosh Jain, At Vavedivali, Along Bombay Goa Road, Taluka Mangaon,
Dist Raigad, Tel : 91-9423002875, 9869433301.
4. Purandhar Agro & BioFuels, 19B, Hingna Home Colony, Near Khairnar,
Karve Nagar, Pune, 411 082, India. Contact Persons : Mr. Murli Kamthe, Cell
no. 91-98501 33150.
5. Vrindavan Bio-Fuels Pvt.Ltd., "Hill View", Chikodi Station Road, Chikodi,
Dist. Belgaum, Karnataka, India, Tel : 91-20-2433 5483, Mobile: 91-
9822186771, Fax : 91-20-24335483. sconix@vsnl.com. Contact Person :
Mr.Prashant Mundargi.
6. Rajkamal Herbs & Aromatics Pvt. Ltd., 307, Chitrarath Buiding, Behind Hotel
President, C.G. Road, Ahmadabad, 380 009. Tel : 91-79-265 66811, Fax : 91-
79-255 66911. Contact Person : Mr. Kalpesh Jani, Cell No. 91-98250 67393,
91-79-31062343, aahar99@rediffmail.com.
7. Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., Agripark, Jain Hills, PO Box 72, Shirsoli Road,
Jalgaon-425 001, India, Phone: 91-257-2260022/33; Fax: 91-257-2261111/22,
agripark@jains.com
8. Raj & Company, Behind Katju Market, Near Parsi Temple, Neemuch,
Madhya Pradesh, 458 441, India. Tel.: 91-7423-221600 Fax: 91-7423-225341,
Contact Person : Mr. Vijay Kumar Jain, rajspice@sancharnet.in
9. Garg Herbs, C/o Jankilal Dhoolchand Garg, 31,Tilak Marg, Neemuch,
Madhya Pradesh, 458 441, India. Tel 91-7423-224800 and 91-7423-226566,
Cell 91-9827092140. gargjd@sancharnet.in
10. Adinath Trading Company, Mandi Prangan, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh, 458
441, India. Tel : Office : 91-7423 222879, Works : 91-7423 227679, Telefax :
91-7423 225961, Mr. Vinit Jain, Res : 91-7423 227407. Cell : 91-94251
06479. adinathherb@yahoo.co.in
11. Avinash Bisen, For Tripti Herbal & Plantation services, S-6, Plot No. 958,
Seth Sadan Behind Hotel, Arihant Palace Russel Chowk, Jabalpur, Madhya
Pradesh, India, Tel : 91-761-500 7957, 91-9425151253,
chps_vrunda@yahoo.com.
12. Farmwealth Biotech, 205, Raghava Towers, Madinaguda, BHEL Road,
Chandanagar, Hyderabad-500 050, Andhra Pradesh, India. Tel : 91-40-2304
6410, Contact Person : Mr. Narsimhaya. 91-9849605919.
farmwealthbiotech@yahoo.com
13. Society For Rural Initiatives For Promotion of Herbals, B-132, Sainik Basti,
Churu-331 001, Rajasthan, India. Contact Person : Abhishek Maharshi, Cell
No. 91-9414085700.

170
14. Mr. Nitin Kothari, Rajasthan Agriculture Depot, Rajagro Udaipur, Outside
Surajpole, Udaipur, 313 001 India. Phone : 91-294-2417822(O) 91-294-242
0348, 510 0767(R), Fax : 91-294-241 1185, Cell No. 91-94141 66585,
sonameal@rajagro.net, rajagro@hotmail.com
15. Mr. Amit Rastogi, Amit Biotech, unit 21, 3rd floor, 21 Ballygunge Circular
Road., Calcutta, 700 019, India. amitbiotech@yahoo.com.
PROPAGATION METHODS
Generative propagation (seeds) :- Direct seeding, Transplantation of pre-cultivated
plants, Seed beds( bare roots), Poly bags, Vegetative propagation (cuttings), Direct
planting, Transplanting of pre-cultivated plants, Seed beds ( bare roots)
FACTORS INFLUNCING CROP ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS
PROPAGATED BY DIFFERENT METHODS
Generative propagation (seeds)
Direct seeding, Quality of seeds, Seeding depth, Date of sowing, Transplantation of
pre-cultivated plants, Type of pre-cultivation, Length of pre-cultivation, Vegetative
propagation (cuttings), Successful pre-cultivation is characterized by High
germination rates of seeds, High sprouting rates of cuttings, High survival rate Basing
the propagation method on rainfall conditions plays a decisive role in the survival and
properties of the plant in field. Method of cultivation should be chosen on the basis of
Maximum survival rates and Intended utilization of the plantation
1. For quick establishment of hedges and plantation for erosion control, directly
planted cuttings are best.
2. For long-lived plantations for vegetative oil production, plants propagated by seeds
are better.
3. With better rainfall conditions, the plantations could also be established by direct
seeding.
Sowing and germination
Germination is fast, under good conditions it is complete in 10 days. Germination is
epigean (cotyledons emerge above ground). Soon after the first leaves have formed,
the cotyledons wither and fall off. In the nursery, seeds can be sown in germination
beds or in containers. Although the seedlings grow very fast they should stay in the
nursery for 3 months until they are 30-40 cm tall. By then the plants have developed
their repellant smell and will not be browsed by animals.
Nursery raising
Nursery provides the necessary control of moisture, light, soil, and predators and
allows production of healthy and hardy seedlings. As a matter of fact the soil of
nursery site should have a good structure and porosity, well drained and deep sandy
loam to clay loam in texture with sufficient water holding capacity, rich in organic
matter, near to a permanent/reliable source of water. The width of seedbeds should be
so easily adjusted that the nursery operations could be carried out easily without entry
in the beds. The length of the beds may be upto 12 meters. Nursery be raised in the
month of April/May for plantation in July /August.
Sowing of seeds
Sowing is a pain stick nursery operation. Its objectives is to obtain, from the best seed
available, the maximum number of healthy and sturdy seedlings for transplanting.
Transplanting
Satisfactory planting widths are 2 x 2 m, 2.5 x 2.5 m, and 3 x 3 m. This is equivalent
to crop densities of 2,500, 1,600 and 1,111 plants/hector, respectively. Distance of 2
m X 2 m should be maintained for commercial cultivation. Seedlings are susceptible

171
to competition from weeds during their early development. Therefore, weed control,
either mechanical or with herbicides, is required during the establishment phase.
Cultural Operations : Irrigation: The seedlings require irrigation especially during the
first couple of years of plantation. The requirement of water is contingent up on local
soil and climatic conditions.
Fertilizer
Around 2 kgs of organic manure along with fertilizers containing N, P and K need to
be mixed and applied at the time of transplanting. An admixture of 20 gms of urea,
120 gms of SSP and 16 gms of Potash is to be applied after the establishment of the
plant. The plants respond well to addition of small quantities of calcium, magnesium
and sulfur. It does well when rich organic nutrition is provided. Mycorrhizal
associations have been observed and they are known to aid the plants growth under
conditions where phosphorus availability is low.
Pruning
Pruning is done during the first year when the branches reach a height of 400 - 600
mms and latter during the second and third years to ensure the tree grows into proper
shape and size.
Hoeing & Weeding
Hoeing and weeding at least twice is necessary, especially during the establishment
period.
Pests & Diseases
Jatropha is highly disease-resistant and few insects like beetles, hoppers and leaf
miners are supposed attack it. NEEM oil may be applied in march-April. Urine of cow
can also be sprayed. A paste of neem leaves, datura and aak can also be applied.
Harvesting
The flowering in jatropha depends upon the location and agroclimatic conditions.
Generally it takes place from August to December in north India. Fruits mature in two
to four months At yellow stage, the fruit should be harvested/plucked.
Germplasm management
Seeds are oily and do not store for long. Seeds older than 15 months show viability
below 50%. High levels of viability and low levels of germination shortly after
harvest indicate innate (primary) dormancy.
Dormancy and pretreatment
Freshly harvested seeds show dormancy and after-ripening is necessary before the
seeds can germinate. Dry seed will normally germinate readily without pre-treatment.
If this is the case, it is not recommended to remove the seed coat before sowing.
Although it speeds up germination there is a risk of getting abnormal seed-lings.
The propagation of Jatropha curcas should be done through nursery to ensure superior
germplasm, high rate of survival, planting of a healthy and vigorously growing plant
and achieve early start of production of seed in the second year of planting. You
should set up nurseries which will supply plants to the beneficiary to ensure success
of plantations and quick return. It will also result in seed production at the end of the
first year itself. Nurseries will supply seedlings to the farmers in their village. A
seedling will start yielding seed after a year of its plantation. It is planted at a spacing
of 2 m X 2 m and 2,500 plants will be grown in 1 hectare of Jatropha plantation.
Although using a seedling of 4 to 6 months grown in a nursery should not result in the
usual rates of mortality of plantations, it will be reasonable to assume that 20% of the
plants will need replaced.

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CHAPTER 25
Establishment of Seed Procurement cum Oil Extraction Centers
For the plantation based on a nursery a seed procurement center with facility to store
the procured seed and an oil extraction plant will be necessary. Assuming 2,000
Hectors of land to be covered by a nursery, 7,500 Metric Tons of seed will arrive at
the procurement center and suitable facilities to store the seed and extract oil will need
to be created.
Modern oil expellers with a capacity to express about 94% of oil contained in the seed
are available. The traditional oil expellers have very low expression capacity. Hence
modern oil expellers are proposed. Looking to the conditions prevalent in areas where
Jatropha will be grown, the size of expeller unit should be 1 Metric Ton / day (Capital
Cost Indian Rupees 70,000), 1 Metric Ton / hour (Capital Cost Indian Rupees
3,00,000) and 2 Metric Tons / hour (Capital Cost Indian Rupees 5,00,000). Depending
on the capacity of the plant the cost of expelling oil will be between Indian Rupees
0.19 per liter to Indian Rupees 0.90 per liter of oil.
The raw oil extracted from seed can be used for a number of applications such as
lighting and heating and even for operating engines for irrigation pumps. The
production of cooking stoves, lamps to use this oil is already there in India. With
encouragement from the government it is expected that the private sector will produce
such things for sale in the rural Indian market. This oil, therefore, will be offered first
to the local community.
The surplus oil passed on by the oil Expelling Centers will need to be processed if it is
to be blended with the diesel. But this activity will be a commercial activity which
will be supported and encouraged by the Petroleum Companies under the area of
responsibility of the Ministry of petroleum. As such, the oil remaining after the
requirement of the community has been met, will be sold to the agency which sets up
the trans-esterification plant (for making raw oil suitable for blending with diesel).
If the seed from 2,000 to 3,000 plantations is to be procured and brought to one place,
the cost of extraction would be reduced to 25%. Depending upon the circumstances in
a particular area, the level at which the Oil Expellers will be installed and their
capacities would need to be determined. It is expected that compact area of at least
2,000 hectares of plantation should be available producing 7,500 MT of seed. Hence
in most locations oil expeller plant with 1 Indian Rupees / hour capacity should meet
the purpose. On an average there may be one expeller for the area covered by one
nursery of 2,000 hectors.
The seed collection center and oil expelling facility is treated as one unit. Its cost is
estimated as Indian Rupees 80 lakh per unit. For all the 2,500 units, the total cost is
estimated as Indian Rupees 2,000 Crore.
Unit cost of seed procurement and expelling center
Indian
Serial
Item Rupees
No.
Lakhs
1 Seed godown 31
2 Weighing bridge 7
3 Weighing bridge 5
4 Civil construction 5
5 Cost of land 2
6 Cleaner & grader 1
7 Drier 1

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8 DG Set 1
9 Storage tank 2
10 Cost of sub-centers (5 nos) 18
11 Miscellaneous expenditure 10 % 7
Total 80
Extraction of Oil
Oil can be expelled from seeds in normal screw type oil expeller. The expeller is quite
simple and quite inexpensive. It crushes seeds along with its cover. The oil is then
immediately filtered through a filter press and used for the manufacture of BioDiesel.
Oil cake is sent to Bio-Gas plant.
OIL EXPELLER MANUFACTURERS
1. Mr. Gopal Desai, Tinytech Plants, Tagore Road, Rajkot, 360 002, India, Tel : 91-
281-248 0166, fax : 91-281-246 7552, mobile : 91-92276 06264. Web :
www.tinytechindia.com. E mail : tinytech@tinytechindia.com for Oil Mills.
2. Jagdish Exports, Gondal Road, Rajkot, 360 002, India, Tel. : 91-281-246 1134 /
246 2079 / 246 3055 / 245 1214, Fax : 91-281-246 1770 / 245 0628, E-mail :
info@jagdishexports.com. Web : www.jagdishexports.com
3. Mr. Gagan Goyal, Gagan International, Miller Ganj , St No. 3, G.T, Road,
Ludhiana, India, Tel : 91-161-253 2134, FAX : 91-161-254 3442, Cell : 91-98147
22255. E-mail : sales@oilmillspares.com.
4. Rajkumar Expeller Corporation, Near Union Bank, Ghat Road, Nagpur, 440 018,
India, E-mail : agrimachine@sify.com and agmachine@satyam.net. Web :
www.rajkumaragromachinery.com.
5. Mr. Kartikrao Chavan, Amrut Engineering Works, Shakti Compound, Near Jain
Temple, behind Vihar Theater, Pratap Nagar, Vadodara, 390 004, India. Tel : 91-
265-322 9762, 243 9348, Fax : 91-265-243 8865, Cell No. 91-93272 29762.
platinumlines@indiatimes.com and otti@indiatimes.com.
Tiny Oil Expeller Mill of 5 tons per day capacity
Most Mills are suitable for crushing all types of oilseeds whether edible or non edible.
Filtration of oil is better than bigger oil mills, giving transparent pure natural and at a
stretch convincing, appearance to the oil. Decorticator has special provision for
shelling the seeds without breakage. In case of Jatropha seeds decorticator is not
required as the seed is crushed with shell. Yield of oil is as high as big mills because
of highly scientific worm sequence inside the chamber cage. Maintenance expenses
are negligible. Diesel consumption in engine is only 1.25 litre per hour. Technology is
so simple that person can be trained only in 3 days to operate the mill. Video cassette
is provided, by some parties, with every export mill to explain operation,
maintenance, names of components, dismantling, assembling etc.
% Oil Extraction of Different Oil Seeds
Typical oil extraction in kgs, from 100 kg. of best oil seeds will be as under
Palm Kernel 36 Soyabean 14
Sesame 50 Palm Fruit 20
Rape seed 37 Groundnut Kernel 42
Mustard 35 Castor Seed 36
Lin seed 42 Sunflower 32
Cotton Seed 13 Coconut 13
Jatropha 25 Karanj 24

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Special Facilities in Tiny Expeller :
Chamber cage opens on hinges simply by tilting of chamber halves. Drudgery weights
of clamping bars and chamber halves is totally eliminated. Thickness of cake can be
changed while running of expeller. This is unique facility. It enable to find and adjust
cone at the point of optimum. Oil pump is integral part of the expeller and hence no
separate pump required. Due to ready foundation frame, no concrete foundation is
required in the ground. So you can start the mill in 24 hours. Also you can shift the
machine from one place to another as and when required. 6 taper roller bearings make
expeller very sturdy and durable. No ball bearing fitted any where. As expeller is very
compact, it is economical to transport.
Basic Requirements :
SHED About 300 sq. ft. 15' X 20' (5 meters X 6 meters)
MANPOWER Only two persons, one skilled and other unskilled.
CAPITAL Cost of Expeller + working capital.
POWER Expeller is run by 10 H.P. Electric Motor or a 12 H.P. oil Engine (if
electrical power is not available).
Highly experienced mill operator can extract oil without cooking from some oilseeds
such as rape seeds, cottonseed, sesame, sunflower, jatropha, karanj etc. For
Groundnut, Palm kernel, Castor seed, cooking is essential. Refining of oil is not
required. Filtered oil is best for use. Filter Jatropha oil has minimum 1 month shelf
life. However, cottonseed oil requires refining or at least neutralizing. Castor seed oil
requires steam heating in a neutralizer vessel before filtration. For palm fruits,
conventional expeller will not be useful. Special kind of expeller with different design
is used for palm fruits and it is not useful for any other oilseeds.
Special Machinery for other oils : Decorticator shells the nut into husks and kernels.
Husks are thrown away by built in air blower and kernels are screened to separate
split kernels from whole kernels. Runs on 2 H.P. Motor. 100 kg. groundnut gives
about 73 kg kernels & 27 kg husks. Sunflower cracker breaks the sunflower seeds and
gives the mixture of kernels & husks for crushing. Runs on 2 H.P. Motor. Palm nut
cracker breaks the palm nuts & gives the palm kernels & husks. Runs on 2 H.P.
Motor. Coconut cutter breaks the coconut cups into small pieces suitable for crushing
into expeller. Runs on 5 H.P. Motor. Cooking kettle heats and cooks the kernels or

175
oilseeds by outer steam or by electricity. A little steam / water is also added to the
oilseeds to increase moisture content to optimum level. Kettle is mounted on the
expeller and is driven from expeller. Expeller crushes oilseeds producing oil and oil
cake. Filter press filters the oil. Filtered oil is completely pure and fresh natural oil.
Boiler provides process steam to the cooking kettle. Husks are used as fuel in the
boiler. Any agricultural waste or wood can be used. Water feed pump is mounted on
the boiler itself. Boiler is not required for Jatropha or karanj seeds. Neutralizer
removes free fatty acids from cottonseed oil by adding caustic soda. It is driven by 1
H.P. Motor. Castor oil also can be heated into neutralizer by steam coils inside the
neutralizer.

Socio Economic Benefits :


Tiny Oil Mills greatly encourage rural development as wealth and self-employment
jobs are generated in villages. Tiny Oil Mills save transport expenses for carrying
oilseeds to cities and bringing oil from cities. Consumers empty tins can be refilled
and hence costly packing expenses can be saved. Tiny Oil Mills make pure, fresh
natural oil available to villagers from their own oilseeds on custom milling basis. So
villagers are saved from profiteering, adulteration, etc. Speculation in oil and oilseed
becomes impossible due to decentralized production in Tiny Oil Mills. Tiny Oil Mills
eliminate exploitation by middlemen and traders, as consumers have direct contact
with mills. Tiny Oil Mills encourage animal husbandry by making oil cake available
as best cattle feed. It increases milk production considerably. Tiny Oil Mills create
confidence and enthusiasm among villagers and their youngsters to run and manage
rural industries. This is the greatest benefit as it accelerates creative Entrepreneurship
for other industries also.
Expeller Oil Clarification : The Oil Leaving expellers in oil milling plant, contains a
high proportion of fine foots that are conventionally removed by passing it through a
filter press. Continuous Super-D-Canters give good results as shown below :
Capacity : 3000 SDC = 2500 kg/hr (>50 TPD) and 3400 SDC = 5000 kg/hr (>100
TPD). Foots Removal : 96% (without water addition) and 99% (with water addition)
The Continuous Acid / Water Degumming Process : Gums in vegetable oil need to
be removed to avoid colour and taste reversion during subsequent refining steps. The
process involves a single stage phosphoric acid treatment and a single stage hot water
treatment followed by continuous removal of the hydrated gums in a Degumming
Super Centrifuge.
Advantage : Availability of cleaner oil down stream, reduced oil loss in the caustic
refining step, and thus higher yield of refined oil can be obtained. Gums obtained are
readily marketable. Soap stock obtained during caustic refining can be directly used
for soap-making and is easy to acid-split whenever necessary. Removal of gum
reduces the requirement of catalyst and consequently reduces the oil loss during
hydrogenation.

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Applications : The Continuous Acid-Water Degumming process can be used to refine
the following oils : Groundnut Oil, Cottonseed oil, Rice Bran Oil, Palm Oil, Mustard
Oil, Corn Oil, Safflower Oil etc. Normal capacities of Super Centrifuge = 1.0 T/hr
and = 0.55 T/hr
Continuous Neutralisation Plant : All crude vegetable oils destined for human
consumption are neutralised to remove free fatty acids, albuminous and mucilaginous
matter, and thereafter washed to reduce the soap content of neutral oil to produce a
more stable product. Effective neutralisation results in enhanced effectiveness of
subsequent steps such as bleaching, hydrogenation, winterizing, deodorizing and
furthermore results in high yields of a quality product. Neutralisation also results in
removal of phosphatides, removal of free fatty acids and removal of colour bodies.
Removal of traces of soap and moisture occurs in the washing and drying steps.
The neutralisation process consists of caustic refining and re-refining (wherever
required) first water washing, second water washing and vacuum drying.
In the refining and washing steps, the separation of neutral oil from soap stock and
neutral oil from wash water is carried out in one or more high-g super centrifuges.
Advantages : Low neutral oil loss with the soap stock due to continuous separation in
the super centrifuge operating at a centrifugal force of 13200 or 16000 gravities.
Control and optimisation of reaction time followed by immediate centrifugal
separation of soap stock minimizes oil loss due to saponification. Second stage
refining enables efficient decolorisation with minimum oil loss in many oils such as
cotton seed oil which require heavy caustic treatment.
Plants are continuous and virtually automatic leading to ease of operation with
unskilled labour which can be easily taught. Parallel bank of centrifuges at each stage
of the process provides flexibility and reduces the vulnerability to mechanical failure.
Easy bowl cleaning of centrifuges, low maintenance, minimum floor space, all go to
increasing refining profits. Only coconut and castor oils saponify readily. Hence the
neutralisation losses have to be maintained within specified limits in relation to the
Wesson loss.
Performance Figures:
% FFA PPM Soap % Moisture
After refining 0.5 - 0.8 1000 - 2000 0.5
After Re-refining <0.1 200 - 600 0.5
After 1st soft water washing <0.1 100 0.5
After 2nd soft water washing <0.1 <50 <0.5
After Vacuum drying <0.1 <50 <0.1
Capacities : Plants are designed, installed and commissioned on a turnkey basis for
the following capacities.
Each AS26 Super Centrifuge, Feed = 1.0 T/hr
Each AS16 Super Centrifuge, Feed = 0.55 T/hr
Continuous Bleaching Process : The neutral, washed and dried Vegetable Oil still
contains some colour bodies and small traces of soap (<50 ppm) which have to be
removed. The Continuous Bleaching Plant equipped with hermetic leaf filters,
operates under vacuum to prevent oil oxidation. The oil is cold mixed with metered
quantities of bleaching earth and/or other bleaching agents and thereafter heated to the
correct temperature and pumped to the Continuous Bleacher operating under vacuum
where an adequate retention time is provided to ensure effective bleaching. The oil
earth slurry is further pumped to two hermetic leaf filters operating sequentially
resulting in continuous bleached oil (filtrate) discharge.

