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Application Manual

Totally Integrated Power TM Application Manual


Connecting the worlds
of building construction and power distribution
with integrated solutions for commercial and industrial buildings

www.siemens.com/tip

totally integrated
The information provided in this brochure contains merely general descriptions or charac-
teristics of performance which in actual case of use do not always apply as described or
which may change as a result of further development of the products. An obligation to
provide the respective characteristics shall only exist if expressly agreed in the terms of
contract.

Siemens AG
power
Automation and Drives Power Transmission and Distribution Siemens Schweiz AG Nominal charge: 30.00 euro
Gleiwitzer Straße 555 Paul-Gossen-Straße 100 Building Technologies Group Order no.: E20001-A70-M104-X-7600
D-90475 Nuremberg D-91052 Erlangen International Headquarters
Gubelstrasse 22
CH-6301 Zug 2nd Edition
Conversion Factors and Tables

Volume Volume flow rate Pressure

Non-metric Non-metric Non-metric


SI unit unit SI unit SI unit
unit unit
1 in3 16.387 cm3 1 gallon/s 3.785 l/s 1 in HG 0.034 bar
1 ft3 28.317 dm3 = 0.028 m3 1 gallon/min 0.227 m3/h = 227 l/h 1 psi 0.069 bar
1 yd3 0.765 m3 1 ft3/s 101.941 m3/h 1 lbf/ft2 4.788 x 10-4 bar =
1 fl oz 29.574 cm3 1 ft3/min 1.699 m3/h 4.882 x 10-4 kgf/cm2
1 quart 0.946 dm3 = 0.946 l 1 lbf/in2 0.069 bar = 0.070 kgf/cm2
Non-metric
SI unit
1 pint 0.473 dm3 = 0.473 l unit 1 tonf/ft2 1.072 bar = 1.093 kgf/cm2
1 gallon 3.785 dm3 = 3.785 l 1 l/s 0.264 gallons/s 1 tonf/in2 154.443 bar =
1 barrel 158,987 dm3 = 1.589 m3 1 l/h 0.0044 gallons/min 157.488 kgf/cm2
= 159 l 1 m3/h 4.405 gallons/min =
Non-metric
0.589 ft3/min = 0.0098 ft3/s SI unit unit
Non-metric
SI unit unit 1 bar 29.53 in Hg =
= 105 pa 14.504 psi =
1 cm3 0.061 in3 = 0.034 fl oz
= 102 kpa 2088.54 lbf/ft2 =
1 dm3 61.024 in3 = Force
14.504 lbf/in2 =
=1l 0.035 ft3 = 1.057 quarts = 0.932 tonf/ft2 =
Non-metric
2.114 pint = 0.264 gallons unit SI unit 6.457 x 10-3 tonf/in2
1 m3 0.629 barrels (= 1.02 kgf/cm2)
1 lbf 4.448 N
1 kgf 9.807 N
1 tonf 9.964 kN

SI unit Non-metric Energy, work, heat content


unit
Velocity
1N 0.225 lbf = 0.102 kgf
Non-metric
unit SI unit
Non-metric 1 kN 0.100 tonf
unit SI unit
1 hp h 0.746 kWh = 2.684 x 106 J
1 ft/s 0.305 m/s = 1,098 km/h = 2.737 x 105 kgf m
1 mile/h 0.447 m/s = 1,609 km/h 1 ft lbf 0.138 kgf m
Torque, moment of force
Non-metric 1 Btu 1.055 kJ = 1055.06 J
SI unit
unit Non-metric (= 0.252 kcal)
unit SI unit
1 m/s 3.281 ft/s = 2.237 miles/h Non-metric
1 lbf in 0.113 Nm = 0.012 kgf m SI unit
1 km/h 0.911 ft/s = 0.621 miles/h unit
1 lbf ft 1.356 Nm = 0.138 kgf m
1 kWh 1.341 hp h = 2.655 kgf m
Non-metric = 3.6 x 105 J
SI unit unit
1J 3.725 x 10-7 hp h =
1 Nm 8.851 lbf in = 0.738 lbf ft
0.738 ft lbf =
Mass, weight (= 0.102 kgf m)
9.478 x 10-4 Btu
(= 2.388 x 10-4 kcal)
Non-metric SI unit 1 kgf m 3.653 x 10-6 hp h =
unit
7.233 ft lbf
1 oz 28.35 g Moment of inertia J
1 lb 0.454 kg = 453.6 g GD2
Numerical value equation: J= = Wr 2
1 sh ton 0.907 t = 907.2 kg 4
Non-metric
SI unit Non-metric unit SI unit
unit
1 lbf ft2 0.04214 kg m2 Btu = British thermal unit
1g 0.035 oz Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour
1 kg 2.205 lb = 35.27 oz SI unit Non-metric
unit lbf = pound force
1t 1.102 sh ton = 2,205 lb tonf = ton force
1 kg m2 23.73 lb ft2
Conversion Factors and Tables

Conductor cross sections Temperature Linear measure


in the Metric and US System

Metric cross American Wire Gauge °F °C Non-metric


sections acc. (AWG) unit SI system
to IEC
1 mil 0.0254 mm
Conductor Equivalent AWG or MCM 320° 160° 1 in 2.54 cm = 25.4 mm
cross metric CSA
section 1 ft 30.48 cm = 0.305 m
305°
150° 1 yd 0.914 m
[mm2] [mm2] 290° 1 mile 1.609 km = 1,609 m
140°
275° Non-metric
SI system unit
130°
0.653 19 AWG 260°
0.75
0.832 18 1 mm 39.37 mil
245° 120°
1.040 17 1 cm 0.394 in
1.310 16 1m 3.281 ft = 39.370 in
230° 110°
1.50 = 1.094 yd
1.650 15
2.080 14 212° 100° 1 km 0.621 mile = 1,094 yd
2.50 2.620 13 200°
12 90°
3.310
4.00 185°
4.170 11 80°
5.260 10 170° Square measure
6.00
6.630 9 70°
155°
8.370 8
10.00 10.550 7 140° 60° Non-metric SI unit
unit
13.300 6
125°
16.00 5 50° 1 in2 6.452 cm2 = 654.16 mm2
16.770
21.150 4 110° 1 ft2 0.093 m2 = 929 cm2
40°
25.00
26.670 3 1 yd2 0.836 m2
95°
33.630 2 1 acre 4046.9 m2
35.00 30°
42.410 80° 1 mile2 2.59 km2
1
50.00 53.480 1/0 20° Non-metric
65° SI unit
67.430 2/0 unit
70.00
50° 10°
95.00 85.030 3/0 1 mm2 0.00155 in2
107.200 4/0 1 cm2 0.155 in2
120.00 250 MCM 32° 0°
126.640 1 m2 10.76 ft2 = 1,550 in2
150.00 152.000 300 20° = 1.196 yd2
185.00 –10°
202.710 400 1 km2 0.366 miles2

240.00 253.350 500
–20°
300.00 304.000 600 –10°
354.710 700
400.00 800 –30° Btu = British thermal unit
405.350 –25°
500.00 506.710 1000 Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour
625.00 –40° –40° lbf = pound force
tonf = ton force
Conversion Factors and Tables

Electrical power Examples of decimal multiples and


fractions of metric units
Non-metric SI unit
unit
1 hp 0.746 kW = 745.70 W = 1 km = 1,000 m;
76.040 kgf m/s 1 m = 100 cm = 1,000 mm
(= 1.014 PS) 1 km2 = 1,000,000 m2;
1 ft lbf/s 1.356 W (= 0.138 kgf in/s) 1 m2 = 10,000 cm2;
1 kcal/h 1.163 W 1 cm2 = 100 mm2

1 Btu/h 0.293 W 1 m3 = 1,000,000 cm3;


1 cm3 = 1,000 mm3
SI unit Non-metric
unit 1 t = 1,000 kg; 1 kg = 1,000 g
1 kW 1.341 hp = 1 kW = 1,000 W
101.972 kgf m/s
(= 1.36 PS)
1W 0.738 ft lbf/s = 0.86 kcal/h =
3.412 Btu
(= 0.102 kgf m/s)

Specific steam consumption

Non-metric SI unit
unit
1 lb/hp h 0.608 kg/kWh

SI unit Non-metric
unit
1 kg/kWh 1.644 lb/hp h

Temperature

Non-metric SI unit
unit
°F °C 5 (ϑ – 32) = ϑ
9 F C
°F K 5 ϑ + 255.37 = T
9 F

SI unit Non-metric
unit
°C °F 5 ϑ + 32 = ϑ
9 C F
K °F 5 ϑT – 459.67 = ϑ
9 F
Note:
Quantity Symbol Unit
Temperature in ϑ F* °F
Fahrenheit
Temperature in degrees ϑC* °C Btu = British thermal unit
Celsius (centigrade) Btu/h = British thermal unit/hour
Thermodynamic T K lbf = pound force
temperature (Kelvin) tonf = ton force
* The letter t may be used instead of ϑ
Contents
1 Introduction 1/2 6 Low Voltage 6/2

2 Power Distribution Planning for 6.1 Low-Voltage Switchgear and Distribution Systems 6/3
Commercial and Industrial Buildings 2/2 6.1.1 SIVACON 8PS – Busbar Trunking Systems 6/6
6.1.2 SIVACON Low-Voltage Switchgear 6/11
2.1. Basics for Drafting Electrical Power Distribution Systems 2/2
6.1.3 SIKUS Universal and SIKUS Universal HC
2.1.1 Requirements to Electrical Power Systems in Buildings 2/3
for the Switchgear Manufacturer 6/19
2.1.2 Network Configuration 2/4
6.1.4 Floor-Mounted ALPHA 630 Universal and
2.1.3 Power Supply Systems 2/6
ALPHA 630 DIN Distribution Boards 6/22
2.1.4 Routing/Wiring 2/8
6.1.5 Wall-Mounted ALPHA 400/160, ALPHA Universal and
2.1.5 Switching and Protective Devices 2/8
ALPHA 400 Stratum Distribution Boards 6/24
2.1.6 Planning Aid 2/11
6.1.6 ALPHA-ZS Meter and Distribution Cabinets for Germany 6/27
2.2 Power System Planning Modules 2/12 6.1.7 SIMBOX Small Distribution Boards 6/29
6.1.8 SMS Rapid Mounting System 6/31
3 System Protection / Safety Coordination 3/2
6.1.9 8HP Insulated Distribution System 6/34
3.1. Definitions 3/2
6.2 Protective Switching Devices and Fuse Systems 6/36
3.1.1 Protective Equipment and Features 3/3
6.2.1 Circuit-Breakers 6/38
3.1.2 Low-Voltage Protection Equipment Assemblies 3/4
6.2.2 Fuse Systems 6/41
3.1.3 Selectivity Criteria 3/4
6.2.3 Fuse Switch-Disconnectors 6/49
3.1.4 Preparation of Current-Time Diagrams
6.2.4 Miniature Circuit-Breakers 6/54
(Grading Diagrams) 3/6
6.2.5 Residual-Current-Operated Circuit-Breakers 6/61
3.2 Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems 3/9 6.2.6 Lightning Current and Surge Arresters 6/71
3.2.1 Circuit-Breakers with Protective Functions 3/9 6.2.7 3LD2 Main Control and EMERGENCY STOP Switches 6/88
3.2.2 Switchgear Assemblies 3/16
6.3 Modular Devices 6/89
3.2.3 Selecting Protective Equipment 3/20
3.2.4 Miniature Circuit-Breakers (MCB) 3/27 6.4 Maximum-Demand Monitors 6/102

3.3 Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems 3/33 6.5 Switches, Outlets and Electronic Products 6/104
3.3.1 Selectivity in Radial Systems 3/40
6.6 SIMOCODE pro – Motor Management System 6/110
3.3.2 Selectivity in Meshed Systems 3/49
7 Communications in Power Distribution 7/2
3.4 Protection of Capacitors 3/51
8 Protection and Substation Control 8/2
3.5 Protection of Distribution Transformers 3/52
3.5.1 Protection with Overreaching Selectivity 3/52 8.1 Power System Protection 8/11
3.5.2 Equipment for Protecting Distribution Transformers 3/58 8.2 Relay Design and Operation 8/16
8.3 Relay Selection Guide 8/25
4 Medium Voltage 4/2
8.4 Typical Protection Schemes 8/29
4.1 Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear
9 Power Management 9/2
for Primary Power Distribution 4/3
4.1.1 Withdrawable Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, Air-Insulated 4/4 10 Measuring and Recording Power Quality 10/2
4.1.2 Fixed-Mounted Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, SF6-Insulated 4/26
10.1 Overview 10/2
4.2 Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear 10.2 SIMEAS Q 10/3
and Substations 4/44 10.3 SIMEAS R 10/8

4.3 Medium-Voltage Equipment, Product Range 4/72 11 Meters and Measuring Instruments 11/2

4.4 PQM® – Power Quality Management and 11.1 SIMEAS P Power Meter 11/2
Load Flow Control 4/84 11.2 SIMEAS T Transducers for High-Current Power Quantities 11/14
11.3 Meters / Measuring Instruments as Modular Devices 11/20
4.5 Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power
11.4 4NC3 and 4NC5 Current Transformers 11/28
Distribution Exemplified by the Automotive Industry 4/87
12 SIMARIS design – the Program for
5 Transformers 5/2
Dimensioning Electrical Power Distribution 12/2

13 Appendix 13/2
TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:35 Uhr Seite 1

totally integrated

power
TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:35 Uhr Seite 2

1 We focus your energy…


… and everything components such as medium-voltage
gets so easy switchgear, transformers, low-volt-
age switchgear and low-voltage dis-
Totally Integrated Power is more than
tribution boards to the power con-
mere planning of the power distribu-
sumer. Costs, whether for new sys-
tion in buildings or industrial plants.
tems or extensions, are always
Totally Integrated Power encom-
transparent and controllable.
passes the philosophy to render you
support with our advice, with a serv- The majority of the electrical power
ice that is focused on you. A new consumers belongs to the facilities
project is under way: planning for a for supply management, in particular
complete power distribution system those for heating, ventilation and air
– for a hospital, an office or industrial conditioning systems, drinking water
building. You know what this means: supply and lighting. The latter is to
the system has to be designed not be seen in a functional relation to
just to meet the needs of today but integrated room automation, includ-
the future as well. Thus, cost calcula- ing sun protection, daylight control
tions and construction timetables are technologies and motion detection
kept under control, and expensive re- (i.e. presence of persons in a build-
work is avoided. This is where we of- ing). Air conditioning technology is
fer you our support. in a functional relation to smoke
detection and fire alarm systems.
But this is not enough: the require-
Safe power supply must be
ments of building contractors go far
ensured for all operating
beyond this. They demand cross-sys-
modes.
tem thinking and integral concepts
right from the project start. The goal
is an optimization of building services
realized by customer-focused overall
solutions. To respond to this de-
mand, Siemens has developed a
portfolio which features total func-
tionality. The optimized interplay of
all functions creates benefits for
everyone involved in the project: the
building contractors, the users and
building operators, the consulting en-
gineers and, last but not least, the
installation company.
Totally Integrated Power, a concept
which offers electrical consultants
and installation companies integrated
and coordinated power distribution,
from medium voltage to low voltage
with load feeder right down to the fi-
nal outlet – the best foundation for
quick and easy planning. Integrated
project planning combines individual

1/2 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:35 Uhr Seite 3

Totally Integrated Power makes Take advantage of our focused


everything so easy for distribution know-how
board manufacturers and electricians:
When all the components fit together
C Designing TTA systems, for exam- smoothly, safe and secure power dis-
ple, is no problem: the components tribution is guaranteed. And your sys-
are completely compatible tem will be economical. Now you can
make use of a system that offers you
C Minimum integration expense
a complete range of products with in-
when installing: the distribution
tegrated solutions from hardware
board manufacturers and electri-
with bus interfaces to easy-to-use
cians simply use the data from the
software.
planning tools
Your partner also offers you profes-
C Saving time and money all around
sional expertise and tailored solutions Safety
by a simplification of the workflow technology Information
for monitoring, automation, service technology

C They make use of the evolution of optimization and operational man-


technical and system know-how by agement of the entire building instal-
Siemens and benefit from it – and lations – of course utilizing planning Building Totally Automa-
they will have a partner for the tools for efficient project manage- control
systems
Integrated
Power
tion tech-
nology
future ment.
C Optimum cross-functional system Totally Integrated Power takes into
tuning, coordination of all require- consideration the demands of the lib- Heating,
ventilation
ments and support from Siemens eralized energy markets as well as air conditio- ………
ning
as the leading technology manufac- simple and secure configuration, thus
turer in the field of automation and creating the foundation for economi-
alarm technologies cal operation. These developments
call for a new way of thinking when Progressive, holistic operation and
planning. Low energy import costs building management is implemented
are now more than ever a focus of at- with systems by Siemens. These
tention. The basis for this is knowl- systems communicate with each
edge of the load profiles, the key other on the basis of globally stan-
loads and consumption-based dardized communication protocols,
billing. Here, the indi- such as BACnet, KNX/EIB, ASi and
vidual solutions and PROFIBUS. System integrations are
systems from Totally proficiently carried out using interna-
Integrated Power and tionally accepted open methods like
Total Building Solu- OPC, LonMark, Modbus and M-Bus.
tions bring trans- Functions such as consumption
parency, and thus op- recording, cost center allocations or
timization possibilities load management can thus be per-
within reach. Totally formed, which renders a comprehen-
Integrated Power inte- sive power management system.
grates systems and
components together
with a functional soft-
ware package for op-
erator control and
monitoring.

1/3 1
TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:37 Uhr Seite 4

Advantage: operators can optimize A building automation and control DESIGO RX integrated room automa-
their installations in terms of mainte- system comprises: tion comprises application-specific de-
nance expense, power consumption vices and functions for zone or
C Field devices (sensors, signal
and availability. Of course, you ex- single-room control. This includes an in-
sources, switches and actuating
pect the optimum solution for every tegrated monitoring, control and opti-
devices such as butterfly and control
investment you make, and it is only mization of room-related building
valves, or sensors and actuators)
natural that system costs are increas- equipment which is interconnected
ingly being determined by operating C Local priority control units through their communication functions.
costs. But what people are often not
C Cabling, data networks and commu- DESIGO PX ensures that the opera-
aware of is the fact that data net-
nication units tion of the building, i.e. of its techni-
works and the data they generate
cal installations, is performed in a
can be used to achieve the optimiza- C Control panels, variable speed drives
safe, ecological and economically op-
tion of electrical power distribution (SED 2) and automation stations (PX),
timized manner which is also a low-
processes. Electrical power supply is or room controllers (RX)
expense mode of operation. The
the fundamental basis of all
C Management and server stations, in- building automation and control sys-
processes and control procedures,
teractive operator terminals and tem reliably implements control
and most of the things we take for
computer terminals strategies regarding HVAC. It has
granted today would not function
been optimized for the performance
without electrical energy. This is why C Software for functions, communica- of operating time optimization, maxi-
it is important to make use of infor- tions, data management and opera- mum-load limiting and the calculation
mation networking in the field of tion (rights of use, licenses) of enthalpy and heating curves. It in-
electrical power distribution. Siemens
C Services and tools for the installation forms the operator about trends and
can implement this because we are
of a BACS system (engineering) present and previous operating states.
completely at home in this field. To-
tally Integrated Power offers electri- C Web services and system mainte- The building automation and control
cal power distribution for all functions nance system provides the data required for
in a building: heating, ventilation, air operating cost controlling and the
conditioning, production and manu- documentation of an ecological audit
facturing processes, and information system. It is possible to demonstrate
technology with clearly defined com- no-fault operation. Technical equipment
munication interfaces. This ensures data and statistics which are relevant
reliable power supply, safe working for maintenance are made available
conditions, appropriate sizing, trans- through the building automation and
parent system status and consump- control system. It can also be em-
tion-based cost structures. ployed as a tool for management
tasks such as analysis, adjustment
and continuous optimization of the
1.1 Total Building modes of operation.

Solutions
DESIGO
building automation
Building automation includes all facili-
ties, software and services for auto-
matic control, monitoring and load opti-
mization as well as operation and man-
agement aimed at energy-efficient,
economical and safe operation of all
technical building installations.
Fig. 1/1 Systems of the technical building equipment

1/4 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:37 Uhr Seite 5

Introduction

1.2 Life Safety and Differences from the user's


point of view
Operators of life safety and security
management systems need simple,
Security Management guided operator interfaces with re-
Control and optimization stricted choices of action to be able
While building automation mainly to respond fast, safely and efficiently
deals with the data of HVAC and One aspect is the control and opti- even in a panic situation.
electrical subsystems, which create mization of the performance of tech-
the basis for process optimization, nical building installations to supply Support from Siemens
the information rendered by protec- both the technical conditions for
tive and security installations is often which buildings have been designed Total Building Solutions by Siemens fo-
vitally important. Life safety and se- and to ensure their users' productiv- cus on the performance of the tasks
curity management means the limita- ity by providing appropriate ambient detailed above and the surplus value
tion and containment of a multitude conditions. to be gained by the customer.
of risks and encompasses taking rig-
Operator tasks are only carried out The type of building control defines
orous action against the most diverse
under high time pressure and psy- both the complexity of the building au-
hazardous events that might occur.
chological stress in the event of a tomation and control system and its
This guarantees the protection of hu-
fault, as they normally deal with long- life safety and security management,
man life and property and the mainte-
term trends and system performance and the structure of the organizations
nance of operations within a building.
analyses. Such management func- involved in its operation.
The main task of life safety and secu-
rity management is the easy and safe tions do not require any permanent Total Building Solutions enables prod-
handling of critical alarms and events. support in commercial and industrial uct and service offers to be adapted to
The purpose is to fight hazards im- buildings. real customer needs, thus optimizing
mediately and with the most suitable Those who operate these functions benefits for the user.
means to prevent greater damage. need adaptive graphic displays that Detailed descriptions of the available
Life safety and security management facilitate the user's intuitive orienta- building solutions can be obtained at:
is typically associated with the spe- tion and enable actions to be per-
formed which are typical for monitor- www.sbt.siemens.de
cific tasks of security systems. It
must, however, be extended to any ing a complex system. A good opera-
potential hazard that may be inherent tor interface provides a broad range
in any other technical installation. Ex- of options with functions for generat-
amples are for instance the tempera- ing status reports and user-specific
ture and humidity limits in museums, statistics and data views.
critical faults in the power distribution
system of a hospital, elevator alarms, Signaling and alarms
etc. The other – often crucial – aspect
deals with sudden system malfunc-
tions. Normally, those events do not
represent any hazard to the building
or its users. In some cases, however,
human life, infrastructure elements or
manufacturing processes might be
put at risk. The treatment of those
cases is the objective of life safety
and security management. It means
the limitation and control of various
hazards in the building and a rigorous
treatment of different potential emer-
gency cases in a building.

1/5 1
TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:38 Uhr Seite 6

SIMARIS Planning Software


SIMARIS into consideration the respective
standards and rules of the country
With the SIMARIS range of software
where they are to be used. The lan-
products, Siemens offers integrated
guage can also be freely selected –
tools for fast and effective planning
both for working with the program
and calculation of power distribution
and for planning results.
systems for commercial and indus-
trial buildings. The tools are de-
signed for international use, taking

SIMARIS design and needn’t spend hours looking up


product data in catalogs. Per down-
Thanks to its Windows look and feel,
load from our homepage, you can
SIMARIS design is easy to operate and
easily keep up to date the product
can be used without any extra soft-
data contained in the SIMARIS
ware training. From its contents, this
design database. Every configuration
software offers a scope of functional-
of an electric power distribution is
ity that facilitates sizing considerably.
subject to many changes and adapta-
In the planning stage, for example,
tions both in the planning and imple-
you can dimension the entire supply
mentation stage. SIMARIS design in-
circuit with SIMARIS design on the
tegrates each modification into the
basis of real products. In the imple-
supply concept and automatically rately be documented in SIMARIS
mentation stage, this helps to avoid
checks it for compliance with the design, exactly following the specifi-
extra costs arising from badly coordi-
relevant standards and regulations. cations you have defined.
nated systems. Suitable components
Selectivity, for example for installa-
and distribution systems are se-
tions in the safety power supply sys-
lected automatically. You can focus
tem, data can also be easily verified
on what’s important in planning your
with SIMARIS design. All of these
electrical power distribution system
steps will automatically and accu-

SIMARIS SIVACON SIMARIS design can also be used


directly by this program. In addition,
The SIMARIS SIVACON® software
the forwarding of order data to the
tool supports the sales and manu-
Siemens Mall on the Internet, for ex-
facturing process for the SIVACON
ample, is completely trouble-free.
8PT low-voltage switchboard sys-
tem which was specially designed
for franchise switchgear manufactur-
ers. The project-planning data from

1/6 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap_01_Engl 11.08.2005 18:38 Uhr Seite 7

Introduction

Power Management
Energy distribution at a glance loads. An invaluable opportunity to
keep on top of the condition of your
The actual status of the power
power distribution system – and, if U
I
distribution system can be displayed cos o
required, to control it from a remote P
W
online. This enables you to easily
location.
keep a check on all important param-
eters: every breaker position, every
power requirement, every upper and
lower limit as well as possible over-

Perfect records by other programs. Selected status Status


signals can also be transmitted di-
All changes in power distribution are
rectly by SMS via mobile phone, al- central ON

recorded by the system. Regardless OFF

lowing faults to be rectified by the local ON


OFF

of whether they were remotely con-


technical staff as quickly as possi- tripped

trolled or were performed locally, all


ble.
events are precisely recorded, to-
Event logs
gether with their date and time. The Time Status signal

event log created is archived in a 22:59:03


23:16:24
local OFF local incoming circuit breaker off
local ON local incoming circuit breaker off
01:12:45 Power > 20 A
database and can then be evaluated 03:35:02 Power < 1600 A

Optimum energy flow egy involving Load curves Load management Prognoses
continuous pur-
The utilization of a power distribu-
chasing con-
tion system can be determined by
tracts or the buy-
the measurement of the energy
ing of power on
flows. This analysis is the basis for
the energy mar-
the optimization of power consump-
kets. To ensure
tion or the system structure. Future demand values become too high,
optimum utilization of current con-
power requirements can also be cal- can automatically add extra capacity
tinuous purchasing contracts, power
culated by studying the load curves: that is not directly required for oper-
management monitors the con-
the ideal prerequisite for any strat- ation.
sumption values and, if maximum

Maintenance planning Extensive information such as


Frame: Installation
personnel requirements and
The information required for mainte- Distribution
necessary spare parts is also given. Maintenance measure
nance is gathered from the system.
The user of the system is always
All evaluations that can be derived
informed of the maintenance meas- Hall 1 check HVAC
from operating cycles, runtimes or Distribution 3 change ACB contacts
ures currently being carried out or
scheduled times are contained Feeder II change meter
which are due to be carried out,
within the module. Maintenance
and can therefore plan both staff
measures, current status and
and material requirements well in
maintenance due dates are shown.
advance.

1/7 1
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:40 Uhr Seite B

2 Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings
2.1 Basics for Drafting Electrical
Power Distribution Systems
2.2 Power System Planning Modules
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite C

Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings

chapter 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 2

2 Power Distribution Planning for


Commercial and Industrial Buildings
2.1 Basics for Drafting
Electrical Power Framework parameter
analysis:
Distribution Systems Power system concept:
– Analysis Building
Totally Integrated Power comprises – Selection of the network Rooms, type of use
products, systems and services from configuration Operation
– Type of connection to ground
Siemens for a homogenous imple- – Technical features
mentation concept for power distri-
bution from a medium-voltage swit-
chgear station to the transformer and Network calculation: Lists of consumers
from there to the floor distribution – Load flow Temperatures
– Short-circuit calculation ...
board or final circuit. – Energy balance
With Totally Integrated Power,
Siemens responds to customer
requirements, such as Rating: Priorities and
– Transformers prognoses for
C Simplification of operational mana- – Cables the electrical
gement by transparent, simple po- – Protective/switching devices power system etc.
– Provisions for redundant supply
wer system structures
C Low power loss costs, e.g. by me-
dium-voltage-side power transmis- Fig. 2/1 Power system planning tasks
sion to the load centers
C High supply and operational safety C Good quality of the power supply, Siemens supports your power sy-
of the installations even in the i.e. few voltage changes due to stem planning with service offers
event of individual equipment failu- load fluctuations with sufficient vol- and tools such as SIMARIS design.
res (redundant supply, selectivity of tage symmetry and few harmonic
The following design aids can be
the power system protection, and distortions in the voltage
obtained from Siemens:
high availability)
C Compliance with IEC/EN/VDE spe- C Application manual
C Easy adaptation to changing load cifications and project-related stipu- C SINCAL
and operational conditions lations for special installations C SIGRADE
C Specific product catalogs
C Low operating cost thanks to The efficiency of a power supply
equipment that is easy to maintain system rises and falls with good
planning.
C Sufficient transmission capacity of
the equipment under normal opera- For this reason, power supply con-
ting conditions as well as in fault cepts must always be evaluated in
conditions to be handled the context of their framework para-
meters and project goals. When focu-
sing on power supply in the field of
building infrastructure, the spectrum
of reasonable options can be narro-
wed down.

