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## Name Class Date

Assessment

Chapter Test B
Thermodynamics
MULTIPLE CHOICE
In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes
each statement or best answers each question.

______ 1. When an ideal gas does positive work on its surroundings, which of
the gas’s quantities increases?
a. temperature c. pressure
b. volume d. internal energy

______ 2. Air cools as it escapes from a diver’s compressed air tank. What kind
of process is this?
b. isobaric d. isothermal

______ 3. In an isovolumetric process for an ideal gas, the system’s change in the
energy as heat is equivalent to a change in which of the following?
a. temperature c. pressure
b. volume d. internal energy

## ______ 4. How is conservation of internal energy expressed for a system during

a. Q = W = 0, so U = 0 and Ui = Uf
b. Q = 0, so U = W
c. T = 0, so U = 0; therefore, U = Q  W = 0, or Q = W
d. V = 0, so PV = 0 and W = 0; therefore, U = Q

## ______ 5. An ideal gas system undergoes an isovolumetric process in which 20 J

of energy is added as heat to the gas. What is the change in the sys-
tem’s internal energy?
a. 20 J c. 5 J
b. 0 J d. 20 J

______ 6. Which of the following is not a way in which a cyclic process resem-
bles an isothermal process?
a. Energy can be transferred as work.
b. Energy can be transferred as heat.
c. The temperature of the system remains constant throughout
the process.
d. There is no net change in the internal energy of the system.

Holt Physics 77 Chapter Test
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## Chapter Test B continued

______ 7. A heat engine has taken in energy as heat and used a portion of it to
do work. What must happen next for the engine to complete the cycle
a. It must give up energy as heat to a lower temperature so work can
be done on it.
b. It must give up energy as heat to a higher temperature so work can
be done on it.
c. It must do work to transfer the remaining energy as heat to a lower
temperature.
d. It must do work to transfer the remaining energy as heat to a higher
temperature.

## ______ 8. An electrical power plant manages to transfer 88 percent of the heat

produced in the burning of fossil fuel to convert water to steam. Of the
heat carried by the steam, 40 percent is converted to the mechanical
energy of the spinning turbine. Which best describes the overall effi-
ciency of the heat-to-work conversion in the plant?
a. greater than 88 percent c. 40 percent
b. 88 percent d. less than 40 percent

______ 9. When a drop of ink mixes with water, what happens to the entropy of
the system?
a. The system’s entropy increases, and the total entropy of the
universe increases.
b. The system’s entropy decreases, and the total entropy of the
universe increases.
c. The system’s entropy increases, and the total entropy of the
universe decreases.
d. The system’s entropy decreases, and the total entropy of the
universe decreases.

## ______10. A thermodynamic process occurs, and the entropy of a system

decreases. What can be concluded about the entropy change of
the environment?
a. It decreases.
b. It increases.
c. It stays the same.
d. It could increase or decrease, depending on the process.

Holt Physics 78 Chapter Test
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## 11. A physics textbook is balanced on top of an inflated balloon on a cold morn-

ing. As the day passes, the temperature increases, the balloon expands, and
the textbook rises. Is there a transfer of energy as heat? If so, what is it? Has
any work been done? If so, on what?

12. A gas is confined in a cylinder with a piston. What happens when work is
done on the gas?

13. What changes can be made to the transfer of energy as heat to a heat engine
in order to increase the amount of work done by the engine?

14. Describe how energy is transferred as heat during the part of an engine cycle
where the engine does work on the environment and during the part of the
cycle when work is done on the engine.

15. Use the second law of thermodynamics and the equation for heat engine
efficiency to show why efficiency must always be less than 1.

Holt Physics 79 Chapter Test
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## Chapter Test B continued

16. Ice cubes are formed in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator. Explain
the change in entropy of the water freezing, as well as the change in entropy
of the environment outside the refrigerator. Does the water freezes sponta-
neously, and if not, why not?

PROBLEM

17. An ideal gas is maintained at a constant pressure of 7.0  104 N/m2 while
its volume decreases by 0.20 m3. What work is done by the system on its
environment?

18. Over several cycles, a refrigerator compressor does work on the refrigerant.
This work is equivalent to a constant pressure of 4.13  105 Pa compressing a
circular piston with a radius of 0.019 m a distance of 25.0 m. If the change in
the refrigerant’s internal energy is 0 J after each cycle, how much heat will the
refrigerant remove from within the refrigerator?

19. A steam engine takes in 2.06  105 J of energy added as heat and exhausts
1.53  105 J of energy removed as heat per cycle. What is its efficiency?

20. The gas within a cylinder of an engine undergoes a net change in volume of
1.50  103 m3 when it does work at a constant pressure of 3.27  105 Pa.
If the efficiency of the engine is 0.225, how much work must the engine give
up as heat to the low-temperature reservoir?