177
Advantages : It cuts costs on labour, maintenance, spares and bleaching earth. It
proportions bleaching earth to oil or fat, continuously and accurately. Optimum
conditions of vacuum, temperature and dryness of both components facilitates
efficient deaeration and degassification of the oil-earth mixture. Minimises operator
attendance by fully automating the process.
Capacity : Continuous Bleaching plants are available for plant capacities of 50 TPD
and above. For capacities below 50 TPD, batch bleaching process is recommended.
Deodorisation : The deodorisation process is highly specialised type of steam
distillation under high vacuum based upon the principle of falling film to remove
objectionable volatile components such a ketones, aldehydes and alcohols. The
bleached oil is pumped by the feed pump to the deaerator where the pretreated oil is
degassed. This deaerated oil is passed through a heat exchanger where the oil is
heated by exchanging the heat of the deodorised oil. The oil is further heated to the
stripping temperature in the preheater wherein thermic fluid is circulated. The above
oil is fed to a flash chamber and flows thereafter to an oil distributor inside falling
film deodoriser. The oil descends counter current to the stripping steam in the form of
very thin film and gets completely deodorised. The fatty acids distilled are condensed,
cooled and stored.
The oil from the bottom flows to an intermediate vessel having an arrangement for
dosing citric acid. This deodorised oil is then pumped through a heat exchanger to the
polishing filter. The filtered oil is thereafter passed through a cooler and discharged
for collection.
Advantages of Falling Film Technology are as follows : Short hold up time during
deodorisation compared to any conventional deodorising plant. The hold up time is
approximately 30 seconds. compared to 90-130 minutes. Deodorisation takes place
inside the tubes from a thin film of less than 0.3 mm thick. Thus there is a good heat
as well as mass transfer, without any significant pressure drop. This plant can process
heat sensitive oils without ester interchange effects. Due to short hold up time at high
temperature and under high vacuum, there is no colour fixation of oils. Due to low
pressure drop, the stripping steam consumption is approximately 110 kgs/ton of oil
which is much lower than that of conventional plants giving approximately saving on
steam of 30 to 40%.
The energy consumption of the vacuum plant is essentially reduced because a lower
amount of stripping vapour has to be sucked off. The counter flow configuration of
the falling film deodoriser results in lower entraining loss of oil. There is a lower
water demand in the vacuum equipment due to size reduction. Fuel oil consumption
is less as compared to conventional Continuous Deodoriser.
Fat Splitting : In fat splitting or hydrolysis, vegetable or animal fats are split into
fatty acid and glycerine, merely by addition of water. The one tower fat splitting
process employs highly innovative and advanced technology for continuous fat
splitting without a catalyst. The splitting takes place at a high (55 Bar) pressure in
presence of water. The fat and water flow in opposite directions, resulting in high
glycerine to water concentration and low steam consumption. The one tower splitting
plant is totally continuous, designed so that the fat is pumped in and the fatty acid and
glycerine water pumped out continuously. The plant is totally automated and its
operation switch button simple. All control instrumentation is connected to the switch
board making it possible for just one operator to supervise the splitting plant.
Advantages : Minimum steam consumption (approx. 200 kg/ton of fat) achieved by
heat exchange in the splitting tower.

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High glycerine to water concentration (with a free fatty acid content of 5% in the
crude fat, the glycerine to water concentration is approximately 20%) made possible
by the specially designed water distribution system inside the tower top. Discharge of
fatty acids from the plant at approx. 80oC. Switch button simple and continuous
operation.
The Fatty Acid Distillation Process : Distillation of heat sensitive fatty acids is a
highly complex and difficult operation requiring specialised process and equipment.
Fatty acid distillation process is the most efficient, state-of-the-art process available in
the world today, for the distillation of fatty acids obtained from high pressure
splitting. It is specially designed to obtain premium quality fatty acids, free from
odours and low molecular weight components and minimum colour contaminants,
with the help of a pre-run column. The process involves stripping the maximum
amount of unwanted volatiles from the fatty acids.
EQUIPMENT : The Plant consists of a de-gassing and de-watering stage, complete
with a condenser /gas cooler and a condensate receiver, two pumps, a pre-run column
with falling film evaporator, a product preheater, one reflux condenser, two other
condensers, the main distillation column with a falling film evaporator and a residue
stage falling film evaporator, a condenser serving as a product preheater for the de-
gassing and de-watering stage, a final condenser, a gas cooler, a residue cooler, a
distillate receiver and three pumps.
PROCESS DESCRIPTION : The colour and odour carriers of split crude fatty acids
(secondary components, mainly created by oxidation and decomposition with a much
lower boiling point), are drawn off together with the fatty acids in the de-gassing / de-
watering stage, mainly with the stripping steam added to the bottom. The fatty acids
are then continuously fed to the pre-run column, where most of the remaining
secondary components, the odour and colour, are removed by steam distillation. The
deodorisation of fatty acids, and the separation of odour and colour components is
effected by the addition of steam to the bottom.
The fatty acids from the bottom are pumped back partially to the column through a
falling film evaporator, where the temperature is raised to above 200oC by heating
with thermic fluid. The reflux is brought about by the reflux condenser. The control is
effected via circulation water. The material with odour and colour, moves to the next
condenser due to initial cooling by the reflux condenser. The vapours entering the
next two condensers help obtain maximum recovery from the first running separated
in the liquid phase separation tank.
The fatty acids from the pre-run column are fed into the distiller column. The acids
from the bottom of this column are then pushed back partially through the column via
the falling film evaporator, where the appropriate temperature to achieve the
maximum rate of evaporation inside the distiller column is maintained. The distilled
fatty acid vapours leaving the column transfer heat partially to the crude fatty acid in a
condenser and then enter the next condenser, where the maximum recovery of the
distilled fatty acids is effected. These are then collected in the distillate receiver. The
necessary reduction in the temperature of the distilled fatty acids is achieved with the
help of the distillate cooler.
As the level inside the distiller column increases the fatty acids from the bottom of the
column are pumped into the residue falling film evaporator, which are then fed back
to the distiller column. With an increase in the falling film evaporator level, the
accumulated residue is then discharged and after proper cooling in the residue cooler,
conveyed to residue storage.

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ADVANTAGES OF FALLING FILM TECHNOLOGY FOR PRE-RUN AND
DISTILLATION OF FATTY ACIDS : The pre-run improves the quality of the
distilled fatty acids by getting rid of low molecular weight fatty acids, odorous
material and colouring compounds. The evaporation takes place inside the tubes from
a thin liquid film, usually less than 1 mm in thickness, resulting in good mass transfer
with minimum pressure drop. The device requires only small effective volumes, as the
tube wall is heated immediately. The formation of the film takes place under the
influence of gravitational force. Heating is achieved by a falling film evaporator,
where highly effective heat transfer is obtained with very short liquid hold-up times in
the tube. Falling film evaporators need minimum maintenance. Best for heat sensitive
fatty acids. The unique design of the plant makes the process totally reliable.

5 TONS per day EDIBLE OIL REFINARY


Process Description : For refining the oil, there are three basic processes in the
refinery. First process is neutralizing the oil in the neutralizer to remove the Free Fatty
Acids (FFA) by adding caustic soda. Oil is heated upto about 60°C by thermic fluid
coils and oil is stirred by stirrer. Then soap stock formed due to chemical reaction is
allowed to settle at the bottom of the neutralizer from where it is taken out into soap
pan.
Neutralized oil is drawn into the second vessel called bleacher where colour of oil is
removed by bleaching process with the aid of chemicals such as carbon black and
bleaching earth. Oil is generally heated upto 110°C by thermic fluid coils. Stirring is
also continued. Bleaching process is done under vacuum.
Bleached oil then goes to the filter press where bleaching earth and chemicals are
separated and clean bleached oil is then drawn to deodourizer where oil is heated
above 110°C through thermic fluid coils and then live steam purged into the oil from
the bottom steam nozzles and temperature of oil is raised upto 200 to 220°C through
thermic fluid coils. Entire process is done under high vacuum. Thus smell is removed
from the oil in the deodourizer. Then it goes to cooler where water circulating coils
take away heat and oil is cooled. Again it goes to second filter press where completely
refined and transparent colourless oil is obtained.
Thermic Fluid Boiler, Vacuum Pump, Barometric Condenser, Catchalls, Steam
Generator etc. play their role in the refining process. So these equipments are part of
the refinery and connected with the vessels through pipelines.
Additional Process for palm oil refinery : Specially for palm oil refinery,
fractionation process is required in which palm olene and palm sterene are separated
by scientifically cooling the refined palm oil by chilling plant and then filtering the
oil. For this purpose crystalizing vessel is used in which chilling pipe coils cool the oil
for fractionation. Palm sterene crystals are formed due to chilling which are separated
in the filter press and pure liquid of palm olene is obtained and palm sterene cake is
retained in the filter press.

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Specifications of Refinery : Capacity 5 tons per day, 4 batches of 1,250 kg each.
(1) All the main vessels, two neutralizers, one bleacher and one deodourizer are
properly arranged on the first floor of the steel structure. All these vessels hang on the
steel structure. Just below the two neutralizers, two soap pans are resting on the
ground floor in which soap stock is collected. There is a steam pipe arrangement in
the soap pans also.
(2) Steel structure has size of 14 feet x 14 feet (4.25 meters x 4.25 meters). First floor
is 9 feet above the ground level. There are 8 columns of double channel which
supports the entire steel structure. It has proper staircase and railing on all the sides of
steel structure at the first floor and also on staircase. Two filter presses are also
accommodated on the first floor of the steel structure.
(3) Two oil tanks, raw oil tank and bleached oil tank are accommodated under the
structure on the ground floor. The cooler, thermic fluid boiler, two steam generators,
vacuum pump, water pumps, oil pumps and refined oil tank are arranged on the
ground floor around the steel structure, outside the square of 14 feet x 14 feet steel
structure. So total space occupied is about 30 feet × 30 feet (9 meters x 9meters).
(4) 40 feet tower is erected just near the deodourizer and its complete structure is
supported from the ground floor and also it is attached with the refinery structure.
Barometric condenser is arranged at 40 feet height to create proper vacuum.

181
(5) All types of pipelines are interconnected as per the requirement of the refinery i.e.
oil (yellow), vacuum (blue), steam (black), water (white), thermic fluid (red). At all
appropriate places, proper valves are provided in the pipelines.
(6) Neutralizer is provided with thermic fluid coil for heating the oil.
(7) Bleacher is provided with double pipe coil. One is for thermic fluid and another is
for cooling water.
(8) Deodourizer is provided with double pipe coil i.e. in both the coils, thermic fluid is
circulated. Steam is ejected from the stainless steel nozzles provided on the steam
pipe, cross supported at the bottom.
(9) Cooler is provided with double pipe coil. Both circulate cooling water.
(10) In every vessel temperature gauge is provided. Vacuum gauge is provided on
deodourizer, bleacher and cooler.
(11) Neutralizer is open on the top having conical bottom.
(12) Bleacher has dished ends on both the sides. Similarly deodourizer has dished
ends on both the sides. Cooler has also dished ends on both the sides.
Specification of Refinery with fractionation Process :
(13) There will be chilling plant for fractionation process which will include shell and
tube chiller, compressor, motor, pump, condenser, control panel box etc.
(14) Crystallizing unit which is similar to neutralizer complete with chilling coil.
(15) Filter press for separation of palm olein and palm sterene

SOLVENT EXTRACTION PLANT


CAPACITY 200 TONNES / 24 HOURS
I] MAIN SOLVENT EXTRACTION PLANT
Equipment and accessories required for Solvent Extraction Line (Within Battery
Limits) suitable for processing 200 Tons / 24 hours of pre-pressed oil cake containing
less than 8 to 9% oil.
1) PREPARATORY EQUIPMENT for OIL CAKE : Preparatory equipment suitable
for preparing the above, suitable for the further extraction process, complete with
drive, panel & electrical as detailed out in specification. Normally not recommended
for pre-pressed cake.
2) MAIN EQUIPMENT: Main equipment for solvent Extraction Line, comprising of
Feeding conveyor, extractor, Solvent tight conveyor, distillation tower, outgoing
conveyor condensers, distillation equipment, recuperation equipment, and other
related equipment as detailed out in specification.
3) PUMP SETS: Pump sets comprising of Cast Iron centrifugal pumps, designed for
handling solvent / miscella / oil at required duty conditions, heavy duty for
continuous operation complete with flame proof motors, coupling and base frame
with mechanical seals, on strategic pumps as detailed out in specification.
4) DRIVES: Drives for main equipment viz. Conveyors, extractor, distillation tower,
recuperator completes with Flameproof motors; gearbox, couplings, special
couplings for extractor & distillation tower drive with required pulley/sprockets,
belt/chain, base frames and guard as detailed out in specification.
5) PIPING MATERIALS : All required piping material within battery limit of the
plant for circulation of water, steam, oil, miscella and solvent, comprising of pipes,
bends, flanges, gaskets, viewing glasses, vacuum gauges, and compound gauges and
temperature gauges. All required valves for water, oil, miscella, steam and solvent
lines, steam traps, steam fittings.
6) ELECTRICAL: All required electrical within battery limits of solvent plant,
comprising of main panel board with lightened mimic diagram, with interlocking

182
system, with indicating lights, fitted with ammeters, voltmeter in vermin proof
construction, also required flame proof push buttons, safety switches, rotary
switches, cables connecting panel to individual motors and push buttons. Equipment
light and main plant general lights (fluorescent) in flameproof construction.
Miscellaneous items like connectors, earthing material etc as detailed out in
specification.
II] AUXILIARIES
SUPPORTING STEEL STRUCTURAL : Supporting steel structure for main plant
complete with columns, floor beams, purlins, pent roof, trusses, base plates, one
steel staircase, railings, required nuts & bolts, and steel flooring and painting for the
structure. Only supporting structure for hydrator and platform around it (bagging
section). Supporting structure for preparatory equipment with platform. (Oil Cake)
COOLING ARRANGEMENT FOR DeOiled Cake : Comprising of hood on the
outgoing conveyor, blower, fan, rotary Valve, cyclone, drive for blower and rotary
valve, ducting connecting hood, Cyclone and Blower. In case of small capacity
plants a suitably designed Hood on the conveyor Would be adequate and no blower /
cyclone / ducting will be required.
COOLING ARRANGEMENT FOR INCOMING CONVEYOR : Required when
for rice bran pellets or Soya flakes are to be processed, this arrangement would cool
/ crip the pellets / flakes as are being sent for extraction. Equipment similar to the
one described in serial no. 2 above.
III] STORAGE TANKS
a) OIL STORAGE TANKS 40 Tons (2 Nos) : Oil storage tanks in knocked down
condition suitable to hold 40 tons of Oil each. Pump set complete with pump, motor,
coupling and base frame. Piping for the above tank complete with valves to connect
it to solvent plant (Approximately 30 meter distance). Painting for the above tanks.
b) SOLVENT STORAGE TANKS 25,000 liters (2 Nos.) : Solvent storage tanks in
knocked down condition, complete with clamps and tun buckles for holding in place
suitable to hold 25,000 liters each. Pump set complete with pump, Explosion Proof
motor, coupling and base frame. Piping for connecting the tank with main plant,
with valves, safety tyros valve and feel pipe.

COOLING WATER and CIRCULATION SYSTEM : Comprising of induced draft,


treated wood cooling tower complete with fan and drive. Pump set for circulating the
water complete with motor, base plate and coupling with a stand by pump set for
water circulation.
Piping : Piping material for connecting the Solvent Extraction Plant to water cooling
pump sets complete with valves approximately 20 meters.
Electrical : Comprising of panel board, cables and required electrical material.
Glass wool / Mineral wool insulation materials.
PAINTING : General painting material for equipment and piping. Special solvent
resistance paint material including coal tar epoxy paint for internal of extractor and
miscella tank.

183
CHAPTER 26
Business Model for Jatropha Plantation
The BioFuels industry revolves around Jatropha. It takes two to three years for
Jatropha plants to reach maturity and generate economic yields of 2.4 kg of seeds per
tree. These seeds can then be crushed to produce Crude Jatropha Oil (CJO) that can be
converted into Biodiesel. Once mature, Jatropha has a productive life span in excess
of thirty years.
It is proposed that plantations of 5,000 hectares will be set up in one geographical
area, in waste or marginalized land, and there will be a minimum of 2,500 plants per
hectare. With each 5,000 hectare plantation on average supporting 10 million
productive trees, and each tree yielding approximately 2.4 kg of seeds per annum, the
total harvest will be 24,000 tons of seeds. Assuming an oil yield of 30%, when
crushed this will produce about 7,200 tons of CJO. We estimate that each ton of
Jatropha oil will produce 1,050 litres of Biodiesel. A mature plantation can produce
7.5 million litres of Biodiesel per year. Each 5,000 hectare plantation should create a
minimum of 2,500 new jobs.
Working with Franchisee
Given the importance placed by the Indian government on the development of
biofuels, many leading Global companies are taking a keen interest in the biofuels
sector. This is giving us the opportunity to develop partnerships with established
companies across the world. We will appoint one Franchisee per district and a number
of sub franchisees. We will provide our Franchisee, high quality seeds and seedlings,
growing medium and technical support on how to raise a nursery, improve yields and
oil content, and we will purchase all Jatropha seeds harvested by the farmers through
Franchisee. Besides assisting local farmers to extend their Jatropha planting, the
financing will enable us to expand more rapidly as the working capital requirements
for each hectare are reduced. We will have to raise finance for the same overseas.
Product Development Centre (PDC)
We will set up a Product Development Centre (PDC) in India, that will focus on
improving the quality of Jatropha seeds to ensure constant volumes and quality of oil
from Jatropha plantations worldwide. It will also develop supporting products such as
growing media, compost and bio pesticides.
Seed Inventories : We intend to develop stocks of high quality Jatropha planting seed
specially developed for each of the climatic conditions where planting is planned.
Seedling development programs : Jatropha seeds are grown into seedlings in a
nursery for 60 days prior to planting. The PDC will provide guidance and specialised
growing media to ensure the highest germination rates and to accelerate plant growth.
Initially we will place orders for millions of seedlings with a number of established
Indian agro-laboratories and nurseries.
Growing Media, Fertilisers and Composts : Each hectare of Jatropha plantation
requires one ton of organic fertilizer each year. In India, cow dung is used as fertiliser,
and it is usually collected by the women in each village. We will test village based
composting models in several of model farms in India. Working with local
agricultural universities, we will create recipes for compost specifically formulated
for Jatropha from the agricultural wastes and residues found in each area. We will
instruct local women's groups on how to create the compost.
Training manuals for planting and cultivation : The PDC will develop training
manuals in local languages for farmers which outline the techniques for setting up
nurseries, and carrying out planting, pruning and harvesting.

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Post harvest management and seed storage : Particular harvesting, storage and
handling techniques are required to ensure optimum oil quality from Jatropha seeds.
We will provide our Franchisee with guidance and recommendations on such
techniques while continuing to research cost effective quality controls for cultivation
and storage.
Seed cake : We will explore and develop potential high value uses for Jatropha seed
cake to increase revenue for farmers and ensure there is zero waste.
Micro propagation : We will explore micro propagation techniques for mass
production of seedlings with the necessary characteristics for each planting area.
Methods to be developed include tissue culture (which involves growing seedlings in
vitro from cells isolated from adult Jatropha plant tissue) and microscopic seed
splitting to micro propagate millions of healthy seedlings from a single plant.
Biodiesel Plant
A Biodiesel plant, can be a stand-alone skid-mounted Trans Esterification Unit,
capable of producing 7,000 tons per year of Biodiesel from a range of vegetable oil
feedstock. The result is of several years research and development by our Associate in
the Argentina, the plant runs on well known Trans Esterification processes. The unit
is compact and portable, weighing a little less than 20 tons. It is mounted on a skid for
easy loading and can be shipped around the world easily by road, rail and sea.
Optional Glycerine Purification units are also available if required.
All modules are complete with their own control panels and can run independent of
each other. Typical feed stocks processed include Rape seed, Jatropha and palm oils
with a FFA of 5% or less. The Plant runs at low temperature and pressure. Site
requirements include a suitable hard soil area on which to position the main
processing module, a 3-phase electricity supply either via the grid or a portable diesel
generator and a water supply. Feedstock, catalyst and product off take tanks are
required as part of the site installation.
Our technical team can advise further, although a thorough proposal can only be
determined following analysis of proposed feedstock, available utilities and location.
A site visit may be required. We have already supplied a number of plants around the
world. We can provide reference list of our clients.
Jatropha Byproducts : Creating Additional Value
In addition to producing high quality Biodiesel, the processing of Jatropha seeds also
produce valuable by-products, and these by-products can create added value for
growers. Efficient use of by-products ensures that Jatropha growing and processing
produces zero waste.
When Jatropha seeds are crushed to extract their oil, other residues are left behind as
seed cake. Jatropha seed cake is high in protein and other nutrients, and has a wide
variety of applications as an organic fertiliser and Bio Gas. Jatropha seed cake also
has a high energy content and can be pressed into briquettes and burned as fuel.
Farmers who harvest and process Jatropha seeds can use the seed cake for themselves
in a wide variety of ways to support their operations. Converting crude Jatropha oil
into Biodiesel produces Glycerine, which is in demand as a raw material for a very
wide range of cosmetic, medical and food products.
Building a Business in Feedstock and Biodiesel Manufacturing
The problems of global warming, energy security and poverty in developing nations
are enormous, and can only be answered by solutions that match them in reach and
vision. We are establishing its business and building a global presence in the planting
of feedstock crops and refining of Biodiesel.