2/2 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2.1.1 Requirements on Investment Installation Operation


Electrical Power Systems
in Buildings Implementation cost minimum maximum irrelevant
Implementation time minimum minimum irrelevant
When planning electrical power sy-
stems, the largely ambivalent require- Technology/equipment low-cost easy installation flexible operation
ments of the three project stages, Space requirements for equipment minimum maximum irrelevant
Investment – Installation – Operation,
must be taken into consideration. Period of use maximum irrelevant maximum
Fire load irrelevant irrelevant minimum
Further influencing factors
Operating cost irrelevant irrelevant minimum
The main characteristics of a power (e.g. insurance rates)
system are determined by the follo-
Table 2/1 Project stages
wing requirements:
C Use/consumers or purpose of po- Type of use Features Requirements Action
wer distribution, i.e. energy ba-
lance, power density and load cen- Residential Many small Low nominal currents at Back-up protection
consumer devices comparatively high line
ters
short-circuit power
C Architecture, e.g. low building or
high-rise building Users are Protection against direct Residual current-
C Operating and environmental condi- no electrical and indirect contact operated circuit-
engineering breakers are
tions
experts mandatory!
C Legal provisions, stipulations by pu-
blic authorities, e.g. building autho- Offices Many Voltage stability and
rities, safety at work regulations PC workstations reliable power supply
C By the supplying public utilities High proportion of Counter action in the Inductor-type
company capacitive loads event of harmonics compensation
– Technical specifications regarding General escape Safety power supply Generator supply
voltage, short-circuit power, routes
agreed maximum connected load,
DP server Communications Good electromagnetic TN-S system to
permissible equipment
rooms equipment compatibility (EMC) minimize stray fault
– Use of power management to (network) currents
operate the power system econo-
mically within the agreed electric Medical Life-saving High reliability of supply Redundancy, selective
machines grading, powerful safety
rates options.
power supply (SPS)
Intensive care, Good electromagnetic TN-S system to minimize
EKG compatibility (EMC) stray fault currents
Local limitation of fault IT system
currents
Industrial Mainly motor High power quantities Busbar trunking
loads required per area systems
Minimize High reliability of supply Redundant supply,
downtimes meshed electrical
networks
Different Selective grading
processes

Table 2/2 Examples for different types of building use and their impact on electric power
systems/equipment

2/3 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 4

IEC 2.1.2 Network Configuration


Regional America Europe Australia Asia Africa
As detailed above, the supply task
PAS CENELEC
determines the configuration of a po-
wer system. Buildings featuring diffe-
National USA: ANSI DE: DIN VDE AUS: SA CN: SAC SA: SABS rent power densities can therefore be
CA: SCC I: CEI NZ: SNZ J: JISC distinguished according to the type
BR: COBEI F: UTE … of their configuration.
... GB: BS
An optimum configuration should par-
ANSI American National Standards DIN VDE German Industrial Standard, ticularly meet the following require-
Institute Association of German Electrical ments:
BS British Standards Engineers C Simple structure
CENELEC European Committee for Electro- IEC International Electrical Engineering C High reliability of supply
technical Standardization Commission
C Low losses
(Comité Européen de Normalisation JISC Japanese Industrial Standards
Electrotechnique) Committee C Favorable and flexible expansion
CEI COMITATO ELETTROTECNICO PAS Pacific Area Standards options
ITALIANO Italian Electrical SABS South African Bureau of Standards The following characteristics shall
Engineering Committee be selected accordingly:
SA Standards Australia
COBEI Comitê Brasileiro de Eletricidade, C Type of meshing
Eletrônica, SCC Standards Council of Canada
Iluminação e Telecomunicações SNZ Standards New Zealand C Number of feeder points
SAC Standardisation Administration of UTE UNION TECHNIQUE DE L’ELECTRI- C Type of feed
China CITE ET DE LA COMMUNICATION
Technical Association of Electrical Meshing
Engineering & Communications
Low-voltage-side power distribution
shall preferably be designed in a ra-
Table 2/3 Interdependencies of national, regional and international standards for electrical en-
gineering dial topology.
The clearly hierarchical structuring
Standards now been agreed upon that drafts offers the following advantages:
shall be submitted at the central (IEC) C Easy monitoring of the power
To minimize technical risks and/or to
level and then be adopted as regional system
protect persons involved in handling
or national standards. Only provided C Fast fault location
electric equipment or components,
that IEC is not interested in dealing C Simple power system protection
major planning rules have been com-
with the matter or, if there are any C Easy operation
piled in standards.
time constraints, a standard shall be
Technical standards are desired con- drafted regionally.
ditions stipulated by professional as-
The interrelation of the different
sociations which are however made
standardization levels is illustrated
binding by legal standards such as
in Fig. 2/2.
safety at work regulations. Further-
more, the compliance to technical A complete list of IEC members and
standards is crucial for any approval links to more detailed information can
of operation granted by authorities or be obtained at www.iec.ch q struc-
insurance coverage. ture & management q iec members.
While in the past, standards were
mainly drafted at a national level and
debated in regional (i.e. European,
American etc.) committees, it has Fig. 2/2 Unmeshed power system (radial)

2/4 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 5

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Simple radial network Radial network with changeover reserve

a) Partial load reserve b) Full load reserve


- transformers not fully utilized
- Use transformers with forced-air cooling

T1 T1 T2 T1 T2 T3

LV- LV- n.c. LV- n.o. LV- n.c. LV- n.c. LV- n.c.
MD GPS MD1 SPS MD2 MD1 MD2 MD3

n.c. n.o. n.o.

K1 K1 K2
2 2 3

Complete power failure Continued operation of selected Continued operation of all consumers
consumers

SN,T1 ≥ Ptotal / cosϕ (n-1) 8 SN,i ≥ PSV / cosϕ (n-1) 8 ai 8 SN,i ≥ Ptotal / cosϕ;
a: Utilization factor

Fig. 2/3 Radial topology variants

As the operation of a meshed system combination with high-current busbar Number of feeder points
places high demands on the equip- trunking systems, as these systems
The availability of the radial power
ment, the radial system is generally have the advantage of safe and fle-
system can be optimized by means
preferred at the infrastructure level xible supply for the consumers. They
of its infeed configuration.
for economical reasons. Ring-type are also used for public supply sy-
systems are mainly used in highly stems at the > 1 kV level. Fig. 2/3 shows an optimization of the
consumptive industrial processes in radial network assuming one fault in
the infeed.

2/5 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 6

Type of infeed
Type Example
Electrical energy can be fed into the
General power Supply of all installations and consumer devices
power system in different ways, de-
supply (GPS) available in the building
termined by its primary function.
Safety power Supply of life-protecting facilities in cases
For general power supply (GPS) by
supply (SPS) of danger
C Direct connection to the public grid:
C Safety lighting
normally up to 300 kW at 400 V
C Elevators for firefighters
C Supply from the medium-voltage
C Fire-extinguishing equipment
system (up to 52 kV) via distribu-
tion transformers up to 2 MVA Uninterruptible power Supply of sensitive consumer devices which must be ope-
supply (UPS) rated without interruption in the event of a GPS failure:
For redundant power supply (RPS),
C Emergency lighting
power sources are selected in depen-
C Servers/computers
dency of the permissible interruption
C Communications equipment
time.
C Generators for safety power supply Fig. 2/4 Supply types
C Second independent system infeed
with automatic changeover for
safety-supply consumers
C Static uninterruptible power supply
(USP) from a rectifier/inverter unit T-1 T-2 T-3
or storage battery G UPS
C Rotating USP consisting of motor
and generator set
A constellation as described in Fig. 2/4
has proven itself for the building
infrastructure level. GPS
system RPS system
2.1.3 Power Supply Systems
Electric systems are distinguished GPS consumer SPS consumer UPS consumer
as follows:
C Type of current used: DC;
AC ~ 50 Hz Fig. 2/4 Type of infeed
C Type and number of live
conductors within the system:
The type of connection to ground From experience, the best cost-bene-
L1, L2, L3, N, PE
must be selected carefully for the fit ratio for electric systems within
C Type of connection to ground:
MV or LV system, as it has a major the general power supply is achieved
low-voltage systems: IT, TT, TN
impact on the expense required for with
medium-voltage systems: isolated,
protective measures. It also determi- C Low-resistance neutral for
low-resistance, compensated
nes electromagnetic compatibility re- medium-voltage applications
garding the low-voltage system. C TN-S systems for low voltage

2/6 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 7

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Section A Section B

3*
3*
Transformer

Generator

1* 2* 1* 2*

L1 L1
L2 L2
L3 1* L3
PEN (isolated) PEN (isolated)
PE PE
Central grounding
4* point dividing 4*
bridge

L1 L2 L3 N PE L1 L2 L3 N PE
Branches Branches
Circuit A Main equipotential Circuit B
bonding

1* The PEN conductor must be wired isolated 3* There must be no connection between the and 4-pole switching devices may be used.
along the entire route, this also applies for its transformer neutral to ground or to the PE If N conductors with reduced cross sections
wiring in the low-voltage main distribution conductor in the transformer chamber. are used (we do not recommend this), a pro-
(LVMD) tective device with an integrated overload
4* All branch circuits must be designed as TN-S
protection should be used at the N conductor
2* The PE conductor connection between systems, i.e. in case of a distributed N con-
(example: LSIN).
LVMD and transformer chamber must be ductor function with a separately wired N
configured for the max. short-circuit current conductor and PE conductor. Both 3-pole
that might occur (K2S2 ≥ Ik2tk).

Fig. 2/5 EMC-friendly power system, centrally installed (short distances)

The advantage of a TN-S system lies When TN-S systems are used, resi- As according to IEC 60364-5-54, a
in the fact that the short-circuit cur- dual currents in the building can be TN-S system is only permissible in
rent generated in the event of a fault avoided because current flows back a central arrangement of the feed
is not fed back to the voltage source via a separate N conductor. Magnetic system, we recommend to always use
via a connection to ground but via a fields depend on the geometrical ar- the TN-C-S system as shown in Fig. 2/5.
conductor. The comparatively high rangement of the connections.
In case of distributed infeed, 4-pole
1-pole ground fault current enables
switching/protective devices must be
rather simple protective devices to
provided at the infeeds and changeover
be used, such as fuses or circuit-brea-
equipment (parallel operation inhibited).
kers tripping in the event of a fault.

2/7 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 8

t a (s)
Ir
IrN
1000 Ik min

tr
Ik max
100

2.1.4 Routing/Wiring
Nowadays the customer can choose 10 Ig
between cables and busbars for power Isd
distribution. Some features of these
different options are listed below: 0

C Cable laying
+ Lower material costs
+ When a fault occurs along the 0,1 tg Ii
tsd
line, only one distribution board
including its downstream
subsystem will be affected
0,01
– High installation expense
– Increased fire load
C Busbar distribution
+ Rapid installation 0,5 1 5 10 50 100
+ Flexible in case of changes x In
or expansions
Instantaneous
+ Low space requirements L Overload release
2
„L“ I
short-circuit release „I“
Standard I t
+ Reduced fire load Standard On
Optionally I 4t
– Rigid coupling to the building Short-time delayed Optionally Off
geometry S short-circuit release „S“ Neutral conductor protection
Standard tsd
N
Standard 0.5-1 x Ir
These aspects must be weighted in Optionally I 2t Optionally Off
relation to the building use and Ground fault release
G
specific area loads when configuring Standard t g
a specific distribution. Optionally I 2t

Connection layout comprises the


following specifications for wiring Fig. 2/6 Characteristic curve variants
between output and target
distribution board 2.1.5 Switching and Types of protective equipment
C Overload protection Protective Devices
Ib ≤ Ir ≤ Iz and Iz > I2/1.45 Protective equipment can be divided
C Short-circuit protection S2K2 >= I2t As soon as the initial plans are draf- into two categories, which can how-
C Protection against electrical shock ted, it is useful to determine which ever be combined.
in the event of indirect contact technology shall be used to protect the C Fuse technology
C Permissible voltage drop electric equipment. The technology + Good current-limiting properties
that has been selected affects the + High switching capacity up
behavior and properties of the power to 120 kA
system and hence also influences + Low investment cost
certain aspects of use, such as + Easy installation
C Safety of supply + Safe tripping, no auxiliary
C Mounting expense power required
C Maintenance and downtimes + Easy grading between fuses

2/8 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Protective tripping
Above all when fuseless technology
P = I 2* R Q1
is employed, the selection of the trip-
ping unit is crucial for meeting the
This energy (area below the defined objectives for protection.
curve) is also transported in
the contacts and hence in
the switch In power systems for buildings, se-
lective tripping is gaining more and
I Q2 Trip Q3
more importance, as this results in a
higher supply safety and quality.
Current flow when While standards such as DIN VDE
zero-current 0100 Part 710 or DIN VDE 0108 de-
interrupters are used
mand a selective behavior of the pro- Fig. 2/8 Selective tripping
Current flow when tective equipment for safety power
current-limiting circuit-
breakers are used supply or certain areas of indoor in-
stallations, the proportion of buildings
4 ms 10 ms t where selective tripping is also desi-
red for the general power supply is ri- Trip Q1
Fig. 2/7 Current limiting
sing.

– Downtime after fault Generally speaking, a combined solu-


– Reduces selective tripping in tion using selective and partially sel-
connection with circuit-breakers ective network sections will be ap-
plied in power systems for buildings Q2 Trip Q3
– Fuse ageing
– Separate protection of personnel when economic aspects are conside-
required for switching high red.
currents In this context, the following device
Fig. 2/9 Back-up conditioned fault tripping
C Fuseless technology properties must be taken into
+ Clear tripping times for overload account:
Back-up protection:
and short circuit Current limiting: The provision is that Q1 is a current-
+ Safe switching of operating and A protective device has a current-li- limiting device. If the fault current is
fault currents miting effect if it shows a lower let- higher than the rated breaking capa-
+ Fast resumption of normal through current in the event of a fault city of the downstream device in the
operation after fault trip than the prospective short-circuit cur- event of a line shorting, it will be
+ Various tripping methods rent at the fault location. protected by the upstream protective
adapted to the protective task
Selectivity: device. Q2 can be selected with
+ Communications-capable:
When series-connected protective Icu Ikmax, Q2. This results in partial
signaling of system states
devices cooperate for graded trip- selectivity.
– Coordination of the protection
concept requires a calculation ping, the protective device which is
of short circuits closest upstream of the fault location
– Higher investment costs must trip first. The other upstream
devices remain in operation. The
temporal and spatial effects of a fault
will be limited to a minimum.

2/9 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 10

Supply section
800 kVA ACB
≥ 1,250 A
LSI
Supports the
priority of
selective fault
tripping
Supply section MCCB Fuse
400 kVA ≤ 630 A ≤ 400 A
LSI

Supply section
30 kVA Fuse Fuse
63 A 80 A

Supports
MCB MCB the priority
≤ 16 A ≤ 25 A of cost
minimization

Fig. 2/10 Grading for a supply section of 800 kVA

Grading in the supply section


Smax in kVA < SN in kVA n ukr Ikmax in kA
Starting from the smallest supply unit
1260 630 2 6% 30
in a building, e.g. a household or a
1600 800 2 6% 40
shop, different protective devices are
1890 630 3 6% 45
preferably suited to meet the require-
2400 800 3 6% 60
ments of power supply and protec-
2520 630 4 6% 65
tion.
3000 1000 3 6% 75
TIP: If an 800 kVA supply section is 3200 800 4 6% 80
fed by a transformer and if selective
Table 2/5 Proven transformer constellations for buildings
tripping is a major requirement, a cir-
cuit-breaker with definite-time over-
current-time protection must also Power requirements are voltage stability and safe shutdown
be selected for the medium-voltage established by in the event of a fault. Consequently,
system. transformers shall only be selected
Smax = Pmax /cosϕB,
for outputs up to 400 kVA, in order
For more detailed information in par- With Pmax = Σ(Pi 8 ai) 8 g to increase the short-circuit current.
ticular regarding the tripping charac- cosϕB Power factor, purchased
teristics, please refer to For building power supplies, econo-
quantity
C Chapter 3 Power System Protec- mical transformer outputs are bet-
a Utilization factor
tion and Safety Coordination ween 630 and 1,000 kVA. Table 2/5
g Simultaneity factor
C Chapter 4 Medium Voltage shows useful constellations for trans-
(demand)
C Chapter 6 Low Voltage formers connected in parallel per
in the Application Manual. When the dimensioning rule Icu ≥ Ik“ supply section. Higher outputs must
is applied, a minimization of the therefore be divided into several (>2)
Power requirements purchased power results in a mini- separate supply sections to gain ma-
The power requirements of the entire mization of the short-circuit strength nageable power system data and
distribution largely determine the lay- for the operating equipment. This hence economical solutions.
out of the main distribution as well as means cost savings in investment
the transformer and/or generator ra- and operation.
ting. This equipment then determines Transformer:
the amount of investment involved. 100 %
Ik, max ≈ Σ u IrTransformer, i
kr, i
Please note that the lower limit for
the short-circuit current is at ~15 kA ,
in order to ensure both a sufficient

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Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2.1.6 Planning Aid


Different individual decisions made regarding the power supply of buildings can be combined as follows:

Functional areas:
Commercial
building? Offices
Meeting rooms
Computing center
yes Catering kitchen and
canteen
Heating–Ventilation–
Radial system Air Conditioning
with partial load Fire protection
reserve Logistics

TN-C-S system,
LVMD with
central
grounding point

no
Tip: i < 5?
Given ground area = a2
Length l ≤ 100 m = 2 8 a;
max. no. of floors
i ≤ 100 - 2a/h High-rise
Low building
building

no no
A ≤ 2000 m2 ? i ≤ 10?

Separation into several


supply sections per area, no
Tip: i.e. number of floor i ≤ 20?
distribution boards ≥ 2
Smax = P/cosϕ
Smax < 630 kVA; ukr 4% yes
Smax ≥ 630 kVA; ukr 6% no
Smax yes
≤ 2 MVA?

Central utilities Centralized MV Distributed MV


room, supply- supply, distributed supply to
transformer- transformers to transformers to
LVMD LVMD LVMD

Interlocked
changeover with
4-pole devices

Low building, Low building, High-rise building, High-rise building, High-rise building, High-rise building, High-rise building,
type 1 type 2 type 1: centralized, type 2: centralized, type 3: transformers type 4: distributed, type 5: distributed,
cables busbar at remote location cables busbar

yes yes
yes

Tip:
Use busbar trunking systems
if requirements are mainly set no
for ease of use, such as good Cables? Busbars?
expandability, fire load
minimization

Fig. 2/11 Overview of power supply concept modules

2/11 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 12

2.2 Power System


Planning Modules
The following modules may be used
for an easy and systematic power
distribution design for typical building
structures. Elevators
These are schematic solution con- HVAC
cepts which can then be extended to FF elevators
meet specific customer project requi-
rements. When the preplanning HVAC-SPS
stage has been completed, the po-

UPS4.2
GPS4.2

GPS4.2
wer system can easily be configured
and calculated with the aid of the
4th floor
SIMARIS design software.

UPS3.2
GPS3.2

SPS3.2
Up-to-date, detailed descriptions on a
variety of applications can be obtained
3rd floor
on the Internet at www.siemens.com/tip

UPS2.2
GPS2.2

Low building, type 1: SPS2.2


One supply section 2nd floor

UPS1.2
SPS1.2
GPS1.2

1st floor

LVMD

GPS SPS
1 2 G UPS
3~
MVD
z
Basement
From PCO

GPS General power supply


FD Floor distribution boards
PCO Power company or system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning
MVD Medium-voltage distribution
LVMD Low-voltage main distribution
SPS Safety power supply
UPS Uninterruptible power supply

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TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 13

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type Low building

Number of floors 4

Ground area / total area 2,500 m2 / 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power 85% utilized area, 15% side area


required

Power required 1,000 to 2,000 kW

Supply types 100% total power from the public grid


10 – 30% of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 – 20% of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility, high safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding

Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit


Network Central transformer supply Supply at the load center, Low costs,
configuration close to load center short LV cables time savings during
Smax = 1,200 kVA, low losses installation
cosϕ = 0.85
Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault
localization

Transformer module with 2 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability Optimized voltage quality,
ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 30 kA lighter design economical

Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply


– Generator 400 kVA (30 %) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, during power failure of the public grid
the greater the short-circuit
Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
current must be compared to
DIN VDE 0108
the nominal current)
Supply of sensitive and important Uninterruptible supply of
consumers consumers, e.g. during power
– UPS: 200 kVA (15 %)
failure of the public grid

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Small switchgear station Minimized space requirements for
supply station independent of climate electric utilities room;
no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Low fire load, Economical


reduced losses indoor installation

Low-voltage SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection from
main distribution grounding point q splitting of PEN electromagnetic interference
in PWE and N to the TN-S system (e.g. to prevent lower transmission
rates at communication lines)

Wiring/ Cables Central measurements of current, Cost transparency


main route voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
cost center allocation

2/13 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 14

Low building, type 2:


Two supply sections

Elevators

HVAC
FF-elevators

HVAC-SPS
UPS4.1

UPS4.2
GPS4.2
SPS4.1
GPS4.1

SPS4.2
4th floor
UPS3.1

UPS3.2
GPS3.1

GPS3.2
SPS3.1

SPS3.2
3rd floor
UPS2.1

UPS2.2
GPS2.1

GPS2.2
SPS2.1

SPS2.2
2nd floor
UPS1.1

UPS1.2
SPS1.1
GPS1.1

SPS1.2
1st floor GPS1.2

LVMD

GPS SPS
1 2 G UPS
3~
MVD
z
Basement
From PCO

GPS General power supply


FD Floor distribution boards
PCO Power company or system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation – Air conditioning
MVD Medium-voltage distribution
LVMD Low-voltage main distribution
SPS Safety power supply
UPS Uninterruptible power supply

2/14 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 15

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type Low building

Number of floors 4

Ground area / total area 2,500 m2 / 2 x 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power 85 % utilized area


required 15 % side area

Power required > 2,000 kW

Supply types 100 % total power from the public grid


10 – 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 – 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility

Proposal for concept finding

Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit


Network Two supply sections per floor Supply at the load center, Low costs, no extra utilities
configuration short LV cables room necessary, time savings
Smax = 2,400 kVA low losses during installation
cosϕB = 0.85
Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault
localization

Transformer module with 3 x 800 kVA, Minimization of voltage fluctuations; Optimized voltage quality,
ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 60 kA low static requirements on building cost minimization in the
structures building construction work

Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply


– Generator 730 kVA (30%) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, during power failure of the public grid
the greater the short-circuit
Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
current must be compared to
DIN VDE 0108
the nominal current)
Supply of sensitive and important Uninterruptible power supply,
consumers e.g. during power failure of the
– UPS: 400 kVA (15 %)
public grid

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Small switchgear station Minimized space requirements


supply station independent of climate for distribution board room;
no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Low fire load, Economical


reduced losses indoor installation

Low-voltage main SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection from
distribution grounding point q splitting of electromagnetic interference
PEN in PE and N to the (e.g. to prevent lower
TN-S system transmission rates at
communication lines)

Wiring/ Cables Central measurements of current, Cost transparency


main route voltage, power, e.g. for billing, cost
center allocation

Two outgoing distribution board Shorter cable routes, lower Economical


feeders per floor voltage drop

2/15 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 16

High-rise building, type 1:


Central power supply

Elevators FF elevators

HVAC HVAC-SPS

nth floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

5th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

4th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

3rd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

GPS General power


supply 2nd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
FD Floor distribution
boards
PCO Power company or 1st floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation
– Air conditioning LVMD
MVD Medium-voltage
distribution
GPS SPS
LVMD Low-voltage main 1 2 G UPS
distribution 3~
MVD
SPS Safety power supply z
UPS Uninterruptible Basement
power supply
From PCO

2/16 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 17

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type High-rise building

Number of floors ≤ 10

Ground area / total area 1,000 m2 / ≤ 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power 80 % utilized area


required 20 % side area

Power required ≤ 1,800 kW

Supply types 100 % total power from the public grid


10 – 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 – 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding

Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit


Network Central transformer supply Simple network configuration, Only one electric utilities room
configuration close to load center low power losses required, easy and low-cost
operation of electric system
Smax = 1,000 kVA
Transformer module with 2x 630 kVA, Voltage stability, Optimized voltage quality,
cosϕ = 0.85
Ukr = 6%, i.e. Ik ≤ 30 kA lighter design economical
Floors: 8
Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply
– Generator 400 kVA (30 %) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, the during power failure of the public grid
greater the short-circuit cur-
Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
rent must be compared to the
DIN VDE 0108
nominal current)
Supply of sensitive or important Uninterruptible power supply
– UPS: 200 kVA (15 %) consumers during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Compact design, Minimized space requirements for


supply station independent of climate utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Compact design, Economical


reduced losses independent of climate

Low-voltage main SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection of telecommunications
distribution grounding point q splitting of equipment from interference (e.g.
PEN in PE and N to the to prevent lower transmission rates
TN-S system at communication lines)

Wiring/ Cables Central measurements of current, Cost center allocation at


main route voltage, power, e.g. for billing, minimum expense
central recording

Cost savings

2/17 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 18

High-rise building, type 3:


Transformers at remote location

Elevators FF elevators

HVAC HVAC-SPS
3 4

nth floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

5th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

4th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

3rd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

GPS General power


supply 2nd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
FD Floor distribution
boards
PCO Power company 1st floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
or system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation
– Air conditioning LVMD
MVD Medium-voltage
distribution
GPS SPS
LVMD Low-voltage main 1 2 G UPS
distribution 3~
MVD
SPS Safety power supply z
UPS Uninterruptible Basement
power supply
From PCO

2/18 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 19

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type High-rise building

Number of floors 10 to 20

Ground area / total area 1,000 m2 / ≤ 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power 80 % utilized area


required 20 % side area

Power required ≥ 1,500 kW; for 2 MW or higher, a relocation of the transformers should be considered even
if the number of floors is less than 10

Supply types 100 % total power from the public grid


10 – 30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5 – 20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding

Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit


Network Splitting into two supply Short LV cables, low power losses, Economical, eased fire
configuration sections reduction of fire load protection
Smax = 1,800 kVA
2 transformer modules with Voltage stability, Optimized voltage quality,
cosϕ = 0.85
(2 + 1) x 630 kVA, lighter design economical
Floors: 20
Ukr = 6% i.e. Ik ≤ 45 kA

Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply


– Generator 800 kVA (30 %) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, the during power failure of the public grid
greater the short-circuit cur-
Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
rent must be compared to the
DIN VDE 0108
nominal current)
Supply of sensitive or important Uninterruptible power supply
– UPS: 400 kVA (15 %) consumers during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Small switchgear station, Minimized space requirements for
supply station independent of climate utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Low fire load, Economical


reduced losses indoor installation

Low-voltage main SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection of telecommunications
distribution grounding point q splitting of PEN equipment from interference
in PE and N to the TN-S system (e.g. lower transmission rates
(4-pole switches in the feeding for communication lines)
lines and at the changeover point)

Wiring/ Cables Central measurements of current, Central data processing


main route voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
centrally per floor in LVMD

2/19 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 20

High-rise building, type 4:


Distributed supply

Elevators FF elevators
G
4 5 6 3~ UPS
HVAC HVAC-SPS

nth floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

5th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

4th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

3rd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

GPS General power


supply 2nd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
FD Floor distribution
boards
PCO Power company 1st floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
or system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation
– Air conditioning LVMD
MVD Medium-voltage
distribution
GPS SPS
LVMD Low-voltage main 1 2 3 G UPS
distribution 3~
MVD
SPS Safety power supply z
UPS Uninterruptible Basement
power supply
From PCO

2/20 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 21

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type High-rise building

Number of floors > 20

Ground area / total area 1,000 m2 / > 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power 80 % utilized area


required 20 % side area

Power required ≥ 2,000 kW

Supply types 100 % total power from the public grid


10–30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5–20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding

Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit


Network Splitting into two supply Short LV cables, Economical solution,
configuration sections low power losses, simplified fire protection
Smax = 3,600 kVA reduction of fire load
cosϕ = 0.85
2 transformer modules with 3 x 630 kVA, Voltage stability, Optimized voltage quality,
Floors: 25
Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 45 kA lighter design economical

Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply


– Generator 2 x 500 kVA (30 %) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, the during power failure of the public grid
greater the short-circuit current
Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
must be compared to the nomi-
DIN VDE 0108
nal current)
Supply of sensitive or important Uninterruptible power supply
– UPS: 2 x 250 kVA (15 %)
consumers during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Small switchgear station, Minimized space requirements;


supply station independent of climate no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Low fire load, indoor installation Economical
reduced losses without any special precautions

Low-voltage main SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection of telecommunications
distribution grounding point q splitting of PEN equipment from interference
in PE and N to the TN-S system (e.g. lower transmission rates
(4-pole switches to connect to for communication lines)
the low-voltage main distribution)

Wiring/ Cables Central measurements of current, Cost transparency


main route voltage, power, e.g. for billing,
cost center allocation

Cost savings

2/21 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 22

High-rise building, type 2:


Central busbars

Elevators FF elevators

HVAC HVAC-SPS

nth floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

5th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

4th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

3rd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

GPS General power


supply 2nd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
FD Floor distribution
boards
PCO Power company or 1st floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation
– Air conditioning LVMD
MVD Medium-voltage
distribution
GPS SPS
LVMD Low-voltage main 1 2 G UPS
distribution 3~
MVD
SPS Safety power supply z
UPS Uninterruptible Basement
power supply
From PCO

2/22 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 23

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type High-rise building

Number of floors ≤ 10

Ground area / total area 1,000 m2 / ≤ 10,000 m2

Segmentation of power 80 % utilized area


required 20 % side area

Power required ≤ 1,800 kW

Supply types 100 % total power from the public grid


10–30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5–20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding

Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit


Network Central transformer supply Simple network configuration, low Only one electric utilities room
configuration close to load center power losses required, easy and low-cost
Smax = 1,500 kVA operation of electric system
cosϕ = 0.85
Transformer modules with 2 x 800 kVA, Optimized voltage quality Operation that is gentle on the user's
Floors: 8
Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 40 kA equipment, economical equipment

Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply


– Generator 400 kVA (30 %) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, the during power failure of the public grid
greater the short-circuit cur- Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
rent must be compared to the DIN VDE 0108
nominal current)
Supply of sensitive or important Uninterruptible power supply
– UPS: 200 kVA (15 %) consumers during power failure of the
public grid

Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Small switchgear station, Minimized space requirements for
supply station independent of climate utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Low fire load, indoor installation Economical
reduced losses without any special precautions

Low-voltage main SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection of telecommunications
distribution grounding point q splitting of PEN equipment from interference
in PE and N to the TN-S system (e.g. lower transmission rates
for communication lines)

Wiring/ Busbars to the subdistribution Low fire load, flexible power Safety, time savings at
main route boards distribution restructuring

Few branches in the distribution, Minimized space requirements for


small distribution for electric utilities room

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for


supply lines

2/23 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 24

High-rise building, type 5:


Distributed busbars

Elevators FF elevators
G
4 5 6 3~ UPS
HVAC HVAC-SPS

nth floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-1)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-2)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-3)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

(n-4)th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS


System discon- System discon- System discon-
necting point necting point necting point

5th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

4th floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

3rd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS

GPS General power


supply 2nd floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
FD Floor distribution
boards
PCO Power company or 1st floor FD-GPS FD-SPS FD-UPS
system operator
FF Firefighters
HVAC Heating – Ventilation
– Air conditioning
MVD Medium-voltage
distribution
GPS SPS
LVMD Low-voltage main 1 2 3 G
3~ UPS
distribution
LVMD MVD
SPS Safety power supply z
UPS Uninterruptible Basement
power supply
From PCO

2/24 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 25

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

Building type High-rise building

Number of floors > 20

Ground area / total area 1,000 m2 / ≥ 20,000 m2

Segmentation of power 80 % utilized area


required 20 % side area

Power required > 2,000 kW

Supply types 100 % total power from the public grid


10–30 % of total power for safety power supply (SPS)
5–20 % of total power for uninterruptible power supply (UPS)

Power system protection Selectivity is aimed at

Special requirements Good electromagnetic compatibility


High safety of supply and operation

Proposal for concept finding


Feature Our solution Advantage Your benefit
Network Splitting into two supply Short LV cables, Lower cost
configuration sections low power losses,
Smax = 4,000 kVA reduction of fire load
cosϕ = 0.85
2 transformer modules with 3 x 800 kVA, Voltage stability Optimized voltage quality,
Floors: 21
Ukr = 6 %, i.e. Ik ≤ 60 kA lighter design economical