Holt Physics 80 Chapter Test
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TEACHER RESOURCE

## 17. No energy is transferred to or from an 25. 0.80

isolated system. Therefore, the inter- Given
nal energy of an isolated system Qh  75 000 J
remains unchanged. Qc  15 000 J
18. In a cyclic process, the net work Solution
equals the net heat. Qc
19. The requirement that Qc
0 means that eff  1 
Qh
some energy must be transferred as
heat to the system’s surroundings, and 15 000 J
eff  1    1 0.20 
therefore this energy cannot be used by 75 000 J
the engine to do work. 0.80
20. Calculated efficiencies are based only
on the amounts of energy transferred as
heat to and from the engine. They do Thermodynamics
not take into account friction or ther- CHAPTER TEST B (ADVANCED)
mal conduction within the engine, 1. b 6. c
which cause energy to be dissipated by 2. c 7. a
the engine. This makes real engines less 3. d 8. d
efficient than their ideal counterparts. 4. b 9. a
21. Entropy is a measure of the disorder 5. d 10. b
of a system. 11. Energy from the air was transferred as
22. In most systems, entropy increases heat into the balloon. The balloon did
with the spontaneous transfer of work on the book.
energy as heat, causing the systems to 12. The volume of the gas decreases.
become more disordered. This process 13. Increasing the net amount of energy
can be reversed, and the system’s transferred as heat from a high-tem-
entropy can be decreased, only by perature substance to the engine, or
transferring energy as heat from a decreasing the net amount of energy
lower temperature to a higher temper- transferred as heat from the engine to
ature. This requires work to be done a low-temperature substance, or both
on the system. of these conditions together will
23. 5.9  105 J increase the net amount of work done
Given by the engine.
P  3.7  105 Pa 14. Energy is transferred as heat from a
V  1.6 m3 high-temperature substance to the
Solution lower-temperature engine, and some of
W  PV  (3.7  105 Pa)(1.6 m3)  the energy is used by the engine to do
5.9  105 J work on the environment. The remain-
ing energy in the system is transferred
24. –42 J, or 42 J transferred from the
as heat from the engine to a lower-
system as heat temperature substance, which allows
Given work to be done on the engine, thus
W  165 J returning the engine to its initial condi-
U  123 J tion and completing the cycle.
Solution 15. According to the second law of ther-
Work is done on the system, so W is modynamics, some of the energy
negative. added as heat to an engine (Qh) must
U  Q  W be removed from the engine as heat to
Q  U  W  123 J  165 J  a substance at a lower temperature
42 J, or 42 J transferred from the (Qc). Qc is therefore greater than 0.
system as heat Efficiency is equal to 1 – (Qc/Qh), and
because Qc/Qh must be greater than 0,
the efficiency must be less than 1.

Holt Physics 196 Chapter Test
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TEACHER RESOURCE

## 16. The entropy of the water decreases, 20. 1.69  103 J

because it goes from a less-ordered liq- Given
uid state to a more-ordered solid state. V  1.50  103 m3
This does not occur spontaneously, P  3.27  105 Pa
but by the refrigerator doing work to eff  0.225
remove energy as heat from the freezer. Solution
This energy is added to the air outside Wnet  PV
the refrigerator, so the entropy of the W
outside air (the environment) eff  n
et
Qh
increases by more than the entropy of Wnet  Qh  Qc
the freezing water decreases. W
17. 1.4  104 J Qc  Qh  Wnet  n
et
 Wnet 
eff
Given
P  7.0  104 N/m2  1
eff
 1

Wnet   1  PV   1
eff

V  0.20 m3
Solution Qc  (3.27  105 Pa)(1.50  103 m3)
The volume decreases, so V, and thus
W, are negative.  1
  1
0.225
W  PV  (7.0  104 N/m2) Qc  (3.27  105 Pa)(1.50  103 m3)
(0.20 m3)  1.4  104 J (4.44  1)
Qc  (3.27  105 Pa)(1.50  103 m3)
18. 1.2  104 J
Given (3.44)  1.69  103 J
P  4.13  105 Pa
r  0.019 m Vibrations and Waves
d  25.0 m
U  0 J CHAPTER TEST A (GENERAL)
1. a 10. a
Solution
2. b 11. b
U  Q  W  0
3. a 12. a
Work is done on the system, so W is
4. d 13. c
negative.
5. a 14. b
6. b 15. c
A  p r2
7. c 16. c
Q  W  Pp r2d
8. d 17. d
Q  (4.13  105 Pa)(p)(0.019 m)2
9. d 18. d
(25.0 m)  1.2  104 J 19. three
19. 0.257 20. Complete destructive interference
Given should occur because the first pulse is
Qh  2.06  105 J inverted when it reflects from the
Qc  1.53  105 J fixed boundary. The pulses then meet
Solution with equal but opposite amplitudes.
21. superposition
Qc
eff  1   22. The period will increase because the
Qh
restoring force is a component of the
1.53  105 J gravitational force acting on the pendu-
eff  1    1  0.743 
2.06  105 J lum bob (the bob’s weight). Because
the restoring force is less, but the mass
0.257
remains the same, the acceleration of
the pendulum bob is less.
23. 500 N/m
Given
Felastic  50 N
x  0.10 m