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We believe the scope of our operations makes strong commercial sense. Our strategy
is to establish production in volume that ensures a secure long term supply of
competitively priced Biodiesel to help meet the world’s energy needs. Production in
volume is the most profitable way to maintain our lead over competitors. Ours is
commercially driven business model that addresses the pressing global issues of fuel
supply security, climate change and sustainable development.
India : Potential for Lead in Production of Biodiesel
India is a key location for Jatropha Oil. We can establish Jatropha plantations and
Biodiesel manufacturing operations, in what we believe will be one of the world’s
most exciting Biodiesel markets. We also intend to make India a center of excellence
for the science of Jatropha production that will support operations in Africa and Asia
Pacific. India has growing energy and transport fuel needs and its domestic crude
petroleum oil production is not sufficient to meet rapidly increasing demand.
However, the Indian government has one of the most developed Biodiesel promotion
programs in the world, with Jatropha feedstock playing a major role.
Hundreds of species of Jatropha now thrive in India's varied regional climates, and
Indian agronomists are already experienced in the science of Jatropha cultivation.
India has the potential to become not only a major consumer of Biodiesel, but also
one of the world’s leading producers.
Indian Vision
India is at the center of most ambitious Jatropha planting program. We Indians, aim to
plant 100,000 hectares of land with Jatropha in 2005, and has set a target of 5 million
hectares to be planted over the next five years. If our operations achieve their full
potential, we will make a significant step to establishing ourselves as one of the
leading businesses in plantation and manufacturing Biodiesel in Asia. We expect that
our operations will be able to meet a major portion of India’s demand for Biodiesel.
India already has a lead in the research and development of Jatropha Biodiesel feed
stock. Our aim is to become the world’s leader in the agronomy of biofuels,
improving the characteristics of Jatropha, manufacturing, propagation and plantation
techniques, and maximising production of its by products. India’s economy is diverse
and complex. Despite having some of the world’s leading technology services, more
than 70% of India’s one billion people are dependent on agriculture. Farming
contributes 25% of India's GDP. Rural poverty and unemployment are widespread.
Hence the need for sustainable agricultural development remains great.
Our business will gainfully use millions of hectares of waste or marginal land across
India and help alleviate rural poverty by generating thousands of rural jobs and
offering farmers an additional source of income. The 100,000 hectares we plan to
plant in India this year could generate up to 50,000 jobs in rural communities. We
estimate that our five year planting program could generate over a billion man days of
employment.
Market : Great Demand for Biodiesel
India's demand for diesel fuel for transport is rising rapidly as it economy expands,
and much of the increase has to be met with expensive oil imports. In addition, local
air pollution and poor air quality are becoming more serious as the use of fossil fuels
increases. However, inexpensive Biodiesel produced from India's vast agricultural
resources offers a clean substitute for expensive fossil fuel imports. Domestic
Biodiesel production could enable India to meet the three often conflicting objectives
of economic growth, fuel security and cleaner air.
The Indian Government is introducing a US$300 million program to encourage
biofuels development and production, and is also in the process of mandating the

186
blending of Biodiesel with mineral diesel. A 5% blend is expected to be introduced
shortly, rising to 20% by 2020. We want to position ourselves to take advantage of
this huge opportunity. A 5% Biodiesel blend will create an immediate demand for 2.5
million tons of Biodiesel, rising to 16 million tons when a 20% blend is introduced.
Feed stock : Huge Potential for Jatropha
In remote areas of India where Jatropha grows wild, the oil extracted from its seeds is
often used for soap, paint, cosmetics, and fuel for traditional oil lamps. Jatropha is
also planted as fencing to prevent animals from grazing crops. However, overall the
quantities of seeds and oil currently produced are small.
India has tremendous potential as a producer of Jatropha oil, and India’s national
biofuels program emphasises Jatropha production. More than 24 million hectares of
waste and marginalised land, representing 20% of the total national area, lay barren or
under utilised. Such land has little agricultural value at present, but we estimates that
up to 20 million hectares of this area would be suitable for growing Jatropha. We
want to pioneer the organised plantation of Jatropha throughout India using
agronomic techniques pioneered and perfected in India.
National Biofuels Program : Our Contribution
The Indian government’s $300 million national biofuels program has the potential to
create the world’s first large scale national Biodiesel industry. Currently Jatropha
appears to be one of the most promising feed stocks upon which the industry will be
built. India has the available land and the scientific know-how in plantation and
cultivation to rapidly develop Jatropha planting on a large scale. We will work closely
with the Indian government to realise its vision of building a Jatropha based Biodiesel
industry.
Meeting Growing Global Demand for Non Edible Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel
Our Business Model is to become a global, sustainable producer of competitively
priced Non Edible Vegetable Oil and Biodiesel. We aim to meet the world's growing
demand for more green transport fuel. We intend to deliver a consistent high volume
output of sustainable vegetable feedstock oils and high quality Biodiesel.
The Birth of a Global Biodiesel Business
Our activities were started in 2002 to design and build Biodiesel Plants for the
transport industry. Right from beginning we investigated Non-Edible Vegetable Oils
as primary feed stock. However, the low supply and the high cost of Non-Edible Oils
and non availability of land for large quantity of Non Edible oil production prompted
the search for design of this Business Model for Bio Fuels. It was identified that
Jatropha Curcas tree produces seeds with a high content of inedible oils. The oil is
extracted by crushing the seeds and can be converted into high quality Biodiesel.
Jatropha grows in climatic conditions commonly found in the developing world. We
chose Jatropha as its primary feed stock due to its high oil content, an ability to
tolerate a wide range of climates, and its productive life that spans over 30 years. Our
first priority was to establish operations in India to source a supply of crude Jatropha
oil and initiate the planting of Jatropha in order to secure and maintain sufficient
supply.
Putting Back What We Take Out
We are an energy business that will contribute to the alleviation of three pressing
global issues : Climate Change, Energy Security and Reducing Rural Poverty in the
developing world. By sourcing Biodiesel feedstock from the developing world, we are
benefiting some of the world’s poorest communities. Rural communities and
businesses throughout India and Asia will be empowered by their ability to produce
Biodiesel for their own transport and power generation needs as well as for export.

187
The developmental impact could be immense, such as Reducing expensive fuel
imports, Improving the balance of trade. Providing incremental incomes for farmers
while potentially creating millions of new jobs. Economic development often takes
place at the expense of the environment. However, our primary Biodiesel feed stock,
Jatropha Curcas, puts back into the environment what it takes out. It can grow on
marginal and waste land, so it does not compete with vital food crops already in short
supply in parts of the developing world. Jatropha plants help prevent erosion, restore
nutrients to depleted soil and arrest desertification. As Jatropha is a fuel crop rather
than a food crop, it can be irrigated with waste water. Jatropha absorbs CO2 as it
grows, furthering the positive environmental impact of the low-emission fuel it
produces.
ENERGY : Biodiesel for Sustainable Transport
The world needs greener transport fuel. Climate change due to Green House Gas
emissions, is now accepted as fact. Fossil fuel prices are rising and energy supplies
look less secure. Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of greenhouse gas
emissions. In response, demand is growing rapidly for alternative fuels such as
Biodiesel that pollute less and can be produced from sustainable agricultural crops,
including our chosen Biodiesel feed stock, Jatropha Curcas.
Petroleum diesel produces high levels of carbon dioxide, CO2, a Green House Gas
that is a significant contributor to global warming. It also produces other harmful
pollutants such as, Carbon Monoxide, a poisonous gas that causes smog, Particulates
that contribute to respiratory infections, including asthma, Sulfur Dioxide that causes
acid rain, and Unburned Aromatic Hydrocarbons that create smog and may be a
contributing cause of cancer.
In comparison, when used either in its pure form or blended with mineral diesel,
Biodiesel produces significantly lower harmful emissions. Carbon monoxide
emissions can be reduced by up to 50%, and particulate emissions by up to 30%.
Biodiesel is virtually free of sulfur and does not contribute to acid rain. The
production of unburned aromatics are also significantly reduced. The overall impact
of emissions from Biodiesel is reduced because energy crops capture CO2 as they
grow. The life cycle of Biodiesel crops can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 78%
compared to mineral diesel.
Jatropha Curcas : A Global Source of Renewable Fuel
As diminishing fossil fuel reserves and climate change become major global concerns,
a little-known tree has the potential to become one of the world’s key energy crops.
Non Edible Vegetable oil, extracted from the seeds of the Jatropha plant, can be
converted into Biodiesel for transport either in its pure form or as a blend with
mineral diesel. Biodiesel can also power captive electricity generation. Jatropha
Biodiesel is a clean fuel which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport
that contribute to global warming. By using Biodiesel to meet a portion of their
transport fuel needs, countries can reduce their reliance on increasingly scarce and
expensive high carbon, mineral diesel.
Jatropha grows in tropical and subtropical climates typically found throughout much
of the developing world. Consequently, planting and cultivating Jatropha, and the
process of converting it into Biodiesel, will potentially provide jobs and incomes for
millions of poor agricultural workers and farmers across the developing world.
Jatropha can grow either from cuttings or seeds. It is drought resistant and tolerates
climatic conditions ranging from very dry to moist tropical, subtropical and wet rain

188
forest. Under optimum subtropical conditions, with plenty of rainfall, Jatropha seeds
yield up to 30% oil content.
Because it requires minimal rainfall, Jatropha can be grown successfully on marginal,
degraded, or even desert land. The trees also help prevent soil erosion. In addition to
yielding oil for refining into Biodiesel and Glycerine for use by the cosmetics
industry, the residual oil cake is excellent organic fertilizer. Research is underway into
alternative uses for the residual seed cake, such as Bio Gas, Briquettes as Fuel, which
will increase crop values to farmers.
Meeting Biodiesel Demand
Why Europe Can not Grow Enough Energy Crops
Biodiesel is now in demand as a cleaner fuel, especially for transport. It is most
commonly used as a blend with regular mineral diesel. Biodiesel blends result in
lower pollution and CO2 emissions, and reduce reliance on fuel imports. In the
European Union (EU), the Biodiesel feed stock of choice is Rape seed, and EU
initially investigated the production of Biodiesel from Rape seed grown in the EU as
farming can be mechanized. However, the research indicated that rape seed as a
Biodiesel feed stock is not necessarily the best solution to meet the growing global
demand for Biodiesel.
Rape seed oil is a valuable agricultural commodity and 80% of EU Rape seed
production is used for food. Using Rape seed as Biodiesel feedstock would require an
enormous increase in its planting. At present, some three million hectares of arable
land within the EU, an area roughly the size of Belgium, produce 10 million tons of
Rape seed. But as only 20% of this crop is available for the production of Biodiesel, it
is estimated that another whole Belgium would have to be covered in a blanket of
yellow Rape seed to meet the EU’s Biodiesel needs.
If land is not available, Rape seed will have to compete with food crops for scarce
arable land and the resulting Biodiesel may be too expensive without subsidy.
Although it will remain a key Biodiesel feedstock, EU can not produce sufficient
quantities of crude Rape seed oil to meet potential domestic demand for Biodiesel.
Jatropha Biodiesel : The Alternative Fuel
Jatropha Biodiesel is a clean fuel which will reduce Green House Gas emissions from
transport that contribute to global warming. By using Biodiesel to meet a portion of
their transport fuel needs, countries can reduce their reliance on increasingly scarce
and expensive high carbon, mineral diesel.
The production of Jatropha Biodiesel also offer benefits for the developing world.
Jatropha is not a food crop and need not be grown on prime agricultural land. It can
produce competitive harvests on marginal and degraded land, while restoring that land
to fertility and arresting desertification.
Growing Jatropha as an energy crop will enable developing countries to make use of
the large areas of marginal and degraded land that have fallen out of production or
become unsuitable for agriculture. Jatropha will potentially create millions of rural
jobs and increase farm incomes. It will enable developing countries to obtain supplies
of local Biodiesel, reducing dependence on expensive imports of mineral diesel, while
producing surpluses of vegetable oil and Biodiesel for export.
Greener Fuel
Jatropha Biodiesel has energy content similar to mineral diesel, and can be processed
to comply with the current standards. Jatropha Biodiesel contains more oxygen, and
its cetane value, or combustion quality (equivalent to octane value for petrol), is
higher than mineral diesel, enabling a cleaner burn at higher temperatures. When
mixed with mineral diesel, both fuels burn more cleanly. Jatropha Biodiesel has

189
greater lubricity, which reduces engine wear. It also has a higher flash point, making
handling and transport far safer. Pure Jatropha Biodiesel is non-toxic.
Jatropha Biodiesel does not require modifications in modern engines. Many
manufacturer warranties now cover the use of B5 (5%) Biodiesel blends and above.
However, engines made over 10-15 years ago require rubber seals to be replaced with
synthetic ones to stop degradation from B100 (100%) Biodiesel.
Global Biodiesel Market : Set for Growth
Increasing concern over global warming and the security of mineral fuel supplies are
driving the growth of the biofuel industry. Nations across the globe are mandating the
introduction of biofuels, particularly Biodiesel, to curb global warming and meet
Kyoto Protocol requirements. Continuing unrest in the Middle East and volatile fuel
prices are also encouraging the use of biofuels as substitutes for petrol and diesel.
Growth is being driven through mandated Biodiesel blends and fiscal incentives.
From 2005, the EU has directed that 2% of the energy content of all petrol and diesel
for transport must come from renewable sources. All diesel sold in France is already
blended with 2% Biodiesel. In India, a 20% blend is possible for 2020. Thailand is
aiming for a 10% blend by 2012. Meeting these targets will depend on feedstock
availability and investment in production capacity, but the prospects for growth look
strong.
Biodiesel in Asia
Asia currently consumes over 2 billion tons of oil per year, and demand is expected to
double by 2025. Transport fuel will make up a significant portion of this growth.
Alternative fuels could meet growing energy needs as well as reducing Green House
gas emissions and cutting local pollution. Growing biofuel crops to produce fuel for
local use and export will also bring significant development benefits.
Asia produces many vegetable oils which are ideal for Biodiesel feedstock, including
coconut and palm. Jatropha has great potential in the region as an energy crop. We are
working with Asian nations as they respond to these challenges:
India : The Indian government is proposing a national Biodiesel blend of 20% by
2020.
Philippines : Biodiesel made with 1-2% coconut oil is mandatory for all government
vehicles. Government is promoting Biodiesel to improve air quality and reduce
dependence on imported fuel.
Thailand : 90% of all oil is imported. The Ministry of Energy has proposed a 10%
target for Biodiesel use by 2012. Thailand will invest $3.2 billion into biofuel
plantations and 30 refineries.
Biodiesel in Africa
Africa’s need for transport fuel to power economic development is increasing, and the
rising cost of oil imports is a growing concern. Import substitution is encouraging
many African governments to consider the benefits of the domestic production of
Biodiesel. However, the most important immediate benefit to Africa from Biodiesel
production will come from rural agricultural development through the growing of
energy crops. Biodiesel from Jatropha has significant potential as a feedstock, as
Jatropha can grow readily across much of Africa.
Biodiesel in the America
Ethanol has dominated the alternative fuels market in North and South America, but
production of Biodiesel is growing.
USA : Biodiesel production is now at record levels due to recent tax incentives.
Approximately 20 million gallons of Biodiesel were produced in 2004, compared to

190
200,000 gallons produced in 1999. Biodiesel is on sale at over 300 retail filling
stations, and is also used by over 500 major fleets.
Canada : Federal excise taxes on Biodiesel have been reduced, and a 10% renewable
fuel mandate split between ethanol and Biodiesel is under consideration by provincial
governments.
Brazil : Brazil has built a leading position in ethanol production, and now aims to
become a Biodiesel powerhouse. The government’s National Biodiesel Program to
promote the mass production, distribution and marketing of Biodiesel has mandated a
2% Biodiesel blend by 2008, rising to 5% by 2013.
Biodiesel in Europe : Imports Will Drive Demand
Biodiesel is Europe's dominant alternative fuel. As part of a range of measures drawn
up in response to international agreements to reduce Green House Gas emissions, the
EU is encouraging greater use of biofuels. Under the 2003 EU Biofuels Directive, a
2% share of the energy content of all petrol and diesel for transport must come from
renewable sources, including both Biodiesel and bioethanol. This must rise to 5.75%
by the end of 2010.
Tax exemptions and national targets are driving demand across the EU. France and
Germany are actively introducing blends. All diesel sold in France is already blended
with 2% Biodiesel. The reduction in UK duty on Biodiesel by 20 pence per liter in
April 2002 is also encouraging investment.
Europe has dominated the Biodiesel industry to date with 90% of Global production,
but escalating demand is outpacing supply. The Directive will create a demand of at
least 9.2 million tons of Biodiesel per year by 2010. However, current capacity is only
2.2 million tons per year.
Rape seed oil continues to be the dominant feedstock in Europe, supplying 80% of
total Biodiesel requirements. Reaching EU targets will require the allocation of more
agricultural land to Rape seed production. It has been argued that sufficient land will
be available for increased planting under the EU set-aside program. Yet this may not
be realistic, as the land is often located in areas unsuitable for production, and much
of it has designated environmental value.
Rape seed is a relatively expensive crop to grow. It is so intensive it requires frequent
rotation and extensive use of expensive fossil fuel fertilizers (over which there are
also environmental concerns). Moreover, it is currently grown under a complex
subsidy regime. If extra land is not available, Rape seed will have to compete with
food crops for scarce arable land and the resulting Biodiesel may be too expensive
without subsidy. Although it will remain a key feedstock, the extent to which Rape
seed can meet Europe’s growing demand is open to question.
The national targets for biofuels can not be efficiently met from EU domestic rape oil
production. Hence we are promoting alternative solutions using oil bearing energy
crops that grow in the developing world, primarily Jatropha.

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CHAPTER 27
Institutes where Research is going on about Jatropha
Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., Agripark, Jain Hills, PO Box 72, Shirsoli Road, Jalgaon-
425 001, India, Phone: 91-257-2260022/33; Fax: 91-257-2261111/22,
agripark@jains.com
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Industrial & Technical Consultancy of Tamilnadu Ltd., 50-A, Greams Road, Chennai,
600006. Tel : 91-44-28292557, 28294365, 28295484, Fax : 91-44-28293512. E Mail :
itcot@net.com. Web Site : www.itcot.com
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Aditya BioTech Laboratories & Research Pvt. Ltd., Nalghar Chouk, Chhotrapara,
Raipur, 492001. Tel 91-771-2534854, 3090850, Fax : 91-771-2537634. E Mail :
abdindia@rediffmail.com
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College of Forestry, Dr. PDKV, Akola, 444014, E Mail : forestry@pdkv.mah.nic.in.
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CRIDA, Santhosh Nagar, Daidabad, Hyderabad, 500059. E Mail :
grrao@crida.ap.nic.in
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College of Agriculture, GKVS, Bangalore, 560065. Tel : 91-80-23330153. E Mail :
egangu@lycos.com
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BAIF, Dr. Manibhai Desai Nagar, Warje, Pune, 411029. Tel 91-20-25233166, Fax :
91-20-25231662. E Mail : baif@vsnl.com
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IREDA Ltd., India Habitat Center, East Court, 1st floor, Lodhi Road, New Delhi,
110003. Tel : 91-11-24682214-21, Fax : 91-11-22682202. E Mail :
mdireda@rediffmail.com. Web Site : www.iredaltd.com
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Prof. Udipi Shrinivas, SUTRA, Dept of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore, 450012. Tel : 91-80-3600080, 3602435. udipi@sutra.iisc.ernet.in
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Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Houz Khas, New Delhi,
110016. Tel : 91-11-26591260, Fax : 91-11-26581121, lalitmdas@hotmail.com
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Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Santosh Nagar, Hyderabad, Tel :
91-40-24530161, Fax : 91-40-24533802, E Mail : mayande@crida.ap.nic.in.
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Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badheka Marg,
Bhavnagar, 364002. Tel : 91-278-2567760, 2568923, Fax : 91-278-2566970. E Mail :
asmehta@csmcri.org. Web Site : www.csmcri.org
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Center for Rural Development & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Houz
Khas, New Delhi, 110016. Tel : 91-11-26591162, Fax : 91-11-26591121. E Mail :
sn_naik@hotmail.com. 9818294067
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Forest College & Research Institute, TamilNadu Agricultural University,
Mettupalyam, 641301. E Mail : deanfor@tnau.ac.in
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Gujarath Energy Development Agency, 2nd floor, Suraj Plaza II, Sayaji Ganj,
Vadodara, 390007. Tel : 91-265-2363123, 2362058, 2361409, Fax : 91-265-2363120
E Mail : director@geda.org.in
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Indian Institute of Petroleum, 14/7, Tegbahadur Road, Dehradun,
singhalsudhir@hotmail.com
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Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Post Box No.2, Vallabh
Vidyanagar, 388120, Tel : 91-2962-31332, 35011, Fax : 91-2962-37892, E Mail :
director@spreri.org
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Utthan, Center for Sudtainable Development & Poverty Alleviation, 18-A, Auckland
Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad, Tel : 91-532-2615847, 2615952, Fax : 91-532-
2420984. E Mail : tiwari@yojana.nic.in
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Petroleum Conservation Research Association, Sanrakshan Bhavan, 10, Bhikaji Kama
Place, New Delhi, 110066. Tel : 91-11-26198799. E Mail : edpcra@pcra.org.
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Government of Tamil Nadu, Agricultural Extension Wing, Department of
Agriculture, Chepauk, Chennai, 600005.
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National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oil Development Board, Plot No 86, Sector 18,
Institutional area, Gurgaon, 122 015. Tel : 91-124-2341251, 2341884, 2347674, Fax :
91-124-2340614, 2343181. Web Site : www.novod.nic.in
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National Research Center for Agro Forestry, Pahuj Dam, Jhansi Gwalior Road,
Jhansi, 284003. Tel : 91-517-2730214, 2730213, 2730479, Fax : 91-517-2730364.
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Gujrath Agricultural University, Anand, 388110, Tel : 91-2692-61302, Fax : 91-2692-
61520.
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Department of Agricultural Engineering, Tamilnadu Agricultural University,
Coimbatore, Tel : 91-422-2431222, Fax : 91-422-5511455.
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Department of Forestry, Dharwad University Agricultural Sciences, Krishinagar,
Dharwad, 580005. Web Site : www.usad.net
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Department of Agro Forestry, College of Forestry, Banvasi Road, Sirsi, 581401. Tel :
91-8384-226844.
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Regional Agricultural Research Station, SV Agricultural College Campus, Tirupati,
517502, Tel : 91-877-2245199.
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Panjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Panjab, 141004. Tel : 91-161-2400955,
2401960, Fax : 91-161-2400945, 2401221.
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S D Agricultural University, Gujrath Agricultural University, Dantiwada Campus,
Sardar Krushinagar, Dist. Banaskatha, 385506. Tel : 91-2748-278471, Fax : 91-2748-
278413, 278267
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AFC & RI, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Killikulam, Dist. Tutikorin, 628252.
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College of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, 541401.
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College of Forestry, Ponnampet, 571216. Tel : 91-8274-249370.
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CSWCR & TI, 218, Kaulagarh Road, Dehradun, 248195.
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Indira Gandhi Agricultural University, University Road, Raipur, 492006. Tel : 91-
771-2442518, 2443529.
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Indian Oil Corporation, R & D Center, Sector 13, Faridabad, 121 007. Fax : 91-129-
2292009.
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National Bureau of Plant Genetic Research, Pusa Campus, New Delhi, 110012.
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Mr. Vinayakrao Patil, Shringada Talao, Nashik, 422001. Tel : 91-253-2353368.
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Department of Plant Breeding, CCS, Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar,
125001.
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Department of Botany, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, Rahuri, Dist
Ahmadnagar, 413722.
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Century Agrotech Ltd., 148, Green Ways Road, RA Puram, Chennai, 600028. Tel :
91-44-52185881.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TERI, The Energy & Research Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi
Road, New Delhi, 110003. Tel : 91-11-24682100, 51504900, Fax : 91-11-24682144,
24682145. Web Site : www.teriin.org, E Mail : kaushikn@teri.res.in
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

194
CHAPTER 28
Carbon Credit
Quick Introduction to Carbon Credits : All of us must have heard of Green House
Gases (GHG) in the recent past. GHG are found in the earth’ atmosphere and in
optimum concentration help to retain heat from the sun, a necessity for life to flourish
on our planet. In the last few decades, emissions caused by rapid global developments
have caused a massive increase in the amount of GHG in the atmosphere. This is
causing the earth’s atmosphere to retain more and more heat, resulting in global
warming. The major sources of GHG emissions are burning of fossil fuels in
factories, power plants, automobiles, at home etc. Deforestation is also increasing the
concentration of GHG in the atmosphere. The most common GHG is carbon dioxide.
It is used as a reference against which harmfulness or global warming potential
(GWP) of other GHG is compared. For example, methane, with GWP of 21 has heat
retaining ability, which is 21 times that of carbon dioxide.
The Kyoto Protocol, which was signed in 1977 and came into force on 16th February
2005, contains a commitment made by industrialized countries to reduce emissions of
GHG, in order to retard global warming. Except for Australia and the US, all the
major countries are signatories of the Kyoto Protocol. All the rich, signatory countries
with significant GHG emissions will be given annual quota for these emissions. Each
country can then hand out quotas to individual emitting entities. The ones whose
emissions are lower than their quota earn carbon credits (that is, the right to emit one
ton of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere), which can be sold to entities that exceed
their GHG emission quotas.
Carbon credits can also be earned by using clean technologies that prevent the release
of GHG into the earth’s atmosphere or by taking measures that remove carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere (sequestration). The GHG that are currently targeted for
carbon credit trading are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and
HydroFluoroCarbons, sulphur hexafluoride, and perfluorocarbons.
Clean Development Mechanism : This initiative of the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change allows companies from developed countries to
sponsor projects in developing countries in order to reduce Green House Gases
emissions. Successful projects earn Certified Emission Reductions, which can be used
as carbon credits. Eligible projects also include renewable fuels.
Carbon Credit Energy Balance : You should quantify total energy fixed and energy
used to create Renewable Fuel. Overall efficiencies of Products and Processes should
also be considered. It should create more Renewable Fuel than the fuel it uses to
create it. Several types of energies are required for creation of Renewable Fuel.
1. Total Primary Energy : All raw materials produced have some energy. Energy is
produced in the form of wood of tree, seeds etc. This is the energy released by the
complete combustion of the raw materials to produce CO2 and H2O.
2. Feed stock Energy : Energy contained in raw materials that ends up directly in the
final fuel is termed as Feed Stock Energy. For BioDiesel production, it includes
the energy contained in the Jatropha oil and alcohol.
3. Process Energy : It is the energy required for the processing of raw material into
the final product.
4. Fuel Product Energy : This is the energy content of final fuel product.
Energy Efficiency : There are two types of efficiencies.
Life Cycle Energy Efficiency = Fuel Product Energy / Total Primary Energy. It is the
ratio of final fuel energy and total input energy.