Redundant supply unit: Supply of important consumers on Increased safety of supply


– Generator 2 x 630 kVA (30 %) all floors in the event of a fault, e.g.
(the smaller the generator, the during power failure of the public grid
greater the short-circuit current
Safety power supply Safety power supply acc. to
must be compared to the nomi-
DIN VDE 0108
nal current)
Supply of sensitive or important Uninterruptible power supply
consumers during power failure of the
– UPS: 2 x 300 kVA (15 %)
public grid

Radial network Transparent structure Easy operation and fault


localization

Medium-voltage SF6 gas-insulated Small switchgear station, Minimized space requirements for
supply station independent of climate utilities room; no maintenance

Transformer GEAFOL cast-resin with Low fire load, Economical


reduced losses indoor installation

Low-voltage main SIVACON 8PT with central EMC-friendly power system Protection of telecommunications
distribution grounding point q splitting of PEN equipment from interference
in PE and N to the TN-S system (e.g. lower transmission rates
(4-pole switches in the feeding for communication lines)
lines and at the changeover point)

Wiring/ Busbars to the subdistribution Low fire load, flexible power Safety, time savings when
main route boards distribution restructuring work is carried out

Few branches in the distribution, Minimized space requirements for


small distribution for electric utilities room

Small, minimized rising main busbar Less space requirements for


supply lines

2/25 2
TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 26

Appendix
Short-circuit currents Calculated acc. to DIN VDE 0102 EN 60909, dated 07-01-2002
Rated power HV voltage LV voltage Rated current Ir Impedance Reduced power Max. secondary-side
oltage Ukr losses Pk short-circuit current
[kVA] [kV] [V] [A] [%] [kVA] [kA]

400 10 400 577 4 4.3 16


630 10 400 909 4 6.4 25
800 10 400 1,155 4 7.8 31
1,000 10 400 1,443 4 8.9 39

400 10 400 577 6 4.3 10


630 10 400 909 6 6.4 17
800 10 400 1,155 6 7.6 21
1,000 10 400 1,443 6 8.5 26
1,250 10 400 1,804 6 10.5 33
1,600 10 400 2,309 6 11.4 42

400 20 400 577 4 3.9 16


630 20 400 909 4 6.0 25
800 20 400 1,155 4 7.5 31
1,000 20 400 1,443 4 8.7 39

400 20 400 577 6 4.1 10


630 20 400 909 6 6.4 17
800 20 400 1,155 6 7.9 21
1,000 20 400 1,443 6 9.6 26
1,250 20 400 1,804 6 10.5 33
1,600 20 400 2,309 6 12.3 42

2/26 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kapitel_02_Engl 11.08.2005 18:41 Uhr Seite 27

Planning Modules for Building Supply Concepts

2/27 2
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite B

3 System Protection and Safety Coordination


3.1 Definitions
3.2 Protective Equipment for Low-Voltage Systems
3.3 Selectivity in Low-Voltage Systems
3.4 Protection of Capacitors
3.5 Protection of Distribution Transformers
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite C

System Protection / Safety Coordination

chapter 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite 2

3 System Protection and Safety Coordination


System configuration quirements for medium voltage are advance with the network planners,
dealt with in Chapter 4 “Medium installation companies and system
While in building and industrial power
Voltage” and in Chapter 8 ”Substa- operators involved. The system inter-
systems star-type system configura-
tion Control and Protection Sys- connection together with the 5 rules
tions are normally used for medium
tems”. of circuit dimensioning must also be
voltage, radial system configurations
taken into account. Some terms and
are normally preferred for the low-
definitions shall be described in this
voltage side (radial systems, double
spur systems). A number of
3.1 Definitions chapter for a better understanding of
the issue. If you wish to obtain more
switchgear stations and distribution Electrical installations in a power sys-
detailed information regarding further
boards are required for distributing tem are protected either by protec-
applications, please contact your
power from the infeed to the load. tive equipment allocated to the instal-
Siemens representative.
The protective equipment of these lation components or by combina-
devices is connected in series. tions of these protective elements. Full selectivity
To maintain the supply safety of
Rated short-circuit breaking
Objectives of system protection power distribution systems, full se-
capacity
lectivity is increasingly demanded. A
The objective of system protection is The rated short-circuit breaking ca-
power system is considered fully se-
to detect faults and to selectively iso- pacity is the maximum value of the
lective, if only the protective device
late faulted parts of the system. It short circuit that the protective de-
upstream of the fault location discon-
must also permit short clearance vice is able to clear according to
nects from supply, as seen in the di-
times to limit the fault power and the specifications. The protective device
rection of energy flow (from the in-
effect of arcing faults. may be used in power systems for
feed to the load).
rated switching capacities up to this
High power density, high individual Note:
value.
power outputs, and the relatively Full selectivity always refers to a
short distances in industrial and build- Back-up protection dead, three-phase, i.e. maximum,
ing power systems mean that low- If a short circuit, which is higher than fault current at the mounting location.
voltage and medium-voltage systems the rated switching capacity of the
Partial selectivity
are closely linked. Activities in the LV protective device used, occurs at a
In certain situations, partial selectivity
system (short circuits, starting cur- particular point in the system, back-up
(up to a particular short-circuit cur-
rents) also have an effect on the MV protection must provide protection
rent) is sufficient. The probability of
system. If the situation is reversed, for the downstream installation com-
faults occurring and the effects of
the control state of the MV system ponent and for the protection device
these on the load must then be con-
affects the selectivity criteria in the by means of an upstream protective
sidered for unfavorable scenarios.
secondary power system. device (grading).
Selectivity
Mutual system interference
Selectivity, in particular, has become
It is therefore necessary to adjust the a topic for discussion in the previous
power system and its protection years. Partly, it has become a general
throughout the entire distribution requirement in tender specifications.
system and to coordinate the protec- Due to the complexity of this issue,
tive functions. information about proper selection
and application is often insufficient.
This chapter basically comprises the
These requirements as well as the
installation of electrical equipment in
effects of full or partial selectivity in
LV systems. Therefore, also when
power distribution systems within
dealing with network protection, the
the context of the relevant standard,
emphasis lies on the low-voltage 1) For descriptions and modes of operation of
industry, country, system configura- low-voltage protection devices, controlgear
side. Specific network protection re- and switchgear, please also refer to the
tion or structure should be clarified in
Siemens handbook ”Switching, Protection
and Distribution in Low-Voltage Networks”,
published by Publicis MCD, Erlangen.

3/2 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite 3

System Protection / Safety Coordination

Inverse time-delay
t t Inverse

Definite
time-delay
I 2 . t = constant Instan-
Definite taneous
release
Instan-
taneous
LV circuit-breaker HV HRC fuse
LV HRC fuse with releases MV circuit-breaker with
time-overcurrent protection

I I
Variable characteristic Variable operating zones
curves and setting ranges and setting ranges

Fig. 3/1 Protective characteristic of LV HRC fuse and Fig. 3/2 Protective characteristic of HV HRC fuse and
LV circuit-breaker with releases MV time-overcurrent protection

3.1.1 Protective Equipment the appropriate release. Releases can is generally used to ensure a higher
and Features be divided into thermo-magnetic re- degree of selectivity (inverse time;
leases (previously also called electro- similar to the inverse-time
Low-voltage protective devices1) mechanical releases) and electronic delay function in medium voltage)
tripping units (ETU). C Ground fault protection
Low-voltage high-rupturing- C Overload protection Designation: ”G” (previously also
capacity fuses Designation: “L” or earlier “a” called ”g” release). Besides the
Low-voltage high-rupturing-capacity (“L” for long-time delay). Depend- standard function (definite-time),
(LV HRC) fuses have a high breaking ing on the type of release, inverse there is also an optional function
capacity. They fuse quickly to restrict time-delay overload releases are (I 2 t = inverse-time delay).
the peak short-circuit current to the ut- also available with optional C Fault current protection
most degree. The protective character- characteristic curves. Designation: RCD (= residual cur-
istic is determined by the selected uti- C Short-circuit protection, instanta- rent device). To detect differential
lization category of the LV HRC fuse neous fault currents up to 3 A, similar to
(e. g. full-range fuse for overload and Designation: “I “ (previously also the RCCB function for the protec-
short-circuit protection, or partial range called ”n” release), e.g. solenoid re- tion of persons (up to 500 mA).
fuse for short-circuit protection only) leases. Depending on the applica- In addition, electronic releases also
and the rated current (Fig. 3/1). tion, I-releases are also offered with permit new tripping criteria which are
Low-voltage circuit-breakers, a fixed settable or OFF function. not possible with electromechanical
IEC 60947-2 C Short-circuit protection, with delay releases.
Circuit-breakers for power distribu- Designation: “S”, previously also
tion systems are distinguished ac- “z” release (“S” for short-time Protective characteristics
cording to their type design (open or delay). For a temporal adjustment
The protective characteristic curve is
compact design), mounting type of protective functions in series
determined by the rated circuit-
(fixed mounting, plug-in, withdraw- connections. Besides the standard
breaker current as well as the setting
able), rated current (maximum nomi- curves and settings, there are also
and the operating values of the re-
nal current of the switch) method of optional functions for special
leases (see Table 3/5).
operation (current limiting: MCCB; or applications.
non-current-limiting: ACB), protective Definite-time-delay overcurrent re-
Low-voltage miniature circuit-
functions (see releases), communica- leases: For this “standard S-func-
breakers (MCB)
tion capability (capability to transmit tion,” the desired delay time tsd is
data to and from the switch), utiliza- set to a definite value when a set Miniature circuit-breakers are distin-
tion category (A or B, see IEC 60947- current value (limit-value Isd) is ex- guished according to their method of
2). ceeded (definite time; similar to the operation – either high or low current
DMT function in medium voltage) limiting. Their protective functions
Releases / protective functions Inverse-time-delay overcurrent re- are determined by electromechanical
The protective function of the circuit- lease: For this optional S-function releases:
breaker in the power distribution sys- applies I 2 t = constant. This function
tem is determined by the selection of

3/3 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite 4

Releases C Circuit-breaker with downstream C Combination of time and current


miniature circuit-breaker grading (inverse time grading)
C Overload protection by means of
C Circuit-breaker with downstream
inverse time-delayed overload Power direction (directional protec-
fuse
releases, e.g. bimetallic releases tion), impedance (distance protec-
C Fuse with downstream circuit-breaker
C Short-circuit protection by means tion) and current difference (differen-
C Fuse with downstream miniature
of instantaneous overload releases, tial protection) are also used.
circuit-breaker
e.g. solenoid releases.
C Several parallel infeeds with or
Requirements for the selective be-
Medium-voltage protection without coupler units with down-
havior of protective devices
equipment stream circuit-breaker or down-
stream fuse Protective devices can only behave
High-voltage high-breaking-
selectively if both the highest and the
capacity fuses Current selectivity must be verified in
lowest short-circuit currents for the
High-voltage high-breaking-capacity the case of meshed LV systems.
relevant system points are known at
(HV HRC) fuses can only be used for
The high- and low-voltage protection the project planning stage.
short-circuit protection. They do not
for the transformers feeding power
provide any overload protection. A As a result:
to the LV system must be harmo-
minimum short-circuit current is C The highest short-circuit current
nized and adjusted to the additional
therefore required for correct opera- determines the required rated
protection of the secondary power
tion. HV HRC fuses restrict the peak short-circuit switching capacity
system. Appropriate checks must be
short-circuit current. The protective Icu/ Ics of the circuit-breaker.
carried out to determine the effects
characteristic is determined by the Criterion: Icu/ Ics > IKmax
on the primary MV system.
selected rated current (Fig. 3/2). C The lowest short-circuit current is
In MV systems, HV HRC fuses are important for setting the overcur-
Medium-voltage circuit-breakers
normally only installed upstream of rent release; the operating value of
Circuit-breakers can provide time-
the transformers in the LV infeed. this release must be less than the
overcurrent protection (definite and
With the upstream circuit-breakers, lowest short-circuit current at the
inverse), time-overcurrent protection
only time-overcurrent protection de- end of the line to be protected,
with additional directional function or
vices with different characteristics since only this setting of Id /Isd
differential protection. Distance pro-
are usually connected in series. Dif- guarantees that the instantaneous
tection is rarely used in the distribu-
ferential protection does not affect, overcurrent release can carry out
tion systems described here.
or only slightly influences the grading its personnel and system protec-
Protective characteristics of the other protective devices. tion functions.
Secondary relays, whose characteris- Note: With these settings, the ad-
tic curves are also determined by the 3.1.3 Selectivity Criteria missible tolerance limit of ± 20%
actual current transformation ratio, must be observed!
In addition to factors such as rated
are normally used as protective de- Criterion: Isd ≤ IKmin – 20 %
current and rated switching capacity,
vices in medium-voltage systems.
a further criterion to be considered C The observance of specified trip-
Static numerical protection devices
when implementing a protection de- ping conditions determines the
are increasingly preferred.
vice is selectivity. Selectivity is im- maximum conductor lengths or
portant because it ensures optimum their cross sections.
3.1.2 Low-Voltage Protection
supply reliability. The following crite- C Selective current grading is only
Equipment Assemblies
ria can be applied for selective opera- possible if the short-circuit currents
Protection equipment assemblies tion of series-connected protection are known.
With series-connected distribution devices: C In addition to current grading, par-
boards, it is possible to arrange the fol- tial selectivity can be achieved us-
C Time difference for clearance
lowing protective devices in series (rel- ing combinations of carefully
(time grading)
ative to the direction of power flow): matched protective devices.
C Current difference for operating
C Fuse with downstream fuse
values (current grading)

3/4 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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a 11.08.2005

Fig. 3/3
L
S

L
S

M
Q2

Q1
18:43 Uhr

Ik

t d2 ≈150 ms

to1 = 3 to 30 ms
depending on
Seite 5

circuit-breaker type
and magnitude of
short-circuit current
a
ta2

ta1
to1

tg1
te1
td2 ≈ tst2

tL1

Time sequence for the breaking operation of two graded


LV circuit-breakers in the event of a short circuit

C The highest short-circuit current


can be both the three-phase and
the single-phase short-circuit
current.
C With infeed into LV power sys-
tems, the single-phase fault current
will be greater than the three-
phase fault current if transformers
with the Dy connection are used.
C The single-phase short-circuit cur-
rent will be the lowest fault current
if the damping zero phase-se-
quence impedance of the LV cable
is active.
With large installations, it is advisable
to determine all short-circuit currents
using a special computer program.
Here, our SIMARIS design® planning
software comes as the optimum so-
lution (see Chapter 12).
to2
tg2

Safety
margin
te2

Grading the operating currents


with time grading
t
System Protection / Safety Coordination

tL2

Grading of the operating currents is


also taken into consideration with
time grading, i.e. the operating value
of the overcurrent release of the
upstream circuit-breaker must be at
least 1.25 times the operating value
of the downstream circuit-breaker.
Scattering of operating currents in
definite-time-delay overcurrent
releases (S) is thus compensated
(≤ ±10%).
Plotting the tripping characteristics of
the graded protective devices in a
grading diagram will help to verify
and visualize selectivity.

Time sequence for circuit-breakers


When grading the operating currents,
the time sequence of the breaking
operation of the circuit-breakers must
also be taken into consideration.
ta1
ta2
te1
te2
td2

to1
to2
tL1
tL2
tg1
tg2
Operating time of breaker Q1
Operating time of breaker Q2
Disengaging time of breaker Q1
Disengaging time of breake Q2
Delay time of breaker Q2
≈ grading time tst2
Opening time of breaker Q1
Opening time of breaker Q2
Arcing time of breaker Q1
Arcing time of breaker Q2
Total clearance time of breaker Q1
Total clearance time of breaker Q2
(tg = to+tL)

Fig. 3/3 illustrates the individual


time-related terms using two graded
LV circuit-breakers as an example.

Grading time, delay time


The grading time tsd is the interval
required between the tripping charac-
teristics of two series-connected
protection devices to ensure correct
operation of the protective device
immediately upstream of the fault.
The delay time to be set at the cir-
cuit-breaker tsd is obtained from the
sum of the grading times.

3/5 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite 6

Q1 Q2 Ik1 Ik2
120
100
40
t 20
min 10
4 L (cold)
2
1
20
s 10
3.1.4 Preparation of Current- 4
Time Diagrams (Grading Di- 2
agrams) 1
400
Manual preparation 200
100 s
t st2 ≈150 ms t d2 ≈180 ms
General notes ms i
40
When characteristic tripping curves 20 to1 < 30 ms
are entered on log-log graph paper, 10
the following must be observed: 2
C To ensure positive selectivity, the 101 2 3 4 6 102 2 3 4 6 103 2 3 4 6 104 2 3 4 6 105
Current I (r.m.s. value)
tripping curves must neither cross
nor touch.
C With electronic inverse-time delay Fig. 3/4 Grading diagram with tripping curves of the circuit-breakers Q1 and Q2 shown in Fig. 3/3
(long-time delay) overcurrent re-
leases, there is only one tripping
Grading principles Tools for preparing grading
curve, as it is not affected by pre-
Delay times and operating currents are diagrams
loading. The selected characteristic
graded in the opposite direction to the
curve must therefore be suitable C Standard forms with paired current
flow of power, starting with the final
for a motor or transformer at oper- values for commonly used volt-
circuit.
ating temperature. ages, e. g. 20/0.4 kV, 10/0.4 kV,
C Without fuses, for the load breaker
C With mechanical (thermal) inverse- 13.8/0.4 kV, etc.
with the highest current setting of
time delay overload releases (L), the C Templates for plotting the tripping
the overcurrent release.
characteristic curves shown in the curves
C With fuses, for the fused outgoing
manufacturer catalog apply for cold
circuit from the busbars with the Fig. 3/4 shows a hand-drawn grading
releases. The opening times to are
highest rated fuse-link current. diagram with tripping curves for two
reduced by up to 25% at normal op-
series-connected circuit-breakers, not
erating temperatures. Circuit-breakers are preferred to
taking into account tolerances. The
fuses in cases where fuse links with
Tolerance range of tripping curves time sequence for the breaking oper-
high rated currents do not provide se-
C The tripping curves of circuit-breakers ation illustrated in Fig. 3/3 was used
lectivity vis-à-vis the definite-time-de-
given in the manufacturer catalogs are here (time selectivity). When the
lay overcurrent release (S) of the
usually only average values and must SIMARIS design planning software is
transformer feeder circuit-breaker, or
be extended to include tolerance used, a manual preparation of grading
only with very long delay times tsd
ranges (explicitly shown in Fig. 3/4, diagrams is no longer necessary.
(400 to 500 ms). Furthermore, circuit-
3/20 and 3/24 only).
breakers are used where high system
C With overcurrent releases – instanta-
availability is required as they help to
neous (I) and definite-time delayed
clear faults faster and the circuit-
releases (S) – the tolerance may be
breakers’ releases are not subject
±20% of the current setting (accord-
to aging – especially with consumers
ing to EN 60947-2 / IEC 60947-2 /
with very long infeed distances.
VDE 0660 Part 101).
Procedure with two or more volt-
Significant tripping times
age levels
For the sake of clarity, only the delay
In the case of selectivity involving
time (td) is plotted for circuit-breakers
two or more voltage levels (Fig. 3/39 ff.),
with definite-time-delay overcurrent
all currents and tripping curves on the
releases (S), and only the opening
high-voltage side are converted and
time (to) for circuit-breakers with in-
referred to the low-voltage side on
stantaneous overcurrent releases (I).
the basis of the transformation ratio.

3/6 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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a 11.08.2005

Low-voltage time grading


Grading and delay times

a
18:43 Uhr

Only the grading time tgt and delay


time tsd are relevant for time grading
between several series-connected
circuit-breakers or in conjunction with
LV HRC fuses (Fig. 3/5).
The delay time tgt2 of breaker Q2 can
be equated approximately with the
grading time tgt2 ; the delay time tgt3
of breaker Q3 is calculated from the
sum of the grading times tgt2 + tgt3.
The resulting inaccuracies are cor-
rected by the calculated grading mar-
gins. In the interests of simplicity,
only the grading times are added.
Proven grading times tgt
Series-connected circuit-breakers:
Those so-called "proven grading times"
are guiding values or rules of thumb.
Precise information must be obtained
from the device manufacturer.
C Grading between two circuit-break-
ers with electronic overcurrent
releases (Q1 and Q2) should be

Fig. 3/5
L
S

L
S

L
I

M
Q3
td3

Q2
td2

Q1
to1
t o1
Seite 7

t d2 ≈ t gt2

Safety
margin
about 70-80 ms
System Protection / Safety Coordination

C Grading between two circuit-break-


ers with different release types
(Q2 = ETU and Q3 = TM) should
be about 100 ms
C For circuit-breakers with ZSI (zone-
selective interlocking, i.e. short-time
grading control) the grading di-
stance has been defined as 50 ms
Irrespective of the type of S-release
(mechanical or electronic), a grading
time of 70 ms to 100 ms is neces-
sary between a circuit-breaker and a
downstream LV HRC fuse.
Between an LV HRC fuse and a
downstream circuit-breaker, a grad-
ing time tgt (safety margin) of at least
1 s must be maintained from the
prearcing-time/current characteristic
of the LV HRC fuse to the point at
which the tripping curves L and I or S
intersect, in order to allow for the
scatter band of the L-release (Fig.
3/6).

t d3 ≈ (t gt2 + ttgt3)

ttgt3

Time grading for several series-connected circuit-breakers


Grading
margin

t
to1

td2
td3

L
S
I
Opening time of breaker Q1
tgt2 Grading time of breaker Q2
tgt3 Grading time of breaker Q3
Delay time of breaker Q2
Delay time of breaker Q3

Inverse-time delay, Ir
Definite-time delay, Id, td
Instantaneous, Ii

3/7 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite 8

Back-up protection
Current I
According to the Technical Supply Time setting for back-up protection
Conditions of the power supply com- Short-circuit
Time setting
for protection Grading time t gt
panies (see ”Electrical Installations current
Command time tc
Handbook”), miniature circuit-break-
ers must be fitted with back-up fuses Operating
Spread of Spread of Spread of
current
with a rated current of 100 A (max.) protection circuit-breaker protection
response time clearance time response time
to prevent any damage being caused
by short-circuit currents. Load current

The DIN VDE and IEC standards also


permit a switching device to be pro-
t
tected by one of the upstream pro- Clearance time
of circuit-breaker Release Grading
tective devices with an adequate time margin
rated short-circuit switching capacity
if both the feeder and the down- Total clearance time t g
stream protective device are also of circuit-breaker
protected (back-up protection).
Fig. 3/6 Time grading in medium-voltage switchgear
Bibliography
Literature on LV installations Medium-voltage time grading Since a spread of time intervals,
For more information about low-volt- which depends on a number of fac-
Command time and grading time
age switching and protective devices, tors, has to be expected for the pro-
The following must be observed
please refer to the Siemens publica- tective devices (including circuit-
when determining the grading time
tion “Switching, Protection and Dis- breakers), a safety margin is incorpo-
tgt on the medium-voltage side: Once
tribution in Low-Voltage Networks” rated in the grading time.
the protective device has been ener-
and the ”Electrical Installations Hand-
gized (Fig. 3/6), the set time must Whereas grading times tgt of less
book”, published by Publicis MCD
elapse before the device issues the than 400 to 300 ms are not possible
Verlag, Erlangen.
tripping command to the shunt or un- with protective devices with mechan-
dervoltage release of the circuit- ical releases, the more modern elec-
breaker (command time tc). tronic and digital releases permit
grading times of only 300 or 250 ms.
The release causes the circuit-
breaker to open. The short-circuit cur-
rent is interrupted when the arc has
been extinguished. Only then does
the protection system revert to the
normal/rest position (release time).
The grading time tgt between succes-
sive protective devices must be
greater than the sum of the total clear-
ance time tg of the breaker and the re-
lease time of the protection system.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.2 Protection Equip- 3.2.1 Circuit-Breakers with


Protective Functions
C Circuit-breakers used in motor star
ters acc. to EN 60947-4-2/
ment for Low-Voltage IEC 60947-4-2 / DIN VDE 0660-102
Power Systems Protective functions of
LV circuit-breakers
C Miniature circuit-breakers for cable
and line protection acc. to
Tables 3/1 and 3/2 provide an EN 60898/ IEC 60898 /
overview of the protection equip- Circuit-breakers are used, first and
DIN VDE 0641-11
ment for LV systems. The protection foremost, for overload and short-cir-
equipment in the MV system of out- cuit protection. In order to increase
their protective functions, they can also Zero-current interrupters /
going transformer feeders has also
be equipped with additional releases, current limiters
been listed in Table 3/2.
e.g. for clearance with undervoltage,
Depending on their method of opera-
Overcurrent protection for or with supplementary modules for
tion, circuit-breakers are available as:
lines and cables detecting fault/residual currents (also
C Zero-current interrupters or
see Chapter 6).
C Current limiters (fuse-type
Overcurrent protection devices must
The circuit-breakers are distinguished current limiting).
be used to protect lines and cables
according to their protective function: When configuring selective distribu-
against overheating which may result
C Circuit-breakers for system protec- tion boards, zero-current interrupters
from operational overloads or dead
tion acc. to EN 60947-2/ IEC 60947- are more suitable as upstream pro-
short circuits (”Electrical Installations
2/DIN VDE 0660-101 tection devices and current limiters
Handbook”, Publicis MCD Verlag,
C Circuit-breakers for motor protec as downstream protection devices.
Erlangen, Section 1.7).
tion acc. to EN 60947-2/
The protective switching devices and IEC 60947-2 / DIN VDE 0660-101
safety systems dealt with in this
chapter are further described in
Chapter 6.

Overcurrent protection devices Standard Overload Short-circuit See Section


protection protection

Fuses gL EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636 × × Section 6.2.2

Miniature circuit-breakers EN 60 898/IEC 60 898/DIN VDE 0641-11 × × Section 6.2.4

Circuit-breakers with overload EN 60 947-2/IEC 60 947-2/DIN VDE 0660-101 × × Section 6.2.1


and overcurrent releases

Switchgear EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636 – × Section 6.2.2


fuses aM

Switchgear assemblies
with back-up fuse, utilization EN 60 269/IEC 60 269/DIN VDE 0636 – ×
category gL or aM, and
contactor with overload relay EN 60 947-4-1/IEC 60 947-4-1/DIN VDE 0660-102 × –

or
starter circuit-breaker and EN 60 947-2/IEC 60 947-2/DIN VDE 0660-101 – ×
contactor with overload relay EN 60 947-4-1/IEC 60 947-4-1/DIN VDE 0660-102 × –

× Protection provided – No protection provided.