195
One MJ of BioDiesel production requires around 1.2414 MJ of primary energy, with a
Life Cycle Energy Efficiency of 80.55%. (For fossil petroleum it is around 83.28%).
Stage Primary Energy Percentage
MJ per MJ of Fuel
Jatropha Agriculture 0.0660 5.32
Seed Transport 0.0037 0.27
Seed Crushing 0.0803 6.47
Oil Transport 0.0072 0.58
Oil Conversion 1.0801 87.01
BioDiesel Transport 0.0044 0.35
Total 1.2414 100
Fossil Energy Ratio = Fuel Product Energy / Fossil Energy Inputs. This indicates the
extent to which the fuel is renewable. If ratio is 1 or less than 1, then the fuel is not
renewable. It should always be more than 1. As it reaches infinity, it is completely
renewable. BioDiesel uses 0.3110 MJ of fossil energy to produce 1 MJ of fuel
product. Hence its fossil energy ratio is 3.215.
Process Energy : Process Energy required for BioDiesel manufacture is as follows :
Stage Primary Energy Percentage
MJ per MJ of Fuel
Jatropha Agriculture 0.0656 21.08
Seed Transport 0.0034 1.09
Seed Crushing 0.0796 25.61
Oil Transport 0.0072 2.31
Oil Conversion 0.1508 48.49
BioDiesel Transport 0.0044 1.41
Total 0.3110 100
Accounting for Biomass-derived Carbon : Plants convert CO2 from atmosphere into
carbon based compounds by photosynthesis. The time span is very short as compared
to fossil fuels. Net effect is that it reduces CO2 present in the atmosphere. Normally
the carbon trapped in the oil is considered. No credit is taken from the by-products
(glycerine) or waste products (soap) which is about 13%.

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE CDM PROJECT ON BIO-DIESEL


1. Scheme
· Farmers - 10,000
· Working on 20000 Ha of Jatropha plantation
· Oil Expellers - 1,000
· Bio-diesel producers operating in the medium scale capacity i.e. 1 ton per day - 100
· Bio-diesel production per year - 30,000 KL
· CER points generated 150,000. Total money generated = 50 millions @ $ 20 per
CER.
2. Modus Operandi
We will identify and promote the bio-diesel manufactures and maintain the record of
all the other stakeholders and the oil expellers and farmers, buyers, ultimate
consumers etc.
3. Sharing Money
Distribution to the beneficiaries is proposed as below:
· 60% to the farmers
· 10 % to the Expellers

196
· 20% to Bio-diesel producers
· 10% to us for handling charges
At above rates…
A farmer will get nearly Rs.1000/- per hectare per annum.
Each expeller gets Rs.5/- per ton &
Trans-esterification Plant : Rs.0.33 per liter.
Trading in carbon credits : Carbon credits trading started earlier this year in
exchanges like the European Climate Exchange (ECX) in the Netherlands and the
Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). Japan is planning to have a carbon credits market
for its companies. Another carbon exchange is going to open in Singapore for
servicing Asian companies. The prices are always quoted per ton of carbon dioxide
fixed, with a minimum contract size of 1,000 tons. The contracts can be traded in the
spot as well as future market.
Key challenges inherent in the development of markets for carbon offset credits
include :
1. Measurement and verification of carbon storage, which includes the duration of
time over which carbon is stored, whether or not it is in addition to baseline
storage, and the amount of leakage. i.e., carbon emitted elsewhere through
displaced forest activities;
2. Adjusting for uncertainty and for risks that carbon will be released sooner than the
contractual period, either intentionally or by accident or neglect, and assignment
of liability when this occurs;
3. Development of compatible regulatory frameworks at local, national and
international levels that include agreement on what activities are eligible for
credits, and who will receive the credits;
4. Establishment of institutional arrangements that reduce transaction costs;
5. Achievement of verifiable socio-economic as well as environmental benefits that
strengthen community livelihoods and support sustainable development
objectives.
In one of the first carbon trading deals in the country, SRF Ltd has forged an
agreement with Shell Trading International to deliver 500,000 Certified Emission
Reductions by April 2007. SRF Chairman and Managing Director Arun Bharat Ram
said the price per ton of carbon dioxide offered by Shell was significantly higher than
the prevailing market price of $10 per ton. Bharat Ram, however, refused to divulge
the financial value of the deal citing a non-disclosure agreement with Shell.
One ton of carbon dioxide reduced through a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
project, when certified by a designated entity, becomes a tradable CER. SRF's
oxidation project, which is expected to reduce nearly 38 million ton of carbon dioxide
equivalent over a ten year period, is a CDM Project of the Kyoto Protocol. It is yet to
be registered by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change Convention or the
UNFCCC.
Unlike small and medium enterprises, large companies like SRF are in a better
position to negotiate and bargain with buyers of CERs because of their large-scale
emissions, said Ram. Buyers can rely on big companies to deliver CERs by 2007,
failing which they can be fined up to Euro 100 per ton of extra carbon dioxide
emission, he added.
The project has received approvals from the designated national authorities in India,
Germany and the United Kingdom. The company has announced the commissioning
of its HFC-23 oxidation plant in Jhiwana, Rajasthan. SRF Ltd is the biggest Nylon
Tyre Cord Fabric producer in the country and the eighth largest in the world.

197
MCX, Chicago Climate Exchange sign pact
THE Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd (MCX) and the Chicago Climate
Exchange (CCX), North America's multi-sector marketplace for reducing and trading
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, have signed a licensing agreement. As part of the
agreement, CCX will list mini-sized versions of its European Climate Exchange
(ECX) Carbon Financial Instruments (CFI) and Chicago Climate Futures Exchange
(CCFE) Sulfur Financial Instrument (SFI) futures contracts on the MCX trading
platform.
ECX, an entity 51 per cent owned by CCX and 49 per cent by Climate Change Plc, a
company listed on the AIM division of the London Stock Exchange, currently offers
futures contracts based on emission allowances issued under the European Union
Emissions Trading Scheme. ECX CFI futures contracts are currently listed on the
International Petroleum Exchange under a licensing agreement with CCX. The
Chicago Climate Futures Exchange, a wholly owned subsidiary of CCX, offers
cleared and standardized SFI futures products on US Environmental Protection
Agency sulfur allowances. The ECX-CFI Mini and CCFE-SFI Mini are the first
environment products to be introduced in the Indian sub-continent. They are designed
to offer the Indian trading community an advanced, standardized, and financially
guaranteed tool to participate in the global emissions marketplace.
Why no Agro-forestry plantation C.D.M.proposal so far cleared? Injustice to
Farmers & Gain of polluter Industries ?
How surprising that Kyoto-Protocol & Clean Development Mechanism (CDM),
which is aimed at restoring Eco-natural balance, prevent pollution and reduce CO2
output in air has not considered a single Agro-forestry (Afforestration or
Reforestration A/R) proposal in India.
It is a fundamental fact that only Forestry or Agriculture practices have the capability
and ability to fix CO2 from air and actually convert CO2 into pure Oxygen, whereas
all other Industries / Projects talk about change of technology to reduce Emissions,
but not converting CO2 to O2. It is a common sense taught in the school that only
plants have the natural capability to convert CO2 to O2 , and no other Industry or
Technology on the Earth can do this Chemical / Biological change.
Then is it not surprising & shocking that most of the current CDM projects speak of
Reduction of CO2 (that too by polluting industries), which have been either cleared or
are under consideration. And why talk about the “bad effects” of large scale
plantations or MONOCULTURES, if that is so then, entire Agriculture/Horticulture is
nothing but Monoculture, as similar crops are grown on very large tracts of lands in
particular geographical regions, due to obvious reasons of climate, soil and
practices.The biggest monoculture is Human population!
We urge all the concerned, in this field, NOT TO FORGET KATRINA and similar
calamities, which are on way to reach us all, and only Agriculture / Forestry Green-
water & soil conservation practices can save this earth,both from CO2 / Ozone and
other pollution problems /Disasters.
Further we must ensure that Agro-forestry proposals are helped, assisted, guided and
expedited , as unlike Giant Industrial or Commercial Houses or Tycoons, the Farmers
can not understand the complexities / Technical languages in project preparation for
CDM projects.
Once again we appeal that only AGRO-FORESTRY Green projects (Plantations) can
save this Planet, and NOT the Polluting Industries. In fact the situation should have
been otherwise. How sad that again the Rich Industries are becoming richer and the
poor farmers are becoming poorer, and committing SUICIDES. Tell me which

198
profession in the world is poorest? Farmers serve their country best and love
MOTHER NATURE in real sense. And still this profession has the highest poverty
and allied miseries / problems .
The Farmers need to be helped by all in their efforts as they care for Nature and not
these polluting Industries, whether in Developed countries or Undeveloped nations.
The Industries in all nations have created pollution problems and made money, not the
farmers. How SAD the pollutants (Industries) in one country are being rewarded
because the pollutants (Industries) in other countries created Pollution.
Sustainable Agriculture is not political. Everyone needs good healthy food and it has
no requirements other than an interest in being able to care for the land and the people
you love. As Hurricane Katrina promises to be the new textbook case for urban
"natural" disasters, it is important to begin to examine the social dimension of the
failed policies that contributed to such a massive disaster.These plantations will really
save & protect the depleting WILD-LIFE,flora,fauna & the BIRDS,which are on the
verge of exinction.
Would someone like Government ,UNO,World-Bank or NGO's, do something about
this(policy) insulting Farmers & Travesty of Nature?
Forget the forests, the future is Carbon Neutral
(published on 13-September-2005)
Britain's largest player in the voluntary carbon-offset market, Future Forests, has
relaunched this week as The Carbon Neutral Company to reflect its broader offering
in the voluntary carbon offset market.
Jonathan Shopley CEO of the company told edie that circumstances had changed
considerably since the company began. "Over the last four or five years our offering
has evolved quite significantly, as has the market itself."
"When we really got the idea going, about 8 - 10 years ago, climate change wasn't on
the agenda as strongly as it is now, the regulated market hadn't begun and the
voluntary market was all that there was, with very few incentives to get involved."
"So, our particular proposition - built around the icon of the tree - was very powerful
and got things moving."
Since then, however, the voluntary carbon offset market has grown enormously, with
several companies such as 500 ppm in Germany, BP Global Choice in Australia, and
Climate Care in the UK, all offering specialist offset options.
Indeed, the voluntary market has grown to such an extent that Mark Kenber, policy
director of The Climate Group - an organisation set up last year (see related story) to
encourage business engagement on climate change - has predicted that, if it takes off
in the USA, it could become bigger than the clean development mechanism under the
Kyoto Protocol.
To fully capitalise on this market growth, Future Forests has developed a portfolio of
options for individuals, companies, and even cities, to offset their emissions and
become Carbon Neutral.
Last year the city of Newcastle announced a partnership with Carbon Neutral to
reduce emissions by 60% through offsetting followed shortly after by Bristol (see
related story) and now the company boasts an impressive client list including Honda,
Berkeley Homes, Avis car hire, and Radio Taxis.
To reach this level, Shopley said the company soon had to offer far more than simply
selling the carbon stored in trees to offset individual CO2 emissions. Instead, it has
branched out into a full blown consultancy, able to conduct an audit of carbon
emissions that a company or individual may produce, then offer strategic advice to

199
reduce those emissions, and, of course, a range of options to offset whatever
emissions will remain.
This range of options extends beyond investing in forests and includes investments in
renewable energy schemes and energy efficiency projects.
"At the start of this year, we spoke to a lot of people - NGOs, government, business -
about what our role is," Shopley explained. "We soon found that a lot of people were
amazed at the extent of the work we were doing. It gave us a clear signal that our
name had to change so that people could see beyond the forests aspects."
After this offsetting, Carbon Neutral also offers a communications role, helping to
advertise the carbon programme and allow it to differentiate itself in the market.
Shopley felt that the time was right for the relaunch for a number of reasons. "There is
a confluence of forces at work in the market place, meaning demand for carbon offset
is huge. Last year our turnover was £1.4 million, and we are on course for £2.5
million this year."
One reason for this has been the advent of Kyoto and the regulated market in
emissions, giving a terrific boost to the voluntary offset sector as well.
"As soon as the EU emissions trading scheme came into being, business saw a rapidly
maturing market for carbon being traded. It created a sense of credibility and
sustained interest which wasn't there before, and made a strong statement that this is
definitely part of the future," Shopley said.
A sense of credibility is something that Future Forests has, in the past, been accused
of lacking. Critics have questioned the scientific basis of using forests as carbon sinks,
and claimed that many of the sponsored projects would have happened anyway,
regardless of Future Forests involvement.
As part of the rebranding process, Carbon Neutral has sought to counter these
criticisms. Partly, this has been addressed through moving investment away simply
from forests and into renewable projects, and also through developing the Carbon
Neutral Protocol to create a baseline, or standard, by which the offsetting can be
judged and open it up to third party scrutiny.
This has been developed in consultation with Mark Kenber, who also wrote the Gold
Standard for the CDM, and now sits on the advisory board of Carbon Neutral. The
Protocol is also subject to an independent assurance review from KPMG.
In addition, it has sought to place more emphasis on the scientific underpinning of its
investments by bringing in John Murliss, previously chief scientific advisor to the
Environment Agency. He will be helping to develop policy options and chair the
carbon neutral advisory board.
"It means we'll have a brand that consumers and clients can know and understand and
we can assuage any concern. We need standards and people need to know what's
behind them. The Carbon Neutral Protocol should do that."
The need to develop standards that people can trust, and to prove that voluntary
offsets can add value to businesses is crucial if Carbon Neutral is to keep building its
customer base. A new survey of FTSE 500 companies shows that, while the majority
see tackling carbon emissions and climate change as a greater priority than terrorism
or competition from the developing world, a shocking 75% of directors said that
business would only take climate change seriously if forced to do so by taxes or
regulation.
According to the findings, the management of CO2 emissions rated only just above
'gym membership' in the actions of most directors.
"It's interesting that our survey's findings suggest that while businesses are not doing
enough to address climate change, there is a growing recognition that tackling carbon

200
emissions has positive benefits to businesses bottom line and the economy," said
Shopley. "We believe there has never been a better time for businesses to act and
government to incentivise."
The business case for going carbon neutral is certainly strong, with firms such as
Radio Taxis in London claiming to have won contracts worth over £1.2 million as a
direct result of this action in the past year.
However, as the results of the survey show, there is still a long way to go in
persuading all business of the merits of taking action. It would appear that, in the
voluntary offset market, many businesses can't see the wood for the (future) forests.
By David Hopkins.
Outsourcing forests to India
By Aditi Tandon, Times News Network, Monday, July 25, 2005 from PUNE:
Farmers in Maharashtra are all set to cash in on opportunities offered by carbon credit
trading, a scheme aimed at setting the wheels in motion to reduce green-house gas
(GHG) emissions globally, following the signing of the Kyoto Protocol by 141
countries.
A Pune-based non-governmental organisation, 'Friends of Carbon' (FoC), has already
brought together 5,000 farmers to exploit the option, which permits a developed
country to meet part of its targeted emission cuts by funding tree plantations in
developing countries like India, for carbon sequestration.
According to the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol, which came into effect in February
2005, developed nations have to reduce their GHG emissions by an average of 5.2%
below their 1990 levels by 2012.
Says Shekhar Kadam, who is in charge of the financial and commercial aspects of
FoC, "Plantations are one of the best solutions to curbing damage from GHG
emission. But the expenditure for that in developed countries is high." So, companies
there can fund plantations in countries like India, where the costs are low, and in turn
take credit for the carbon absorbed by the trees.
Farmers need a minimum of 50,000 acres to begin trade in carbon credits. "This
system will be a bonus for old plantation owners. Along with the standard yield from
the trees, they will also be able to now earn through carbon-credit trading.
Improvement in quality of soil is an additional benefit," he says.
Ninety per cent of the funds FoC earns will go to its farmers. Five per cent will go to
its associates around the country and the remaining 5 per cent will be used to pay the
International finance corporation, which will act as a mediator and facilitate
interaction with developed countries like Japan and others in Europe.
The quantum of funding will be based on the tonnage of carbon absorbed. This is
calculated taking into account factors like age and height of trees and canopy cover.
Kadam claims that the mango tree is one of the best variety. The current average rate
for a tonne of carbon is around $4 (Rs 174). "We have started allotting district-wise
franchisees all over Maharashtra. We also have added associates from Karnataka,
Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh," Kadam adds.
Projects seeking to sell carbon credits racing against deadline
By Mamuni Das, New Delhi , Aug. 31, 2005
TIME is running out. Several Indian projects seeking to sell carbon credits may lose
out on revenues if they are unable to get their projects registered at the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by December this year.
The deadline is applicable to those clean development mechanism (CDM) projects
that started activities between January 1, 2000 and November 18, 2004 and could
have generated CERs (certified emission reductions) during this four-year period had

201
their projects been registered. Each CER stands for one ton of carbon dioxide
reduction and can be traded globally.
If these projects are registered after December 31, they can trade those CERs that they
accumulate in 2006 and later, they cannot liquidate the value of net green house gas
emission reduction obtained during the earlier period, Dr Ram Babu, Associate
Director, PricewaterhouseCoopers, said.
About 50 Indian projects with a potential to generate 30-million tons of CERs over a
10-year period may get affected if the deadline is not extended, he said.
Explaining the logic behind this, Dr Ram Babu told Business Line on the sidelines of
a seminar, "This is applicable according to the modalities of Marakkesh Accord of
Kyoto Protocol. Thus, several projects would get affected if they are unable to be
registered at UNFCCC before December 31, 2005, unless the CDM Executive Board
extends the deadline."
"According to the UNFCCC guidelines, the projects registered after December 31,
2005 wouldn't be able to register their CERs before the registration period," Mr Sunil
Kathuria, Lead Auditor, TUV Suddeutschland India, pointed out.
Mr Dipankar Ghosh, Managing Consultant, Ernst & Young, said "Several projects
implemented in India could qualify for CDM once appropriate, approved
methodologies are available." If the project is already implemented, it should have at
least obtained the validation and submitted registration fee by December 31, 2005 to
obtain CERs, he added.
In order to obtain CERs for projects, companies owning these projects are required to
first get a host country approval from the designated national authority, which is the
National CDM Authority, Environment Ministry. They are then required to get their
projects validated at the UNFCCC, which involves obtaining an approval for the
project methodology.
The validation process takes relatively less time if the project is based on a method
that has already been approved by the Methodology Panel.
However, validation for each new method as a CDM project would take relatively
longer. It is only after validation that projects can be applied for registration at the
UNFCCC along with the registration fee.
According to the Marakkesh Accord, a project activity starting as of the year 2000
shall be eligible for validation and registration as a CDM project activity if submitted
for registration before December 31. If registered, the crediting period for such project
activities may start prior to the date of its registration but not earlier than January 1,
2000. The begining of the Civilization depended on AGRICULTURE - so does it's
FUTURE.
Questionnaire for Afforestation / Reforestation (AR) projects under Clean
Development (CDM).
Question Response Comments
Location (country) of Size of land : acres
project Type of land : Agricultural
Location :
State :
Country :
Type of Plantation :
Jatropha
Duration :
Would there be other Would there be others
project participants involved in /benefiting

202
involved in developing and from the project?
implementing the project?
What is the relationship of Who is the lead project
your organisation to the developer and
other project participants implementer, advisor; is
or role in the project? this the only project
developer and owner, etc.?
Who owns the land?
Contact details of the Name :
relevant local project Title :
development personnel Tel :
who will facilitate the E Mail :
development of the Address :
environmental value
aspect of the project.

Type of project CDM o New, large-scale, Multi-component (please


eligible industrial plantation indicate which activities
o Introduction of trees into would be implemented)
existing agricultural
systems (agro forestry)
o Small-scale plantations
by landowners
o Establishment of
woodlots on communal
lands
o Rehabilitation of
degraded areas through
tree planting or assisted
natural regeneration
o Reforestation of
marginal areas with native
species (e.g. riverine areas,
steep slopes, around and
between existing forest
fragments through planting
and natural regeneration)
o Establishment of
biomass plantation for
energy production and the
substitution of fossil fuels.
Type of project Non-CDM eligible project
activities
o Forest conservation
o Improved forest
management
o Reduced impact logging
o Enrichment planting
--------------------------------
o Multi-component (please

203
indicate which activities
would be implemented)

Size and activities of the Please indicate the total


project size of the project (ha).
Give a description of each
planned activity of the
project, including species
planted, products to be
harvested, management
regime, area (ha) to be
planted and locations. If
not enough space is
provided here please
append on a separate sheet.
What are expected carbon Please give details on how
benefits (if known)? much carbon is expected
to be sequestered by the
different project activities
(CDM eligible). Indicate
calculation methods and
data used
What is the present land Please indicate what the
use and vegetation in the present land use and
project area? vegetation is in the areas
of each of the project
activities.
Has the project area ever If any of the areas of the
been covered by forest? projects activities have
ever been covered by
forest please indicate when
this was cleared.
When is the project
expected to become
operational?
Are there any political, There are no barriers in the
legal, investment, implementation of the
technological, or cultural project. As the local
barriers that would or population are very happy
could hinder the project with the project due to
implementation? water conservation, soil
conservation and less
incidence of pests on other
crops.
What stage is the project in Has financing been
terms of financing secured? Y/N
Are you currently seeking
finance? Y/N
Additional Comments:
What project financing

204
structures are expected (if
known)?
Has the project received General Operation:
any official sanction? Permits, licenses to
operate assurances by host
nation, etc.
As A Climate Change
Project: Host Nation
Endorsement/Approval
What positive and/or All the environmental
negative environmental impacts are positive.
impacts are expected? There are no negative
factors. However, the
income from the plantation
is not enough to support
the sustainability of this
project.
What positive and/or Socio-economic impacts
negative socio-economic are positive. As already
impacts are expected? explained above, there are
no legal barriers in the
continuation of this project
Six countries in bid to form parallel to Kyoto
Six countries including India and China will form an Asia Pacific initiative as a
‘parallel’ to the Kyoto protocol and will meet in Sydney next month to discuss
effective methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Calling the Kyoto protocol a
failure, Australia’s industry minister Ian Macfarlane said the new Asia Pacific forum -
including Australia, India, China, United States, Japan and South Korea - will be
more effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The grouping, which represents ‘half the world’s economy’, will meet in Sydney next
month for the first partnership on clean development and climate discussions. “By
working together particularly with developing countries like India and China, we are
going to make a far brighter impact on greenhouse gas reduction than a diplomatic
protocol (Kyoto) that has already failed,” Macfarlane was quoted by Australian
Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) on Friday.
—PTI, http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_full_story.php?content_id=113112

205
CHAPTER 29
Investing in Plantations in India
There are a Number of opportunities for Investing in Jatropha Plantations in India. A number
of states are offering Fallow / Marginal / Waste / Degraded land at nominal lease rent to
Individuals and Companies.
The Principal Objectives of the Scheme are
!" To facilitate / attract / channelise / mobilize resources from financial institutions, banks,
corporate bodies including user industries and other entrepreneurs for development of
waste lands in non-forest areas, belonging to the Central and State Governments,
Panchayats, Village Communities, Private farmers etc.
!" To promote group of farmers belonging to different categories, namely, large, small,
marginal & scheduled cast (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST) for bringing wastelands under
productive use.
!" To facilitate production and flow of additional biomass including farm-forestry products
used as raw material inputs for different types of industries.
!" To facilitate employment generation through land development and other allied land
based and related activities like Plantations.
Area Coverage of the Scheme
The scheme will primarily be restricted to non-forest wastelands owned by Central and State
Governments, Central and State Government Undertakings, Panchayats and Farmers.
Government Community lands given on long term lease (more than 25 years) and private
land holdings leased to user industries / Corporate bodies on the basis of mutual undertaking /
MOU are also eligible. Promoters of projects under the scheme will satisfy the financial
institutions / banks / other authorities concerned about the availability of non-forest
wastelands, subject to the relevant provisions of the land legislation applicable in the state
concerned.
Regarding identification of waste land, there will be a joint inspection by the concerned
Revenue authorities and Bankers. A certificate should be obtained from the Revenue
Authorities that the land has remained uncultivated continuously for last 3 years.
Scope and Pattern of Financial Assistance
1. There will be no limit on the total project cost, but subsidy from Government of India /
Department of Wasteland Development (DOWD) will be on farm development activities
only.
2. The quantum of Subsidy will be as follows :
1 General Category, (Individual 25% on farm development activities or Rs. 25
Group) Lakhs (2.5 million) whichever is less.
2 Small Farmers, (Individual Group) 30% on farm development activities or Rs. 25
Lakhs (2.5 million) whichever is less.
3 Marginal Farmers, (Individual 50% on farm development activities or Rs. 25
Group) Lakhs (2.5 million) whichever is less.
SC / ST Farmers without any limit in 50% on farm development activities or Rs. 25
the area of holdings, (Individual Lakhs (2.5 million) whichever is less.
Group)
3. The Promoters Contribution should be as follows :
1 General Category, (Individual At Least 25% of the Project Cost.
Group)
2 Small Farmers, (Individual Group) At Least 10% of the Project Cost.

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3 Marginal Farmers, (Individual However at the time of execution of the project,
Group) Nil. the family labour should be involved to provide
self-employment ensuring participation.
SC / ST Farmers without any limit in However at the time of execution of the project,
the area of holdings, (Individual the family labour should be involved to provide
Group) Nil. self-employment ensuring participation.
Eligibility for Promotional Grant / Subsidy
Projects promoted by Central and State Government Undertakings, Co-operative Institutions,
Public Trusts, Societies registered under the Societies Registration Act, Corporate Bodies
registered under Companies Act, Individual Entrepreneurs and Individual Groups of Farmers
would be eligible for the promotional grant / promotional subsidy under the scheme.
Submission of Proposals
Proposal for the assistance under the schemes would be received by DOWD in the prescribed
format, from the promoters. Such proposals should be supported with a letter of intent and
letter of sanction of the project indicating the firmed up cost of the project and the means of
financing by the Financial Institutions / Banks concerned.
Scrutiny of Proposals and Sanction for Promotional Grants / Subsidy
The proposal for assistance under the Scheme based on the letter of intent and letter of
sanction by financial institutions / banks concerned received in the office of DOWD will be
scrutinized and sanctioned by a Committee consisting of Joint Secretary & Financial Advisor
/ Director in-charge of the scheme / a senior representative of NABARD and financial
institutions, banks concerned, Secretary or the Head of Nodal Department (or his
representative) for wasteland development in the state, in which the proposed project is
implemented and chaired by the Additional Secretary of DOWD.
Release of Promotional Grant / Subsidy
1. Subsidy should flow in proportion of promoters' contribution and bank loan. The subsidy
from Government of India will be released in two installments. First being 60% and the
second 40%. The second installment shall be released after assessing the performance of
the project.
2. The subsidy will be released to the bank and shall be deposited in the name of the
beneficiary.
3. In case an Independent Agency / Organization / NGO assists in mobilizing the group of
farmers and linking them with the concerned banks / financial institutions, it would be
paid 3% of the project cost for the purpose and this amount shall be paid by the bank /
financial institution to the agency / organization / NGO from within the central
promotional subsidy of DOWD admissible to individual / group farmers.
4. Depending on the progress of the project, the subsidy will be released by the bank /
financial institutions. Release of subsidy at any point of time will not exceed the
promoters contribution / amount of bank loan for the investment on on-farm development
activities, as the case may be.
Project Formulation Assistance
For the preparation of a viable / bankable project for the development of wastelands in non-
forest areas, project formulation assistance @1% of the firmed up cost of the project would
be provided by DOWD. This shall be paid only after the project is sanctioned by DOWD on
the basis of request by the promoters / entrepreneurs supported with a declaration from the
project formulator.
Financial institutions including NABARD, commercial banks, central and state government
undertakings, land reclamation / development corporations, co-operative institutions,

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universities, consultancy organizations and NGOs would be eligible to receive the project
formulation assistance under the scheme.
Monitoring and Evaluation
For facilitating regular monitoring of projects receiving assistance from DOWD under the
scheme, the promoter should furnish to DOWD a copy of the periodical returns being
submitted to the financial institutions / banks concerned. A joint inspection by an officer of
DOWD / NABARD / State Government concerned and financial institutions / bank shall be
undertaken as and when required.
Other Conditions
In the project, the investment towards non-productive activities like farm-house, farm road,
administrative building, laboratory, labour shed, goat / sheep rearing etc should not be
included. On farm development measures include soil & water conservation such as land
smoothening, need based irrigation including wells and pump-sets, fencing, plantations, inter-
cropping etc.
The financial institutions / banks which shall provide the loan, will be restricted to
Nationalized Banks, Regional Rural Banks, Land Development Banks, and Co-operative
banks. Projects shall be examined by the concerned bank as per NABARD Guidelines and
after assessing its technical as well as financial viability, accord sanction of bank loan. Only
thereafter on the basis of proposal of Promoter in proper format, the Project Sanctioning
Committee of DOWD shall consider release of subsidy.
To ensure viability of a project, a minimum area of 4 hector (10 acres) should be considered.
The project shall be for a minimum period of 5 years. The average project cost for on-farm
development activities shall be restricted to around Rs. 20,000 per hector. The support in the
form of subsidy will be given only for agro-forestry projects.

GUIDELINES of NATIONAL OILSEEDS & VEGETABLE OILS DEVELOPMENT


BOARD
Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India
Plot No. – 86, Sector – 18, Institutional Area, Gurgaon - 122015
(July, 2004)
THE BOARD : National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board was
created under NOVOD Board Act, 1983 (No.29 of 1983) and came into being on 8th March,
1984. The Act provides for integrated development of oilseeds and vegetable oils industry
under the control of the Union Government. The Board has comprehensive functions as per
the provisions under the Act and covers all aspects of development of oilseeds and vegetable
oils industry including production, processing, marketing, trade, storage, research &
development and financing. It has as advisory role in the formulation of integrated policy and
programs of development of oilseeds and vegetable oils.
COMPOSITION OF THE BOARD : The Board has 36 members including the Chairman.
Union Minister of Agriculture is the Chairman of the Board and Secretary (A&C),
Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Govt. of India is its Vice-Chairman. The Board
consists of representatives of the Central Government (10), Central Autonomous
organisations (5), State Governments (11), Members of Parliament (3), Representative of
oilseeds growers (3), Representative of Trade & Industry (2) and other interests (2).
The NOVOD Board Act also provides for a Managing Committee of the Board which is
headed by the Secretary (A&C), Govt. of India, to look after its day-to-day affairs. The
Committee has been delegated appropriate powers to carry out its function.

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OBJECTIVES : The Board has been entrusted with the nodal responsibility for integrated
development of tree borne oilseeds with focus on generation of rural employment through
exploitation of existing potential and augmenting the future potential.
The brief objectives of the scheme for the implementation during 10th plan are given below
1. Improve the quality of seeds of TBO collected by unemployed women and tribal by
augmenting handling through creation of appropriate infrastructure.
2. Promote the plantation of potential TBOs in wasteland through augmentation of superior
planting material, production technologies and handling system.
3. Develop and refine the technologies for improved productivity, quality, value addition etc
by assisting capable institutions to take such programs.
4. Create awareness through training, seminar, workshop, publication & publicity etc.
among farmers and primary processing industries for improved agronomic practices and
new technologies.
5. Generate income and employment opportunities for small and marginal farmers and other
weaker sections of society, particularly those living below poverty line and women folk
etc.
PROGRAMS
A. Back-ended credit linked subsidy program
1. Establishment of seed procurement centres
2. Installation of multi-purpose pre-processing and processing facility
3. Installation of oil expeller
4. Nursery raising
5. Commercial plantation & maintenance.
B. Promotional Programs
1. Technology development & refinement
2. Development of elite planting material
3. Model plantation & maintenance
4. Establishment of TBOs garden
5. Feasibility studies for various components
C. Transfer of Technology
1. Farmers training
2. Trainers training
3. Publicity and publicity material
4. Observation-cum-study tour
5. Seminar/Workshop/Exhibition
IMPLEMENTING AGENCIES
1. Back-ended credit linked subsidy program : Government/Semi-Govt. Organizations,
Co-operative Institutions, Federations, Corporations, NGOs/VOs/Individual etc.
2. Promotional programs : Central and State Government organizations, Autonomous
bodies like Institutes of ICAR, ICFRE and CSIR; Central/State/Deemed Universities,
etc.
3. Transfer of Technology : Central and State/Semi-Government organizations, Central
& State Research Institution, Corporations, Federations, Co-operative Institutions,
NGOs/VOs etc.
GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSION OF PROPOSALS FOR “IN PRINCIPLE
APPROVAL (IPA)” AND RELEASE OF SUBSIDY
A. Back-ended credit linked subsidy programs

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(i) The pattern of assistance shall be 30% subsidy, 50% bank loan and 20% beneficiary share.
The subsidy shall be restricted to 30% of project cost and the ceiling of amount shall be as
indicated later.
(ii) The beneficiaries will submit the Project Proposal for “In Principle Approval (IPA)” for
back-ended credit linked subsidy program to the Executive Director, NOVOD Board,
Gurgaon in prescribed format (Annexure-I).
(iii) After scrutiny the NOVOD Board shall place, all such proposals before the MC for “In
Principle Approval” of the subsidy component and the same shall intimated to the
beneficiary.
(iv) The IPA will be valid for one year from the date of issue. The beneficiary will
accordingly approach Bank/Financial Institution of his choice immediately after obtaining the
IPA from NOVOD Board and get his/her term loan sanctioned by Bank/FI within a period of
one year.
(v) Mere issuance of the IPA would not guarantee the grant of subsidy to the beneficiary
unless the proposal is implemented in accordance with the overall guidelines of the scheme.
(vi) NOVOD Board will not entertain any cost escalation over and above the expenditure
shown in the IPA.
(vii) Additional cost, if any will have to be borne by the beneficiary.
(viii) While deciding the subsidy the Board will restrict the expenditure on any component as
per the ceiling fixed by it.
(ix) The project will not be eligible to receive subsidy under NOVOD Board program in case
benefit of subsidy for the same from another agency of the Central/State Govt. has been
availed.
PROCEDURE FOR RELEASE OF SUBSIDY
(x) The project would be completed within a period of 2 years from the date of the sanctioned
of loan. The payment of back-ended subsidy will be made after project has been successfully
completed, according to the terms & conditions of the loan. Thereafter, the Executive
Director, NOVOD Board could sanction the release of subsidy of the Bank/Financial
Institution on their request in prescribed format (Annexure-II).
(xi) Bank will submit to NOVOD Board the progress of investment subsidy achievement in
the format (Annexure-III).
(xii) On completion of the project, the concerned bank would inform the NOVOD Board, that
the project has been completed, and also furnish a Utilization Certificate (Annexure-IV) of
the subsidy released by the NOVOD Board.
(xiii) Any dispute arising out of the above shall be subject to the jurisdiction of Gurgaon
Court.
B. Promotional and transfer of technology program
(i) The pattern of assistance shall be as per scales/ceiling indicated later.
(ii) Proposals for financial assistance under the promotional and technology transfer
programs shall be submitted by the following implementing agencies to the Executive
Director, NOVOD latest by 31st January of every year for financial support into the
following year, in the application form (Annexure-V) for promotional program, Annexure-VI
for Technology Refinement and Annexure-VII for Transfer of Technology Program).
1. State Governments i.e. Deptts. of Agriculture, Horticulture, Soil Conservation,
Forest.
2. Semi-Govt. organizations, Research Institutes, SAUs, Oil Federations, Co-
operatives, PSUs and other Semi Government Organization. The Semi-
Government Organization may submit their project proposals through State
Department of Agriculture in respect of production programs and through the
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concerned department of the State Govt. for other programs and the research
institutions through their apex bodies like ICAR and CSIR as the case may be to
avoid duplicacy. Semi-Govt. organizations have also to sign a MOU for long term
R&D projects, before release of funds to them (Annexure-VIII).
3. Non-Govt. Organizations (NGOs)/Voluntary Organization (VOs). NGOs/Vos,
have to furnish the following supporting documents alongwith their proposals :
i. Valid registration certificate, audited accounts and annual reports of the
previous three years.
ii. Recommendation from the District Authorities like District Collector or
District Agriculture/Horticulture Officer of the concerned Districts.
iii. The views/comments of State Deptt. of Agriculture in case the proposal
contains the production programs for any cultivated oilseed crop.
iv. All NGOs/VOs are required to sign a bond on non-judicial stamp paper
(ten rupees only) in the District Court, Gurgaon, as per Annexure-IX.
However, in exceptional cases, the E.D. may consider grant of exemption
from this requirement.
v. In case NGO/VO is associated in long term R&D projects, it has to sign
MOU also before release of funds to them (Annexure-VIII).
vi. The necessary travelling expenses by ordinary bus or IInd class train fare
will be borne by the Board for the authorized signatory of the NGO
alongwith his two sureties for signing the Bond in case of NGOs/Vos.
vii. Board shall also undertake physical verification of infrastructure of
NGO’s/VO’s who have prima/facie furnished satisfactory information.
Such verification by the Board would be aimed to satisfy credentials,
ability and potential of such organization for the purpose of particular
schemes of the Board to be implemented by them.
viii. Utilization Certificate in respect of funds released by the Board, in format
GFR 19-A (Annexure-XI).
4. Viability of the Project Proposals received under the promotional program will be
examined by the Board and placed before the Project Appraisal Committee (PAC)
constituted for the purpose. The Board can also refer the Project Proposals to State
Governments/Experts for their opinion.
5. Projects found viable will be placed before the Managing Committee(M.C.) and or the
Board, depending on the quantum of assistance for approval. The quantum of
assistance to be extended to the project will be decided by the M.C./Board subject to
monitory limits prescribed hereunder at Sr.No.8, i.e. Pattern of Financial Assistance.
MONITORING OF THE PROJECT
Except for the back-ended credit linked subsidy schemes, each beneficiary will submit a
progress report to the Board on a quarterly basis. The progress report will indicate the status
of implementation of the project, activities undertaken during the quarter, physical progress,
utilization of funds, bottlenecks, if any. Projects will be visited by the Board’s Officers
individually or with a team of experts at least once during the season/course of
implementation. However, research projects are to be reviewed by a team of experts on
annual basis.
PATTERN OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE
The scheme-wise pattern of funding for various components under the back-ended credit
linked subsidy program, as well as promotional programs shall be as under :

211
1. Back-ended credit linked subsidy program (30% subsidy, 50% bank loan, 20% beneficiary
share). Implementing agencies : Government/Semi Govt. Organizations, Co-operative
Institutions, Federations, Corporations, NGOs/VOs/Individual etc.
Under this scheme, following two separate projects will be considered :
Project 1 : Establishment of model seed procurement centre & Installation of pre-processing
and processing equipments
Quantum of assistance : Subsidy restricted to 30% of project cost with the ceiling as under :
i. Government/Semi Govt Organizations, Co-operative institutions, Federations,
Corporations etc. - 4 projects with a ceiling of Rs.25.00 lakhs
ii. NGOs/VOs/Individual - One project with a ceiling of Rs. 6.50 lakhs
1.1. Establishment of model seed procurement centre : One
Sr.No Component Tentative Back-ended
. cost (Rs.) credit linked
subsidy restricted
to 30% of project
cost with ceiling
of Rs.
I Cost of building (PCC floor with asbestos roof) 4,00,000 1,20,000
Processing shed + godown for keeping raw
material and storage for oil and cake 50x40
sq.ft.@ Rs. 200 per square (2000 sq.ft.)
II Cleaner and grader 25,000 8,000
III Decorticator / dehuller 25,000 8,000
IV Drier 25,000 8,000
V Depulper 25,000 8,000
VI a. Oil expeller (5 MT per day capacity) 5,00,000 1,50,000
b. 40 HP motor 40,000 12,000
c. Starter/main switch 3,000 1,000
d. Installation 10,000 3,000
e. Conveyor/Elevator 25,000 8,000
f. Electric line from main feeder upto centre 10,000 3,000
VII Security deposits for electric connection 3 phase, 38,000 11,600
water connection etc.
VIII Stitching machine 6,000 2,000
IX 2 storage tank for oil – 1 MT each @ Rs. 5000/- 10,000 3,000
MT
X Filter press 25,000 8,000
XI Weighing machine 25,000 8,000
XII Moisture meter (1) 10,000 3,000
XIII Gunny bags for oil cake etc. 20,000 6,000
XIV Drying floor – 2000 sq.ft. (40 ft.x50 ft.) PCC @ 2,00,000 60,000
Rs. 100/-sft.
XV DG set - 1 (10 KVA) 2,00,000 60,000
XVI Furniture & stationary 65,000 20,000
Total 16,87,000 5,10,000
Sub centre - One
I Weighing machine @ Rs. 0.10 lakh 10,000 4,000
II Office & store @ Rs. 1.00 lakh 1,00,000 30,000

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III Miscellaneous such as furniture, stationery etc 20,000 6,000
Total 1,30,000 40,000
1.2. Installation of multi-purpose pre-processing and processing equipments
Sr.No Component Unit cost Back-ended
credit linked
subsidy restricted
to 30% of project
cost with ceiling
of Rs.
1 Depulper 25,000 8,000
2 Drier 25,000 8,000
3 Decorticator/dehuller 25,000 8,000
4 Cleaner & Grader/any other equipment 25,000 8,000
Total 1,00.000 32,000
1.3 Installation of oil expeller
Sr.No Component Unit cost Back-ended
credit linked
subsidy restricted
to 30% of project
cost with ceiling
of Rs.
1 Oil expeller for TBO’s 1,50,000 45,000

Project-2 : Nursery raising, commercial plantation & maintenance


Quantum of assistance - Subsidy restricted to 30% of project cost with the ceiling as under :
i. Government/Semi Govt Organizations, Co-operative institutions, Federations,
Corporations etc. - One project with ceiling of Rs. 25.00 lakh.
ii. NGOs/VOs/Individual - One project with ceiling of Rs. 6.5 lakh
1.4. Nursery raising & commercial plantation
Sr.No Name of TBO No. of Plants per ha. Cost of Back-ended
cultivation credit linked
(Rs./ha.) subsidy
restricted to 30%
of project cost
with ceiling of
Rs
1 Simarouba 500 16,000 4,800
2 Neem 400 11,000 3,300
3 Jojoba 2500 80,000 24,000
4 Karanja 500 13,000 3,900
5 Mahua 200 9,000 2,700
6 Wild apricot 400 10,000 3,000
7 Jatropha 2500 25,000 7,500
8 Cheura 250 9,000 2,400
9 Kokum 250 10,000 3,000
10 Tung 500 14,000 4,200
1.5 Maintenance (From 2nd year onwards of plantation during gestation period)
Sr.No Name of TBO Gestation period Cost of Back-ended
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(year) maintenance credit linked
per ha. Upto subsidy restricted
gestation to 30% of project
period cost with ceiling
of Rs.
1 Simarouba 5 14,500 4,400
2 Neem 5 12,000 3,600
3 Jojoba 4 15,000 4,600
4 Karanja 4 11,000 3,100
5 Mahua 8 23,500 7,100
6 Wild apricot 4 10,500 3,200
7 Jatropha 2 5,000 1,500
8 Cheura 4 9,000 2,800
9 Kokum 6 13,000 3,900
10 Tung 4 12,000 3,700
2. Promotional programs : Implementing agency : Central and State Government
organizations, Autonomous bodies like Institutes of ICAR, ICFRE and CSIR;
Central/State/Deemed Universities., etc.
Quantum of assistance : Following financial assistance will be provided
Central and State Government organization, Autonomous bodies like ICAR, ICFRE and
CSIR; Central/State/Deemed Universities etc. : Rs. 75.00 lakhs (Maximum)
2.1 Technology development & refinement : 100% assistance towards cost of need
based project staff purely on contract basis, equipments, chemical / consumables /
agricultural input, POL and institutional charges @ 10% of the project cost.
2.2. Development of elite planting material & model plantation
Sr.No Name of TBO No. of Plants per X Plan (actual expenditure
ha. subject to ceiling of
Rs./ha.)
1 Simarouba 500 16,000
2 Neem 400 11,000
3 Jojoba 2500 80,000
4 Karanja 500 13,000
5 Mahua 200 9,000
6 Wild apricot 400 10,000
7 Jatropha 2500 25,000
8 Cheura 250 9,000
9 Kokum 250 10,000
10 Tung 500 14,000
2.3 Maintenance (for 2 years after plantation)
Sr.No Name of TBO Year of X Plan (actual expenditure
maintenance. subject to ceiling of Rs.
per year)
1 Simarouba 2 1,500
2 Neem 2 1,500
3 Jojoba 2 2,500
4 Karanja 2 1,500
5 Mahua 2 1,500
6 Wild apricot 2 1,500
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7 Jatropha 1 2,500
8 Cheura 2 1,500
9 Kokum 2 1,500
10 Tung 2 1,500
2.4 Establishment of TBO garden/park : 80% of the actual expenditure subject to ceiling of
Rs. 0.40 lakh/ha garden area towards cost of nursery raising, plantation, maintenance,
fencing, irrigation facilities etc.
2.5 Feasibility studies for various components : Actual expenditure towards survey, project
staff, survey equipments, contingency or any other expenditure. 3 Transfer of technology :
Implementing agency – Central and State Government Organizations, Semi Govt.
Organizations, Autonomous bodies like Institutes of ICAR, CSIR, ICFRE,
Central/State/Deemed Universities., Co-operative Institutions, Federations, Corporations,
NGOs/VOs etc.
Quantum of assistance - Following financial assistance will be provided
i) Central and State Government Organizations, Semi Govt. Organizations, Autonomous
bodies like Central/State/Deemed Universities., Institute of ICAR, CSIR, ICFRE etc, Co-
operative Institutions, Federations, Corporations etc. : Rs. 2.00 lakh/year
ii) NGOs/VOs : Rs.1.00 lakh/year
Farmers training & trainers training (2 days for 50 participants)
Sr. No. Component Trainers training Farmers Training
(Actual expenditure (Actual expenditure
subject to the ceiling) subject to the ceiling)
i Boarding & lodging 15000+ 7000*
ii Literature 12500++ 5000**
iii Honorarium & incentive to staff @ 5000 4000
Rs.4000/- per training
iv POL, stationery, field visit & misc. 6000 3500
v Audio-video aids @ Rs. 500 / 2000 500
training
Total 40500 20000
+Rs.150/participant/day
++Rs.250/participant/trg.
*Rs.70/participant/day
**Rs.100/participant/trg.
3.2 Publication & publicity material : 100% assistance for publication and publicity material
in regional languages on different TBOs.
3.3 Observation-cum-study tour : Rs.31,500/- plus actual bus fare/Second Class Train Fare
for 50 farmers/seed collectors for visit to potential areas/institutions.
3.4 Seminar/workshop/exhibition : Assistance as per norms of Govt. of India and availability
of funds.
4. Monitoring, evaluation & technical support : Actual expenditure.