Table 3/1 Overview of line and cable overcurrent protection devices discussed in this manual together with their protection ranges

3/9 3
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Protection devices MV Switch-disconnectors, Circuit-breakers, Switch-disconnectors,


HV HRC fuses transducer, time- HV HRC fuses
overcurrent protection

LV Circuit-breakers or Tie breaker Circuit-breakers Network circuit-breakers


LV HRC fuses and network master relays

Cost Low Justifiable High Low

Medium-voltage side

Transformers with thermal I>


HV HRC I>>
release or full thermal HV HRC
protection MV MV
MV
LV LV
Low-voltage side with LV
Individual Individual
various series-connected and parallel Optional and parallel Only S
protection devices in operating operating parallel
customary ≤ 630 A customary operation
radial systems, and customary
parallel-connected LV HRC
fuses in interconnected LV
systems HRC

(interconnected
system)

≤ 50 A, ≤ 100 A

HV or LV HRC fuses Circuit-breaker

I> Definite-time-overcurrent protection, two-


I>> level I> and I>>, via current transformer Drawout circuit-breaker (with safe clearance)
Network master relay (directional power relay)
S via current transformer and system voltage

Power-factor correction controller Contactor

Switch-disconnector Overload relay

Table 3/2 Overview of protection grading schemes discussed in this manual for outgoing transformer and LV feeders

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Overload and overcurrent protection


Protective Siemens Time-delay Graphical symbol acc. to
Tables 3/3 and 3/4 provide an function symbol characteristics EN 60 617/DIN 40 713
overview of releases and relays in LV of release
circuit-breakers. Table 3/5 contains Circuit diagram Block
the operating ranges of the overcur- or diagram
rent releases. According to the stan-
Overload L Inverse-time
dards specified in Table 3/1, the oper-
protection delay
ating value at which the releases trig-
ger may deviate by ± 20% from the
set value.
Selective S1) Definite-time
Overcurrent releases I>
I>
short-circuit delay by
The instantaneous electromagnetic
protection timing element
overcurrent releases have either
or
fixed or variable settings, whereas
inverse-time
the electronic overcurrent releases
delay
used in Siemens circuit-breakers all
have variable settings. Fault current/ G1) Definite-time
residual current/ delay I
Modules
earth fault or
The overcurrent releases can be inte-
protection inverse-time
grated in the circuit-breaker or sup-
delay
plied as separate modules for retro-
fitting or replacement. Possible ex- Short-circuit I Instantaneous
I>>
I>
ceptions are indicated in the protection
manufacturer specifications.
Overload releases 1)For SENTRON 3WL and SENTRON 3VL circuit-breakers, protection also includes
Mechanical (thermal) inverse-time-de- “zone-selective interlocking” (ZSI)
lay overload releases (L-releases) are In the following, combinations of releases will be referred to by their code letters
not always suitable for networks with only (L-, S- and I-releases).
a high harmonic content. Circuit-
breakers with electronic overload re- Table 3/3 Symbols for releases according to protective functions
leases must be used in such cases.
Short-circuit protection with
Function Release Relay
S-releases
In the case of circuit-breakers with Overload Overload release Overload relay
definite (short-)time-delay overcur- protection Inverse-time delay or Thermal delay or
rent releases (S) used for time-grad- electronic delay electronic delay
ing short-circuit protection, it should Thermistor protection release devices
be noted that the circuit-breakers are
Short-circuit Overcurrent release Overcurrent relay
designed for a specific maximum per-
protection Instantaneous electromagnetic Instantaneous electromagnetic
missible thermal and dynamic load.
or electronic release
If, in the event of a short circuit, the
time delay results in this load to be Selective Overcurrent release –
exceeded, an I-release must also be short-circuit Instantaneous electromagnetic
used to ensure that the circuit- protection or electronic
breaker is opened instantaneously
with very high short-circuit currents.
Table 3/4 Circuit-breaker releases and relays with protective functions
The information supplied by the

3/11 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:43 Uhr Seite 12

Applications Time-delay Operating ranges of


(primarily for characteristic inverse-time-dealy overcurrent
short-circuit release as multiple of set
current clearance) value Ir

Circuit-breaker Instantaneous or Approx. 3 to 6 · Ir


for generator short-time delay
protection

Circuit-breaker for Instantaneous Approx. 6 to 12 · Ir


line protection
manufacturer should be consulted
when the release type is selected. Circuit-breaker for Instantaneous or Approx. 8 to 15 · Ir
motor protection short-time delay1)
Reclosing lockout after
short-circuit tripping 1) Poss. short-time delay for rush current shunting
A number of circuit-breakers can be
fitted with a mechanical and/or elec- Table 3/5 Operating ranges of the overcurrent releases (acc. to EN 60 947 / IEC 60 947/DIN VDE 0660)
trical reclosing lockout which pre-
vents reclosing to the short-circuit
MCBs with fault-current tripping C Test button ”T” for testing the
after short-circuit tripping.
These circuit-breaker assemblies are circuit-breaker assembly
The circuit-breaker can only be closed available as compact factory-built de- C Status display for the current leak-
again after the fault has been elimi- vices or may be assembled from a age / residual current I∆ in the
nated and the lockout has been reset miniature circuit-breaker as the basic downstream circuit, e. g. by means
manually. device and an add-on module. of colored LEDs:
– green: I∆ ≤ 0.,5 I∆n
Circuit-breakers with fault-current/
Fault-current/residual-current – yellow: 0,25 I∆n < v∆ ≤ 0.5 v∆n
residual-current tripping
protection – red: cA > I∆ > 0.5 I∆n
The assembly comprising a circuit-
IA = Tripping current of
The global importance of fault-current breaker and add-on module has es-
additional residual-
protection devices has grown in the tablished itself for circuit-breakers
current module
field of protection technology due to with rated currents In of up to 400 A
C Disconnection of the electronics
the high level of protection they pro- and fault-current/residual-current trip-
overvoltage protection prior to insu-
vide (protection of human life and ping.
lation measurement in the installa-
property) and their extended scope Technical features tion
of protection (alternating and pulsat- The add-on module for residual-cur- C ”Remote tripping”
ing current sensitivity). rent tripping used in system protec- C ”Auxiliary switch (AS)”
Apart from residual-current-operated tion applications includes such tech-
nical features as: Interface to bus systems
circuit-breakers, miniature circuit-
C Rated residual current I∆n, ad- With appropriate interfaces, the
breaker assemblies, e. g. miniature
justable in steps, e.g. 30 mA/ circuit-breaker assemblies can be
circuit-breakers with fault-current trip-
100 mA/300 mA/500 mA/1,000 equipped to bus systems to enable
ping, are being used to an increasing
mA/3,000 mA the exchange of information and in-
extent for commercial and industrial
C Tripping time ta, adjustable in teraction with other components in
applications.
steps, the electrical installation.
e. g. instantaneous/60 ms/ 100 AC/DC sensitive circuit-breaker
ms/250 ms/500 ms/1,000 ms assemblies
C Operation depends on system In industrial applications, circuit-
voltage breaker assemblies which are sensi-
C Sensitivity: tripping with alternating tive to AC/DC currents are required
and pulsating DC fault currents for electrical installations in which
C Reset button ”R” for resetting smooth DC fault currents or currents
after residual-current tripping with a low residual ripple occur in the
event of a fault.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Rated short-circuit Power factor Minimum value n


breaking capacity Icn cos ϕ short-circuit making capacity
n=
(r.m.s. value) kA short-circuit breaking capacity

4.5 < I ≤ 6 0.7 1.5


6 < I ≤ 10 0.5 1.7
10 < I ≤ 20 0.3 2.0
20 < I ≤ 50 0.25 2.1
50 < I 0.2 2.2

Rated operating voltage Ue


Table 3/6 Correlation n between rated short-circuit making and breaking capacity
and the respective power factor (for AC circuit-breakers)
The rated operating voltage Ue of a
circuit-breaker is the voltage value to
which the rated short-circuit making
and breaking capacities and the short-
The rated short-circuit breaking capacity is indicated using two values:
circuit performance category refer.
Switching capacity Icu Ics
Short-circuit current
Rated ultimate Rated service
The maximum short-circuit current at
short-circuit short-circuit
the installation location is a crucial
breaking capacity breaking capacity
factor for selecting the circuit-breakers
Test sequence O-t-CO O-t-CO-t-CO according to
C Short-circuit strength Icu/ Ics , as well
Test of • ultimate short-circuit • service short-circuit
as
breaking capacity breaking capacity
C Rated short-circuit making Icm and
Testing Testing
breaking capacities Icn.
• the overload tripping • the overload tripping
• the insulation resistance • the insulation resistance
Dynamic short-circuit strength
• the overheating • the overheating
The permissible dynamic short-circuit
O Opening (O = Open) strength is indicated as the peak short-
CO Opening and closing (C = Close) circuit current. It is the highest permis-
t Interval (t = time) sible instantaneous value of the
prospective short-circuit current along
Table 3/7 Switching performance categories acc. to EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660 the conducting path with the highest
and IEC 157-1 load.
Standards C Short-circuit strength Icu/ Ics and Thermal fault withstand capability
The standards EN 60947-2/ rated short-circuit making (Icm) and (1-s current)
IEC 60947-2 / DIN VDE 0660-101 breaking capacity (Icn) The permissible thermal short-circuit
apply for circuit-breakers with add- C Rated and maximum load currents strength is referred to as the rated
on fault-current or residual-current short-time current Icw . It is the maxi-
The system voltage and system
modules. mum current which the breaker is ca-
frequency are crucial factors for
selecting the circuit-breakers pable of withstanding for X s without
Selection criteria for circuit-
according to any damage occurring. Generally, the
breakers
C Rated insulation voltage Ui Icw current refers to 1 s. Other time
When selecting the appropriate cir- values can be converted assuming
and
cuit-breaker for system protection, Icn = constant.
C Rated operating voltage Ue.
special attention must be paid to the
Rated switching capacity
following characteristics:
Rated insulation voltage Ui The rated switching capacity of the
C Type of circuit-breaker and its re-
The rated insulation voltage Ui is the circuit-breakers is specified as the
leases according to the respective
standardized voltage value for which rated short-circuit making capacity and
protective function and tasks
the insulation of the circuit-breakers rated short-circuit breaking capacity.
C Rated voltages
and their associated components is
rated in accordance with HD 625 /
IEC 60664 / DIN VDE 0110, Insulation
Group C.

3/13 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 14

Circuit-breaker type Rated current Application example Tripping characteristic

Air Protection of distribution systems, motors, L


circuit-breaker (ACB) 630A to 6,300 A transformers and generators
S
SENTRON 3WL1 – High rated short-time current for time selectivity I
G
– Two series, SENTRON WL1 and SENTRON WL6
with high and medium rated switching capacity
– Electronic, microprocessor-based overcurrent
releases independent of external voltages
– Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) with total delay
time of 50 ms

Current-limiting Designed and tested in compliance with L


circuit-breaker EN 60947 / IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660
(MCCB) Possible applications: S
SENTRON 3VL I

TM release: For system protection up to 1,600 A


16 A to 630 A Optional adjustable overload and overcurrent release:
ETU release: Precise adaptation to protection requirements L
63 A to 1,600 A I

ETU release: For motor protection up to 500 A


63 A to 500 A Electronic overload release with adjustable time-lag class:
L
Effective protection when motor is under full load
I

M release: For starter combinations up to 500 A


63 A to 500 A Unsusceptible to inrush currents:
Breaker not tripped by direct-on-line motor starting I

M release: As isolating circuit-breaker (load interrupter) up to 2,000 A


100 A to 1,600 A with integrated overcurrent releases,
no back-up fuse required I

Circuit-breaker 0.16 to 100 A 3 RV1 circuit-breaker for motor protection


L
3RV1 with overload and overcurrent protection

L Overload tripping S Short-time delay overcurrent tripping I Instantaneous overcurrent tripping G Ground fault tripping

Table 3/8 Application examples for modern Siemens circuit-breakers and their typical tripping characteristics

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Rated short-circuit making Rated circuit-breaker currents Application examples and tripping
capacity Icm The rated duty, e.g. continuous curves
The rated short-circuit making capac- operation, intermittent operation or
Application examples for circuit-
ity Icm is the short-circuit current short-time operation, plays a decisive
breakers with protection
which the circuit-breaker is capable role in selecting the switchgear
The principal application examples
of making at the rated operating volt- according to its rated currents.
and typical tripping curves of modern
age +10%, rated frequency and a
The following rated currents are dis- circuit-breakers currently available
specified power factor. It is ex-
tinguished according to the thermal from Siemens are specified in
pressed as the maximum peak value
characteristics: Table 3/8.
of the prospective short-circuit cur-
rent, and is at least equal to the rated C Rated thermal current Ith
short-circuit breaking capacity Icn , C Rated continuous current Iu
multiplied by the factor n specified C Rated operating current Ie.
in Table 3/6.
Conventional rated thermal
Rated short-circuit breaking current Ith , rated continuous
capacity Icn current Iu
The rated short-circuit breaking capac-
The conventional rated thermal cur-
ity Icn is the short-circuit current which
rent Ith or Ithe for motor starters in
the circuit-breaker is capable of break-
enclosures is defined as an 8-h cur-
ing at the rated operating voltage
rent in accordance with EN 60947-1,
+10%, rated frequency and a speci-
-4-1, -3 / IEC 60947-1, -4-1, -3 /
fied power factor cos ϕ. It is ex-
DIN VDE 0660-100, -102, -107.
pressed as the r.m.s. value of the al-
ternating current component. It is the maximum current which can
be carried during this time without
Switching capacity category
the temperature limit being ex-
Switching capacity categories, which
ceeded. The rated continuous current
specify how often a circuit-breaker
Iu can be carried for an unlimited
can switch its rated making and
time.
breaking current as well as the condi-
tion of the breaker after the specified With adjustable inverse-time-delay
switching cycle, are defined for releases and relays, the maximum
circuit-breakers in EN 60947 / current setting is the rated continu-
IEC 60947/ DIN VDE 0660 and in ous current Iu.
accordance with IEC 157-1 (Table
3/7). The rated short-circuit breaking Rated operating current Ie
capacity Icn is based on the test
The rated operating current Ie is the
sequence O-t-CO-t-CO. The rated
current that is determined by the op-
service short-circuit breaking capacity
erating conditions of the switching
Ics can also be specified on the basis
device, the rated operating voltage
of the shortened switching sequence
and rated frequency, rated switching
O-t-CO (see Table 3/7 for explanation
capacity, the rated duty, utilization
of O, t, and C).
category1), contact life and the de-
gree of protection.

1) The utilization category describes the


switching devices’ application and stress,
see device standards EN 60947 /
IEC 60947 / DIN VDE 0660.

3/15 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 16

L Inverse-time-delay
Circuit- Fuse overload release
breaker
t Fuse I Instantaneous
electromagnetic
L overcurrent release
Circuit-
A breaker Icn Rated short-circuit
breaking capacity
A
Ik Prospective sus-
Ik tained short-circuit
I current at mounting
3.2.2 Switchgear Assemblies Icn Ik location
A Safety margins
Switchgear assemblies are series-
connected switching and protection
Operates I
devices which perform specific tasks L release I release Fuse
for protecting a system component; Clears Circuit-breaker Fuse
the first device (relative to the flow + circuit-breaker
of power) provides the short-circuit
protection. Fig. 3/7 Switchgear assembly comprising fuse and circuit-breaker

Switchgear assemblies with fuses


Fuse, contactor, and thermal Type a Destruction and replace-
Fuses and molded-case circuit-
inverse-time-delay overload relay ment of individual compo-
breakers
The contactor is used to switch the nents or complete switch-
If the prospective short-circuit cur-
motor on and off. The overload relay ing device
rent Ik exceeds the rated short-circuit
protects the motor, motor supply
breaking capacity Icn of the circuit- Type b Welding of contacts and
conductors and contactor against
breaker at its point of installation, the permanent change in
overloading. The fuse upstream of
latter must be provided with up- characteristic values of
the contactor and overload relay pro-
stream fuses (Fig. 3/7). overload relay
vides protection against short cir-
Protection and operating ranges cuits. For this reason, the protection Type c Welding of contacts with-
Defined protection and operating ranges and characteristics of all the out permanent change to
ranges are assigned to each device in components (Fig. 3/8) must be care- operating values of over
the switchgear assembly. The L-re- fully coordinated with each other. load relay.
lease monitors overload currents,
The switchgear assembly comprising
while the I-release detects short-cir- Protection and operating ranges of
contactor and overload relay is re-
cuit currents up to the rated short-cir- equipment
ferred to as a motor starter or, if a
cuit breaking capacity of the circuit-
three-phase motor is started directly, Grading diagram for motor starter
breaker.
a direct-on-line starter. The protection ranges and the rele-
The circuit-breaker provides protec- vant characteristics of the equipment
Specifications for contactors and
tion against all overcurrents up to its constituting a switchgear assembly
motor starters
rated short-circuit breaking capacity used as a motor starter are illustrated
The standards EN 60947-4-1 /
Icn and ensures all-pole opening and in the grading diagram in Fig. 3/8.
IEC 60947-4-1 / DIN VDE 0660-102
reclosing. The fuses are only respon-
apply for contactors and motor
sible for short-circuit clearance with
starters up to 1,000 V for direct-on-
higher short-circuit currents Ik . In this
line starting (with maximum voltage).
case too, the circuit-breaker discon-
nects all-pole almost simultaneously When short-circuit current protection
1) The standards EN 60 947-1 / IEC 60 947-4-1/
via its I-release, triggered by the let- equipment is selected for switchgear DIN VDE 0660-102 comprise modified de-
through current ID of the fuse. The assemblies, a distinction is made be- scriptions for short-circuit behavior as
fuse must, therefore, be selected follows:
tween various types of protection ac-
such that its let-through current ID is cording to the permissible degree of Coordination type ”1”:
Destruction of contactor and overload relay
less than the rated short-circuit damage as defined in EN 60947-4- / are permissible. The contactor and/or over
breaking capacity Icn of the circuit- IEC 60947-4-1 / DIN VDE 0660-1021): load relay must be replaced if necessary.
breaker. Coordination type ”2”:
The overload relay must not be damaged.
Contact welding at the contactor is, however,
permissible, given the contacts can easily be
separated or the contactor can easily be
replaced.

3/16 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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System Protection / Safety Coordination

1 Tripping characteristic
of (thermal) inverse-
time-delay overload
Assembly relay
t comprising
LV HRC fuse, 2 Destruction character-
contactor, and istic of thermal overload
thermal relay
1 overload relay
1 min (motor starter) 3 Rated breaking capacity
of contactor
2
4 Characteristic of contac-
tor for easily separable
B welding of contacts Therefore, in both cases, the fuse
A 4 (Depends on must respond in good time. The total
current limiting 5 Prearcing-time/current
by fuse) characteristic of fuse, clearance time characteristic of the
5 utilization category aM fuse (6) must lie in margin C below
3 C 6 Total clearance-time the characteristic curve of the contac-
6 characteristic of aM tor for easily separable contact weld-
1 ms fuse ing (4) (total clearance time = prearc-
I
ing time + extinction time).
A, B, C Safety margins for reli-
able short-circuit pro- Selecting fuses
tection
LV HRC switchgear fuses
Fig. 3/8 Switchgear assembly comprising fuse, contactor, Fuses for motor starters are selected
and thermal inverse-time-delay overload relay according to the aforementioned criteria.
Compared with LV HRC fuses of uti-
The fuses in this assembly must Protection of overload relay lization category gL used to protect
satisfy a number of conditions: In order to protect the overload relay, lines and cables, LV HRC switchgear
C The time-current characteristics of the prearcing-time/current character- fuses of utilization category aM pro-
fuses and overload relays must al- istic of the fuse (an LV HRC vide the advantage of weld-free
low the motor to be run up to switchgear fuse of utilization cate- short-circuit protection for the maxi-
speed. gory aM was used in this example; mum motor power which the contac-
C The fuses must protect the over- refer to the following section ”Select- tor is capable of switching.
load relay from being destroyed by ing fuses”) must lie in margin A be-
currents approximately 10 times low the intersection of the tripping Owing to their more effective current
higher than the rated current of the curve of the overload relay (1) with limiting abilities (as compared with
relay. its destruction curve (2). those of line-protection fuses), they
C The fuses must interrupt overcur- are very effective in relieving contac-
Protection of contactor tors of high peak short-circuit cur-
rents beyond the capability of the
In order to protect the contactor rents ip since they respond more
contactor (Ie currents approximately
against excessively high breaking cur- rapidly in the upper short-circuit
10 times higher than the rated oper-
rents, the prearcing-time/current range as shown in Fig. 3/9.
ating current Ie of the contactor).
characteristic curve of the fuse, start-
C In the event of a short circuit, the It is therefore preferable to use
ing from the current value which cor-
fuses must protect the contactor to switchgear fuses rather than line-
responds to the breaking capacity of
such an extent that any damage protection fuses with relay settings
the contactor (3), must lie in margin B
does not exceed the specified de- > 80 A at higher operating currents
below the tripping characteristic of
grees of damage mentioned above with correspondingly lower short-
the overload relay (1).
(depending on the rated operating circuit current attenuation.
current Ie, contactors must be able In order to protect the contactor
to withstand motor start-up cur- against contact welding, time-current Table 3/9 shows the classification
rents of between 8 and 12 Ie with- characteristic curves can be specified of the fuses based on functional
out the contacts being welded). for each contactor indicating which features.
load currents can be applied as maxi-
To satisfy these conditions, the fol- mum currents so that
lowing safety margins A, B and C C contact welding is avoided, or else
must be maintained between certain C welded contacts can easily be sep-
characteristic curves of the devices: arated (characteristic curve 4 in
Fig. 3/8).

3/17 3
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Functional category Utilization category


t s Prearcing time for fuse
Designation Rated continuous Rated breaking Designation Protection of 104
s
current ≤ current
t s 103
Full-range fuses

g In ≥ Ia min gL/gG Cables and 102 Utilization category


gL
lines aM
gR Semiconductors 101
gB Mining
installations 100

Back-up fuses 10-1


a In ≥ 4 In aM Switchgear
≥ 2.7 In aR Semiconductors 10-2
8
Ia min Minimum rated breaking current 10-3
4 102 103 104 5
I [A]

Table 3/9 Classification of LV HRC fuses based on their functional characteristics defined in Fig. 3/9 Comparison of prearcing-time/
EN 60269-1/ IEC 60269-1/DIN VDE 0636-10 current characteristics of LV HRC
fuses of utilization categories gL
and aM, rated current 200 A

Classification of LV HRC fuses and times the rated current. These fuses stalled at a location where the possi-
comparison of characteristic are thus only intended for short-circuit ble short-circuit current exceeds its
curves of gL and aM utilization protection. For this reason, fuses of rated switching capacity.
categories functional category a must not be
Protection and operating ranges of
used above their rated current. A
LV HRC fuses are divided into func- the circuit-breakers
means of overload protection, e.g. a
tional and utilization categories in ac- Fig. 3/10 shows the single-line dia-
thermal time-delay relay, must there-
cordance with their type design. They gram and Fig. 3/11 the principle of a
fore always be provided.
can continuously carry currents up to cascade connection. The rated cur-
their rated current. Comparison of characteristic rent of the upstream circuit-breaker
curves for utilization categories gL Q2 is selected in accordance with its
Functional category g
and aM rated operating current. The circuit-
(full-range fuses)
The prearcing-time/current character- breaker Q2 can, for example, be used
Functional category g applies to full-
istics of LV HRC of utilization cate- as a main circuit-breaker or group cir-
range fuses which can interrupt cur-
gory gL and aM for 200 A are com- cuit-breaker for several feeders in
rents from the minimum fusing current
pared in Fig. 3/9. sub-distribution boards. Its I-release
up to the rated short-circuit breaking
is set to a very high operating cur-
current.
Switchgear assemblies without rent, if possible to the rated short-cir-
Utilization category gL/gG fuses (fuseless design) cuit breaking capacity Icn of the
This category includes fuses of uti- downstream circuit-breakers.
Back-up protection (cascade-con-
lization category g/gG used to protect
nected circuit-breakers)
cables and lines.
If two circuit-breakers with I-releases
Functional category a of the same type are connected in
(back-up fuses) series along one conducting path, Circuit-breaker
Functional category a applies to they will open simultaneously in Q2 with I-release
backup fuses which can interrupt the event of a fault (K) in the vicinity
currents above a specified multiple of of the distribution board and
their rated current up to the rated (Fig. 3/10, 3/11). Circuit-breaker
Q1
short-circuit breaking current. with L I-release
The short-circuit current is thereby
Utilization category aM detected by two series-connected
This functional category applies to interrupting devices and effectively K
switchgear fuses of utilization cate- extinguished. As a result, the down-
gory aM, the minimum breaking cur- stream circuit-breaker with a lower
Fig. 3/10 Single-line diagram of a back-up
rent of which is approximately four rated switching capacity can be in- circuit (cascade connection) in a
sub-distribution board

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

The outgoing circuit-breaker Q1 pro- was an overload or short circuit ac-


vides overload protection and also cording to whether, via the overload ip
clears autonomously relatively low relay, the contactor or the starter cir-
short-circuit currents which may be cuit-breaker has opened. Further ad- i
caused by short circuits to exposed vantages of the starter circuit-breaker i D1
conductive parts, insulation faults or following short-circuit tripping are
short circuits at the end of long lines three-phase circuit interruption and i D(1+2)
and cables. The upstream circuit- immediate readiness for reclosing.
breaker Q2 is only involved at the
The switchgear assemblies with the
same time if high short-circuit cur-
starter circuit-breaker are becoming
rents occur as a result of a dead
increasingly important in fuseless
short circuit in the vicinity of the out-
control units. t
going circuit-breaker Q1 (restricted
selectivity).
Switchgear assemblies with ther-
mistor motor-protection devices
Circuit-breakers with L- and u ue
I-releases and contactor Overload relays and releases cease u B(1+2)
to provide reliable overload protec-
Protection and operating ranges
tion when it is no longer possible to u B1
of devices
establish the winding temperature
The circuit-breaker provides overload
from the motor current. This is the
and short-circuit protection also for t
case with:
the contactor, while the contactor
performs switching duties (Fig. 3/12). C High switching frequencies
The requirements that must be ful- C Irregular, intermittent duty
filled by the circuit-breaker are the C Restricted cooling and
same as those that apply to the fuse C High ambient temperatures
in switchgear assemblies comprising
In these cases, switchgear assem-
fuse, contactor and overload relay ip Maximum asymmetrical short-
blies with thermistor motor-protec- circuit current (peak value)
(see Fig. 3/8).
tion devices are used. The
i D1 Let-through current Q1
switchgear assemblies are designed
Starter circuit-breaker with i D (1+ 2) Actual let-through current
with or without fuses depending on
I-release, contactor, and overload (less than i D1)
the installation’s configuration.
relay (a) ue Source voltage (opening
Temperature sensor in motor winding voltage)
Readiness for reclosing
The degree of protection that can be u B (1+ 2) Sum of arc voltages of up-
Overload protection is provided by
attained depends on whether the stream circuit-breaker Q2 and
the overload relay in conjunction with outgoing circuit-breaker Q1
motor to be protected has a ther-
the contactor, while short-circuit pro-
mally critical stator or rotor. The oper- u B1 Arc voltage of outgoing
tection is provided by the starter cir- circuit-breaker Q1
ating temperature, coupling time con-
cuit-breaker. The operating current of
stant and the position of the
its I-release is set as low as the start-
temperature sensor in the motor
ing cycle will permit, in order to in-
winding are also crucial factors. They
clude low short-circuit currents in the
are usually specified by the motor
instantaneous breaking range as well
manufacturer.
(Fig. 3/13). The advantage of this
switchgear assembly is that it is pos-
sible to determine whether the fault
Fig. 3/11 Principle of a back-up circuit
(cascade connection)

3/19 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 20

Circuit-breaker
Circuit- with I-release for
t breaker with starter assemblies
li releases t
a
Contactor
L Contactor
Inverse-time-
delay overload
1 2 relay with
L-release
n

Setting range
I Icn
3 Icn

Trip L-release I-release I


Opens Contactor Circuit-breaker
I

1 Rated breaking capacity of L Characteristic of


contactor inverse-time-delay
2 Rated making capacity of overload release
contactor I Characteristic of instanta-
3 Characteristic of contactor neous electromagnetic
for easily separable con- overcurrent release L Characteristic curve of I Characteristic curve of ad
tact welding Icn Rated short-circuit (thermal) inverse-time-de justable instantaneous
breaking capacity of lay overload relay overcurrent release
circuit-breaker

Fig. 3/12 Switchgear assembly comprising circuit-breaker and contactor Fig. 3/13 Switchgear assembly comprising circuit-breaker, adjustable
overcurrent release, contactor, and overload relay

a) b) c) d)
Fuse Fuse

Circuit-breaker with Circuit-breaker with Circuit-breaker with


L- and I-releases L- and I-releases L- and I-releases

Contactor Contactor Contactor

Overload relay Overload relay


Thermistor Thermistor Thermistor Thermistor
motor protection motor protection motor protection motor protection
M M M M

+ϑ +ϑ +ϑ +ϑ

Fig. 3/14 Switchgear assemblies with thermistor motor-protection devices plus additional overload
relay or release (block diagram)

Motors with thermally critical Motors with thermally critical 3.2.3 Selecting Protective
stators rotors Equipment
Motors with thermally critical stators Motors with thermally critical rotors,
can be adequately protected against even if started with a locked rotor, Short-circuit protection of branch
overloads and overheating by means can only be provided with adequate circuits
of thermistor motor-protection de- protection if they are fitted with an Branch circuits in distribution boards
vices without overload relays. Feeder additional overload relay or release. and control units can be provided with
cables are protected against short cir- The overload relay or release also short-circuit protection by means of
cuits and overloads either by fuses protects the cabling against over- fuses or by means of circuit-breakers
and circuit-breakers (Fig. 3/14a) or by loads (Fig. 3/14a, c and d). without fuses. The level of anticipated
fuses alone (Fig. 3/14b). current limiting, which is higher in
fuses with low rated currents than in
current-limiting circuit-breakers with
the same rated current, may also be a

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

[kA] 100 2h
cos ϕ 0.25

ip t
ip , i D cos ϕ 0.3 a´

63 A i D 10 s
a, a´
cos ϕ 0.5 100 A
13 a
iD 63 A b
10
8 1 2 3
iD
cos ϕ 0.7
b B A
10 ms Icn

1 1.3 1.6 Ir,(Ie) Ik 100


1 1.05 1.2 I [kA]
1 10 22 100
Short-circuit current I k [kA] 1 Current limiting range B Test range for limiting
2 Overload range tripping currents of
iD Let-through currents e.g. where Ik = 10 kA: circuit-breaker
3 Short-circuit current range
ip Peak short-circuit current iD Fuse (100 A) 7.5 kA Icn Rated short-circuit
A Test range for fuse breaking capacity
iD Circuit-breaker 8 kA currents

Fig. 3/15 Current-limiting characteristics of circuit-breaker (63 A) Fig. 3/16 Characteristics and rated switching capacities of fuse
and LV HRC fuses (63 and 100 A) (a) and circuit-breaker (b) with I-releases

crucial factor in making a choice in C Clearance conditions in accordance Comparison between the tripping
favor of one or the other solution. with HD 384.4.41 / IEC 60 364-4-41/ curves and rated short-circuit
DIN VDE 0100-410, Section 6.1.3 breaking capacity of fuses with
Comparing the protective charac- ”Protection measures in TN sy- those of circuit-breakers with
teristics of fuses with those of stems” (see ”Electrical Installati- the same rated current and a high
current-limiting circuit-breakers ons Handbook”, Chapter 2). switching capacity
The following should be taken into Comparison of current-limiting Tripping curves and rated
consideration when comparing the characteristics short-circuit breaking capacity Icn
protection characteristics of fuses Current limiting with LV HRC fuses The prearcing-time/current character-
and circuit-breakers: and circuit-breakers istic curve a of the 63 A fuse link, uti-
C The rated short-circuit breaking Fig. 3/15 shows the current-limiting lization category gL, and the “I” trip-
capacity, which can vary consider- characteristics of a circuit-breaker ping characteristic b of a circuit-
ably; with rated continuous current of 63 A, breaker are, by way of example,
C The level of current limiting which, at 400 V and 50 Hz compared to an plotted in the time-current diagram in
with fuses of up to 400 A, is al- LV HRC fuse of type 3NA, utilization Fig. 3/16. The current setting for the
ways higher than for current-limit- category gL, rated currents 63 A and inverse-time-delay overload release
ing circuit-breakers with the same 100 A. Owing to the high motor start- of the circuit-breaker corresponds to
rated current; ing currents, however, the rated cur- the rated current of the fuse link.
C The shape of the prearcing rent of the fuse must be higher than Current limiting range (1)
time/current characteristic curves the rated operating current of the mo- The typical test range for fuse cur-
of fuses and the tripping curves of tor, i.e. a circuit-breaker with a mini- rents (A) is, for example, between
circuit-breakers; mum rated current of 63 A or a fuse 1.3 and 1.6 times the rated current
with a minimum rated current of while the test range for the limiting
100 A is required for a 30 kW motor. tripping currents of the overload re-
lease (B) is between 1.05 and 1.2
times the current setting. The ad-
justable overload release enables the
current setting and, therefore, the
limiting tripping current to be
matched more closely to the continu-
ous loading capability than it would
be possible with a fuse, the different
current ratings of which only permit
approximate matching.