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ANNEXURE-1
Application for In Principle Approval (IPA) under the scheme “Back-ended Credit Linked
subsidy program on Tree Borne Oilseeds”.
i). Date of application……………….
ii). File No. …………………

To
The Executive Director,
National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oils Development Board,
Plot No.86, Sector 18, Institutional Area,
Gurgaon-122015 (Haryana)
(Application In Principle Approval (IPA) under the scheme “Back-ended Credit Linked
subsidy program on Tree Borne Oilseeds” of National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oils
Development Board)
A. PROMOTERS PROFILE
1. Name and address of the beneficiary/organization:
2. Status whether Govt/Co-operative/NGO/Private:
3. Registration No………………. Date of Registration…………………
4. Area of operation : Name of district/tehsil/taluka
5. Name and address of the Nationalized Bank from which term loan is proposed to be
availed.
6. Details of financial assistance availed by the applicant in the past for the similar activity at
the same piece of land, if any.
Name of Program / Project Funding agency Duration Amount (Rs. lakhs)

7. Details of financial assistance, if availed for any other project:


8. Whether any scheme with NOVOD Board assistance implemented: (If yes, please write
name of scheme and year of implementation):
B. PROPOSED PROJECT
1. Name of the project:
2. Objective of the project:
i) Use of wasteland/degraded problematic (acidic/alkaline) etc.
ii) Compact area plantation
iii) Name of the plant/trees proposed
3. Location
4. Nature/main activity proposed under the project
i) Availability of land (in ha.) for nursery and plantation
ii) Capacity in MT in case of primary processing unit/procurement centre/sub-centre:
iii) Technology tie-up, if any
C. PROJECT COST (COMPONENTWISE)
1. Raising of nursery and commercial plantation:
2. Maintenance of plantation:
3. Establishment of model seed procurement centre:
4. Installation of multi-purpose pre-processing and processing equipments
5. Installation of oil expeller
D. PROPOSED MEANS OF FINANCE
1. Promoter’s share
2. Term loan from Banks (address of the Bank branch)
3. NOVOD subsidy
216
4. Other sources viz. Assistance from State Government
5. Govt. of India Agencies, if any.
E. DETAILS OF LAND
1. In case of own land, copy of latest title/papers be enclosed
2. In case of lease/contract/tenancy, a copy of the registered agreement be enclosed.
F. DETAILS OF SEED COLLECTION/MARKETING
1. Name of the TBOs
2. Expected collection in quintals(for each TBO)
3. Cost of collection per quintals (for each TBO)
4. Name of the agency with which marketing tie-up exists(Backward/forward linkages)
G. IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
1. Proposed month for undertaking the project + land development
2. Proposed month for nursery raising
3. Expected month of commercial plantation
4. Duration of completion of civil works for establishing model seed procurement
centre/installation of multi-purpose pre-processing and processing equipments.
5. Proposed date for start of the unit in case of processing units

(Authorized signatory)
Name & Address
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-II
Format for claiming Final Installment of Subsidy under the scheme “Integrated Development
of Tree Borne Oilseeds”
(To be submitted by Bank in triplicate to NOVOD Board)
Investment Subsidy Scheme for Cultivation / Processing of TBOs
Part-I : For use by Bank
1. Name & Address/Location of Project
2. Name & Address of beneficiary
3. Name & Address of Financing Bank
4. Date of Sanction of Term Loan by Bank
5. Date of Sanction of Refinance by NABARD, if applicable
6. Date & Amount of Refinance released by NABARD
7. Item wise Financial Projection
8. i. Total Cost of Project Rs.
ii. Beneficiary Contribution Rs.
iii. Bank Loan Rs.
9. Additional Capacity to be created :
(a) Establishment of model new procurement centre and installation of pre-processing and
processing equipments
Components No. of units Capacity in MTs
i. Existing Unit
ii. Expansion/New
iii. Renovation/Upgradation
Or
(b) Nursery raising, plantation and maintenance (ha.)
Components Species/ plants Area (ha.) No. of plants Unit Cost/ha
i. Existing
217
ii. Expansion/New
iii. Maintenance
10. Advance Subsidy:
i. Date of Receipt
ii. Amount Rs.
11. Rate of Interest being Charged by Financing Bank % p.a.
a. In the case of CBs PLR % p.a.
b. In the case of others PLR % p.a.
12. Whether construction/expansion/renovation has been carried out as per the technical
parameters envisaged under the project. Yes/No.
13. Since the above project is complete as per terms and conditions stipulated under the
scheme, final inspection of the processing unit / plantation has been arranged and an amount
of Rs.____________ (Rupees _____________________________) being the final
installment of subsidy may please be released for crediting to the Subsidy Reserve Fund
Account Borrower wise.
Copy of the inspection report of inspection committee is enclosed.
14. It is certified that the observation made by the Inspection Committee have been complied
with. A copy of the Inspection Report of Inspection Committee is enclosed.

Seal and signature of the Branch Manager (Bank)


Place : ________________
Date : ___________
Encl: As above.
B. For use by NOVOD Board
Name of Scheme:
Name of Project:
State:
Bank:
District
1. Total cost of project
2. Total amount of eligible subsidy
3. 50% of advance amount of eligible subsidy
An amount of Rs.____________ is released as final installment of subsidy to
__________________________ (Name of the Bank) vide subsidy disbursement advice
No._______ (Copy enclosed) against the project proposal submitted by
___________________ party.
(____________________)
Authorised Signatory, NOVOD Board
(Name & designation)
Date _____________
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-III
Progress of Investment Subsidy Scheme for Processing of TBOs (ABSTRACT) under
Integrated Development of Tree Borne Oilseeds. (To be filled by Bank)
STATUS AS ON ______________
A. Financial Progress
No. State Name Location Capacity Total Bank Benef Total Subsidy
of the Tons/ Financ Loan iciary Eligible released
218
Party acreage ial Subsidy to
Outlay benefici
ary

Physical progress/Achievement
Sr.No Component Physical Progress Expenditure Remarks
. Target Achievement Target Achievement
1 Establishment of
model seed
procurement centre
2 Nursery raising
3 Commercial
plantation
4 Maintenance of
plantation
The above information break up be furnished in the same format for schemes sanctioned in
NE States, Hilly Areas i.e. location above 1000 meters mean sea level, SC and STs
separately.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-IV
(For the use of Financing Bank to be submitted by (Bank in triplicate to the NOVOD Board)
Investment Subsidy Scheme for Cultivation / Processing of TBOs Utilisation Certificate
1. Name & Address and Location of Beneficiary and Project
2. Name of the Financing Bank
3. Name & Address of Financing Branch
4. Date of Sanction of Loan by Bank
5. Date of Inspection by Inspection Committee
6. Date of Commission of the Unit
7. i. Total Financial Outlay Rs.
ii. Margin Money Rs.
iii. Bank Loan Rs.
iv. Subsidy Received
Subsidy Received Letter No. & Date of Amount (Rs.) Date of Credit to the
Receipt from Subsidy Reserve
NOVOD Board Fund A/c of the
borrowers
50% Advance
Subsidy
Final Installment of
Subsidy
Total

8. Capacity Created No. of unit Capacity in MTs


i. Existing Unit
ii. Expansion/New
iii. Renovation/Upgradation

9. Rates of Interest charged by Financing Bank % p.a.

219
A In the case of CBs PLR % p.a.
B In the case of others - PLR of Convenor Bank of SLBC
This is to certify that amount of Rs._____________ received as subsidy from NOVOD Board
in respect of the above project has been fully utilised for the purpose for which it was
sanctioned (by way of crediting to the "Subsidy Reserve Fund Account - Borrower wise")
and adjusted in the books of account under the sanctioned terms and conditions of the project
within the overall guidelines of the scheme. Remaining un-utilized balance subsidy of Rs.
____________ (if any) on completion of the project or non-implementation of the project has
been surrendered to the Board

Seal and signature of the Branch Manager (Financing Bank)


Place ________________
Date ___________
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-V
PROFORMA FOR PREPARATION OF PROJECT PROPOSAL FOR INTEGRATED
DEVELOPMENT OF TREE-BORNE OILSEEDS (TBOs)
1. Name of Organisation :
2. Status : Whether Govt./ Cooperative/ NGO/ Private.
3. Area of Operation : Name of districts :
Inside/outside of the forest compact area/farm/bunds/canal side, road side, railway track.
4. Objectives
i) Use of waste land-degraded problematic (acidic/alkalines) etc.
ii) Compact area plantation with viable combinations (early/late bearing or intercropping of
crops with perennial trees for example ratanjyot and simarouba with neem or pulse crops with
perennial oil bearing trees.
iii) Name of the plants/trees proposed
5. Present status under proposed plants in the proposed Districts/areas
Name of the District Soil type Area Approx. No. collection,
tree occupied (ha) of Trees (quintals)
Present use,

6. Future Prospects
Name of the District Land Availability Number of
tree Seedlings
Required
Area Type (ha) Ownership
Govt./Coop.
NGO/Pvt.

7 Nursery
7.1 Method of raising seedlings
a) By seed
b) By vegetative propagation i.e cutting, layering etc.
7.2 Cost of inputs/seedlings (Input means seed, fertilizer, Poly-bags etc.).
7.3 Action plan of raising seedling.
Name of the tree District Availability of Parent Material Year No. of Seedlings

8. Plantation programs
220
Name of the Year Time of Area to be Cost per Gestation
tree Plantation covered plant period

9. Cost of maintenance and watch & ward for proposed area:


To be borne by the program implementing agency. Source to meet the cost.
10. Seed Collection/Marketing
Tree Year Expected Cost of Collection Agency
Collection (per Quintals)
(Quintals)

11. Post Harvest Technology Programs (PHT)


Components Present Future Plan (with details)
Status
Drying facility
Transport
Storage without use of pesticide
Extraction of oil
Value addition for export / modification of fats.
12. Financial Requirments (Rs. in lakh)
Tree Year Nursery Plantation Collection PHT Training Total

13. Technology Upgradation : (For Example requirement/ actions for genetic improvements,
quality standardisation, addition of national / inter-national know-how.
14. Recommendations.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-VI
PROFORMA OF APPLICATION FOR GRANT-IN-AID FOR RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FROM NATIONAL OILSEEDS & VEGETABLE
OILS DEVELOPMENT BOARD
Title of Scheme
1. Name & address of the Organisation with phone, Telex, Fax No.
2. Status (Govt./Semi-Govt./NGO)
3. Facility to be provided by the Centre for the proposed project :
Staff :
Equipments/Apparatus :
Laboratory :
Transport :
Area of land for experimentation :
Other facilities :
4. Name of the Scientists/Deptts. of eachCentre(s) to be associated in the project:
5. Name & Address of Principal Investigator :
and Co-Principal Investigator (Phone, Talex, Fax No.) with details expertise/experience,
schemes handled, publications etc.
6. A) Research work conducted on the subject by the Institute :
i) at its centre :
ii) in India :
iii) abroad :
B) Programme activity :
7. Title of the scheme/project :
221
8. Duration of the project :
9. Specific Objectives :
10. Area of Operation:
Institutional research farms
Community land
Forest area
Waste land etc.
11. Type/Qt./No.of equipments / apparatus required :
12. Action plan and Expected outcome (year wise)/with practical/scientific utility
Sr.No. Year Activity Outcome Utility

12.1 Program Schedule


13. Main items of observations :
14. Budget Estimates (Rs.in lakhs)
Sr.No Component Year Total
2005 - 2006 2006 - 2007 2007 - 2008
1 Salary *
2 Equipments **
3 Chemical
consumable /
nursery input ***
4 POL
5 Institutional OR
contingency charges
@ 10%
Total
* Need based on contractual basis only. Please indicate name / No. of the post with salary per
month as per existing norms of the Institute alongwith their prescribed qualifications.
** List of equipments with cost.
*** Detailed list of Chemical/consumable & other inputs with cost estimate.
UNDERTAKING
15. Certified that
i) The research work proposed in the scheme does not in any way duplicate the research work
already done and being carried out elsewhere on the subject.
ii) The present scheme will not be combined with any scheme financed by the Central and
State Governments, Universities or Private Institutions etc.
iii) We undertake to abide by the guidelines provided by the Board for the implementation of
the Project.
Place :
Signature :
Date :
Name :
Designation of the Principal Investigator :
16. Remarks/recommendations from the Head of the Institute / Centre
17. Recommendations: (From the apex bodies of the Institute i.e. ICAR, CSIR, ICFRE as the
case may be)
Signature :
Name :
Head of the Organisation / Institute
222
ANNEXURE-VII
PROFORMA FOR PREPARATION OF PROJECT PROPOSAL ON TRAINING FOR
INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF TREE-BORNE OILSEEDS (TBOS)
1. Name of Organisation :
2. Status : Whether Govt., Semi Govt. i.e. Cooperative Or Federation, NGO/Private. If NGO,
Please indicate :
Registration No :
Date of Registration :
3. Area of Operation :
a) Name of districts :
b) Name of Block :
4. Current area of activities :
Activities in Hand
Amount
Duration
Funding Agency
5. Details of available infrastructure :
a) Office - whether Rented/Own
b) No. of staff with their qualification and area of specialisation
c) Transport facility
d) Source of funding
6. Status of Tree-Borne Oilseeds in your Districts/Areas :
District Name of Approximate Approximate Collection Name of
Tree number of Potential (Quintals.) (Rs./Kg) Buyer
Trees

7. Title of the project : Trainers' training/ Farmer's training program for quality collection of
Tree Borne Oilseeds(TBOs) like neem seed, mango kernel etc.
8. Training & publicity :
a) Availability of resource personnel along with name and address
b) Number of beneficiary to be trained
c) Tentative date and duration of Training
d) Component wise cost proposed :
i) Boarding & lodging
ii) Literature
iii) Stationery and POL & field visit
iv) Honorarium & incentive to staff
v) Audio visual aid
Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-VIII
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE NATIONAL OILSEEDS
AND VEGETABLE OILS DEVELOPMENT BOARD AND THE ……………IN RESPECT
OF RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON ………….FOR FINANCE FROM
THE GRANT IN AID OF NOVOD BOARD
The National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board and
…………………………….. (Implementing agency) agree to co-operate in conducting
research and development project entitled “………………………………” sanctioned by the
Board and communicated to the implementing agency vide this Board’s letter
223
No……………… dated …………………….. to be located at ………………………. Under
the supervision and the leadership of Shri/Dr./Prof………………………………
I. In order to achieve the objectives set out in the project within the targeted time, the
National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board agree to provide for the following
a. Salaries of the project staff to be engaged purely on contract basis for project period as
per I.C.A.R. NORMS.
b. Travelling allowance as per their Institutional norm.
c. Recurring and non-recurring contingencies to the extent provided in the project.
II. The implementing agency agrees for the following
a. To start the implementation of the project including the appointment of contractual staff
within 2 months from the date of approval of the project by the NOVOD Board.
b. To provide their existing equipment and other physical facilities as are required for the
project work.
c. To arrange land and laboratory facilities required for the project.
d. To arrange such skilled and unskilled labour required for the project work.
e. To provide on their own such ancillary staff as Field/Laboratory Assistants or Attendants,
Clerks and Stenographers etc., as are required for the project work.
f. To avoid transfer of the scientific staff associate in the project without the concurrence of
the Board.
g. To allow the project staff to exchange experimental material, literature etc. between the
similar Research Centres within the State as well as outside the state.
h. To permit the scientific staff to attend the relevant workshop, Seminars, symposia,
Conference, Group meetings etc.
i. To use the staff exclusively for the project work.
j. To use the funds provided under the project exclusively for the project work.
k. To render accounts to the Board periodically in time.
l. To furnish regularly and on time satisfactory half-yearly and annual reports.
III. The National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board and the implementing
agency mutually agree that :
a. The project staff provided under the project would be utilized exclusively for the project
work.
b. Change of Principal investigator/ Leadership is not normally acceptable. However, in
exceptional cases, whenever there is sufficient justification, which is acceptable to the
Board, such changes may be agreed to but this provision should be used very sparingly.
c. Scientific staff would attend the workshop, meetings and present their data for discussion.
d. Normally grants are released in two installments in case of Semi. Government
Organization and in three installments in case of NGOs. The first installment would be
released immediately after the issue of the final sanction and acceptance of the terms &
conditions by the implementing organization. The second and subsequent installments
would depend upon the receipt of the satisfactory progress reports.
e. The implementing agency would ensure the submission of satisfactory progress of work
under the project as per the approved technical program.
f. Five copies of final and consolidated report would be submitted to the Board by the
Principal Investigator within three months after the closing of the project.
g. The experimental material built-up under the project/ centre for free supply to the other
centres working on similar project in the country. However, the produce in excess of the
research requirement may be disposed of by the agency in consultation of NOVOD Board
in the manner it deems fit and proceeds may be credited to its accounts under intimation
to the NOVOD Board.
224
h. The institute is not permitted to seek or utilize funds from any other organization
(Government, Semi Government, Autonomous or private) for the work that is supported
under this project/scheme. Any unspent part of the amount sanctioned would be
surrendered to NOVOD. Carry forward of funds to the next financial year for utilization
under the same project may be considered only with the specific approval of the NOVOD
Board.
i. At the conclusion of the project, the NOVOD will be free to sell or otherwise dispose of
assets, which are the property of NOVOD. The institutions shall render to NOVOD
necessary facilities for arranging the sale of these assets. The NOVOD has the discretion
to gift the assets to the institute, if it considers it appropriate.
j. NOVOD will be free to get the progress of the project reviewed in detail by a Group of
Experts assigned by NOVOD at the end of each year. In addition, Board’s Officer may
visit the institute periodically for ascertaining the progress of work and resolving any
difficulties that might be encountered in the course of implementation.
k. The institute will furnish to the NOVOD, Utilization Certificate and an audited statement
of accounts pertaining to the grant within six months following the end of each financial
year.
l. The know-how generated from the project would be the property of NOVOD, any receipt
by way of Sale proceeds, if any, resulting from the project arising directly from funds
granted under the scheme shall be remitted to NOVOD may, at its discretion, allow all or
a portion of such a receipts to be retained by the institute.
m. NOVOD will have the right to call for drawing specification and other details necessary
to enable the transfer of know-how to other parties and the institute should supply the
needed information at the request of NOVOD.
n. The institute may not entrust the implementation of the work for which grant is being
sanctioned, to another institution and to divert the grant receipts as assistance to other
institute. In case, the institute itself is not in a position to execute or complete the project,
it may be required to refund forthwith to NOVOD the entire amount of grant-in-aid
received by it. In exceptional cases, this condition may be relaxed by NOVOD.
o. The staff that may be employed for the project by the institution are not to be treated as
employees of NOVOD and the employment of such staff at the time of completion or
termination of the project will not be the concern/responsibility of NOVOD. They will be
subjected to administrative control and service rules as applicable (Leave, T.A.& D.A.
etc.) of the institute.
p. For the expenditure on implementation of the research project, the Investigator In-charge
will take the assistance of the supporting staff of the institute concerned as also in the
process of selection and appointment of staff and payment to them.
q. NOVOD reserves the right to terminate the grant at any stage, if it is convinced that the
grant is not being properly utilized or appropriate progress is not being made.
r. The project will become operative with effect from the date on the grant is received by
the institute. The date will be intimated by the institute to the NOVOD.
s. Fund sanctioned by NOVOD will not be utilized by the institute for foreign travel of any
employee.
t. The seedlings/saplings prepared during the project period would be utilized for
plantations in the compact areas by the program implementing/concerned centre and
through the developmental organizations in consultation with NOVOD Board.
u. In case of any dispute arising between the parties, the dispute shall be referred to the sole
arbitrator to be appointed by the NOVOD Board. The decision of the sole arbitrator so
appointed shall be final and binding on both the parties.
225
v. The R&D know how developed under this project will be patented in the joint name of
NOVOD Board and the institute.
This Memorandum of understanding shall become effective from the date of issue of the
administrative approval.

Signature
(Executive Authority/ Authorized Officer)
Implementing agency Signature
Secretary
National Oilseeds and Vegetable
Oils Development Board.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-IX
FORM OF AGREEMENT/BOND TO BE EXECUTED BEFORE RELEASE OF GRANTS-
IN-AID TO VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS AND NGOs

AN AGREEMENT made on …………….day of …………. One thousand nine hundred and


………………. BETWEEN …………….. (hereinafter called the Beneficiary which
expression shall include his heirs, administrators, executors and legal representatives) of the
one part and the National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oils Development Board (hereinafter called
the NOVOD Board, which expression shall include his successors and assignees), of the
other part.
Whereas the Beneficiary has applied to the NOVOD Board for a grant-in-aid of Rs.
…………..for the purpose of ……………… and whereas Board has agreed to grant the Rs.
………….. to the Beneficiary on the terms and conditions hereinafter contained.
a. Before a grant is released, the grantee institution is required to execute a Bond, with two
sureties.
b. It will abide by the terms and conditions of the grant as was annexed with the sanction
letter and completion of the program by the target dates, if any, specified therein,
c. It will not divert the grants and entrust execution of the scheme of work concerned to any
other institution or organisation, and
d. It shall abide by any other conditions specified in this agreement and in the event of its
failing to comply with the conditions or committing breach of the bond, the grantee and the
sureties, individually and jointly will be liable to refund the entire amount of the grant with
interest thereon or the sum specified under the bond.
NOW IT IS HEREBY AGREED Between the parties hereto that
In consideration of the sum of Rs………….. to be paid by the NOVOD Board to the
Beneficiary, the Beneficiary hereby agrees with the NOVOD Board that amount released to
them will be utilized strictly in accordance with the terms of the sanction, within the
prescribed time frame failing which the full amount will be refunded to the NOVOD Board
together with interest. The decision of the NOVOD Board or any of the officer authorized by
it for the purpose, regarding non-utilization of the above sum for the said purpose or violation
of any of the terms contained in the sanction letter shall be final and binding on the parties.
All the disputes will be subject to the jurisdiction of the District Court, Gurgaon.
IN WITNESS/SURETIES whereof the BENEFICIARY has hereunto set his hand and Shri
………………………. in the NOVOD Board ……………….. for and on behalf of the
NOVOD Board has hereunto set his hand.
* Signed by the said in the presence and with the sureties of
1. …………………………. …………………………….
226
2. ………………………….. …………………………….
(Signature of witnesses and sureties) (Signature and designation of the Beneficiary)
For and on behalf of the NOVOD Board in the presence of
1. ……………………… ………………………….
2. ……………………… ………………………….
(Signature of Witnesses) (Signature and designation of the officer)
*Name and designation of the Beneficiary (This is to be signed at Gurgaon)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ANNEXURE-X
FORM GFR 19-A
Form of Utilisation Certificate under NOVOD Programs
S.N. Letter No and date Amount in Rs.
Certified that out of Rs................ of grants-in-aid sanctioned during the year .............. in
favour of ..........under this Ministry / Department Letter No. given in the margin and
Rs............ on account of unspent balance of the previous year a sum of Rs................ has been
utilised for the purpose of..............................for which it was sanctioned and that the balance
of Rs..................... remaining unutilised at the end of the year has been surrendered to Govt.
(vide No............................) will be adjusted towards the grants-in-aid payable during the next
year.....................
2. Certified that I have satisfied myself that the conditions on which the grants-in-aid was
sanctioned have been duly fulfilled/are being fulfilled and that I have exercised the following
checks to see that the money was actually utilised for the purpose for which it was
sanctioned.

Kinds of checks exercised.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Date..............................
(G.I, M.F, O.M.No. F14(i)-E.II (A)/73, dt. the 23rd April, 1975).

227
APPENDIX I
News in Press about BioDiesel

President Bush's Energy Plan


In recent months, President Bush has pushed an energy plan that calls for an increase
in the production of alternative fuels like biodiesel. In 1999, biodiesel producers sold
only 500,000 gallons of fuel, but last year, 30 million gallons were sold. Still, that
represents only a fraction of fuel used in the United States. Now, a researcher at the
University of Missouri-Columbia is working to make biodiesel manufacturing more
profitable for producers and more attractive to consumers.
Galen Suppes, an MU chemical engineering professor and chief science officer of the
MU-based Renewable Alternatives, has developed a process for converting glycerin, a
byproduct of the biodiesel production process, into propylene glycol. Propylene
glycol can be used as nontoxic antifreeze for automobiles. Currently, ethylene glycol
is prominently used in vehicular antifreeze and is both toxic and made from
petroleum. Suppes said the new propylene glycol product will meet every
performance standard, is made from domestic soybeans and is nontoxic. While other
research groups are involved in this topic, Suppes said his process works at a lower
pressure and temperature than the other groups, and this process creates a higher
yield.
“At best, right now biodiesel production is only part of the solution,” Suppes said.
“Current biodiesel production in the United States is about 0.03 billion gallons per
year as compared to distillate fuel oil consumption of 57 billion gallons per year. We
believe this technology will encourage and attract more companies and plants to
produce propylene glycol, a cheaper and environmentally safer product.”
Suppes said this technology can reduce the cost of biodiesel production by as much as
$0.40 per gallon of biodiesel. The market for propylene glycol already is established,
with a billion pounds produced a year.
“The price of propylene glycol is quite high while glycerin’s price is low, so based on
the low cost of feed stock and high value of propylene glycol, the process appears to
be most profitable,” Suppes said. “The consumers want antifreeze that is both
renewable and made from biomass rather than petroleum from which propylene
glycol currently is produced, as well as nontoxic.”
Right now, Renewable Alternatives is licensing this technology to three biodiesel
plants, with a fourth one in the works. The National Science Foundation and Missouri
Soybean Farmers are helping fund the research.
From Newswire, 16.08.2005, http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/513850/

Public sector oil firms to buy BioDiesel


Public sector oil firms have indicated a price of Rs 23 per liter for procuring bio-
diesel extracted from non-edible oilseeds for mixing in diesel, Petroleum Secretary S
C Tripathi said on Wednesday. "Oil companies have said that they can procure any
quantity at Rs 23 per liter," he said at the launch of Petroleum Conservation Research
Association's Bio-Diesel Credit Bank here. He, however, said the program to sell
diesel mixed with non-edible oil extracted from Jatropha and Karanj, which could cut
India's import dependence by as much as 10 per cent, would take 4-5 years to launch
on commercial scale.
"Right now we are doing some pilot testing. It will take time for adequate quantities
of Jatropha/Karanj to be planted and oil extracted for mixing in diesel," he said.

228
Planning Commission member (energy) Kirit S Parikh said Jatropha crop on 10
million hectare land could yield 30 million tons of oil, which was more than the
production of crude oil from country's largest oilfield, Mumbai High. International
crude oil price have touched $66 a barrel and every one dollar per barrel increase
imposed an extra burden of Rs 3,000 crore annually.
From PTI, 18-8-05 http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/blnus/14171704.htm

Daimlerchrysler India to enter new phase of testing bio-diesel


Media Release, Jul. 19, 2005
DaimlerChrysler India, which has a Jatropha Biodiesel program in place, said it would
test its cars using the alternate fuel in Leh and other regions of the Himalayas. "We
will further gain valuable feedback about the properties and behaviour of (neat)
Biodiesel under extremes of cold, altitude (low pressure) and demanding road
conditions. This is, by far, the toughest test, where Biodiesel performance will be
pushed to the limits," DaimlerChrysler India Director (Corporate Affairs and Finance)
Suhas Kadlaskar said in a statement here Monday.
The first phase of the project in 2003-04 saw production of the indigenous biodiesel
and completion of road trials on two C-Class Mercedes-Benz cars. The cars, powered
by pure (neat) Biodiesel, traversed the rugged terrain of the country in April-May,
2004, and clocked over 5,900 kilo meters under very hot and humid conditions. "The
findings of the road trial were utilised for further improvement of the fuel
characteristics of Jatropha Bio-diesel," the company said.
In the new testing phase, DaimlerChrysler plans to test the 2 C-Class Mercedes-Benz
cars and an additional Mercedes-Benz Viano (van) across severe and demanding
terrain. "The cold climate-high altitude testing of biodiesel is expected to be carried
out from August 6-9," it said. Fuel from the bush, jobs in agriculture and sustainable
mobility were key objectives of the Jatropha Bio-diesel program, a project initiated in
collaboration with Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute and the
University of Hohenheim.

Andhra Pradesh Government Introduces Draft Industrial Policy


Understanding the need for a policy to fuel its proposed biodiesel projects in the state,
the Andhra Pradesh government has introduced a draft biodiesel policy to facilitate
both investors and farmers to plant oil-bearing trees in 15 lakh acre in the next four
years. Also, a risk fund of Rs 200 crore is expected to be created, through NABARD
as loan to the state government, to support small and marginal farmers with maximum
five acre land holding.
There is also a proposal for constituting a biodiesel board, which would be an
autonomous board for integrated development of jatropha cultivation and bio-diesel
oil in the state. The proposed board, having legal authority, will monitor the tripartite
agreement signed between the stake holders, besides assisting, encouraging, and
promoting jatropha cultivation, according to the officials involved in preparing the
draft policy said.
With a proposal to guarantee an income of Rs 24,000 per annum to a farmer, the total
cost of cultivation for the farmer for the first two years comes to about Rs 12,375. At
a realisation of Rs 6 per kg of seeds sold as a projected price, a farmer is assured of an
income of Rs 4,800 per acre per year. However, the proposal is to guarantee income
only to the farmers taking the plantations up to a maximum of five acre of land.
Following the constitution of policy, the government is determined to promote
contract farming for buyback of jatropha seeds. The minimum buy-back price will be

229
fixed considering the different variables including the quality and quantity of the
produce. A special department called the Rain Shadow Area Department has been
created as a special purpose vehicle for planning, coordination, monitoring and
implementation of the biodiesel program.
Meanwhile, the state government proposes to encourage jatropha plantations in seven
districts viz Ananthapur, Kurnool, Cuddapah, Chittoor, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda and
Ranga Reddy districts. The state-level taskforce includes the principal secretaries of
agriculture, rural development, finance, rain shadow department, a ICRISAT
nominee, a CRIDA nominee and the vice-chancellor of the agricultural university.
The projected sale by the year 2009-10 is about 4.6 million metric tons with a net seed
production required to produce about 3 million metric tons with 30% oil content in 1
million metric tons of biodiesel. Further, expression of interests for setting up new
biodiesel plants will be evaluated by the state-level task force, the officials added.
- BV Mahalakshmi, The Financial Express, 21.06.2005

Commercial Production
Aatmiya Biofuels Pvt Ltd, 68,G.I.D.C. Por Ramangamdi Taluka & District Vadodara,
Gujarat- 391243, Phone No : 91-265-288 5009, Mobile No : 91-98793 59010, has
commercialized the production of biodiesel in Gujarat on 8th March 2005 and now
producing 1000 liters/day. The company is promoted by Mr. Umakant Joshi,
umakantjoshi@hotmail.com a Chemical Engineer who did his graduation from
M.S.University of Vadodara, then post graduate in Chemical Engineering from
Delaware University, USA specialized in Bioenergy.
Gujarat Oelo Chem Limited (GOCL), a Panoli-based firm started on 12th of March
2005, producing bio-diesel from vegetable based feedstock. It released the first
commercial consignment of bio-diesel to Indian Oil Corporation (IOC).
Head Office : Gujarat Oleo Chem. Ltd., D-315, Crystal Plaza, Oshiwara Link Road,
Andheri(w), Mumbai- 400053, Tel : 91-22-2673 3369 / 70 / 71, Fax: 91-22-2634
9195. E-mail: gocl@bom5.vsnl.net.in, Website: www.gujaratoleochem.com. Regd.
Off & Works: Plot No. 631-639, GIDC, Panoli - 394 116, Tel : 91-2646-271 730 /
731 / 647, Fax : 91-2646-272 195.
IOC had placed an order of 450 kiloliters of bio-diesel with GOCL last year for field
trials with the Indian Railways and Haryana roadways. In fact, the IOC's only crop
cultivation project of jatropha seeds for its project with the Indian Railways is in
Surendranagar district of Gujarat. The Railways had agreed to provide wasteland to
IOC for the crop cultivation under a MoU, while the IOC had agreed to produce
alternate fuel for the former. At Haryana, IOC is running 20 buses since April 2004,
on 5% biodiesel and 95% diesel blends. The IOC will be able to supplement 5% of
diesel with bio-diesel in three years. However, the percentage of biodiesel can also be
increased further with proper planning.
Gujarat chief secretary P K Laheri, who flagged off the consignments, said, "The
government is supporting increase of cultivation of jatropha, jajoba and karanj plants
to increase utilisation of renewable sources of energy in the state."
GOCL executive director Sandip Chaturvedi said, "The company has achieved a
milestone by producing and commercializing bio-diesel. The IOC has already shown
further interest in our project. Many other private players too are showing interest and
may place orders." The country’s first biodiesel run bus was flagged off in
Gandhinagar by Union minister of petroleum and natural gas Manishankar Iyer in
Gandhinagar on Saturday 12th March 2005. Four biodiesel run buses were introduced
by the Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC), to ply between

230
Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad. It will source biodiesel from Ankleshwar-based
Gujarat Oleo-Chem Ltd (GOCL).
Talking about the viability of such a project, Iyer said, “We need to control the prices
of biodiesel to make it commercially viable. This can be done only if the Jatropha
(which is used to derive biodiesel) is planted on a large scale to reduce the cost of
production.” The cost of biodiesel is higher than that of diesel at present. This is
mainly because biodiesel is produced on a small scale. Gujarat chief minister
Narendra Modi, who was also present at the function, said there were several
locations ideal for growing Jatropha in the state. “Gujarat has a coastline of over
1,600 kilo meters, where Jatropha can be planted. Kutch is also ideal for Jatropha
plantation. The first commercial production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel derived
from Jatropha seeds has already started in Gujarat. This green oil will bring green
revolution in the country,” he claimed.
Earlier, the company shipped its first commercial consignment of biodiesel derived
from Jatropha seeds to Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL), which was used for test
trials for the railways. “People who are into research feel satisfied when their research
is put to commercial use and its heartening to know that GSRTC busses will be run on
biodiesel,” said B M Bansal, director, research and development, IOCL. The state
transport corporation has about 9,000 buses, which cover 97.5 per cent of the area in
the state and ferries over 27 lakh daily. The corporation employees over 56,000
people and generates a turnover exceeding Rs 11,000 crore on an annual basis.

Center keeping watch on fluctuation in international oil prices : Aiyar


Indian economy is agrarian economy. After liberalization by P V Narasimha Rao
government Indian economy took new shape. But still our economy depends mainly
on agriculture. Crude Oil provides energy for 95% of transportation and the demand
of transport fuel continues to rise. But petroleum resources are finite. Ever increasing
consumption of fossil fuel and petroleum products has been a matter of concern for
the country for huge out-go of foreign exchange on the one hand and increasing
emission causing environmental hazards on the other. The headlines constantly
remind us that crude oil is selling in excess of $55 a barrel. India ranks 6th in the
world in terms of energy demand. We are Importing 64% of Oil from other Nations in
the total Oil Consumption. Our own Nation's Oil bill is $14 billion, which will be
around 5% of the OPEC's export. This is 30% of our National Import Bill. This is
60% of IT exports made by India (IT exports of India is $22 billion for the year 2004-
2005 - NAASCOM Report). Of the most foreign exchange which we are getting we
are loosing it in another way. Not only India this is same for every country. Total
exports of OPEC amounts to $250 billion a year. This is ramping up yearly. Bio
Diesel is answer to all of these. This not only helps Indian Economy by depending on
other countries but also improves rural employment.
Gulbarga, 30th April 2005: Petroleum Minister Mani Shankar Aiyar today said the
Centre was keeping a watch on the fluctuation in international oil prices.
Aiyar told reporters here that the country's oil companies have absorbed losses of Rs
20,000 crore and the Centre had not decided on the issue of price hike.
He said there is a scope for using Biodiesel extracted from non-edible oil in the
country and he had written a letter to Lok Sabha Speaker Somnath Chatterji to
examine the possibility of running buses which use bio-diesel as fuel for MPs. Aiyar
said some Gujarat government buses were already running with bio-diesel as fuel.
from Zee News Bureau Report

231
Kochi Refineries Ltd (KRL)
The prospects offered by biodiesel have made Kochi Refineries Ltd (KRL) look at
setting up a pilot plant and a US firm is here for holding talks with a Kochi-based firm
which has US connections. According to top KRL sources, the company would be
inviting tenders for the pilot project to extract biodiesel from rubber seed oil. An
R&D exercise, the company proposed to look at the feasibility of the project and
would initially have a pilot plant set up with a daily capacity of 100 liters. The
company planned to invite global tenders for the design, installation, commissioning
and performance of the plant.
While it would take over a month-and-a-half for those interested to send it their
tenders, the company would parallelly initiate studies into the availability of rubber
seed oil. Presently there was very little to be sourced from the state and the company
would have to consider getting the material from neighbouring Tamil Nadu,
especially from the Nagercoil belt.
Meanwhile, another company Kochi-based TeamSustain Ltd, a division of US-based
Dewcon Instruments Inc, is in talks with a US firm for setting up a biodiesel plant in
Kochi. TeamSustain which has been into supply of a host of products ranging from
solar heaters to refrigerators and floating restaurants and jetties, would be holding
talks with the US-based Biodiesel Industries. TeamSustain marketing head Ravi
Shankar said the company would look at producing biodiesel from palm kernel and
rubber oil.
Already it had entrusted AF Fergusson to undertake a market survey. The proposal
was to set up a plant with a daily capacity of 30,000 liters. The investment was
expected to be around Rs 20 crore for which it expected support from the Biodiesel
Industries which was supplying biodiesel to the US Navy. It had a unit with an annual
capacity of 30 lakh gallons and had been functioning for the last four years.
from Financial Express KOCHI, APRIL 13

BIOBOOST
ECR Biodiesel Atlanta has developed a novel and proprietary Biodiesel technology
called BIOBOOST. This new development is commercialized in a 30,000 liter per day
system in the Mid Western part of the US and has been in operation since last October
2004. The technology uses a new catalytic concept called “Electro-Chemical” method
of performing Trans-esterification and Esterification simultaneously. This means that
high free fat oils can be processed without loosing them to acid stripping as per
conventional acid/base catalysed methods generally employed worldwide. In addition,
the ECR process performs Etherification of the glyceric molecule to produce built-in-
additive a complete homogeneous mixture of Mono Alkyl Esters with a 100% yield
after reaction. The process does not have any by-products after reaction to separate
and the cost ratio to yield is the highest in the world.
The benefits of using ECR’s advanced technology; improve fuel BTU, higher thermal
stability, better oxidative stability for long term storage, lower cloud point, reduce
engine emissions, (especially NOx and carbon monoxide), lowest cost in the world,
100% yield, able to process high free fat oils, Etherification of the glyceric molecule,
simplified process for ease of operation, lower manpower requirements to operate
process, simplified quality control checks, and many other benefits in addition to
those listed above.
The process features a unique catalytic method for Trans-esterification, Esterification,
and Glyceric Etherification. This is unusual and far exceeds the conventional
acid/base catalysed methods employed today. This technology will produce a

232
revolution in Biodiesel production for cost and yield. Without waste products
especially glycerine, high volume operation is much simpler and cost effective. The
environmental impact of this technology is much less compared to conventional
systems, where large volumes of wash water are not required and elimination of water
waste treatment containing dissolved solids further lowers costs. This means the ECR
process can be applied virtually anywhere. ECR’s per liter cost for catalysis is
approximately ($US) 0.00001 per liter, or approximately 3,000 liters per penny, a
very small value.
Water washing after reaction is not required as per conventional systems and this
drastically reduces capital cost while lowering operating costs on a per liter basis.
Capital cost estimates are approximately, ($US), less than $0.03 per liter. This is in
stark contrast to conventional Biodiesel capital requirements of more than ($US),
$0.30 per liter, or over a ten multiple reduction in capital requirements. This means
that small investors have the capability to achieve large scale Biodiesel production
with minimal capital outlay. ECR has trademarked the Biodiesel fuel as BIOBOOST,
where the BTU value of the product can be over 135,000 BTU’s per gallon, this is
much higher than conventional Biodiesel and No.2 Diesel fuel with BTU’s . Engine
performance is much improved using ECR’s product verses other fuels.
The physical Biodiesel plant can fit in a small space, (1.5 meters X 3.5 meters) and
only requires approximately 7 process and storage tanks for holding raw product,
finished product and alcohol. Storage tank size is dependant on process requirements,
and ECR is able to help layout the process suitable to the application. Compare our
costs with conventional systems and you will be assured that this is truly an affordable
processing method.
ASTM testing of the product has been able to easily pass the Glycerine and acid
values. B20 viscosity blends are well within the limits of No. 2 Diesel fuel. Engine
testing over the last year has achieved remarkable results without any problems. An
engine was disassembled after 11 months of +B20 operation and checked for build-
ups and deposits, and there were none. Hope these will be sufficient information. If
you need further information, please feel free to contact us. We appreciate your
interest in ECR Technologies.

Research at ARS
ARS scientists in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, USA, have modified biodiesel
production technology. Their method eliminates a step—and an air-polluting
chemical—from the process of synthesizing the fuel. Michael Haas, a biochemist with
the Eastern Regional Research Center's Fats, Oils, and Animal Coproducts Research
Unit, and colleagues developed the new approach. In this country, soybean oil is the
most prevalent starting material for biodiesel, though other vegetable oils, animal fat,
and waste grease are used too. But soybean oil's relatively high cost results in
biodiesel being expensive, which discourages wider adoption of this desirable,
renewable fuel.
In biodiesel production, hexane, a colorless, flammable liquid derived from
petroleum, is traditionally used to extract the oil from the soybeans. But hexane is an
air pollutant, and its release is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency. Working with ERRC biologist Karen M. Scott and chemist Thomas A.
Foglia, Haas eliminated hexane from the process simply by skipping the oil-extraction
step that relies on it. Instead, Haas explains, soybean flakes are incubated with
methanol and sodium hydroxide—the same agents that would be used to process
extracted oil.

233
"In the new method, soybean flakes are incubated in alkaline methanol, eliminating
the need to isolate and purify the oil before trans-esterification" ("Trans-esterification"
is a reaction between fats and alcohol that forms the simple fatty acid esters that are
biodiesel.) The lipids don't have to be isolated first because trans-esterification occurs
in the raw soy flakes containing the oil.
Next, when the researchers collaborated with Andrew McAloon, a process
modeler/cost engineer at their facility, to estimate and compare costs, they hit a snag.
Without even accounting for the cost of the soy flakes or soy oil, a gallon of biodiesel
produced by their new process was estimated to cost $3.14—versus 38 cents per
gallon if produced by the conventional process.
The researchers then noticed that their new method used considerably more methanol
than is typically needed in biodiesel synthesis. They reasoned that the moisture
naturally present in soybeans, as much as 10 percent in soy flakes, could be the reason
behind the high methanol requirement. They found that by drying the flakes before
starting the biodiesel synthesis, they could greatly reduce the required methanol
volume. As a result, the estimated cost went down to $1.02 per gallon.
Haas and his colleagues are presently refining their economic model to account for
income from selling the lipid-free, protein-rich flakes left after the biodiesel reaction
for use as animal feeds and to account for cost differences between refined-oil and
flaked-soybean starting materials.
ARS has filed a patent application on the process. Haas is exploring use of this new
method to produce biodiesel from the lipids in corn co-products from ethanol plants
that use corn as a starting material. He's also investigating the suitability of canola
seeds and meat and bone meal.—By Jim Core, Agricultural Research Service
Information Staff.
This research is part of Bioenergy and Energy Alternatives, an ARS National Program
(#307) described on the World Wide Web at www.nps.ars.usda.gov.
Michael J. Haas is in the Fats, Oils, and Animal Coproducts Research Unit, USDA-
ARS Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Ln., Wyndmoor, PA
19038; phone (215) 233-6459, fax (215) 233-6795.
"New Method Simplifies Biodiesel Production" was published in the April 2005 issue
of Agricultural Research magazine.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/apr05/diesel0405.htm.