3/21 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 22

Although the limit current of the fuse Extremely high rated switching The switchgear assemblies compris-
is adequate for providing overload capacity of LV HRC fuses ing fuse and circuit-breaker, which
protection for lines and cables, it is This results in an extremely high provide system protection, protect the
not sufficient for the starting current rated breaking capacity for fuses of lines to the sub-distribution board
of motors where a fuse with the over 100 kA at an operating voltage against overloads and short circuits.
characteristic a’ would be needed. of 690 V AC. The rated short-circuit The switchgear assemblies compris-
breaking capacity Icn of circuit-break- ing fuse and circuit-breaker, which
Overload range (2)
ers, however, depends on a number provide motor protection, as well as
In the overload range (2), the prearc-
of factors, e.g. the rated operating fuses, contactor and overload relay
ing- time/current characteristic curve
voltage Ue and the type. protect the motor feeder cable and
of the fuse is steeper than the trip-
the motor against overloads and short
ping curve of the overload release. A comparison between the protec-
circuits.
Short-circuit current range (3) tion characteristics of fuses, circuit-
In the short-circuit current range (3), breakers and their switchgear assem- Distribution boards without fuses
the instantaneous release of the cir- blies can be found in Tables 3/10 (fuseless design)
cuit-breaker detects short-circuit cur- and 3/11. In distribution boards without fuses
rents above its operating value faster (Table 3/13), short-circuit protection
than the fuse. At higher currents, the Selecting circuit-breakers for is provided by circuit-breakers for
fuse trips more quickly and therefore, distribution boards with and system protection and for load
limits the short-circuit current more without fuses switching, furthermore circuit-break-
effectively than a circuit-breaker. ers fulfill motor protection tasks only
Distribution boards and control units
or protect starter assemblies to-
can be constructed with or without
gether with the contactor. The pro-
fuses.
tection ranges of the switchgear as-
Distribution boards with fuses semblies comprising circuit-breaker,
The standard design of distribution contactor and overload relay have al-
boards with fuses (Table 3/12) in- ready been dealt with in this chapter.
cludes switchgear assemblies com-
For further technical data, please
prising circuit-breakers and fuses,
refer to the literature supplied by the
whereby a specific task is allocated
manufacturer.
to each protection device.
The feeder circuit-breaker provides
overload protection and selective short-
circuit protection for the transformer
and distribution board. The Siemens cir-
cuit-breakers SENTRON WL and 3VL
are ideal for this purpose.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Characteristic Fuse Circuit-breaker

Rated switching > 100 kA, 690 V f (Ir Ue type1))


capacity (AC)

Current limiting f ( I r I k) f (Ir Ik Ue type1))

Additional arcing space None f (Ir Ik Ue type1))

External indication Yes No


of operability

Operational reliability With additional costs2) Yes

Remote switching No Yes

Automatic all-pole breaking With additional costs3) Yes

Indication facility With additional costs4) Yes

Interlocking facility No Yes

Readiness for reclosing after


clearing overload No Yes
clearing short circuit No f (condition)

Interrupted operation Yes f (condition)

Maintenance costs No f (number of operations and condition)

Selectivity No additional costs With additional costs

Replaceability Yes5) With unit of same make

Short-circuit protection
cable Very good Good
motor Very good Good

Overload protection
cable Adequate Good
motor Not possible Good
1) The term ”type” embraces: current 3) By means of fuse monitoring and
extinguishing method, short-circuit associated circuit-breakers
strength through internal impedance, 4) By means of fuse monitoring
type of construction 5)
2)
Due to standardisation
For example, by means of shockproof
fuse switch-disconnectors with snap-
action closing

Table 3/10 Comparison between the protective characteristics of fuses and circuit-breakers

3/23 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 24

Equipment to be Protection devices with fuses


protected and
switching rate
Fuse

Circuit-breaker

Contactor

Overload protection

Thermistor
motor protection
M M M M M M
3~ 3~
+ϑ +ϑ +ϑ +ϑ

Overload protection
– Cable ++ ++ + + ++ ++
– Motor (with thermally critical stator) ++1) ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
– Motor (with thermally critical rotor) ++1) ++ + + ++ ++

Short-circuit protection
– Cable ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
– Motor ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++

Switching rate – ++ – ++ – ++

Equipment to be Protection devices without fuses


protected and
switching rate

Circuit-breaker

Contactor

Overload protection

Thermistor
motor protection
M M M M M M
3~ 3~ 3~
+ϑ +ϑ +ϑ

Overload protection
– Cable ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +
– Motor (with thermally critical stator) ++1) ++ ++ ++ ++1) ++
– Motor (with thermally critical rotor) ++1) ++ ++ ++ ++1) ++

Short-circuit protection
– Cable ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++
– Motor ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++

Switching rate + + + + – –

1)
Protection with slight functional loss following failure of phase conductor
++ Very good + Good – Poor

Table 3/11 Comparison between the protective characteristics of different switchgear assemblies (block diagrams)

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

No. Type of Type Rated Type of release/relay Back-up Tripping


circuit- code short-circuit L S I fuse characteristic
breaker breaking Adjus- Fixed Adjus- Fixed Adjus-


capacity table set- table set- table Icn Adjustable
Icn ting ting > 100 kA ↔ release

Feeder circuit-breaker

1 Circuit- 3W ≥ Ik1 × – × – × – Icn


breaker t
1 for selective
protection Ik1 I
Ik1

Distribution circuit-breaker

2 Fuse 3NA ≥ Ik2 – – – – – × Icn


and 3VF ≤ Ik2 – × – × – – t
circuit-breaker 3VL ≤ Ik2 – × – × – –
2
for system Ik2 I
protection
Ik2

Load circuit-breaker

4 3 Fuse 3NA ≥ Ik3 – – – – – × Icn


and 3RV1 ≤ Ik3 × – – × – – t
3
circuit-breaker
for motor Ik3 I
protection
Ik3 Ik3
4 Fuse 3NA ≥ Ik3 – – – – – × Icn
and 3ND ≥ Ik3 – – – – – ×
M M t
3~ 3~ direct-on-line 3TW ≤ Ik3 × – – – – –
starter Ik3 I

Table 3/12 Power distribution boards with fuses and circuit-breakers

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No. Type of Type Rated Type of release/relay Tripping


circuit- code short-circuit L S I characteristic
breaker breaking Adjus- Fixed Adjus- Fixed Adjus-


capacity table set- table set- table Adjustable
Icn ting ting ↔ release

Feeder circuit-breaker

1 Circuit- 3W ≥ Ik1 × – × – × Icn


breaker t
1 for selective
protection Ik1 I
Ik1

Distribution circuit-breaker

2 Circuit-breaker 3VF ≥ Ik2 – × – × – Icn


for system 3VL ≥ Ik2 – × – × – t
protection
2 3
Ik2 I
3 Circuit- SEN- ≥ Ik2 × – × – × Icn
Ik2 Ik2
breaker TRON t
for selective WL
protection Ik2 I

Load circuit-breaker

4 4 Circuit- 3RV1 ≤ Ik3 × – – × – Icn


5
breaker t
for motor
protection Ik3 I
5 Circuit- 3RA ≥ Ik3 – – – – × Icn
Ik3 Ik3 breaker 3TW – × – – – – t
and direct-on-
line starter Ik3 I
M M
3~ 3~

Table 3/13 Power distribution with circuit-breakers without fuses

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.2.4 Miniature Circuit- Ib Rated operating current to


Breakers (MCBs) 1st condition 2nd condition be expected, i.e. load-deter-
Ib ≤ In ≤ I z I2 ≤ 1.45 · Iz mined current during normal
Ib Iz operation
Task
Iz Permissible continuous load
Miniature circuit-breakers are mainly current for one conductor
designed for the protection of lines In I2 1.45·Iz I where the permanent tem-
perature limit for the insula-
and cables against overload and short tion is not exceeded
circuit, thus ensuring the protection time t
I1 I2 1.45 ·Iz Maximum permissible time-
of electrical equipment against ex- limited overload current
cessively high heating according to where a short-term exceed-
the relevant standards, e.g. ing of the continuous limit
temperature will not yet re-
DIN VDE 0100-430. sult in a safety-relevant re-
duction of insulation prop-
Under certain conditions, MCBs in a erties.
TN system also provide protection
In Rated current, i.e. the cur-
against electrical stroke at exces- I3
rent for which the miniature
sively high contact voltage due to circuit-breaker has been rat-
wrong insulation, e.g. according to ed and to which other pa-
rameters refer (set value)
HD 384.4.41/ IEC 364-4-41 /
DIN VDE 0100-410. I1 Small test current, i.e. the
current which does not re-
sult in tripping in defined
Application I3 conditions

Miniature circuit-breakers are used in I2 Large test current, i.e. the


current which is broken
all distribution networks, both for within one hour in defined
commercial buildings and industrial conditions (In ≤ 63 A)
buildings. Due to a wide range of ver- I3 Tolerance limiting
sions and accessories (e.g. auxiliary
I4 Seal-in current of the instan-
contacts, fault signal contacts, open- taneous electromagnetic
circuit shunt releases), they are able overcurrent release (short-
I4 I5 circuit release)
to meet the various requirements of
the most diverse areas of application. I5 Tripping current of the in-
stantaneous electromagnetic
overcurrent release (short-
Tripping characteristics I
circuit release)
Four tripping characteristics A, B, C
and D are available for the actual type
of application corresponding to the
equipment being connected in the Fig. 3/17 Typical values of lines and protective devices
circuit to be protected.
C Tripping characteristic A is particu- DIN VDE 0100-4110.
larly suitable for the protection of
C Tripping characteristic B is the stan-
transducers in measuring circuits,
dard characteristic for wall-outlet
for long-line circuits and where dis-
circuits in residential and commer-
connection within 0.4 s is required
cial buildings.
in accordance with HD 384.4.41 S2 /
IEC 60 364-4-41/

3/27 3
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C Tripping characteristic C is advanta- Versions By connecting the AS and the FC


geous wherever equipment with to an instabus®EIB® binary input,
MCBs are available in many different
higher inrush currents, e.g. the signals may also be read into an
versions: 1-pole, 2-pole, 3-pole,
luminaires and motors, is used. instabus EIB system. When using an
4-pole and with connected neutral
C Tripping characteristic D is adapted instabus EIB binary output, the MCB
1-pole+N and 3-pole+N. Correspond-
to highly pulse-generating equip- which is tripped via the open-circuit
ing to the preferred series according
ment, such as transformers, sole- shunt release (AA) can also be
to IEC 60898 and DIN 43880, MCBs
noid valves or capacitors. remotely tripped via instabus EIB.
are allocated the following rated
Operating method currents: Depending on the device type,
C Devices with 55 mm depth miniature circuit-breakers by
Miniature circuit-breakers are protec-
0.3 A to 63 A Siemens have the following features:
tive switches for manual operation,
C Devices with 70 mm depth C Excellent current limiting and se-
including overcurrent remote tripping
0.3 A to 125 A lectivity characteristics
(via thermal overcurrent instanta-
Depending on the device type, an C Identical terminals on both sides
neous release). Multi-pole devices
auxiliary switch (AS), fault-signal con- for optional infeed from the top or
are coupled mechanically at the out-
tact (FC), open-circuit shunt bottom
side via handles and simultaneously
release (ST), undervoltage release C Installation and dismantling with-
inside via their releases.
(UR) or residual-current-operated out the use of tools
circuit-breaker (RCCB module) can C Rapid and easy removal from the
Standards
be retrofitted. system
The international basic standard is C Terminals safe-to-touch by fingers
Auxiliary switches (AS) signal the
IEC 60898. The European standard or the back of the hand according
switching state of the MCB and indi-
EN 60 898 and the German national to VDE 0106-100 (VBG4)
cate whether it has been switched
standard DIN VDE 0641-11 are based C Combined terminals for simultane-
off manually or automatically. Fault-
upon it. Device sizes are described in ous connection of busbars and
signal contacts (FC) indicate tripping
DIN 43880. For the protection against feeder cables
of the MCB due to overload or short
personal injury, the disconnecting re- C Main switch characteristics accord-
circuit.
quirements according to the relevant ing to EN 60 204 / IEC 60204/
standards, e.g. HD 384.4.41 S2 / Open-circuit shunt releases (ST) are VDE 0113
IEC 60364-4-41 / DIN VDE 0100-410 suitable for remote switching of C Separate switch position indicator
have to be met. MCBs. Undervoltage releases (UR)
protect devices connected in the cir- AC current type MCBs are suitable
cuit against impacts of insufficiently for all AC and three-phase networks
low supply voltage. up to a voltage of 240/415 V and all
DC networks up to 60 V (1-pole) and
By fitting an RCCB module to an
120 V (2-pole).
MCB, you will receive an RCBO
assembly, which – as a complete The MCB voltage rating is
system – can be used for line protec- 230/400 V AC.
tion as well as for protection against
AC/DC current type MCBs may also
electrically ignited fires and personal
be used for 220 V DC (1-pole) and
injury in the event of direct or indi-
440 V DC (2-pole).
rect contact voltages.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Rated cross Rated current In of the MCB when Iz (line)


section qn protecting Permissible continuous load current with
2 conductors under load 3 conductors under load 2 conductors under load 3 conductors under load
mm2 A A A A
1.5 16 16 19.5 17.5
2.5 25 20 26 24
4 32 32 35 32
6 40 40 46 41
10 63 50 63 57
16 80 63 85 76
25 100 80 112 96
35 125 100 138 119

Table 3/14 Allocation of miniature circuit-breakers to conductor cross sections


Example: flat-webbed cable, stranded cables on or in the wall, installation type C1) at an ambient temperature of 30°C
1) Installation type C acc. to DIN VDE 0298-4 and DIN VDE 0100-430, Supplement 1. Cables are fixed in such a way
that the spacing between them and the wall is smaller than 0.3 times the outer cable diameter.

In order to avoid damaging of the


conductor insulation in case of faults,
300 MCBs with
temperatures must not rise above tripping characteristics B, C, D acc. to
certain values. For PVC insulation, timet I1 I2 EN 60 898 / IEC 60 898 / DIN VDE 0641-11
1)
these values are 70 °C permanently A1) B C D Specifications in
60
I1 (t > 1h) 1.13 x In 1.13 x In 1.13 x In 1.13 x In compliance with
or 160 °C for a maximum of 5 s
minutes

I2 (t < 1h) 1.45 x In 1.45 x In 1.45 x In 1.45 x In DIN VDE 0100-410


(short circuit).
I4 (t > 0.1s) 2 x In 3 x In 5 x In 10 x In
10
For line-overcurrent protection, the I5 (t < 0.1s) 3 x In 5 x In 10 x In 20 x In
MCBs usually have two independent
releases. In the event of overload, a I3
bimetal contact opens inverse-time 1
delayed corresponding to the current
value. If a certain threshold is ex-
ceeded in the event of a short cir- 10
cuit, however, an electro-magnetic 5 Breaking condition
overcurrent release instantaneously acc. to
trips without delay. The tripping HD 384.4.41S2/
seconds

I3
range (time-current threshold zone) 1 IEC 60 364-4-41
of the MCB according to EN 60898 / DIN VDE 0100-410
0.4
IEC 60898 / DIN VDE 0641-11 is A B C D
defined via parameters I1 to I5 (Fig. I5 I5 I5 I5
0.1
3/18). The line parameters Ib and Iz I4 I4 I4 I4
(see Fig. 3/17) are related to it.

0.01
1 2 3 4 6 8 10 20 30 40 60 80 100
x rated current In

Fig. 3/18 MCB time-current limit ranges

3/29 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 30

When the IEC 60898 was published, Siemens MCBs are available with used at temperatures ranging from
new characteristics B, C and D were the tripping characteristics B, C and –25 °C to +55 °C. The relative hu-
defined internationally. They were D, bearing, among other things, the midity may be 95%.
also adopted in EN 60898 and VDE mark based upon the CCA pro-
DIN VDE 0641-11. cedure (CENELEC-Certification- Resistance to climate
Agreement).
The new tripping requirements of Miniature circuit-breakers by Siemens
MCBs facilitate their assignment to Figure 3/19 represents all tripping are resistant to climate according to
conductor cross sections. In the rele- characteristics. Due to the position IEC 68-2-30. They were successfully
vant German standards, e.g. of the tripping bands, the following tested in six climatic cycles.
DIN/VDE 0100-430, the following features vary in intensity with a ris-
conditions are listed: ing degree from curve A to D Degree of protection
C Current pulse withstand strength,
1st condition As MCBs are mainly installed in dis-
rising
Ib ≤ In ≤ Iz (Rated current rule), tribution boards, their degree of pro-
C Permissible line and cable length
tection must meet the requirements
2nd condition for the protection of persons, de-
of the respective type of room.
I2 ≤ 1,45 · Iz (Tripping current rule). creasing
MCBs without an encapsulation can
The 2nd condition automatically be- Temperature impact reach IP 30 according to EN 60529/
ing fulfilled with the new characteris- IEC 60529 / DIN VDE 0470-1 pro-
The tripping characteristics are stan-
tic curves due the fact that these vided that they have sufficient termi-
dard defined at an ambient tempera-
curves have been defined (Iz = In), nal covers.
ture of +30 °C. At higher tempera-
the MCB merely needs to be se-
tures, the thermal tripping curve in All MCBs are equipped with a snap-
lected according to the simplified cri-
Fig. 3/18 shifts to the left, and to the on fixing for rapid fitting on 35-mm
terion In ≤ Iz .
right at lower temperatures. This wide standard mounting rails accord-
Resulting from this, a new allocation means that tripping becomes effec- ing to DIN EN 50022. Some versions
of rated currents for MCBs and con- tive even with lower currents present may additionally be screwed on
ductor cross sections can be given (higher temperatures) or only with mounting plates.
(see Table 3/14), related to an ambi- higher currents (lower temperatures).
ent temperature of 30 °C, as it is Installation
This has to be taken into account in
considered appropriate according to
particular for an installation in hot Moreover, some type series are
DIN VDE 0100-430, Supplement 1,
rooms, in encapsulated distribution available with a rapid wiring system
and in dependence of the type of
boards where, owing to the current- for manual handling without the use
installation and accumulation of
induced heat losses of the built-in of tools, which even enables the re-
equipment.
devices, higher temperatures may moval of individual MCBs from the
prevail and for distribution boards busbar system.
installed outdoors. MCBs can be

Standard Rated short-circuit breaking capacity classes


EN 60 898 / IEC 60 898 / 1,500 A
DIN VDE 0641-11 3,000 A
4,500 A
6,000 A
10,000 A
15,000 A
20,000 A
25,000 A

Table 3/15 Rated short-circuit breaking capacity classes for miniature circuit-breakers

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

[A2 s]
I2 t
Transformer Permissible value I 2 t of 1.5 mm2 cable

Fuse 50 A 1 2 3
Fuse
B 16
MCB
104
[A] Ik
i
i
Ieff

3 2 1
B 16 Sinusoidal semiwave

103
0 5 10 10-1 3 6 100 3 6 101
t [ms] Ik [kA]

Fig. 3/19 Selectivity of MCBs with current limiting classes1[ 2 and3 towards back-up fuses.
Curve B16 applies to 16 A Siemens breakers, tripping characteristic B.

Rated short-circuit breaking Current limiting classes Devices must be labeled


capacity 6000
As a selectivity indicator with regard 3
Besides a reliable adherence to char- to upstream fuses, miniature circuit-
acteristic curves, an important per- breakers with characteristic B and C
Selectivity
formance feature of MCBs is their up to 40 A are divided into three
rated short-circuit breaking capacity. current limiting classes according to Selectivity means that only that pro-
It is divided into short-circuit break- their current limiting capability. tective device will trip in the event of
ing capacity classes and indicates up a fault which is closest to the fault
For permissible let-through I 2t val-
to which level short-circuit currents location in the course of the current
ues, please refer to the standards
can be broken according to EN 60898 / path. This enables maintaining en-
EN 60898/ IEC 60898 / DIN VDE
IEC 60898/ DIN VDE 0641-11 (Table ergy flow in circuits which are con-
0641-11. For reasons of selectivity,
3/18). Depending on their design, nected in parallel. In the diagram in
only Class 3 MCBs with a rated
MCBs by Siemens have short-circuit Fig. 3/19, the current sequence in a
switching capacity of at least 6,000 A
breaking capacity ratings up to disconnection process is illustrated
may be used in distribution boards
25,000 A and VDE approval (VDE is with regard to current limiting
connected downstream of the meter
the Association of German Electrical classes. MCBs of type B16 by
for residential and commercial build-
Engineers). Siemens reduce the energy flow to
ings in compliance with the Techni-
much lower values than defined for
cal Supply Conditions of German
current limiting class 3.
power supply companies.

3/31 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 32

Figure 3/19 shows the selectivity Although circuit-breakers have a high


limits of MCBs with different current inherent rated breaking capacity,
limiting classes as the intersection of they do not switch sufficiently cur-
the MCB tripping curve with the rent-limiting in the range of the MCB
melting curve of the fuse. The highly switching capacity limit (6 kA/10 kA)
effective current limitation of the so that they cannot provide much
MCB also affects the high current support. Therefore, miniature circuit-
discrimination towards the upstream breakers with a rated current of 6 A
fuse. to 32 A are only protected by an up-
stream circuit-breaker (type 3VF1 to
Characteristic B16 relates to 16 A
3VF6 and SENTRON WL1/WL5) up
Siemens breakers, tripping charac-
to the defined rated switching capac-
teristic B.
ity of the MCB (back-up protection).
Back-up protection
A more detailed description can be
If the short-circuit current at the found in Chapter 6.1.2.
point where the MCB is installed
Further product information on
exceeds its rated switching capacity,
MCBs by Siemens is contained in
another short-circuit protecting de-
the Siemens Catalog ”BETA Built-in
vice has to be connected upstream.
installation devices”, Order No.
Without affecting the operability of
E86060-K8220-A101-A6-7600.
the breaker in such cases, the
switching capacity of such an assem-
bly will be increased up to 50 kA.
In some countries, circuit-breakers
rather than LV HRC fuses are con-
nected upstream instead, which –
depending on the type – reduces the
combined switching capacity consid-
erably.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.3 Selectivity in Low- C Dynamic/energy selectivity


Selectivity based on the evaluation
All characteristic curves must – if not
already specified by the manufacturer
Voltage Systems of the let-through energy of the – be assigned a scatter band to deter-
downstream devices and the trip- mine selectivity reliably.
Selectivity and selectivity types ping energy of the upstream
In the case of switchgear, EN 60947–2 /
protective device.
With two series-connected protective IEC 60 947–2 / DIN VDE 0660–101
devices, full selectivity in the event of specify a scatter of ± 20% for the in-
Selectivity determination
a fault is achieved if only the protec- stantaneous overcurrent release. The
According to IEC 60947-2, Appendix
tive device directly upstream of the operating times, which are some-
A, the determination or verification of
fault location disconnects from supply. times considerably shorter at normal
the desired type of selectivity is di-
operating temperatures, must be
Selectivity types / selectivity limit vided in two time ranges.
taken into account for electro-
A distinction is made between two Time range > 100 ms:
mechanical overload releases.
types of selectivity: The time range above 100 ms can be
C Partial selectivity acc. to analyzed by a comparison of charac- Determination of the selectivity
IEC 60947-2, 2.17.2: teristic curves in the L- or S-range, limit
Overcurrent discrimination of two taking the tolerances, required pro- As a rule, all selectivity limits be-
series-connected overcurrent pro tective settings, curve representation tween two protective devices can be
tection devices, where the load- in identical scales etc. into account. determined by carrying out measure-
side protective device takes over Time range < 100 ms: ments or tests. These measurements
the full protection task up to a defi According to Fig. A2 in this standard, are virtually indispensable, particu-
ned overcurrent level without the selectivity in this time range must be larly when assessing selectivity in the
other protective device being verified by testing. Due to the fact event of a short circuit, owing to the
active. that the time and cost expense in- extremely rapid switching operations
C Full selectivity acc. to IEC 60947-2, volved being very high, different de- when current-limiting protection
2.17.2: vices being used in the power distri- equipment is used.
Overcurrent discrimination of two bution system, selectivity limits can
The measurements can, however, be
series-connected overcurrent pro often be obtained from renowned
very costly and complicated, therefore
tection devices, where the load- equipment manufacturers only. In
many manufacturers publish selectiv-
side protective device takes over practice, let-through currents are
ity tables for their switchgear (see
the full protection task without the therefore often compared to the op-
Table 3/16). When using SIMARIS
other protective device being erating or pickup currents or, the let-
design, all criteria are automatically
active. through currents of the protective de-
considered.
Selectivity types vices are compared to each other.
C Current selectivity: The prerequisite being that the rele-
Selective disconnection by grading vant data is available from the equip-
the instantaneous short-circuit re- ment manufacturer and that it is ana-
leases. Circuit-breakers with LI lyzed thoroughly.
characteristics.
Comparing characteristic curves
C Time selectivity:
Three diagram types can be used for
Grading of the configurable tripping
comparing characteristics:
times (tsd in the S-part) of the
C Time-current diagram
short-circuit releases. This applies
C Let-through current diagram
to standard as well as to optional
C Let-through energy diagram
characteristic curves. Circuit-brea-
kers with LSI characteristics. It is Since these characteristic curves are
often required in main distribution compared over several orders of
boards and at transfer points using magnitude, they are usually plotted
devices of different manufacturers. on log-log paper.

3/33 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 34

Upstream circuit-breakers Type


System protection 3VL3 3VL4
TM TM

Characteristics In TM 160-200 200-250 160-200 200-250 250-315

li A 1,000-2,000 1,200-2,500 1,000-2,000 1,250-2,500 1,575-3,150

Icn 40-100 40-100 45-100 45-100 45-100

Downstream circuit-breakers [A] [A] kA Selectivity limits (kA)

Type 5SY4 6 B 10 T T T T T
10 B 10 T T T T T
Characteristics LI 13 B 10 T T T T T
16 B 10 T T T T T
20 B 10 9.2 T 9.1 8.8 T
25 B 10 8.6 T 8.6 8.0 T
32 B 10 7.5 T 7.6 6.4 T
40 B 10 7.7 T 7.6 6.4 T
50 B 10 6.7 T 6.6 6.4 T
63 B 10 6.2 9.0 6.2 6.1 8.0

6 C 10 T T T T T
10 C 10 T T T T T
Characteristics LI 13 C 10 T T T T T
16 C 10 T T T T T
20 C 10 8.6 T 8.5 7.1 T
25 C 10 8.5 T 8.5 8.1 T
32 C 10 8.5 T 8.5 7.8 T
40 C 10 7.5 T 7.6 6.9 T
50 C 10 6.6 9.7 6.5 6.5 T
63 C 10 6.2 8.7 6.1 6.1 8.0

Type 5SY7 6 B 15 T T T T T
10 B 15 T T T T T
Characteristics LI 13 B 15 T T T 12.9 T
16 B 15 T T T 11.5 T
20 B 15 9.2 T 9.1 8.8 T
25 B 15 8.6 T 8.6 8.0 T
32 B 15 7.5 14.3 7.6 6.4 12.4
40 B 15 7.7 11.1 7.6 6.4 11.8
50 B 15 6.7 11.1 6.6 6.4 10.7
63 B 15 6.2 9.0 6.2 6.1 8.0

6 C 15 T T T T T
10 C 15 T T T 14.3 T
Characteristics LI 13 C 15 T T T 11.1 T
16 C 15 T T T 11.1 T
20 C 15 8.5 T 8.5 7.1 T
25 C 15 8.5 14.7 8.5 8.1 13.7
32 C 15 8.5 14.7 8.5 7.8 13.4
40 C 15 7.5 13.0 7.6 6.9 12.0
50 C 15 6.6 9.7 6.5 6.5 10.2
63 C 15 6.2 8.7 6.1 6.1 8.0

Table 3/16 Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898
Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2

3/34 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 35

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3VL5 3VL5 3VL6 3VL7 3VL8


TM ETU 10/20 ETU 10/20 ETU 10/20 ETU 10/20

315-400 250-315 315-400 400-500 500-630 252-630 320-800 400-1,000 500-1,250 640-1,600

2,000-4,000 1,575-3,150 2,000-4,000 2,500-5,000 3,150-6,500 788-6,300 1,000-6,400 1,250-11,000 1,563-12,500 2,000-14,400

45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100 45-100 50-100 50-100 50-100 50-100

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T = Full selectivity
T T T T T T T T T T up to
T T T T T 13.8 14.2 T T T Icn = rated short-
14.6 T T T T 13.0 13.3 T T T circuit breaking
capacity of the
T T T T T T T T T T
lower-rated protec-
T T T T T T T T T T
tive device
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T M = Electroma-
T T T T T T T T T T gnetic release
T T T T T T T T T T
TM = Thermoma-
T T T T T T T T T T
gnetic release
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T 14.2 14.6 T T T ETU = Electronic
13.4 T T T T 12.0 12.3 T T T tripping unit

3/35 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 36

Downstream circuit-breakers Upstream circuit-breakers


Type System protection
Series 3WL1
Characteristics ETU25/27

IR 1,000-2,500 1,280-3,200 1,600-4,000 2,000-5,000 2,520-6,300

li 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000

Icn 55-100 80-100 100 100 100


MCCB
[A] [A] [kA]

3VL1 Line Pro LI 16 300 40-70 T T T T T


TM 20 300 40-70 T T T T T
25 300 40-70 T T T T T
32 300 40-70 T T T T T
40 600 40-70 T T T T T
50 600 40-70 T T T T T
63 600 40-70 T T T T T
80 1,000 40-70 T T T T T
100 1,000 40-70 T T T T T
125 1,000 40-70 T T T T T
160 1,500 40-70 T T T T T

3VL2 Line Pro LI 40-50 300-600 40-100 T T T T T


TM 50-63 300-600 40-100 T T T T T
63-80 400-800 40-100 T T T T T
80-100 500-1,000 40-100 T T T T T
100-125 625-1,250 40-100 T T T T T
125-160 800-1,600 40-100 T T T T T
ETU 25-63 80-693 40-100 T T T T T
40-100 125-1,100 40-100 T T T T T
64-100 200-1,760 40-100 T T T T T

3VL2 Line Pro LI 160-200 1,000-2,000 40-100 T T T T T


TM 200-250 1,250-2,500 40-100 T T T T T
ETU 80-200 250-2,200 40-100 T T T T T
100-250 312-2,750 40-100 T T T T T

3VL4 Line Protect 160-200 1,000-2,000 45-100 T T T T T


TM 200-250 1,250-2,500 45-100 T T T T T
250-315 1,575-3,150 45-100 T T T T T
315-400 2,000-4,000 45-100 T T T T T
ETU 126-315 400-3,465 45-100 T T T T T
160-400 500-4,400 45-100 T T T T T

3VL5 Line Protect LI 250-315 1,575-3,150 45-100 T T T T T


TM 315-400 2,000-4,000 45-100 T T T T T
400-500 2,500-5,000 45-100 T T T T T
500-630 3,250-6,500 45-100 T T T T T
ETU 252-630 788-6,300 45-100 T T T T T

3VL6 Line Pro LI 320-800 1,000-6,400 50-100 T T T T T

3VL7 Line Pro LI 400-1000 1,250-11,000 50-100 41.4 41.4 41.4 41.4 41.4
ETU 500-1250 1,562-12,500 50-100 41.4 41.4 41.4 41.4 41.4

3VL8 Line Pro LI 640-1,600 2,000-14,400 50-100 41.4 41.4 41.4 41.4 41.4

Table 3/16 Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898
Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2 (continued)

3/36 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 37

System Protection / Safety Coordination

3LW1-3B
ETU45B

252-630 320-800 400-1,000 500-1,250 640-1,600 800-2,000 1,000-2,500 1,280-3,200 1,600-4,000 2,000-5,000

787.5-7560 1,000-9,600 1,250-12,000 1,562.5-15,000 2,000-19,200 2,500-24,000 3,125-30,000 4,000-38,400 50,000 50,000

50-65 100 100 100 100 55-100 55-100 80-100 100 100

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T

T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T = Full selectivity
T T T T T T T T T T up to
Icn = rated short-
T T T T T T T T T T
circuit breaking
T T T T T T T T T
capacity of the
T T T T T T T T T
lower-rated protec-
T T T T T T T T
tive device
T T T T T T T T T
M = Electroma-
T T T T T T T T T gnetic release