Do not look at foreign countries for technology


The Vice President, Shri Bhairon Singh Shekhawat has said that there is immense
scope for bio-diesel production in the country because the climatic conditions are
suitable for the growth of Jatropha plants. He was inaugurating a National Conference
on “Vegetable Bio-Diesel” in Pusa today, hosted by the Indian Council for
Agriculture Research. Shri Shekhawat said farmers can be encouraged to grow
Jatropha but before this we must develop necessary technical, production and
marketing institutions. The Vice President said that with 26% of the country’s
population living below poverty line, the cultivation of Jatropha plant on a large scale
can generate employment for crores of people and this possibility cannot be
overlooked. Shri Shekhawat said the main problem for the implementation of ideas in
the country is red tapism and this alone causes delay in making the fruits of
development available to the people.
He said most of the problems in the country can be solved using indigenous know-
how but our mentality is such that we are always looking at foreign countries for
technology. The need is, that instead of looking for imported technology, we must

234
believe in our abilities and build technologies according to our needs, the Vice
President added.
The Conference was organized by an NGO “Utthhan” whose Chairman, Shri D.N.
Tiwari highlighted the activities of his organization.
from Press Information Bureau

Biodiesel to be retailed to customers


By September next year, consumers in many parts of the country can expect to fill
their vehicles with 'Jet Biofuel', a brand of bio-diesel, which would not only be
cheaper and eco-friendly alternative for diesel, but would also give higher fuel
average (mileage).
Pune-based Shirke Biohealthcare Pvt. Lld., 11, Navrang Plaza, Tingre Nagar,
Vishrantwadi, Airport Road, Pune, India, 411 015. Tel: 91-20-5623 3110, Cell : 91-
9422010236, Fax : 91-20-2581 3993, jet_india@rediffmail.com, is setting up a
refinery at Hinjewadi, with a capacity to process 50,000 liters biodiesel per day from
Jatropha plant, with an investment of around Rs 60 crore. The refinery will also
produce 10 MW power with the oil cake, apart from natural gas which will be used to
run the power plant and five tons of glycerine, a bi-product.
The plan is to enroll farmers into 'Jet Pariwar', supply them with the quick-growing
Jatropha plants developed by the company through tissue culture, give them
mortgage-free loans for 60 per cent of the cost and offer a buyback arrangement. The
revenues from the production sales would be shared in the ratio of 70:30, 30 per cent
being the farmers' share. The company would also provide them free technical know-
how and training as to how to grow and maintain the crop.
"We will set up a refinery in any village/cluster, where the farmers commit at least
1000 acres to Jatropha plantation", said Abhijeet Shirke, managing director of Shirke
Biohealth Care. A botanist by training, his previous ventures include Mushroom
House India, which produces medicinal mushroom and Shrike Agro, manufacturer of
dietary food supplements and wheat grass. According to him, the outgo for a farmer is
Rs 20,000 per acre (1000 plants) initially, but little or no maintenance costs as only
one liter of water is required per plant. These plants grow in all kinds of soils and
climates.
This concept of a collaborative venture with the farmers is being extended across the
country. The company has so far 3,900 acres committed in 10 states - Maharashtra,
four Southern states, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh -
while another 7,000 acres are in the pipeline.
For retailing the fuel, the company is appointing distributors at district and Taluka
levels. In two years time, it expects to have 45,000 distribution centers across the
country, 6000 in Maharashtra alone, according to Shirke. By that time, Jatropha
plantation on 12 lakh hectares across the country and 600 refineries.
This is perhaps the first such large scale effort by a private company in the country
and assumes significance under the imminent threat of oil reserves depleting fully by
2020. So far, bio-diesel has mainly been under the domain of the public sector, even
though seven-eight private companies are coming up of late. Indian Oil has set up two
bio-diesel refineries - one each in Ahmedabad and Uttar Pradesh - in a joint venture
with Indian Railways. It also has five other such refineries, while Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research has put up a plant in Ahmedabad. However, all
these have a capacity of under-1500 liters per day. The company is shortly entering
into a technological collaboration with a biodiesel company in Brazil, a country which
has been producing bio-diesel for the last 40 years.

235
Meanwhile, Shirke Biohealthcare is also working on 82 different biofuel crops for
producing alternative fuels. Significant among them is production of bio-petrol from
Copaiba, a plant found in Amazon valley. It will also look for making bio-engine oils.
By Padmaja Shastri
TIMES NEWS NETWORK, FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 26, 2004 03:40:20 PM
M/s Shirke Biohealth Care Pvt. Ltd. Is a company registered under the companies
act1956. Having their corporate office at 11, Navrang Plaza, Tingre Nagar,
Vishrantwadi, Airport Road, Pune, India. 411 015. It is represented by one of its
Director Abhijeet Shirke.
Founded in 2004, Shirke Biohealthcare has emerged one of the leading company in
the field of Biotechnology. With it wide experience in the field of Pharmaceutical,
Agriculture, Non-conventional energy & Environmental science. Shirke Bio-
healthcare is coming up with 82 different types of crops, which includes Bio-diesel,
Bio-petrol, Bio-Gas, Electricity.
The company is into production of Bio-diesel, Bio-gas and Bio-fertilizer by using
Jatropha Curcas seeds. The oil will be extracted from the Jatropha seeds using an
Trans esterification Process to produce Biodiesel and other products like First Grade
Glycerin, Bio-gas, Bio fertilizer.
Apart form the production the company is also into Plantation of Jatropha Plants
across India, Marketing, and Consultancy regarding plantation of Jatropha. The
Plantation of Jatropha in 16,000 Acres is already completed and more 50,000 Acres
are planned in future.

Successful test of bio-diesel to generate electricity


Akola (Maharashtra), Dec 10 : Scientists at the Dr Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi
Vidyapeeth here claimed to have successfully generated electricity from bio-diesel
produced from seeds of two plants. The test was successfully conducted using
`Karanji' and `Erandi' seeds last evening at the College of Agricultural Engineering in
PDKV campus, according to Dr Sanjay Bhoyar, a scientist, who was involved in the
experiment.
Methanol and Sodium Hydroxide were used to convert the non-edibile oil into bio-
diesel, the scientist told a gathering of PDKV employees, invitees and local
journalists. "We have been successful in generating electricity at a cheaper cost. The
test of the bio-diesel was held successfully and 20 bulbs could be lit with the power
generated from this experiment during the load shedding," he said.
Quantity of oxygen is more in bio-diesel and hence it will be fully burnt, Nimbalkar
said adding, there will not be pollution as the quantity of Sulphur is very less in this
technique called 'trans-esterification'.
Vice-chancellor of Dr PDKV Dr Sharad Nimbalkar was also present on the occasion.
from PTI

US grant for bio-diesel project in Karnataka


New Delhi, Dec 8 : Renewable energy company Bhoruka Power Corporation Ltd
today said it has received a grant of 100,000 dollars from the US government to
conduct a detailed feasibility report for a bio-diesel project in Karnataka.
The agreement has been signed on behalf of US government through the US Trade
and Development Agency, a company release said. The study in Gulbarga district is
likely to be completed by April next year, it said, adding the study would be
conducted along with California-based Bio Diesel Industries.

236
The study envisages use of Neem or Pongamia non-edible oilseeds for production of
bio-diesel as well as power, the release said.
from PTI

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)


After perfecting the technology for extracting bio-diesel from Jatropha plant in the
first phase, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is now in talks
with country's biggest truck and bus maker Tata Motors and Indian Oil to take its
biofuel project to the next stage.
''We are talking to Tata Motors for testing its vehicles on bio-diesel developed from
jatropha plant. Besides, we are in touch with Indian Oil for studying our new
alternative to diesel,'' CSIR Director General R A Mashelkar told newspersons after
DiamlerChrysler test-vehicles powered by bio-diesel reached Delhi today.
As part of the viability test of the new alternative to diesel, two Mercedes-Benz
successfully traveled more than 5,000 km. ''The road test has been truly encouraging
and has generated tremendous enthusiasm among the public and opinion makers,'' he
said adding that the project will invite other auto makers for further test.
from UNI

Mercedes Benz C class Car


IT may be a smooth ride ahead for vehicles fuelled by biodiesel. What could be better
than testing it on the Mercedes? The effects of this new fuel were nearer home on
Monday, when the Mercedes Benz C class, which is on an eco-friendly cross-country
drive, cruised into Ahmedabad.
The car, running on a biodiesel, will leave for Jaipur from here and conclude its
journey at Delhi after covering more than 5,000 km since it started on April 5. The car
has covered the treacherous Western Ghats, the humid coastline of South India and
the arid desert of Rajasthan and now, it has entered Gujarat. ‘‘The road test has been
truly encouraging and has generated tremendous enthusiasm among the public and
opinion makers,’’ said Suhas Kadlaskar, the Director Corporate Affairs and Finance
of Daimler Chrysler India.
Daimler Chrysler initiated the project in August 2003, in partnership with Council for
Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and The University of Hohenhiem,
Germany. It has assumed responsibility for organising the event, funding the project
and also testing the biofuel.
‘‘This fuel can be used in any type of engine or car without making any changes in
the existing engines. It’s just like any other fuel. This alternative to diesel has cleared
all emission and pollution tests including the Euro II norms,’’ said Sanjeev Mandep of
Daimler Chrysler. Wondering about the cost factor? Breathe easy, this eco-friendly
fuel will cost nearly the same as diesel. ‘‘But it’s too early to say anything,’’ says
Mandep.
If you thought the list of good news ends here, there’s better news. Biofuel is got from
extracts of Jatropha plant, which grows on wasteland and has survived two droughts
in Orissa. ‘‘The plant has a tendency to grow in dry areas, that’s why we chose this
plant for the project,’’ said Dr P K Ghosh, the Director of Central Salt and Marine
Chemicals Research Institute. He added that the plant was being cultivated in Madhya
Pradesh, Orissa and Gujarat.
‘‘Madhya Pradesh can become the largest cultivator of Jatropha as it has a lot of
uncultivable land,’’ he added. Gujarat government is also educating and encouraging
its farmers to cultivate Jatropha in areas that do not have a high-yielding capacity.

237
Approximately 10 lakh ton of biodiesel can be extracted by cultivating Jatropha in 20
lakh hectares of land. A production center for biofuel in Gujarat is Chorvadla in
Bhavnagar.
‘‘Biofuel reduces emission of harmful substance by limiting the particulate matter
carbon dioxide as compared to diesel. It can be used in generators and other
appliances as well,’’ said Dr P K Ghosh. Biofuel will also pave the path for wasteland
reclamation, rural development and income generation and sustainable mobility in
remote areas.
The first two-year phase, 2003 and 2004, has been devoted to selection of plots in
Orissa and Gujarat, determination of soil parameters as well as production of
biodiesel conforming to European standards. The second phase will cover harvesting
of seeds to total input-output analysis and model for viable biofuel development from
wasteland.
from Indian Express

Southern Online Biotechnologies Limited


The Southern Online Biotechnologies Limited, which is setting up the country's first
bio-diesel project in Andhra Pradesh, is all set to sign MoU with several government
bodies and non-governmental organisations in about a week's time, for procuring raw
material like Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja or Kanuga) and Jatropha seed. The oil
extracted from this seed is used to produce what is called the bio-diesel, said to have
characteristics like less pollution-causing and, possibly- improved mileage. Generally
considered an eco-friendly, bio-degradable product, it can be blended with diesel in
different proportions or used as a total replacement for conventional diesel.
Besides the Indian Railways, several organisations like the Andhra Pradesh Lorry
Owners Association, and the Rig Owners associations have offered to buy the bio-
diesel proposed to be produced by Southern Online subject to conditions.
The company is setting up the bio-diesel project at an estimated cost of Rs. 15 crores
at Choutuppal in Andhra Pradesh, with technology from a German company named
Lurgi. It expects to achieve financial closure by July this year, and commence
commercial production by April 2005.The project is also under circulation with
German Technological Co-operation (GTZ), a statutory body, for financial assistance.
According to sources, Indian Railways, which uses about 2 million kilo liters of diesel
per annum, has shown interest in buying bio-diesel provided its price is less than
conventional diesel and quality is as per American Society for Testing materials
(ASTM) standards.
Southern Online expects to sign MoU with the Andhra Pradesh Society for
Elimination of Rural Poverty (APSERP- Velugu), the Andhra Pradesh Forest
Development Corporation, and the Vana Samrakshana Samithi (VSS) through the
Forest Department. The expectation is that Velugu can procure about 400 tonnes,
APFDC 900 tons and VSS another 450 tons. Though this is considerably less than the
32,000 tons per annum requirement of the company it is seen as an encouraging
beginning. Rough estimates put the possibility of procurement at 8,000 tons per
annum through these organisations. The amount of interest shown in developing such
raw sources of raw material is reflected in the Government of India providing
Rs.1,000 crores for raising and promoting Pongamia to produce bio-diesel oil.
The Lorry Owners Association, which consumes about 82 lakh liters diesel per day,
has evinced interest in buying up to 12,500 liters per day of bio-diesel. The rig owners
have shown interest in quantities up to 6,000 liters.

238
In order to give fillip to its proposed biodiesel project, Southern Online
Biotechnologies Ltd has roped in scientists from leading research institutes like IIT,
Delhi, Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,
to act as honorary advisors for the country’s first biodiesel project in Andhra.
As part of the advisory committee, the scientists who have evinced interest in the
project include: Dr AK Bhatnagar, Petrotech chair professor in the department of
chemical engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT, Delhi), Prof LM Das,
IIT, Delhi and consultant for General Motors, Prof Udipi Srinivasa, IISc, Bangalore,
Dr TNB Kaimal from the Indian Institute of Chemical Technology and Mr Sudhir
Singhal, director of Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun.
‘‘The scientists will be the honorary advisors for the Rs 14.8-crore biodiesel project to
come up in Andhra Pradesh with the technology being sourced from Lurgi,
Germany,’’ Mr N Satish Kumar, director of the company said. However, the research
institutes are not directly involved with the project.
The technology involves extraction of biodiesel from non-edible seed oils like
Pongamia or Jatropha seeds or vegetable fats by esterification and trans-esterification
using methanol or ethanol and chemical catalysts, he said.
The project, expected to be initiated this year, has already obtained the import and
export code from the joint director general of foreign trade along with clearances from
the industries department. The total capacity of the plant through extraction is
estimated about 30 tons per day.
City-based Southern Online Bio Technologies Limited is coming out with a Rs 17.1-
crore rights-cum-public issue to entirely finance its bio diesel project.
N Satish Kumar, managing director of Southern Online Bio, said that the issue would
open by September and UTI had agreed to act as the lead managers to the issue.
The company would also list its shares on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) to
create better value for its shareholders. The company is at present listed on the
Hyderabad Stock Exchange (HSE) and the Bangalore Stock Exchange (BgSE)
Under the rights-cum-public issue being offered at par, the company would offer 57
lakh shares as the rights which would be subscribed to promoters and their associates.
Shares totaling 1.14 crore would be offered to the public, the Southern Online Bio
managing director said.
Kumar said that the company would approach SEBI for its approval for the issue next
month and also seek an in-principal nod from the BSE for listing. Post-issue, the paid-
up capital, which is presently at Rs 5.36 crore, will rise to Rs 22.8 crore.
The authorised capital would rise from Rs 12 crore to Rs 23 crore. The net worth will
rise from Rs 5.94 crore to Rs 24.43 crore. Promoters have to subscribe to minimum 20
per cent of both rights and public issues. At present, their stake holding in the
company stands at 33.3 per cent.
Giving the break-up of the Rs 17.1-crore bio-diesel project, he said that the plant and
machinery would cost Rs 9.2 crore, miscellaneous fixed assets Rs 1.32 crore,
preliminary operations Rs 2.76 crore and land-cum-civil works Rs 8.57 crore.
The company is setting aside Rs 1.09 crore as the contingency fund and Rs 1.86 crore
as margins for working capital. The company has acquired 10 acres at Choutuppal, 50
km from the city, for setting up a plant to produce bio diesel using oil seeds from trees
such as pongamia pinnata, jatropha curcas.
“The plant with 30 tons per day or 90,000 tons per annum capacity would require
around 100 tonnes of seeds per day. The annual requirement of seeds is around 32,000
tons. As the current availability of seeds in the state is less than 4,000 tons, we would

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use other raw materials like acid oils, distilled fatty acids, animal fatty acids and non-
edible vegetable oils like neem, rice brawn etc,” Kumar said.
The company is entering into buy-back arrangements with farmers as well as
plantation owners to source raw materials. “Irrespective of quality of seeds, they will
be procured at Rs 4-4.50 per kg. The commitment is being made to the suppliers,” he
said. Satish Kumar said the company was planning to start the works shortly and
expects the production to commence by April 2005.
The company had already entered into agreements with buyers like railways,
Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam corporations etc. The company had agreed to supply
bio diesel at rates cheaper than those of conventional diesel, he said.
A day after the Kyoto Protocol was signed, the foundation stone has been laid for
India’s first biodiesel plant, in Andhra Pradesh.
Laying the foundation for the plant, promoted by Southern Online Biotechnologies,
German ambassador Heimo Richter said it was the right model for India by which
both the society as well as the business house were benefited. The plant is located at
Samasthan Narayanpur village in Nalgonda district. Besides the Indian Institute of
Petroleum-Dehradun, Indian Institute of Technology-Delhi and Indian Institute of
Science-Bangalore, the other technical partners include the German-based Lurgi and
the German government.
from Financial Express

Is the world really running out of oil?


After surveying the views of the world’s leading experts in the field of monitoring
and tabulating the world’s petroleum supplies – the magnitude of the problem and the
complexity of the solution (if there is a solution to this dilemma) becomes clear.
For instance, for new sources of oil to be identified and extracted – the price of this
important commodity will have to rise – as most of the “cheap oil” that could be taken
out of the ground and sold for $20-30 a barrel – is gone. What comes next is a steady
increase in the price of oil until the new hikes make it profitable for the producers to
extract it from less accessible sources. This is inevitable and no amount of investment
in alternative energy development or reduction in current consumption will alter it.
Some of the world’s leading experts together with oil industry executives have
warned that the era of cheap oil is drawing to a close.
In 2002, the world produced slightly more than 66m barrels of oil a day. (b/d) It
consumed about 79m b/d, equivalent to 25-27bn barrels a year. The problem is that,
on average, only around 7bn new barrels a year are discovered. Global demand for oil
is currently rising at more than 2% a year. Since 1985, energy use is up by about 30%
in Latin America, 40% in Africa and 50% in Asia. Energy demand worldwide is
expected to rise by about 50%-60% over the next 20 years to 112m b/d , some 40bn
barrels a year.
According to the US Geological Survey’s latest report published in 2000, the world’s
proven oil and gas currently stands at about 2.5 trillion barrels. A calculation using
data from the Centre for Global Energy Studies shows that with 28.8bn barrels
currently being consumed per year (79m b/d), there is some 80 years of supply left in
the ground. However, the 2.3bn barrels remaining include 1.4bn barrels which,
according to US Government Statistics (USGS) analysis of global geology, do exist
but have yet to be discovered. That leaves roughly 890bn barrels of oil and gas that
has already been discovered and is booked as proven reserves –about a 31-year
supply.

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Colin Campbell believes global production of oil will peak before 2010. Keneth
Deffeyes believes the date will be sooner than that, sometime in the next two years.
The US Geological Survey, a Denver-based group that tracks petroleum resource use,
estimates the peak will occur between 2011and 2015. The French oil company
TotalFinaElf has said it believes the year will be 2010. Meanwhile, the US Energy
Department believes that it won’t happen until 2037.
World oil and gas production from existing fields is declining at an average rate of
4% to 6% a year. To meet projected demand in 2015, the industry will have to add
about 100m b/d of new production, which is equal to about 80% of today’s production
level. In other words, the oil industry will need to find, develop and produce a volume
of new oil and gas that is equal to eight out of every 10 barrels being produced today.
That means new oilfields that can produce 60m b/d. As a comparison, 6m b/d are
produced from the North Sea.
So if the world is definitely running out of cheap oil – and not replenishing what it is
consuming – what are the geopolitical implications of this? This is the question that
few mainstream media sources will confront as the answers are far from comforting.
Predictably, the US and Russia are competing to exert dominion over this region –
with pipelines. The US wants to build one from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan to
the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, British Petroleum is building a $3.8bn pipeline from
Baku in Azerbaijan via Georgia to Turkey’s Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. Russia is
keen to construct a pipeline across its territory from Chechnya via the northern
Caucasus region. The Russians will soon station troops in Kyrgyzstan – about 150 km
from a US airbase. The US also has a military presence in Uzbekistan. Russia offers
military and financial aid to its allies in the region and the US does the same.
The third factor is China, whose demand for oil overtook the needs of Japan in 2003,
to make it the world’s second largest oil consumer. Its fuel imports are soaring by 9%
a year. The country was self-sufficient in oil until as recently as 1993. Now, it is
increasingly depending on imports and that supply will increasingly come from the
Gulf. The Chinese are heavily dependent on oil supplies from Sudan and, as a result
they have developed close military ties with the government in Khartoum. They also
seek oil from Kazakhstan and are attempting to strengthen their military ties there in
order to be able to build a pipeline from Kazakhstan to China.
Thus China, Japan, western Europe and the US will all be competing for access to the
same supplies of oil. Unlike other commodities – oil has enormous political
significance – none of which should be lost on anyone viewing world affairs in the
coming decades.
The end result will basically be a repeat of “the Great Game” scenario of the 19 th
century. While wars in that century were fought over valuable minerals and control of
the world’s sea routes – wars in the 21 st century will likely be fought over access to
increasingly scarce sources of petroleum. We have already seen the first war in this
new century waged over the need to control the planet’s last remaining sources of
cheap oil. As oil supplies become scarce the world will become increasingly unstable.
Regardless of how geopolitical events take shape nothing can be done to alleviate the
upcoming peak production of oil. Alternative energy sources are a nice idea, but even
if the advanced nations of the world got fully behind these initiatives, it would take
decades to see a meaningful decrease in oil consumption. Also, regardless of how
attractive some forms of alternative energy may sound on paper – it is highly unlikely
that even in 50 years the world will be free of its need for petroleum products.

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Oil will become more expensive. Nothing in the short-term can be done to forestall
this inevitable price rise – or the impending shortage of supply. The survivors will be
those who learn to accept it and adapt.
from The Middle East (Edited)

Import Bill of India


With the increasing price of crude oil, the import bill of India on petroleum products
is expected to cross US$ 16 billion during the current year. The time has come to
explore alternatives and tap the traditional wisdom. Considering the seriousness of
cost of petroleum products and the pollution caused by the use of these products,
many developed countries, particularly Germany and Australia, have ventured into the
use of vegetable oils as a better alternative to diesel. Several other western countries
have invested huge sums in research and development to promote the use of biodiesel
on a commercial scale. Fortunately, suitable initiatives have also been made in India
by Government agencies, research institutions and automobile industries.
In India, oils extracted from seeds of different species have been traditionally used as
a source of energy for lighting and heating. Gradually these oils were used for more
valuable purposes such as production of soap, candle, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
In the past, the use of these oils as a substitute for diesel was not encouraging because
diesel was available at a much cheaper price. Now with the increasing price of
petroleum products and increasing concern on oil pollution, vegetable oils are likely
to have a permanent demand from the automobile industry in the future.
It is also heartening to note that work has already been initiated in India to standardize
the technique of esterification to convert oil into biodiesel. Keeping in view the
physical and chemical variations of oils from different species and the impact of using
biodiesel on the efficiency of the