TM = Thermoma-
T T T T T T T
gnetic release
T T T T T T
ETU = Electronic
T T T T T tripping unit

3/37 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 38

Downstream circuit-breakers Upstream circuit-breakers


Type System protection
Series 3VL1
Characteristics TM

IR 16 20 25 32 40 50 63

li [A] 300 300 300 300 600 600 600

Icn 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70


Circuit-breaker for
motor protection [A] [A] [kA] Selectivity limits [kA]

3RV1.1 LI 0.70-1.00 12 100 T T T T T T T


0.90-1.25 15 100 T T T T T T T
1.10-1.60 19 100 T T T T T T T
1.40-2.00 24 100 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 T T T
1.80-2.50 30 100 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 T T T
2.20-3.20 38 100 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 2.5 2.5 2.5
2.80-4.00 48 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.2 1.2 1.2
3.50-5.00 60 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.2 1.2 1.2
4.50-6.30 76 100 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
5.50-8.00 96 50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
7-10 120 50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8
9-12 144 50 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.8

3RV1.2 LI 0.70-1.00 12 100 T T T T T T T


0.90-1.25 15 100 T T T T T T T
1.10-1.60 19 100 T T T T T T T
1.40-2.00 24 100 T T T T T T T
1.80-2.50 30 100 T T T T T T T
2.20-3.20 38 100 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 T T T
2.80-4.00 48 100 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 T T T
3.50-5.00 60 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 20.0 20.0 20.0
4.50-6.30 76 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 6.0 6.0 6.0
5.50-8.00 96 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 3.0 3.0 3.0
7-10 120 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 2.0 2.0 2.0
9-12.5 150 100 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.5 1.5 1.5
11-16 192 50 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.2
14-20 240 50 1.0 1.0 1.0
17-22 264 50 0.8 0.8 0.8
20-25 300 50 0.8 0.8 0.8

3RV1.3 LI 11-16 192 50 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.2


14-20 240 50 0.4 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.0
18-25 300 50 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.8
22-32 384 50 0.6 0.6 0.6
28-40 480 50
36-45 540 50
40-50 600 50

3RV1.4 LI 11-16 192 100 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.2
14-20 240 100 0.4 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.0
18-25 300 100 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.8
22-32 384 100 0.8 0.8 0.8
28-40 480 50-100
36-50 600 50-100
45-63 756 50-100
57-75 900 50-100
70-90 1080 50-100
80-100 1140 50-100

Table 3/16 Rated short-circuit breaking capacity Icn acc. to IEC 60898
Rated limit short-circuit breaking capacity Icu acc. to IEC 60947-2 (continued)

3/38 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 39

Disconnector System protection


3VL1 3VL2
M TM

80 100 125 160 100 160 40-50 50-63 63-80 80-100 100-125 125-160

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,500 1,800 1,800 300-600 300-600 400-800 500-1,000 625-1,250 800-1,600

40-70 40-70 40-70 40-70 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100 40-100

T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T 4.0 4.0 T T T T
T T T T T T 1.5 1.5 4.0 30.0 T T
8.0 8.0 8.0 T T T 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.5 5.0 T
3.0 3.0 3.0 T T T 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.5 5.0
2.5 2.5 2.5 8.0 30 30.0 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.5 2.0 4.0
1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 6 6.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0
1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 4 4.0 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0
1.2 1.2 1.2 2.5 4 4.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.2 1.5

T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T 20.0 20.0 T T T T
T T T T T T 8.0 8.0 T T T T
T T T T T T 2.5 2.5 20.0 20.0 T T
20.0 20.0 20.0 T T T 1.5 1.5 6.0 6.0 40.0 40-50
15.0 15.0 15.0 T T T 1.2 1.2 4.0 4.0 25.0 30.0
5.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 30.0 30.0 1.2 1.2 2.0 2.5 5.0 5.0
4.0 4.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 12.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5.0
3.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 8.0 8.0 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.5 2.5 4.0
2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 6.0 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.2 2.0 2.5
1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 5.0 5.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.5 2.0
1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 4.0 4.0 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.5

3.0 3.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 10.0 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.5 3.0 4.0
2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 6.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 2.0 2.5 T = Full selectivity
1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 4.0 4.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.5 2.0 up to
1.2 1.2 1.2 2.5 3.0 3.0 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 Icn = rated short-
1.2 1.2 1.2 2.0 3.0 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
circuit breaking
1.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.5 2.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
capacity of the
2.0 2.5 2.5 0.6
lower-rated protec-
tive device
2.5 2.5 2.5 5.0 8.0 8.0 0.8 0.8 1.2 1.5 2.5 3.0
2.0 2.0 2.0 3.0 5.0 5.0 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 M = Electroma-
1.5 1.5 1.5 3.0 4.0 4.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.5 2.0 gnetic release
1.2 1.2 1.2 2.0 3.0 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.2
TM = Thermoma-
0.6 0.6 0.6 1.5 2.0 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
gnetic release
0.6 0.6 0.6 1.5 2.0 2.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
1.5 2.0 2.0 ETU = Electronic
1.5 2.0 2.0 tripping unit
1.5 2.0
1.5 2.0

3/39 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 40

[s]

ts

200 A 100 A 200 A


(160 A) size 00 size 1

Ik =1300 A

1.4
3.3.1 Selectivity in
50 A 50 A 100 A 1.37 s
Radial Systems
0.03
Ik =1300 A
Selectivity between series-con-
nected fuses K1
101 102 103 104
The incoming feeder lines and the 1.3 I [A]
outgoing feeders of the busbar of a
a) Selective isolation b) Prearcing times where Ik =1300 A
distribution board carry different op- of short circuit K1
erating currents and, therefore, also
have different cross-sections. Conse-
Fig. 3/20 Selectivity between series-connected LV HRC fuses with
quently, they are usually protected by identical utilization categories (example)
fuses with different rated currents
which ensure selectivity on account
Selectivity between series- the I-release must generally be set to
of the different operating behavior.
connected circuit-breakers 4,000 A so that even very small short
Selectivity between series-con- circuits are cleared at the input termi-
Selectivity by grading the operat-
nected fuses with identical utiliza- nals of the downstream circuit-
ing currents of instantaneous over-
tion categories breaker Q1 within the specified time.
current releases
When fuses of the same utilization
(current grading) Only partial selectivity can be estab-
category (e.g. gL or gG) are used, se-
Selectivity can be achieved by grad- lished by comparing characteristic
lectivity is ensured across the entire
ing the operating currents of instanta- curves for current grading since the
overcurrent range up to the rated
neous overcurrent releases (I-re- increased appearance of broken lines
breaking capacity (absolute selectiv-
leases) (Fig. 3/21). Prerequisites for in the curve in the range < 100 ms,
ity) if the rated currents differ by a
this are: which result from the complicated dy-
factor of 1.6 or higher (Fig. 3/20).
namic switching and tripping opera-
The Joulean heat values (I 2t-values) Current grading with different
tions, does not permit conclusions to
should be compared in case of high short-circuit currents
be drawn with regard to selectivity.
short-circuit currents. In the example The short-circuit currents in the event
shown, a 160 A LV HRC fuse would of a short circuit at the respective lo-
Possible solution: dynamic
also have absolute selectivity with cations of the circuit-breakers are
selectivity
respect to a 100 A LV HRC fuse. sufficiently different.
Selectivity through circuit-breaker
Current grading with differently
coordination (dynamic selectivity)
configured I-releases
With high-speed operations, e.g. in
The rated currents and, therefore, the
the event of a short circuit, and the in-
I-release values of the upstream and
teraction of series-connected protec-
downstream circuit-breakers differ
tion devices, the dynamic processes
accordingly.
in the circuit and in the electro-
5-second breaking and line- mechanical releases have a consider-
protection conditions able effect on selectivity behavior,
In complying with the 5-second particularly if current limiters are
breaking condition specified in used.
HD 384.4.41 / IEC 60364-4-41 /
DIN VDE 0100-410 or the 5-second
line-protection condition specified in
DIN VDE 0100-430 (if line protection
cannot be provided in any other way),

3/40 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 41

System Protection / Safety Coordination

[s]
Opening time t
Sr = 400 kVA 104
at 400 V, 102
50 Hz I II
min.
U kr = 4% 10 3
I r = 577 A
I k ≈ 15 KA 101
Q1 Q2
Ir = 600 A 102
(L-release) 100
Q2 Ie = 4000 A L L
I k = 10 kA (I-release)
101
I (6000 A)1)
II
100
Ir = 60 A
(L-release)
Q1 Ii = 720 A
4.8 kA I (720 A) I (4000 A)
(I-release)
10-1
I

2.1 kA 10-2
M
3~ 4
5 102 2 5 103 2 5 104 2 5
Current I [A]
a) Single-line diagram b) Tripping curves
Q1 Circuit-breaker for motor protection L Inverse-time delay overload release
(current-limiting)
I Instantaneous electromagnetic overcurrent release
Q2 Circuit-breaker (zero-current interrupter)
1)
Maximum setting range

Fig. 3/21 Current selectivity for two series-connected circuit-breakers at different short-circuit current levels (example)

Selectivity is also achieved if the Table 3/16 shows an example of a se- tivity provides a suitable possibility for
downstream current-limiting protec- lectivity table. The selectivity limit indi- establishing full selectivity without
tion device trips so quickly that, al- cated in the table may be well above having to use switchgear with short-
though the let-through current does the operating value of the instanta- time-delay overcurrent releases.
momentarily exceed the operating neous overcurrent release in the up-
value of the upstream protection de- stream circuit-breaker (see Fig. 3/22). Selectivity by means of short-
vice, the ”mechanically slow” re- time-delay overcurrent releases
Irrespective of this, it is important to
lease does not have time to trigger. (time grading)
check the selectivity in the event of
The let-through current depends on
an overload by comparing the charac- Time grading by short-time-delay
the peak short-circuit current and cur-
teristic curves and by means of trip- releases
rent limiting characteristics.
ping times in accordance with the If current grading is not possible on
Selectivity limits of two series-con- relevant regulations. account of the requirements listed on
nected circuit-breakers page 36 and cannot be achieved by
Generally speaking, only partial selec-
A maximum short-circuit value – the selecting the switchgear in accordance
tivity is possible in the case of dy-
selectivity limit – up to which the with the selectivity tables (dynamic se-
namic selectivity with short circuits.
downstream circuit-breaker can open lectivity), selectivity can be provided by
This may be sufficient (full selectivity)
more quickly and alone, i.e. selec- time grading short-time delay overcur-
if the prospective maximum short-cir-
tively, can be determined for each rent releases. This requires grading of
cuit current at the downstream pro-
switchgear assembly. both the tripping delays and the
tective device is lower than the es-
appropriate operating currents.
tablished selectivity limit.
With partial selectivity, which usually
arises with current grading owing to
the clearance condition (see Fig.
3/20), consideration of dynamic selec-

3/41 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 42

Power Time grading can be implemented to Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI)


supply safeguard selectivity if the prospec- A microprocessor-controlled short-
Circuit- system Delay time t d tive short-circuit currents are almost time grading control, also called
breaker of S-release
identical. This requires grading of “zone-selective interlocking”, has
both the tripping delays and the been developed for circuit-breakers to
operating currents of the overcurrent prevent excessively long tripping
releases. times when several circuit-breakers
3WL1 220 ms are connected in series. This control
In addition to the diagram with the
function allows the tripping delay to
four series-connected circuit-break-
be reduced to max. 50 ms for the cir-
ers, Fig. 3/22 also contains the associ-
3WL1 150 ms
cuit-breakers located upstream of the
ated grading diagram. The necessary
3VL short circuit.
grading time, which allows for all
The method of operation regarding
scatter bands, depends on the operat-
zone-selective interlocking is illus-
3VL 80 ms ing principle of the release and the
trated in Fig. 3/24. A short circuit at
type of circuit-breaker.
K1 is detected by Q1, Q3, and Q5. If
Electronic S-releases ZSI is active, Q3 is temporarily dis-
3VL Instantaneous
3RV With electronic short-time-delay abled by Q1 and Q5 by Q3 by means
overcurrent releases (S-releases), a of appropriate communication lines.
M grading time of approximately 70 ms Since Q1 does not receive any dis-
to 100 ms from circuit-breaker to cir- abling signal, it trips after only 10 ms.
Fig. 3/22 Required delay time settings for cuit-breaker is sufficient to allow for A short circuit at K2 is only detected
electromagnetic short-time-delay all scatter bands. by Q5; since it does not receive any
S-releases for selective short-cir-
cuit protection disabling signal, it trips after only 50
Operating current
ms. Without "ZSI", tripping would only
The operating current of the short-
occur after 150 ms.
time-delay overcurrent release should
Time grading with virtually be set to at least 1.45 times (twice
identical short-circuit currents Selectivity between circuit-
per 20% scatter, unless other values
The upstream circuit-breaker is breaker and fuse
are specified by the manufacturer)
equipped with short-time-delay over- the value of the downstream circuit- When considering selectivity in con-
current releases (S) so that, if a fault breaker. junction with fuses, a permissible
occurs, only the downstream circuit- scatter band of ± 10% in the direction
breaker disconnects the affected part Additional I-releases
of current flow must be allowed for in
of the installation from the system. In order to reduce the short-circuit
the time-current characteristics.
stress in the event of a ”dead” short
circuit at the upstream circuit-break-
ers, they can be fitted with instanta-
neous electromagnetic overcurrent
releases in addition to the short-time
delay releases (Fig. 3/23). The value
selected for the operating current of
the instantaneous electromagnetic
overcurrent releases must be high
enough to ensure that the releases
only operate in case of direct ”dead”
short circuits and, under normal oper-
ating conditions, do not interfere with
selective grading.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

[s]
Sr = 1000 kVA Opening time t
at 400 V, 104
50 Hz
U kr = 6%
I n = 1445 A
I k ≈ 24.1 kA 103

Q1 Q2 Q3
102
t d3 = 150 ms
Q3 n (20 kA)
L L L
Main 101
distribution
board

Q2 t d2 = 80 ms
S S
100
I k = 17 kA t d3 =
Sub- t d2 = 150 ms
distribution 80 ms
board -1
10
Q1 n

I k = 10 kA
10-2
M 102 2 5 103 2 5 104 2 5 105
~ Current I [A]

Fig. 3/23 Selectivity between three series-connected circuit-breakers with limitation of short-circuit stress by means
of an additional I-release in circuit-breaker Q3

[s]
Opening time t
104
t d = 150 ms
A t ZSi = 50 ms
Q5 E
Q1/Q2 Q3/Q4 Q5
103
K2

102

A t d = 80 ms A
Q3 E t ZSi = 50 ms Q4 E
t d = 10 ms 101
t ZSi = t d

td = 150 ms
100
td = 80 ms
A A tZSi
Q1 E Q2 E
10-1
t d =10 ms Icn
t ZSi = t d td =
10 ms
K1 10-2

Communication lines 102 103 104 105


Current I [A]

Fig. 3/24 Zone-selective interlocking (ZSI) of series- or parallel-connected circuit-breakers (block diagram)

3/43 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 44

Absolute selectivity for circuit-break-


F1 Q1 F1 Fuse
ers without short-time-delay overcur-
Q1 Circuit-breaker
L Inverse-time-delay
rent releases is achieved if the let-
overload delay through current of the fuse ID does
L Q1 t L
I I Instantaneous electromagnetic not reach the operating current of the
overcurrent release
instantaneous overcurrent release
tA Safety margin
(please refer to current limiting dia-
Ii Operating current of n release
tA gram for LV HRC fuses in ”Electrical
I The time-current characteristics Installations Handbook”, Section
F1 (scatter bands) do not touch 4.1.1). This is, however, only to be
expected for a fuse, the rated current
I of which is very low compared with
Ii I
the rated continuous current.
Overload range I
Selectivity ratios between LS-re-
leases and fuses with relatively
Fig. 3/25 Selectivity between circuit-breaker and downstream fuse in overload range
high rated currents
Due to the dynamic processes that
take place in electromagnetic re-
F1 Q1 L Overload release leases, absolute selectivity can also
S Short-time-delay overcurrent release be achieved with fuses, whose ID
tA Safety margin briefly exceeds the operating current.
L t Id Operating current of s release
Q1 Once again, selectivity can only be
S L ts Prearcing time of fuse
verified by means of appropriate
td Delay time of s release
measurements of Ii. Absolute selec-
tivity can be achieved by using circuit-
t A ≥ 100 ms breakers with short-time-delay over-
S
F1 current releases (S-releases) if the
safety margin for the operating cur-
ts td rent td between the upper scatter
Ik band of the fuse characteristic and
Id I the delay time of the S-release td is
selected so that tA ≥ 100 ms (Fig.
Fig. 3/26 Selectivity between circuit-breaker with LS-releases and
downstream fuse; short-circuit current range 3/26).

Selectivity between fuse and


Circuit-breaker with the tripping characteristic of the fully downstream circuit-breaker
downstream fuse preloaded instantaneous overcurrent
release and maintains a safety margin Selectivity ratios in the
Selectivity between LI-releases
of tA ≥ 1 s (Fig. 3/25). overload range
and fuses with very low rated In order to achieve selectivity in the
A reduction in the tripping time of up
currents overload range, a safety margin of
to 25% must be allowed for at normal
In the overload range up to the oper- tA ≥1 s is required between the lower
operating temperatures (unless the
ating current Ii of the delayed overcur- scatter band of the fuse and the char-
manufacturer states otherwise).
rent release, partial selectivity is acteristic curve of the inverse-time-
achieved if the upper scatter band of delay overload release (Fig. 3/27).
the fuse characteristic does not touch

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Q1 F1 F1 Fuse
Q1 Circuit-breaker
L Inverse-time-delay
t overload release
F1 I Instantaneous electromagnetic
L overcurrent release
tA ≥ 1 s tA Safety margin
Ii Operating current of I-release

I The time-current characteristics


L Q1 (scatter bands) do not touch
In case of short circuits, it is impor- I
tant to remember that, after the re-
leases in the circuit-breaker have I
tripped, the fuse continues to be I I
heated during the arcing time. The se- Overload range
lectivity limit lies approximately at the
point where a safety margin of 70 ms
between the lower scatter band of Fig. 3/27 Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker; overload range
the fuse and the operating time of the
instantaneous overcurrent release or
the delay time of the short-time-delay
overcurrent release is undershot.
Short-circuit range Q1 Circuit-breaker
F1 (max. let-through value)
A reliable and usually relatively high
F1 Fuse (min. prearcing value)
selectivity limit for the short-circuit I 2t
F1 ISel Selectivity limit
range can be determined in the
I 2t- diagram. In this diagram, the maxi-
mum let-through I 2t value of the cir-
cuit-breaker is compared with the Q1
minimum prearcing I 2t value of the L Q1
I
fuse (Fig. 2/28). Since these values
are maximum and minimum values,
Ik
the scatter bands are not necessary.
ISel I
Selectivity range

Fig. 3/28 Selectivity between fuse and downstream circuit-breaker; short circuit

[s] Separate Parallel


t Q1 Q2 Q2+Q3 Base IkΣ
T1 Equal ratings T2 104
L L L
Ik Part
103
I r = 600 A
Q2 L I sd = 3,000 A Q3 L 102
S S
I k ≤ 10 kA I I k ≤ 10 kA
Ik Part 101
S
I r = 200 A 100
ttd2/3 ≈150 ms
Q1 L I i = 2,400 A Ii
I (≥ 70 ms)
-1
10
tö1
IkΣ 102
M 102 2 4 6 103 2 4 104 2 4
~ [A]
3 6 I

Fig. 3/29 Selectivity with two infeed transformers of the same rating and operating simultaneously.
Example with outgoing feeder in the center of the busbars.

3/45 3
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T1 T2 T3

I k Part 1 I k Part 2
I kΣ Ik Ik Q1 Q2
< 30 kA <15 kA <15 kA
L Q3
Q1 S Q2 Q3
I

I kΣ Reduced selectivity with LV HRC


15 kA 15 kA
fuses with a rating of 630 to 1,000 A
near an infeed
This is particularly significant in the
event of fused outgoing circuits with
Fig. 3/30 Selectivity with three infeed trans- Fig. 3/31 Short-circuit distribution via the high current ratings, e.g. 630 to
formers operating simultaneously tie breaker Q3 with two infeeds 1,000 A. It is important to ensure that
Q1 and Q2
a safety margin of ≥ 100 ms between
the tripping characteristic of the S-re-
Selectivity with parallel infeeds Characteristic displacement factor lease and the prearcing-time/current
Since the total short-circuit current is characteristic of the LV HRC fuse is
Improving selectivity with provided not only with parallel opera-
ideally distributed equally among the
parallel infeeds tion, but also with individual trans-
two infeeds (ignoring the load cur-
With parallel infeeds to a busbar, the former operation.
rents in the other outgoing feeders)
total short-circuit current I K∑ that oc-
with the outgoing feeder located at When setting the releases of circuit-
curs in the faulted outgoing feeder
the center of the busbars, the tripping breakers Q1, Q2 and Q3, it must be
comprises the partial short-circuit cur-
curve of circuit-breakers Q2 and Q3 ensured that selectivity is also
rents I k Part in the individual infeeds
can be shifted optimally to the right achieved for operation with one
and represents the base current in
along the current scale by a character- transformer and for all short-circuit
the grading diagram (Fig. 3/29). This
istic displacement factor of 2 up to currents (single- to three-phase).
is the case for all fault types.
the line I k∑, which represents the
base current for this fault condition. For cost-related reasons, S-releases
Two identical infeeds
The result of this is selectivity both for the feeder circuit-breakers must
If a short circuit occurs in the outgo- with regard to time and also current. also be provided for low and medium
ing feeder downstream of the circuit- rated fuse currents as the resulting
breaker Q1, the total short-circuit If the characteristic curve of the indi- current selectivity of I-releases is
current I k∑ of e.g. ≤ 20 kA flows via vidual circuit-breaker is used instead insufficient.
this breaker, while the infeed circuit- of the shifted characteristic, the exact
breakers Q2 and Q3, with the out- short-circuit current (distribution) Three identical infeeds
going feeder connected centrally to which flows through the circuit-
breaker must be taken into considera- With parallel operation of three trans-
the busbars and incoming feeders of
tion. formers, the selectivity ratios will,
equal length, each carry only half this
owing to the additional current selec-
current, i.e. ≤ 10 kA. With asymmetrical configurations and tivity, be more favorable than with
with infeeds and outgoing feeders two units since the characteristic dis-
Parallel operation permits addi- located at the busbars, short-circuit placement factor is > 2 and < 3.
tional current selectivity by means current distribution will differ accord- Once again, LS-releases are required
of a shift in the tripping curve (I i) ing to the impedance ratio along the for the circuit-breakers in the infeeds
of the LS-releases of the infeed cir- incoming feeder lines. in order to achieve unequivocal selec-
cuit-breaker
tivity ratios.
Additional current selectivity with
parallel transformer operation
In the grading diagram, the tripping
curve of circuit-breakers Q2 and Q3
must, therefore, be considered in
relation to the base current of the
circuit-breaker Q1.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

a) Fault at the outgoing feeder of the b) Fault at the outgoing feeder of the
centre busbar section outer busbar section

I k Part 1 I k Part 2 I k Part I k Part


Q1 Q2 Q3 Q1 Q2 Q3

Q4 Q5 Q4 Q5

With three infeeds and fault


With three infeeds, the ratios are
3 .I k 2 .I k Part
different according to which of the
I kΣ I kΣ
outgoing feeders shown in Fig. 3/32a
and b is faulted.
In the center busbar section
Fig. 3/32 Distribution of the short-circuit currents used in determining the settings for the over- If a fault occurs at the outgoing
current release in the tie breakers Q4 and Q5 with three infeeds and faults a and b feeder of the center busbar section
in the outgoing feeders of different busbar sections
(Fig. 3/32a), approximately equal par-
tial short-circuit currents flow through
Additional I-release necessary Selecting the circuit-breakers the tie breakers Q4 and Q5.
Furthermore, it is necessary to pro- The type of device used in the outgo- In the outer busbar section
vide additional I-releases to allow a ing feeders and the selectivity ratios If a fault occurs at the outgoing
fault between the transformer and depend primarily on whether feeder of the outer busbar section,
feeder circuit-breaker to be detected circuit-breakers with current-zero (Fig. 3/32b), two partial short-circuit
as shown in Fig. 3/30. For this pur- cut-off, i.e. without current limiting, currents flow through the tie breaker Q4.
pose, the S-releases of circuit-break- or with current limiting are used as
ers Q1 to Q3 must be set to a value tie breakers. Computer-assisted selectivity check
< I k and the I-releases to a value Precise values for the short-circuit cur-
Instantaneous, current-limiting tie rents flowing through the tie breakers
> I k, but < I k∑. The highest and low-
breakers relieve the outgoing circuits are required to permit optimum set-
est fault currents are important here.
of the effects of high unlimited total ting of the overcurrent releases. They
Due to the I-releases, only the
peak short-circuit currents I p and, provide information concerning selec-
faulted transformer infeed will trip
therefore, permit the use of less tive characteristics with a large num-
on the high-voltage and low-voltage
complex and less expensive circuit- ber of different fault currents and are
side. The circuit-breakers in the
breakers. determined and evaluated with the aid
”sound” infeeds remain operative.
of a computer program.
Note on setting the overcurrent
Parallel-connected infeeds via
releases in tie breakers Selectivity and undervoltage
tie breakers
The values set for the overcurrent protection
Protective functions under
releases must be as high as possible If a short circuit occurs, the system
fault conditions
in order to prevent operational inter- voltage collapses to a residual voltage
Tie breakers must perform the follow-
ference caused by the tie breakers at the short-circuit location. The mag-
ing protective functions in fault
opening at relatively low short-circuit nitude of the residual voltage de-
situations:
currents, e.g. in the outgoing feeders pends on the fault impedance. With a
C instantaneous release with faults
of the sub-distribution boards. ”dead” short circuit, the fault imped-
in the vicinity of the busbars and
C relief of outgoing feeders of the With two infeeds ance and, therefore, the voltage at
effects of high total short-circuit With two infeeds and depending on the short-circuit location drops to al-
currents. the fault location (left or right busbar most zero. Generally speaking, how-
section or feeder), only the associ- ever, arcs with arc-drop voltages be-
ated partial short-circuit current tween approximately 30 V and 70 V
(e.g. I k Part 2) flows through the occur with short circuits.
tie breaker Q3 as shown in Fig. 3/31.

3/47 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 48

a) Short circuit at sub-distribution board b) Short circuit at main distribution board

Q3 Q3

0.5.U e 0.13.Ue
Main distribution
board

Q2 Q2
td ≥
70 ms

80 m K2
3 x 95 mm2 Cu
0.13.Ue
Sub-distribution
board

Q1 Q1
td = 0 Ue Rated operating
K1 current
td Delay time

Fig. 3/33 Voltage ratios for short-circuited LV switchgear with a main and sub-distribution board

Ik1 F1 a F2 Ik2

Ik3

F3 Ik3 = Ik1+Ik2

Ik1+Ik2+Ik4 K1

Ik4
Ik Ik
b

Ik

Fig. 3/34 Short-circuited cable with its two Fig. 3/35 Example of a meshed system with multi-phase infeed
incoming feeder nodes a and b

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

This voltage, starting at the fault loca- Tripping delay for contactors Permissible current ratio
tion, increases proportionately to the and undervoltage releases Selectivity of the fuses at node ”a” is
intermediate impedance with increas- Undervoltage releases and contactors achieved if fuse F3, through which
ing proximity to the power source. with tripping delay are required to en- the total current I k3 flows, melts and
sure that the selective overcurrent pro- fuse F1 or F2, through which the par-
Fig. 3/33 illustrates the voltage ratios
tection is not interrupted prematurely. tial short-circuit current I k1 or I k2
in LV switchgear with a ”dead” short
This is not necessary if current-limiting flows, remain operative. In the case
circuit.
circuit-breakers with a maximum total of Siemens LV HRC fuses, the per-
If a short circuit occurs at K1 (Fig. 3/33a), clearing time of 10 ms are used. missible current ratio I k1 /(I k1 + I k2)
the rated operating voltage Ue drops for high short-circuit currents is 0.8.
to 0.13 Ue at the busbar of the sub- 3.3.2 Selectivity in
distribution board and to 0.5 · Ue at Meshed Systems Power transformers in meshed
the busbar of the main distribution systems
Two selectivity functions must be
board. The next upstream circuit-
performed in meshed systems: Feeder circuit-breaker with
breaker Q1 clears the fault. Depend-
network master relay
ing on the size and type of the circuit- 1. Only the short-circuited cable may
In multi-phase meshed systems
breaker, the total breaking time is be disconnected from the system.
(Fig. 3/35), i.e. infeed via several MV
30 ms for zero-current interrupters 2. If a short-circuit occurs at the ter-
lines and transformers, power feed-
and a maximum of 10 ms for current- minals of an infeed transformer,
back from the LV system to the fault
limiting circuit-breakers. only the faulted terminal may be
location shall be prevented if a fault
disconnected from the system.
If a short-circuit occurs at K2 (Fig. 3/33b), occurs in a transformer substation or
the circuit-breaker Q2 opens. It is MV line. A network master relay
Node fuses
equipped with a short-time-delay (reverse power relay) and a ”circuit-
overcurrent release (S). The delay The nodes of a meshed LV system breaker for mesh-connected sys-
time is at least 70 ms. During this are normally equipped with cables tems” are required for this purpose.
time, the rated operating voltage at with the same cross-section and with This is a three-pole circuit-breaker,
the busbar of the main distribution LV HRC fuses of utilization category possibly without overcurrent release,
board is reduced to 0.13 · Ue. gL of the same type and rated current but with a capacitor-delayed shunt re-
(Fig. 3/34). lease (open-circuit shunt release with
If the rated operating voltage drops to
memory).
0.7 – 0.35 times this value and the If a short circuit (K1) occurs along
voltage reduction lasts longer than ap- the meshed system cable, the short- If a short circuit occurs on the HV
proximately 20 ms, all of the circuit- circuit currents I k3 and I k4 flow to the side of the transformer (K1) or be-
breakers with undervoltage releases fault location. Short-circuit current I k3 tween the transformer and network
open. All contactors also open if the from node ”a” comprises the partial circuit-breaker (K2) or along the cable
rated control supply voltage collapses currents I k1 and I k2 which may differ (K3) (Fig. 3/36), the HV HRC fuse op-
to below 75% of its rated value for greatly depending on the impedance erates on the HV side; on the LV side,
longer than 5 to 30 ms. ratios. power flows back to the fault location
via the network circuit-breaker.
.
The open-circuit shunt release re-
ceives the tripping pulse from the
network master relay. The fault loca-
tion is thus selectively disconnected
from the power system.

3/49 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 50

Network circuit-breaker
without S-release
If the outgoing transformer feeders
are protected by network master re- 120
Ue
lays, no S-release is provided or the ms
value set for this release is so high K3 t 0.6.Ue
that the thermal overload capability of 100
0.3.Ue
the transformer can be fully utilized.

Network master relays 80

Network master relays are used in


conjunction with circuit-breakers for a 60
mesh-connected systems.
K1
In multi-feed LV power systems, they
ensure fast, selective disconnection 40
of a damaged MV cable from the
connected transformer substations. K2
The relay detects a reversal in the b S 20
flow of power if, in the event of a
short circuit in an MV feeder cable of
a HV HRC fuses
the meshed system, high currents 0
b Network circuit- 0 20 40 A 60
flow through the LV power system c breaker with network I
and the transformers of the damaged master relay
MV cable to the fault location. c Node fuses

To prevent errors, however, the net-


work master relay permits circulating Fig. 3/36 Single-line diagram showing the Fig. 3/37 Tripping characteristic of the net-
currents up to the same value as the infeed point of a meshed LV work master relay 7RM with stan-
power system dard setting (6 A)
rated current at the rated voltage
(setting can be varied between
2 A and 6 A using the spring bias). Circuit-breakers for The total short-circuit current may be
Fig. 3/37 shows the tripping charac- mesh-connected networks higher than the short-circuit current
teristic for the standard setting of of the relevant transformer.
6 A and for various other voltages. Circuit-breaker selection
Technical details regarding network
When selecting this circuit-breaker
master relays and circuit-breakers for
and its rated switching capacity, it is
mesh-connected networks can be
important to remember that the high-
found in the literature supplied by the
est short-circuit current must be ex-
manufacturer.
pected in the event of a short circuit
between the transformer terminals
and the circuit-breaker. In this case,
the total short-circuit current of all
the infeed points flows through the
meshed system and the circuit-
breaker to the short-circuit location.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3.4 Protection of Reactor-connected capacitors


The capacitors must be provided with
Harmonics suppression by
means of filter circuits
Capacitors reactors to prevent resonance (see An alternative solution would be to
”Electrical Installations Handbook”, use filter circuits to remove the ma-
According to IEC 60358 / VDE 0560
Section 1.6). An LC resonant circuit, jority of harmonics from the primary
Part 4, capacitor units must be suit-
whose resonance frequency is below system (see ”Electrical Installations
able for continuous operation with a
the lowest harmonic component Handbook”, Sections 1.6.3 and 1.6.4).
current whose r.m.s. value does not
(250 Hz) in the load current, is used The filter circuits are also series reso-
exceed 1.3 times the current which
instead of the capacitor. The capaci- nant circuits which, unlike the reactor-
flows with a sinusoidal voltage and
tor unit is thus inductive for all har- connected capacitors, are tuned pre-
rated frequency.
monic currents that occur in the load cisely to the frequencies of the har-
Owing to the above-mentioned di- current and can, therefore, no longer monic currents to be filtered. As a
mensioning requirements, no over- form a resonant circuit with the result, the impedance is almost zero.
load protection is provided for capaci- system reactance.
Short-circuit protection
tor units in the majority of cases
Settings for overload relays LV HRC fuses with utilization cate-
Capacitors in systems with If thermal time-delay overload relays gory gL are normally used in capacitor
harmonic components are used to provide protection against units for short-circuit protection.
The capacitors can only be over- overcurrents, the tripping value can be
A rated fuse current of 1.6 to 1.7 times
loaded in systems with devices which 1.3 to 1.43 times the rated current of
the rated capacitor current is required
generate high harmonics (e.g. genera- the capacitor since, allowing for the
to prevent the fuses from tripping in
tors and converter-fed drives). The permissible capacitance deviation, the
the overload range and when the ca-
capacitors, together with the series- capacitor current can be 1.1 · 1.3 = 1.43
pacitors switch.
connected transformer and short-cir- times the rated capacitor current.
cuit reactance of the primary system,
With transformer-heated overload
form an anti-resonant circuit. Reso-
relays or releases, a higher secondary
nance phenomena occur if the natural
current flows due to the changed
frequency of the resonant circuit
transformation ratio of the transform-
matches or is close to the frequency
ers caused by the harmonic compo-
of a harmonic current generated by
nents. This may result in premature
the power converter.
tripping.

3/51 3
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3.5 Protection of Current transformer rating for


protection purposes
3.5.1 Protection with
Overreaching Selectivity
Distribution Transformers Current transformers are subject to
Ideally, transformer feeders should
the standards DIN VDE 0414, Parts 1
The following devices are used for be protected by:
to 3, as well as IEC 185 and IEC 186.
protection tasks in medium-voltage
Current transformers with 5P or 10P HV HRC fuses
systems:
cores must be used for connecting High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity
HV HRC fuses protection equipment. (HV HRC) fuses used in conjunction
High-voltage high-rupturing-capacity with switch-disconnectors for rated
The required rated output and over-
(HV HRC) fuses usually used in con- transformer outputs of up to approx.
current factor must be determined on
junction with switch-disconnectors to 1,250 kVA for low switching rates, or
the basis of the information provided
protect radial feeders and transform-
in the protection relay descriptions. Circuit-breakers with protection
ers against short circuits.
Overcurrent protection Circuit-breakers with protection (see
Circuit-breakers with protection Overcurrent protection via current page 54) from approx. 800 kVA and
transformers for protecting cables for high switching rates; also when
Protection relays several circuit-breakers with S-re-
and transformer feeders can be either
Protection relays connected to cur- leases are arranged in series on the
two-phase or three-phase. The neu-
rent transformers (protection core) low-voltage side and selectivity is not
tral-point connection of the medium-
can be used to perform all protection- possible with upstream HV HRC
voltage network must be considered
related tasks irrespective of the mag- fuses.
here.
nitude of the short-circuit currents
and rated operating currents of the Relay operating currents with The anticipated selectivity ratios
required circuit-breakers. emergency generator operation must, therefore, be checked before
Care should be taken to ensure that the protection scheme is chosen and
Digital protection dimensioned.
Modern protection equipment is the operating currents of the protec-
controlled by microprocessors (digital tion relays provided for normal sys-
tem operation are also attained in the Protection by means of
protection) and supports all of the HV HRC fuses
protective functions required for a event of faults during emergency op-
medium-voltage outgoing feeder. eration using generators with rela- Dimensioning HV HRC fuses
tively low rated outputs. The rated current of the HV HRC
Protection as component of the fuses specified by the manufacturers
substation control and protection Three-phase time-overcurrent
protection for the rated output of each trans-
system former should be used when dimen-
Digital protection also allows operat- In the interests of future system
safety, it is advisable to configure the sioning the HV HRC fuses. The low-
ing and fault data, which can be called est rated current is dictated by the
up via serial data interfaces, to be col- time-overcurrent protection as a three-
phase system, irrespective of the rush currents generated when the
lected and stored. Digital protection transformers are energized and is
can, therefore, be incorporated in method of neutral-point connection.
1.5 to 2 times the rated transformer
substation control and protection currents.
systems as an autonomous
component.
Standards for protection relays
Static protection relays must comply
with the standards IEC 255 and
DIN VDE 0435-303.

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

HV HRC HV HRC HV HRC

Required
back-up
protection
zones LV HRC S
3WL
Minimum breaking current I a min
For the determination of the maxi- 3WL 400 V
a c
mum rated current it must be ob- LV HRC LV HRC
served that, with short circuits on a
LV HRC
transformer’s secondary side, the b
minimum breaking current I a min of
the fuse must be exceeded, affecting S 7RM network master relay
even the installation's busbar system.
Generally, the load on I a min is 4 to 5
Fig. 3/38 Protection zones of HV HRC back-up fuses necessary for various protection devices
times that of the transformer’s rated used on the low-voltage side
current. Between these limit values,
the fuse link can be chosen according
to selectivity.
40
Back-up protection with 10 kV

Base Ik < 9.5 kA


transmission range 20
tp
HV HRC fuses must ensure sufficient 10
400 A 630 A 100 A
F3 630 A
back-up protection in case of a possi- min 6
ble failure of the downstream protec- 400 kVA
4
tive device. The required transmis- Ukr 6%
sion range can be seen in Fig. 3/38, 2
F2 630 A
illustrated for three circuit diagrams.
1
The working range of the back-up
40 0.4 kV
protection increases with the de-
F1 ≤ 400 A
creasing protective rated current of 20
the fuse. F1 F2 F3
10 I k < 9.5 kA
s
Safety clearances between the 6
melting current characteristic of 4 >25% Safety margin
HV HRC fuses and other protective
2
devices Ia min
1
Rated currents of LV HRC fuses must
600
be selected in such a way that, be-
400
tween the established maximum
short-circuit current near the low-volt- 200
age side’s busbar system (converted
to the medium-voltage side) and the 100
ms
minimum breaking current I a min (cir- 60
cle in the melting current characteris- 40
tic), a minimum safety clearance of 20
25% is observed from I a min to the
transformer’s short-circuit current I k 10
(see Fig. 3/39 to 3/43). 6
A at 0.4 kV 1000 2000 3000 5000 7500 10000 20000 50000
A at 10 kV 40 80 120 200 400 800 2000
I
t p Prearcing time for fuses
Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse

Fig. 3/39 Example showing grading of HV HRC with LV HRC fuses in infeed circuits

3/53 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 54

current 630 A) are mainly used for


40 transformers with rated outputs of up
10 kV
20 to 400 kVA; circuit-breakers with
t k, t vs F1 F2 100 A overcurrent releases are used on the
630 A 100 A (160) A

Base Ik <15
10 F2 (optionally
160 A) low-voltage side for rated outputs
min 6 S n = 630 kVA ≥ 500 kVA.
4 Ukr = 6%
1000/ . . A
Ik max = 15 kA Tangent prearcing time/current
2 Ring inter- Ring inter- characteristics F2 (LV HRC) and F3
connection Q1 connection
S (HV HRC) – referred to 0.4 kV – and
1 630 A 630 A
Ik R.1 IkT Ik R.2 possible tripping of the switch discon-
40
Q1 0.4 kV nector on the medium-voltage side by
F1 630 A
20 the upstream HV HRC fuse are ac-
ceptable, since both fuses protect the
IkΣ=
10 Ik T+Ik R.1+Ik R.2 same system element and interrup-
s
6 ≈25% Safety margin tion will occur in all cases (restricted
Ia min required
4 selectivity). HV HRC fuses with higher
Scatter band rated currents (e.g. 160 A as shown
2
in Fig. 3/40) would not be suitable
Reverse
1 protection
here, since their minimum breaking
600 current I a min is 12 kA, i.e. well above
400 the short-circuit current I k which the
transformer can carry (max. 9.5 kA).
200

100
Grading of HV HRC fuses with
ms circuit-breakers for mesh-con-
60
40 nected systems and downstream
LV HRC fuses
20
Selecting the HV HRC fuse rating
10 In meshed systems with several
6 transformers and parallel system op-
A at 0.4 kV 1000 2000 3000 5000 10000 20000 50000 eration, the LV feeder circuit-breakers
A at 10 kV 40 80 120 200 400 800 2000 are not fitted with overcurrent re-
tk Command time for network master relay of circuit-breaker Q1
I leases (LS) but, instead, have sepa-
t vs Virtual prearcing time of fuses rate 7RM19 network master relays
Ik Short-circuit current with individual transformer operation which only respond to reverse cur-
Q1 Tripping characteristic for network master relay S set to 1.2 In transf. = 1,200 A rents.
Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse Given the absence of the LS-release
as a grading element, the back-up
Fig. 3/40 Example showing grading with HV HRC fuses – network master relay in the
protection range of the HV HRC fuse
infeed – and LV HRC fuses in the outgoing feeder; transformer rating 630 kVA
must be extended as shown in Fig.
3/38, case b. In Fig. 3/40, this is
Further data on safety margins for Grading of HV with LV HRC fuses achieved by selecting the HV HRC
gradings as shown in Fig. 3/38, case in infeed circuits fuse with the lower current rating.
b and c, for example, can be found in
Grading with LV HRC fuses
the following sections.
Example of a transformer with a rated
output of 400 kVA (Fig. 3/39): LV HRC
fuse switch-disconnectors or motor
fuse-disconnectors (maximum rated

3/54 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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System Protection / Safety Coordination

The proximity of the characteristics


F1 and F2 does not have a detrimen-
40
tal effect on selectivity in this case, 10 kV
since the ring interconnections also 20 F1

Base Ik <15 kA
t s, td
function as infeeds in the event of a 400 A (630 A) 100 A
10 F2
fault, which means that selectivity is F2 (optional 160 A)
min 6
improved as a result of the total Not 100 A (160 A) 630 kVA
4 selective Ukr 6%
short-circuit current I k∑ in the feeder
3 WL1
being distributed among the infeeds 2 L 1000 A
Q1 S
(with the two ring interconnections in t d=220 ms
Fig. 3/40). This is possible because a 1 Q1
higher short-circuit current (I k∑) flows 40 0.4 kV
F1 400 (630) A
through the LV HRC fuse F1 than
20
through the HV HRC fuse F2 (I kT).
Selective I sd=6 kA Ik <15 kA
10
s
Grading of HV HRC fuses with low- ≈25% Safety margin
6 Ia min (requirement)
voltage circuit-breakers and down- 4
stream LV HRC fuses using a Scatter band
630 kVA transformer as an example 2
Setting
Requirements 1 range S
600 Q1
Selectivity is required between the
protection devices of the feeders and 400 td
Safety margin 100 ms
those of the infeed, which form a
200 Safety margin 100 ms
functional unit; a safety margin of at (required)
least 100 ms is necessary between 100
ms
the characteristic of an LV HRC fuse 60
and that of an S-release (Fig. 3/41). 40

Between LV HRC fuses and 20


S-releases
Thus, selectivity is achieved with the 10

400 A LV HRC fuse-link used in the 6


A at 0.4 kV 1000 2000 3000 5000 10000 20000 50000
example. The setting and delay time
A at 10 kV 40 80 120 200 400 800 2000
td must be adjusted with the S-re-
I
lease (6 kA setting). tn Prearcing time for fuses
t d Delay time for S-release
In such cases, selectivity can be Minimum breaking current Ia min of HV HRC fuse
achieved more easily using downstream
circuit-breakers, e.g. SENTRON WL
(Fig. 3/43), or using a considerably Fig. 3/41 Example showing the grading of HV HRC fuses F2 with circuit-breaker Q1 and
more powerful transformer, the associ- downstream LV HRC fuse F1 in the outgoing feeder
ated circuit-breaker enables the S-re-
lease to be set to a higher value.

3/55 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 56

Between HV HRC fuses


and S-releases 40
10 kV
Since the protection devices in the in-
20

Base Ik <15 kA
feed form a functional unit, a restric- t s, tv
F1 100 A
tion in selectivity in the upper short- 10 F2
630 A F2 (optionally 160 A)
circuit current range is accepted in min 6 not selective
100 A (160 A) 630 kVA
the case of faults in the vicinity of the (choose Q1)
4 Ukr 6%
busbars (as indicated by the circle in 3 WL1
the diagram) for the 100 A HV HRC 2 L 1000 A
Q2 S
t d2=220 ms
fuse in Fig. 3/42.
1 Q2
Safety margin between HV HRC 40 0.4 kV
F1 Q1 3 WL1
fuse and S-release 630 A
20 630 A
If, on the other hand, selectivity is re- td1=
quired, e.g. with different switching I sd =6 kA Ik <15 kA 100 ms
10
s Q2
priorities at the two voltage levels or ≈25% Safety margin
6 Ia min (required)
in order to avoid the medium-voltage 4
switchgear having to be switched off, Scatter band
for example, when HV HRC fuses are 2 “L“ characteristic Q1
not shown
replaced, there should be a safety
1 I sd =3.6 kA
margin of approximately 100 ms on
600 selective
the base line I k between the charac- 400
teristic curve of the S-release and the t d2=220 ms td2 Safety margin ≈100 ms
left-hand limit of the scatter band of 200 Safety margin
the prearcing-time/current character- ≥100 ms td1
100 t d1=100 ms
istic of the HV HRC fuse. ms
60
Scatter band of HV HRC fuses 40 More pronounced intersection of
According to EN 60 282-1/ DIN Q1 and F2 must be avoided if possible
20
VDE 0670-4, the scatter band width
of HV HRC fuse-links can be ± 20%. 10
Siemens HV HRC fuse-links have a
6
scatter band width of ± 10%. A at 0.4 kV 1000 2000 3000 5000 10000 20000 50000

Result: A at 10 kV 40 80 120 200 400 800 2000


I
When selecting circuit-breakers in- tn Prearcing time for fuses
stead of low-voltage fuses, selectivity t d1 Delay time for S-release (Q1)
can easily be attained, overlapping of t d2 Delay time for S-release (Q2)
Minimum breaking current Ia min
characteristics Q1 and F2 should be
avoided, as it could result in erro-
neous tripping. For such cases, HV Fig. 3/42 Example showing the grading of HV HRC fuses F2 with circuit-breaker Q2
HRC fuse-links with a higher rated and downstream circuit-breaker Q1 with LS-release in the outgoing feeder
current should be chosen.

3/56 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


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System Protection / Safety Coordination

Protection by means of circuit-


40 breakers with definite-time over-

Base IkT <15 kA (individual operation)


10 kV current protection (DMT)
20 630 A
t s, td,t o Q3 tI > ≈ 500 ms Requirement
F1
10 400 A The two feeder circuit-breakers (in
min I>
6 60/1 A Fig. 3/43) form a functional unit and
I>>
4 require selectivity with respect to
630 kVA
Q3 U kr 6% the protection devices on the low-
2 I> = 200 A 3 WL voltage side.
L 1000 A
1 L Q2 Q2 S
t d = 220 ms Outgoing feeders with
40 H.V.
LV HRC fuses
0.4 kV
20 F1 L If low-voltage fuses are connected
S = 6 kA I
Q2 400 A Q1 downstream, selectivity with circuit-
10 630 A
s breakers with mechanical releases
6 Ik <15 kA
(3WF) can only be achieved up to a
4 certain maximum fuse current rating;
Setting
2 range S in the example, Q2 with mechanical
S-releases (setting range 3 to 6 kA)
1 ≤ 400 A for F1. Larger LV HRC fuses
600 tc > ≈ 500 ms are also selective if SENTRON WL
400 Safety margin circuit-breakers with an S-release
t d ≈ 220 ms ≈ 300 ms
range of 2 to 12 · I r are used.
200 Q2
Safety margin
≥ 100 ms I>> = 792 A Outgoing feeders with mixed
100
ms Q3 components
60 tc ≈ 50 ms If outgoing feeders with mixed com-
40 I ponents are used, the safety margin
6 kA
20 of at least 100 ms relative to the
largest permissible LV HRC fuse-link
10 Q1 t o for F1 is the crucial factor in determin-
6 ing the setting for the S-release of
A at 0.4 kV 1,000 2,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 50.000
Q2. In the case of mechanical S-re-
A at 10 kV 40 80 120 200 400 800 2,000 leases with the highest current set-
I
to Opening time of circuit-breaker (Q1) ting of 6 kA, this results in a delay
td Delay time of “S“ release (Q2) time td of 220 ms for the smallest
tvs Prearcing time of fuses F1 permissible safety margin of 100 ms.
tc Command time of DMT protection (Q3)
This determines the starting point for
all subsequent upward and down-
Fig. 3/43 Example showing the grading of circuit-breaker with DMT protection (Q3), SENTRON ward gradings in the diagram.
WL circuit-breaker, 1000 A with LS-releases (Q2) and downstream outgoing feeders,
e.g. 400 A LV HRC fuse (F1) and 630 A distribution circuit-breaker (Q1) in a 630 kVA Outgoing feeders with
transformer feeder circuit-breaker
Since selectivity cannot be achieved
using LV HRC fuses with a higher
current rating (see Fig. 3/41), circuit-
breakers with time or, if possible,
current grading should be used.

3/57 3
TIP_Kap3_E 11.08.2005 18:44 Uhr Seite 58

Based on the assumption that verifi- Selecting current transformers


IrT · 100% __________
36,4 A · 100%
cation of the short-circuit currents for DMT protection I kT = _______ = = 606.6 A
would show that current grading The following points should be ob- ukr 6%
would be possible, a 630 A (Q1) dis- served when selecting current trans- Operating current = I kT · 1.2 = 728 A
tribution circuit-breaker with LI-re- formers for DMT protection (these
Operating current (in secondary circuit) =
leases was selected. considerations are applied in the ex-
ample shown in Fig. 3/43): 728 A
Intersection of the characteristics Q2 I p = ______ ≈ 12.1 A
Current transformers with a rating of 60/1
and Q3 in the middle short-circuit
40 to 200 A could be selected for rated
range is permissible because:
currents of 36.4 A on the high-voltage
C the L-release of the low-voltage side of the 630 kVA transformer, with 3.5.2 Equipment for Protect-
circuit-breaker Q1 (not shown in the characteristic Q3 I> at 200 A po- ing Distribution Transform-
Fig. 3/43) protects the transformer sitioned at the abscissa for 10 kV and ers (against Internal Faults)
against overloading, which only with the broad setting ranges. Here, it
The following signaling devices and
occurs in the range 1–1.3 times the is important to bear in mind the
protection equipment are used to
rated current of the transformer; higher investment costs for current
detect internal transformer faults:
transformers with lower rated primary
C there is a safety margin of ≥ 150 ms
currents. C Devices for monitoring and protect-
(≈300 ms in the example shown in
ing liquid-cooled transformers such
Fig. 3/43) between the I > tripping If, for example, 60/1 A current trans-
as Buchholz protectors, tempera-
value of the DMT protection and formers are selected, the current
ture detectors, contact thermome-
the LV HRC fuse characteristic F1 sensors must be set as follows:
ters, etc.
and selectivity is, therefore,
Setting the current sensors I>, I>>
achieved. C Temperature monitoring systems
and timing elements
for GEAFOL® resin-encapsulated
Higher rated transformer outputs Current sensor I >:
transformers comprising
and broader setting ranges for the The setting for a selected operating
S-release of Q2 make it easier for the value of 200 A is as follows: – temperature sensors in the
characteristic Q3 I > to be shifted to low-voltage winding and
200 A
the left of the characteristic Q2 s. I p = ______ = 3.3 A
60/1 – signaling and tripping devices in
This also provides a certain degree of
the incoming-feeder switch panel.
back-up protection with respect to Timing element for I > excitation:
the L-release of circuit-breaker Q2. The thermistor-type thermal protec-
ti> = 0.5 s
tion protects the transformer against
DMT protection
overheating resulting from increased
Nowadays, digital devices are used to Current sensor I>>: ambient temperatures or overloading.
provide DMT protection in practically The current sensor I>> should only re- Furthermore, it allows the full output
all applications. They have broader spond to faults on the high-voltage of the transformer to be utilized irre-
setting ranges, allow a choice be- side (in the shortest possible time). spective of the number of load cycles
tween definite-time and inverse-time Operating current I>> approximately without the risk of damage to the
overcurrent protection or overload I kT · 1.20 transformer.
protection, provide a greater and (safety margin relative to I kT)
more consistent level of measuring These signaling and protection de-
accuracy and are self-monitoring. vices do not have to be included in
the grading diagrams (e.g. Fig. 3/29).

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System Protection / Safety Coordination

3/59 3
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:47 Uhr Seite B2

4 Medium Voltage
4.1 Medium-Voltage and Circuit-Breaker Switchgear for Primary Power
Distribution
4.2 Secondary Distribution Systems, Switchgear and Substations
4.3 Medium-Voltage Equipment, Product Range
4.4 PQM® – Power Quality Management and Load Flow Control
4.5 Planning of Systems for Primary and Secondary Power Distribution
Exemplified by the Automotive Industry
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:47 Uhr Seite B3

Medium Voltage

chapter 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:47 Uhr Seite 2

4 Medium Voltage

Standards Insulation Busbar Compartments Accidental Switching


system arc device 4)
qualification

Access Operational Compartme


option availability ntalization class

Type-tested Interlocking control LSC 2B PM IAC CB, SD,


indoor circuit-breaker/cable (three-compartment (metal-clad) (IEC 60298)
switchgear compartment, design + isolating
acc. to or tool-dependent distances to busbar
IEC 62271-200 busbar/cable CB, SD,
and cable) contactor1)
(IEC 60298) compartment

CB, SD,
contactor 2)

CB, SD,
contactor 2)
Single
CB

Interlocking control LSC 2A PM IAC CB, SD,


circuit-breaker/cable (two-compartment design (metal-clad) (IEC 60298)
compartment, + isolating distances to
Air- or tool-dependent
insulated busbar and cable) CB, SD,
busbar/cable
compartment contactor 1)

Interlocking control to LSC 1 (isolating distances – IAC CB, SD,


the high-voltage to busbar and cable)
compartment

Interlocking control LSC 2B PM IAC CB


Double circuit-breaker/cable (metal-clad) (IEC 60298)
compartment, (three-compartment
or tool-dependent design + isolating
busbar/cable distances to busbar CB
compartment and cable)

Busbar compartment: No restriction PM IAC CB, SD,


tool-based (metal-clad) (IEC 60298) contactor
Single Circuit-breaker
compartment: CB
not accessible
Cable compartment:
tool-based CB
Gas-
insulated
Busbar compartment: No restriction PM IAC CB, SD,
tool-based (metal-clad) (IEC 60298) contactor
Double Circuit-breaker
compartment: CB
not accessible
Cable compartment:
tool-based CB

Table 4/1 Medium-voltage switchgear

4/2 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:47 Uhr Seite 3

Medium Voltage

4.1 Medium-Voltage Every operator or user of medium-volt-


age primary distribution equipment,
dependence, maintenance-free design,
compactness, security of investment,
and Circuit-Breaker whether they be power supply or indus- cost-efficiency, serviceability and flexibil-
Switchgear for Primary trial companies or power stations,
places special demands on the
ity – to suit the demand.

Power Distribution switchgear. These include, for example,


You definitely make the right decision
with circuit-breaker switchgear from
high reliability, personal safety and low
Siemens. The complete range of
space requirements.
switchgear sets standards for the safe
In addition to appropriate voltage levels, and cost-efficient solution to your special
air or gas insulation, a differentiation is requirements.
made with respect to environmental in-

Isolating Switchgear Technical data


distance type

Maximum rated short-time Maximum rated Maximum rated


withstand current [kA], 1/3 s normal current of busbar normal current of feeder
[A] [A]
7.2 12 15 17.5 24 36 40.5 7.2 12 15 17.5 24 36 40.5 7.2 12 15 17.5 24 36 40.5
kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV

Withdrawable NXAIR 25/3 25/3 – – – – – 2,500 2,500 – – – – – 2,500 2,500 – – – – –


unit/truck

Withdrawable NXAIR M 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3 25/3 – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – –
unit/truck

Withdrawable NXAIR P 50/3 50/3 50/3 – – – – 4,000 4,000 4,000 – – – – 4,000 4,000 4,000 – – – –
unit/truck

Truck SIMOPRIME 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 – – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – – –

Truck 8BT2 – – – – – 31.5/3 – – – – – – 2,250 – – – – – – 2,000 –

Withdrawable NXAIR M – – – 25/3 25/3 – – – – – 2,500 2,500 – – – – – 2,500 2,500 – –


unit/truck

Truck 8BT1 25/1 25/1 – – – – – 2,250 2,250 – – – – – 2,000 2,000 – – – – –

Truck 8BT3 – – – – – 16/1 – – – – – – 1,250 – – – – – – 1,250 –

Withdrawable NXAIR M 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3 25/3 – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – –
unit/truck

Withdrawable NXAIR P 50/3 50/3 50/3 – – – – 4,000 4,000 4,000 – – – – 4,000 4,000 4,000 – – – –
unit/truck

Disconnector, NXPLUS C3) 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 25/3 25/3 –/3 –/3 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – –
fixed-mounted

Disconnector, NXPLUS 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000
fixed-mounted

Disconnector, 8DA 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
fixed-mounted

Disconnector, NXPLUS C3) 25/3 25/3 25/3 25/3 25/3 – – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – – 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 1,250 – –
fixed-mounted

Disconnector, NXPLUS 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 31.5/3 – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 – 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 –
fixed-mounted

Disconnector, 8DB 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 40/3 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
fixed-mounted
1) up to 7.2 kV 3) The product ranges of single busbars and busbars can be combined with each other.
2) up to 12 kV 4) CB = circuit-breaker, SD = switch-disconnector

4/3 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:48 Uhr Seite 4

4.1.1 Withdrawable Circuit- Cost-efficiency of the switchgear switchgear, or in the fact that any
Breaker Switchgear, Decades of experience in the manu- customary cable sealing ends can
Air-Insulated facture of air-insulated medium-volt- be used.
age switchgear as well as type and
Service friendliness
NXAIR Family routine testing in accordance with
Switchgear maintenance intervals of
IEC 62271-200 ensure reliability. In-
Switchgear from the NXAIR family more than 10 years, minimized train-
ternal arc tests and self-explanatory
just makes solutions simpler, be- ing expenses due to the self-explana-
operating symbols ensure personal
cause it brings security into all signifi- tory operating symbols, and modern
safety and operational reliability.
cant decisions for future planning. documentation guarantee service
Rapid re-availability is achieved by
friendliness over the entire life of
Security of investment through in- the modular design and selectivity.
the product.
novative technology Flexibility shows itself in the choice
The novel modular design of between truck-type or withdrawable
switchgear panels allows rapid re-
availability because the individual
compartments (connection, module
and low-voltage compartment) can
be replaced after a fault inside the
switchgear panel. The bushing-type
current transformer principle, to-
gether with the pressure-resistant
partitions, allows the selective dis-
connection of an internal fault up to
31.5 kA by means of the associated
circuit-breaker. A mimic diagram with
self-explanatory operating symbols
for optimum operator prompting is in-
tegrated into the equipment front as
a standard feature. The numerical bay
controller family integrates protec-
tion, control, communication, operat-
ing and monitoring functions into one
device.

Photo 4/1 NXAIR

4/4 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:48 Uhr Seite 5

Medium Voltage

Rated

voltage kV 7.2 12

frequency Hz 50 50

short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 20 28 **

lightning surge withstand voltage kV 60 75

short-circuit breaking current max. kA 25 25

short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 25 25


NXAIR features
short-circuit making current max. kA 63 63
The air-insulated, metal-clad NXAIR
switchgear is the innovation on the peak withstand current max. kA 63 63
distribution level up to 12 kV, 25 kA,
normal current of busbar max. A 2,500 2,500
2,500 A.
normal current of feeders:
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
with circuit-breaker max. A 2,500 2,500
(LSC 2B)
with switch-disconnector max. A 800 * 800 *
C Uniform panel structure for all
versions * Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used
C Cable connection from the front ** Higher value on request
or rear
C Available as truck-type or with-
Table 4/2 NXAIR rating
drawable switchgear
C Bushing-type current transformers
permit selective shutdown of
feeders
C Panels resistant to internal arc
faults
C Exchange of the module and
connection compartment possible
C Switchgear modules with inte-
H2

grated interlocking and control


H1

board

W D

All panel types Dimensions in mm

Width W for all panels 800


(compartment)

Height H1 Standard, 2,000

H2 – with a high low-voltage cubicle 2,350


– with open-circuit ventilation
– with busbar fittings

Depth D for all panels 1,350

Photo 4/2 NXAIR switchgear panel Table 4/3 NXAIR dimensions

4/5 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:48 Uhr Seite 6

1 E
B
2 14
3
15 A
4 22
5
16
7 23
1234

8 17 24
9 D
10 18 25

26
19
11
12
C
20

21 28

29

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 14 Pressure relief duct A Module compartment


2 Protection equipment 15 Busbars B Busbar compartment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection 16 Bushing-type insulator C Connection compartment
system for feeder and busbar 17 Bushing-type current transformer D Vacuum vacuum circuit-breaker
4 High-voltage door to module compartment 18 Make-proof grounding switch module
5 Door knob for opening high-voltage door 19 Cable connection for 4 cables per phase E Low-voltage cubicle
7 Mechanical switch position indication and 20 Cable sealing ends
actuating opening for withdrawable part
21 Cable support rail
8 “Closing spring charged“ indicator and
operating cycle counter 22 Low voltage plug connector

9 Mechanical switch position indication for 23 Withdrawable part


switching device 24 Combined operating and interlocking unit
10 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switching for circuit-breaker, withdrawable part and
device grounding switch

11 Mechanical switch position indication and 25 Vacuum interrupters


actuating opening for make-proof groun- 26 Contact system
ding switch 28 Grounding busbar
12 Mimic diagram 29 Option: truck

Fig. 4/1 NXAIR circuit-breaker panel 12 kV / 1,250 A, basic panel design (example)

4/6 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:48 Uhr Seite 7

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnecting panel Switch-disconnector panel Spur panel

and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or

and/or or and/or or and/or or and/or

and/or or and/or or and/or or and/or

or or or or or and/or

and/or or and/or or and/or

and/or and/or

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible) Metering panel

Circuit- Riser
breaker panel
panel

and/or and/or or or

or and/or or

or or

and/or and/or

Fig. 4/2 NXAIR product range

4/7 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:48 Uhr Seite 8

Rated

voltage kV 7.2 12 15 17.5 24

frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage kV 20 28 35 38 50

lightning surge withstand voltage kV 60 75 95 95 125

short-circuit breaking current max. kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 25 25


NXAIR M features
short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 25 25
The air-insulated, cubicle-type or
short-circuit making current1) max. kA 80 80 80 63 63
metal-clad switchgear NXAIR M is
the consequent further development peak withstand current1) max. kA 80 80 80 63 63
of the NXAIR family for use on the
normal current of busbar max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
distribution and process level up to
15 kV, 31.5 kA, 2,500 A or 24 kA, normal current of feeders:
25 kA, 2,500 A. with circuit-breaker max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
with switch-disconnector max. A 800* 800* 800* 800* 800*
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad or with vacuum contactor max. A 400* – – – –
cubicle-type (LSC 2A, LSC 2B)
* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used
C Circuit-breaker, contactor and switch- 1)Values for 50 Hz
disconnector panels can be lined up
C Cable connection from the front Table 4/4 NXAIR M rating
or rear
C Available as truck-type or with-
drawable switchgear
C Bushing-type current transformers
permit selective shutdown of
feeders
C Panels resistant to internal arc faults
C Exchange of the module and con-
H3

nection compartment possible


H2

C Switchgear modules with inte-


H1

grated interlocking and control


board

W D

All panel types Dimensions in mm


Width W Standard 800
(compartment) with 24 kV / 2,500 A 1,000
with vacuum contactor panel 400
Height H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle 2,200
H2 – with attached air guides (standard) 2,550
– with a high low-voltage cubicle
– with open-circuit ventilation
H3 with busbar fittings 2,770
Depth D Single busbar cubicle-type2) 1,454
metal-clad 1,554
Vacuum contactor panel 1,650
Double busbar with cubicle-type2) 2,958
back-to-back installation metal-clad 3,158
2) For 24 kV only

Photo 4/3 NXAIR M switchgear panel Table 4/5 NXAIR M dimensions

4/8 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:48 Uhr Seite 9

Medium Voltage

30 30

B
1 E
14
2
A
3 15
4 22
5
23
7
16
8 1234
24
D
9 25
17
10
26
18

11 C
19
12

20 27

28
21
29

Circuit-breaker panel Metal-clad version

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle transformer 30


2 Protection equipment 18 Make-proof grounding switch
3 Option: capacitive voltage 19 Cable connection for
detection system for feeder 4 cables per phase B E
and busbar 20 Cable sealing ends
4 High-voltage door to module 21 Cable support rail
15 A
compartment
22 Low voltage plug connector
5 Door knob for opening 22
high-voltage door 23 Withdrawable part

7 Mechanical switch position 24 Combined operating and 23


indication and actuating interlocking unit for circuit-
opening for withdrawable part breaker, withdrawable part 16 24
and grounding switch
8 “Closing spring charged“ D
indicator and operating cycle 25 Vacuum switching tubes 25
17
counter 26 Contact system
9 Mechanical switch position 27 Lower partition 26
indication for switching 18
28 Grounding busbar
device C
29 Option: truck
10 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for 19
switching device 30 Air guide

11 Mechanical switch position


20
indication and actuating A Module compartment
opening for make-proof B Busbar compartment 28
grounding switch 21
C Connection compartment
12 Mimic diagram 29
D Vacuum circuit-breaker
14 Pressure relief duct module
15 Busbars E Low-voltage cubicle
16 Bushing-type insulator Cubicle-type version
17 Bushing-type current (feature: common module and connection compartment)

Fig. 4/3 NXAIR M, basic panel design (example)

4/9 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 10

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnecting panel Switch-disconnector panel Panels for double-busbar applications
Double-busbar switchgear is made up of
the product range of the single-busbar
panels, which are available as:
• vis-à-vis installation
• back-to-back installation
Vis-à-vis installation
• Panels from the product range of the
single-busbar systems (circuit-breaker
panel, bus sectionalizer and metering
panel)
• Connection of the two systems
with cables or bars below the panels
• Bus coupling, consisting of
– circuit-breaker panel
– disconnecting panel
and/or and/or and/or or and/or or Back-to-back installation
• Panels from the product range of the sin-
gle-busbar systems (circuit-breaker panel,
bus sectionalizer and metering panel)
and/or or and/or or and/or or • Connection of the two systems with bars
within the panels
• Bus coupling, consisting of
– circuit-breaker panel with current and
and/or or and/or or and/or and/or voltage transformers
– disconnecting panel, optionally with
current transformers
Note
or or or and/or
Double-busbar switchgear with busbar
disconnector attachment on request.

and/or and/or and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kV) Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible) Metering panel

and/or and/or and/or and/or or or

or

and/or or and/or and/or or and/or

and/or or or

or and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/4 NXAIR M product range

4/10 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 11

Medium Voltage

Rated

voltage kV 7.2 12 15

frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60

short-duration power-frequency
withstand voltage kV 20 28 35

lightning surge withstand voltage kV 60 75 95

short-circuit breaking current max. kA 50 50 50

NXAIR P features short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 50 50 50

The air-insulated, metal-clad short-circuit making current1) max. kA 125 125 125
switchgear NXAIR P is based on the peak withstand current1) max. kA 125 125 125
design principles of the NXAIR family
for use on the distribution and process normal current of busbar max. A 4,000 4,000 4,000
level up to 15 kV, 50 kA, 4,000 A. normal current of feeders:
with circuit-breaker max. A 4,000 4,000 4,000
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad with switch-disconnector max. A 800* 800* 800*
(LSC 2B) with vacuum contactor max. A 400* 400* –
C Circuit-breaker, contactor and
* Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used
switch-disconnector panels can 1)Values for 50 Hz
be lined up
C Cable connection from the front Table 4/6 NXAIR P rating
or rear
C Available as truck-type or with-
drawable switchgear
C Bushing-type current transformers
permit selective shutdown of feed-
ers up to 31.5 kA
C Panels resistant to internal arc
faults up to 31.5 kA
H3
H2

C Exchange of the module and con-


H1

nection compartment possible


C Switchgear modules with inte-
grated interlocking and control
board

W1 D
W2

All panel types (except for vacuum contactor panel) Dimensions in mm


Width ≤ 2,000 A (standard) 800
(compartment) > 2,000 A (with panel ventilation) 1,000
Height H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle 2,225
H2 with attached pressure relief duct 2,550
H3 with forced ventilation (4,000 A) 2,710
Depth D Single busbar 1,635
Double busbar with back-to-back installation 3,320

Vacuum contactor panel


Width W1 Standard 400
(compartment)
Height H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle 2,225
H2 with attached pressure relief duct 2,550
Depth D Single busbar 1,650

Photo 4/4 NXAIR P switchgear panel Table 4/7 NXAIR P dimensions

4/11 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 12

1 14
E
2
3 15 A
4
16
5
23
6
17 B
26

8 25

D
9 24
18

22
10
19
31
11
20
C 28
12
21
13 29

Circuit-breaker panel Panel 3,150 A with open-circuit ventilation

32 32

Panel 4,000 A with forced ventilation

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 11 Mechanical switch position indication 24 Drive unit


2 Protection equipment and actuating opening for make-proof 25 Vacuum switching tubes
grounding switch
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection system 26 Contact system
for feeder and busbar 12 Mimic diagram
28 Grounding busbar
4 High-voltage door to module compartment 13 Ventilation duct
29 Option: truck
5 Mechanical lifting device for opening 14 Pressure relief duct
31 Interlocking unit for circuit-breaker
high-voltage door 15 Busbars and grounding switch
6 Locking device for high-voltage door 16 Bushing-type insulator 32 Fan unit with fan
8 “Closing spring charged” indicator, switch 17 Bushing-type current transformer
position indication for switching device 18 Make-proof grounding switch
and operating cycle counter A Module compartment
19 Cable connection for 6 cables per phase B Busbar compartment
9 “ON/OFF” pushbuttons for switching
devices 20 Cable sealing ends C Connection compartment
10 Mechanical switch position indication and 21 Cable support rail D Vacuum circuit-breaker module
actuating opening for withdrawable part 22 Low voltage connector E Low-voltage cubicle
23 Withdrawable part

Fig. 4/5 NXAIR P, basic panel design (example)

4/12 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 13

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnecting panel Switch-disconnector panel Panels for double-busbar


applications
Double-busbar switchgear is
made up of the product range
of the single-busbar panels,
which are available as:
• vis-à-vis installation
• back-to-back installation
Vis-à-vis installation
• Panels from the product range
of the single-busbar systems
(circuit-breaker panel, bus sec-
tionalizer and metering panel)
• Connection of the two systems
with cables or bars below the
panels
• Bus coupling, consisting of
and/or or and/or or and/or or – circuit-breaker panel
– disconnecting panel
Back-to-back installation
and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or • Panels from the product range
of the single-busbar systems
(circuit-breaker panel, bus sec-
tionalizer and metering panel)
and/or and/or and/or • Connection of the two systems
with bars within the panels
• Bus coupling, consisting of
– circuit-breaker panel with
or or current and voltage transformers

and/or and/or

Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kV, 12 kV) Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible) Metering panel

and/or and/or and/or or or

or

and/or
and/or

and/or

Fig. 4/6 NXAIR P product range

4/13 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 14

SIMOPRIME features
Rated
The air-insulated, metal-clad voltage kV 7.2 12 15 17.5
switchgear SIMOPRIME is a factory-
assembled, type-tested indoor frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
switchgear for use on the distribution short-duration power-frequency
and process level up to 17.5 kV, withstand voltage kV 20 28 35 38
31.5 kA, 2,500 A.
lightning surge withstand voltage kV 60 75 95 95
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
short-circuit breaking current max. kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 31.5
(LSC 2B)
C Circuit-breaker, contactor and short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 31.5
switch-disconnector panels can
short-circuit making current max. kA 80 80 80 80/82
be lined up
C Cable connection from the front peak withstand current max. kA 80 80 80 80/82
or rear normal current of busbar max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
C Truck-type version
normal current of feeders:
C Use of block-type or ring-type
with circuit-breaker max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500
current transformers
with switch-disconnector max. A 630* 630* 630* 630*
C Panels resistant to internal arc faults
with vacuum contactor max. A 400* 400* – –
C All switching operations with
closed door * Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used
C Logic interlocks
Table 4/8 SIMOPRIME rating
H1
H2

W D

All panel types Dimensions in mm


Width W with circuit-breaker ≤ 1,250 A / vacuum contactor 600
(compartment) W with 2,500 A circuit-breaker, 800
disconnector truck or switch-disconnector
Height H1 with standard low-voltage cubicle 2,200
H2 with a high low-voltage cubicle 1,780
Depth D Standard 1,860

Photo 4/5 SIMOPRIME switchgear panel Table 4/9 SIMOPRIME dimensions

4/14 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 15

Medium Voltage

1
2
E
13
B
3 14
4
15
5 22
6 16
7
23
8 A
9
17
24
10
18
D

11
C
19

12
20

21

Circuit-breaker panel, 12 kV, 1,250 A

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 11 Openings for switch truck operation A Switchgear compartment
2 Opening for locking/unlocking the 12 Opening for grounding switch operation B Busbar compartment
low-voltage cubicle door 13 Pressure relief duct C Connection compartment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection 14 Busbars D Vacuum circuit-breaker truck
system for feeder and busbar
15 Bushings E Low-voltage cubicle
4 High-voltage door to switchgear
compartment 16 Insulators

5 Inspection window for identifying 17 Option: ring-type or block-type current


the switch truck transformer

6 Opening for locking or unlocking the 18 Option: make-proof grounding switch


high-voltage door 19 Cable sealing ends
7 Actuating opening for the mechanical 20 Option: current transformer
charging of the closing spring of the 21 Grounding busbar
circuit-breaker
22 Low-voltage plug connector
8 Openings for manual circuit-breaker
operation (CLOSED/OPEN) 23 Vacuum switching tubes

9 Inspection window for reading off 24 Switch truck


the indicators
10 Door knob

Fig. 4/7 SIMOPRIME, basic panel design (example)

4/15 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:49 Uhr Seite 16

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnecting panel Switch-disconnector panel Vacuum contactor panel

and/or or and/or or and/or and/or or

or

and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or

and/or and/or and/or and/or

and/or and/or

Bus sectionalizer (mirror-image version also possible) Metering panel

or and/or

Fig. 4/8 SIMOPRIME product range

4/16 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 17

Medium Voltage

8BT1 features
Rated 8BT1
The air-insulated, cubicle-type voltage kV 12
switchgear 8BT1 is a factory-assem-
bled, type-tested indoor switchgear frequency Hz 50
for the lower performance range, for short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 28
use on the distribution and process
level up to 12 kV, 25 kA, 2,250 A. lightning surge withstand voltage kV 75

short-circuit breaking current max. kA 25


C Metal-enclosed and cubicle-type
(LSC 2A) short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 25
C Circuit-breaker and contactor
short-circuit making current max. kA 63
panels can be lined up
C Cable connection from the front peak withstand current max. kA 63
C Truck-type version normal current of busbar max. A 2,250
C Use of block-type current trans-
formers normal current of feeders:
C Enclosure tested for resistance with circuit-breaker max. A 2,000
to accidental arcing or disconnector truck
with contactor max. A 400*
C All switching operations with
closed door * Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used
C Logic interlocks
Table 4/10 8BT1 rating
H

W D

Photo 4/6 8BT1 switchgear All panel types Dimensions in mm


Width W ≤ 1,000 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck, contactor 600
W 1,250 A, 2,500 A circuit-breaker, disconnector truck 800
Height H 2,050
Depth T 1,200

Table 4/11 8BT1 dimensions

4/17 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 18

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle


2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection
system for feeder and busbar 1
5 Door of high-voltage compartment 2
6 Inspection window for disconnector
position
7 Knob for high-voltage door
3
8 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for
switching device 5
9 Mechanical switch position 6
indication for switching device
7
10 Mechanical switch position indica-
tion “Spring charged“ and operating 8
cycle counter 9
11 Mechanical switch position indica-
tion and actuating opening of the 10
feeder grounding switch 11
12 Mechanical switch position indica- 12
tion and actuating opening for
establishing an isolating distance 13

13 Mimic diagram
14 Busbars
16 Block-type current transformer
17 Cable connection for 4 cables
max. per phase
18 Make-proof grounding switch 8BT1 switchgear

19 Cable sealing ends


20 Cable bracket
21 Low-voltage plug connector
22 Vacuum tube
23 Contact system top/bottom
24 Switch truck
14
25 Voltage transformer E

A Busbar compartment
B Connection compartment
C Switchgear compartment A
E Low-voltage cubicle 21

22
23

C
16
17

24
B
18
19 25

20

Feeder panel

Fig. 4/9 8BT1, basic panel design (example)

4/18 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 19

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnecting panel Spur panel Vacuum contactor panel (7.2 kW)

and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or

or

and/or or and/or or and/or and/or

and/or or and/or or and/or and/or

and/or or and/or or and/or

and/or and/or

Metering panel Bus sectionalizer Busbar termination panel

Switch Riser
truck panel
and/or panel

or and/or and/or or

and/or and/or

Fig. 4/10 8BT1 product range

4/19 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 20

8BT2 features
Rated 8BT2
The air-insulated, metal-clad voltage kV 36
switchgear 8BT2 is a factory-assem-
bled, type-tested indoor switchgear frequency Hz 50/60
for the lower performance range, for short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 70
use on the distribution and process
level up to 36 kV, 31.5 kA, 2250 A. lightning surge withstand voltage kV 170

short-circuit breaking current max. kA 31.5


C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad
(LSC 2B) short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 31.5
C Cable connection from the front
short-circuit making current max. kA 80/82
C Truck-type version
C Use of block-type current peak withstand current max. kA 80/82
transformers normal current of busbar max. A 2,250
C Enclosure tested for resistance
to accidental arcing normal current of feeders:
C All switching operations with with circuit-breaker max. A 2,000
closed door with contactor max. A –
with switch-disconnector max. A –
C Logic interlock

Table 4/12 8BT2 rating


H

W D

Photo 4/7 8BT2 switchgear All panel types Dimensions in mm


Width W 1,550
Height H 2,400
Depth D 2,450

Table 4/13 8BT2 dimensions

4/20 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 21

Medium Voltage

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle


2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection
system for feeder and busbar 1

4 Mimic diagram 2
5 Door of high-voltage compartment
6 Inspection window for disconnector 3
position
4
7 Knob for high-voltage door
5
8 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for 6
switching device
9 Mechanical switch position indica- 7
tion for switching device, “Spring
charged“ and operating cycle 8
counter
11 Actuating opening of the feeder
9
grounding switch
12 Actuating opening for establishing 11
an isolating distance 12
14 Busbars
15 Bushing to busbar or feeder
16 Block-type current transformer
17 Cable connection for 4 cables
max. per phase
18 Make-proof grounding switch
19 Cable sealing ends 8BT2 switchgear
20 Cable bracket
21 Low-voltage plug connector
22 Vacuum tube
23 Contact system top/bottom
24 Switch truck
25 Voltage transformer 14 C E
26 Grounding bus

A Busbar compartment
B Connection compartment
21
C Switchgear compartment A
E Low-voltage cubicle 15

22
23

B
16
17
24

18 25
19
26
20

Fig. 4/11 8BT2, basic panel design (example)

4/21 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 22

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnecting panel Spur panel

and/or and and/or and and/or

and/or or and/or or and/or

and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or

and/or and/or and/or

Metering panel Bus sectionalizer Busbar termination panel

Switch Riser
truck panel
and/or panel

or and/or
and/or or

and/or
and/or

Fig. 4/12 8BT2 product range

4/22 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 23

Medium Voltage

8BT3 features
Rated 8BT2
The air-insulated, cubicle-type voltage kV 36
switchgear 8BT3 is a factory-assem-
bled, type-tested indoor switchgear frequency Hz 50/60
for the lower performance range, for short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 70
use on the distribution and process
level up to 36 kV, 16 kA, 1,250 A. lightning surge withstand voltage kV 170

short-circuit breaking current max. kA 16


C Metal-enclosed and cubicle-type
(LSC 1) short-time withstand current, 3s max. kA 16
C Circuit-breaker panel, fixed-
short-circuit making current max. kA 40/42
mounted switch-disconnector
can be lined up peak withstand current max. kA 40/42
C Cable connection from the front normal current of busbar max. A 1,250
C Truck-type version
C Use of block-type current normal current of feeders:
transformers with circuit-breaker max. A 1,250
C Enclosure tested for resistance with contactor max. A –
with switch-disconnector max. A 400*
to accidental arcing
C All switching operations with * Depends on rated current of HV HRC fuses used
closed door
Table 4/14 8BT3 rating
C Logic interlock
H

W D

Photo 4/8 8BT3 switchgear All panel types Dimensions in mm


Width W 1,000
Height H 2,400
Depth D 1,450

Table 4/15 8BT3 dimensions

4/23 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 24

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle


2 Protection equipment
3 Option: capacitive voltage detection
1
system for feeder and busbar
5 Door of high-voltage compartment 2
6 Inspection window for disconnector
position
3
7 Knob for high-voltage door
8 “ON/OFF“ pushbuttons for switch-
ing device
9 Mechanical switch position indica-
tion “Spring charged“ and operating 5
cycle counter 6
10 Mechanical switch position indica- 7
tion “Spring charged“ and operat- 8
ing cycle counter
9
11 Mechanical switch position indica- 10
tion and actuating opening of the
feeder grounding switch 11
12 Mechanical switch position indica-
12
tion and actuating opening for
establishing an isolating distance 13
13 Mimic diagram
14 Busbars
16 Block-type current transformer
17 Cable connection for 2 cables
max. per phase 8BT3switchgear
18 Make-proof grounding switch
19 Cable sealing ends
20 Cable bracket
21 Low-voltage plug connector
22 Vacuum tube
14 E
23 Contact system top/bottom
24 Switch truck
25 Voltage transformer

D High-voltage cubicle
E Low-voltage cubicle D
21

22
23

16

17
24
18
25
19
20

Fig. 4/13 8BT3, basic panel design (example)

4/24 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 25

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnector truck panel Switch-disconnector panel

and/or and/or and/or

and/or and/or and/or

and/or and/or and/or

and/or and/or

Metering panel Busbar termination panel

or or

and/or and/or

Fig. 4/14 8BT2, 8BT3 product range

4/25 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 26

4.1.2 Fixed-Mounted NXPLUS C


Circuit-Breaker Switchgear, It is the first medium-voltage circuit-
SF6-Insulated breaker switchgear to make SF6 insu-
lation and vacuum technology cost-
NXPLUS Family efficient in its class – the compact
Switchgear of the NXPLUS family NXPLUS C for voltages up to 24 kV.
provides the plus in performance and Features:
is fit for any terrain. C Hermetically sealed pressure
Unique pressure system system with SF6 filling for the com-
This is the only switchgear world- plete service life
wide with hermetically sealed pres- C Type-tested switchgear – gets by
sure systems. This makes it inde- completely without any work on
pendent of external influences. the gas system during installation
Whether extreme climatic conditions and extensions
or most adverse conditions in conur- C Safe-to-touch enclosure and stand-
bations or industrial centers are ard connections for cable plugs of
concerned, our NXPLUS switchgear the outside-cone type
masters every environmental chal- C Three-pole SF6-insulated module
lenge. At the same time, no work for the three-position disconnector
on the gas system is required on and the circuit-breaker with panel
site, nor throughout the lifetime connection
of the system. C Single-pole-insulated and screened
busbars, plug-in system
Maintenance-free design C Operating mechanisms and trans-
Switchgear of the NXPLUS family re- formers easily accessible outside
quires no maintenance for life. This is the SF6 enclosure
achieved by the gas-tight enclosure C Reduced number of functional
of the high-voltage part, by using SF6 elements due to three-position Photo 4/9 NXPLUS C
as insulating medium and by mainte- disconnector used for isolating
nance-free operating mechanisms. and earthing the outgoing feeder
Insulation technology
Cost-efficiency C Dielectrically unstressed ring-type
Whether you decide for an NXPLUS current transformers C Switchgear container filled with
or an NXPLUS C – you opt for the C Make-proof grounding with vacuum SF6 gas
most compact dimensions, for the circuit-breaker C Characteristics of the SF6 gas:
highest voltages and switching C Measurements on the busbar pos- – nontoxic
capacities and thus certainly for sible without the need for additio- – odorless and uncolored
a cost-efficient solution. nal panels – non-flammable
C Aseismic version optionally – chemically neutral
available – heavier than air
– electronegative (high-quality
insulator)
C Pressure of the SF6 gas in the
switchgear container:
– Rated filling pressure: 150 kPa

4/26 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 27

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel (basic design)

1 1
15

2 16

17

18
– Design pressure: 180 kPa
Z 30
– Design temperature of the SF6 19
gas: 80 °C 20
– Operating pressure of the bursting
21
disc: ≥ 300 kPa 3
– Bursting pressure: ≥ 400 kPa 4 22
31
5 23
Panel configuration 6
24 32
C Factory-assembled, type-tested 7
C Metal-enclosed and metal-clad 25

C Switchgear container made of 33


26
stainless steel, hermetically tight 27
welded, without any sealings 34
28
C Single-pole busbars with solid
insulation, screened, plug-in type 29
C No maintenance required
C Degree of protection
– IP65 for all high-voltage sections
Front view Cable connection from the front
of the primary conducting path
– IP3XD for the switchgear enclosure Detail Z 14 Actuating opening for “READY TO
8 GROUND” function of three-position
C Vacuum circuit-breaker and vacuum disconnector
contactor 9
15 Option: busbar current transformer,
C Three-position disconnector for 10 plug-in type
isolating/grounding via the 11 16 Busbar, single-pole, fully insulated,
circuit-breaker 12
plug-in type, external surface grounded
C Three-position switch-disconnector 13
17 Option: busbar current transformer
C Make-proof grounding with the 14
18 Switchgear container, hermetically welded,
filled with SF6 gas
help of the vacuum circuit-breaker
19 Three-position disconnector
C Cable connection with outside
1 Low-voltage cubicle 20 OFF pushbutton for circuit-breaker
cone plug-in system acc. to
2 SIPROTEC 4 multifunction protection 21 Vacuum interrupter of circuit-breaker
DIN EN 50181
(example) 22 Pressure disc (bursting disc)
C For wall-mounting and stand-alone
3 Switch position indicator of circuit-breaker 23 Capacitive voltage detection system
installation
4 Actuating opening for the charging of 24 Locking device for “Feeder grounded“
C Installation and possible later ex- the circuit-breaker springs (suitable for locking with padlock)
pansions of existing panels without 5 ON pushbutton for circuit-breaker 25 Disconnecting device for feeder voltage
any gas works 6 “Spring charged“ indicator transformer
C Exchange of the switchgear con- 7 Counter for circuit-breaker 26 Bushing feeder voltage transformer
tainer without any gas works 8 Switch position indicator for “ISOLATING“ 27 Option: feeder voltage transformer
C Transformer can be removed without function of three-position disconnector 28 Option: pressure relief duct
any gas works since it is arranged 9 Ready-for-service indicator 29 Cable connection compartment
outside the gas compartment 10 Switch position indicator for “READY 30 Operating mechanism for three-position
TO GROUND” function of three-position
C Sheet-steel enclosure with sendzimir disconnector
disconnector
coating, front and end walls var- 31 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism
11 Preselection slide and locking device for
nished with the color „light basic“ “ISOLATING/GROUNDING” function of 32 Feeder current transformer
C Low-voltage cubicle can be disas- three-position disconnector 33 Cable connection with outside cone T-plug
sembled, pluggable ring circuits 12 Interrogation lever 34 Actuation for the disconnecting device of
the feeder voltage transformer
C Lateral, metal cable ducts for 13 Actuating opening for “ISOLATING“
function of three-position disconnector
control lines

Fig. 4/15 NXPLUS C circuit-breaker panel, SF6-insulated

4/27 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 28

SF6-insulated circuit-breaker switchgear NXPLUS C

Rated voltage kV 7,2 12 15 17,5 24


Rated frequency Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 20 28* 36 38 50

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 60 75 * 95 95 125

Rated short-circuit breaking current max. kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 25 25

Rated short-time withstand current, 3 s kA 31.5 31.5 31.5 25 25

Rated short-circuit making current kA 80 80 80 63 63

Rated peak withstand current kA 80 80 80 63 63

Rated normal current max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,500


of busbar

Rated normal current max. A 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,000 2,000


of feeders

Rated normal current of Depending on rated current


switch-disconnector panels with fuses of fuse (max. 100 A)
* 42 / 95 kV possible acc. to a number of
international specifications

Table 4/16 Electrical data

Width mm 600,1,200

Height mm 2,250

Depth
Single busbar mm 1,100, 1,225
Double busbar mm 2,370

Weight (approx.) incl. packing:


single busbar, 1 panel kg 900, 1,500
double busbar, 2 panels kg 1,800

Table 4/17 Dimensions and weights

For further technical data, please


refer to the NXPLUS catalog
(HA 53.41).

4/28 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:50 Uhr Seite 29

Medium Voltage

Single busbar panels

Circuit-breaker panel Disconnector panel Switch-disconnector Metering panel


panel with fuses

Double busbar panels

Bus sectionalizer Circuit-breaker panel Bus coupling Incoming-feeder coupling

BB1 BB1 BB1


BB2 BB2 BB2

Panel variants of single and double busbars can be combined. BB1 = busbar 1
For further variants, please refer to the NXPLUS C catalog (HA 35.41) BB2 = busbar 2

Fig. 4/16 NXPLUS C panel versions

4/29 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:51 Uhr Seite 30

NXPLUS C Motor operating switching devices, C Dielectrically unstressed ring-type


interlocked electrically and, as an current transformers
NXPLUS is the gas-insulated
option, mechanically C Make-proof grounding with vacuum
switchgear for up to 40.5 kV with the
C Operating mechanisms and trans- circuit-breaker
benefits of vacuum technology – for
formers easily accessible outside C Measurements on the busbar
a high degree of independence in
the SF6 enclosure possible without the need for
operation.
C Reduced number of functional ele- additional panels
Features: ments due to three-position switch
C Hermetically sealed pressure used for isolating and grounding
system with SF6 filling for the the outgoing feeder
complete service life
C Type-tested switchgear – gets by
completely without any work on
the gas system during installation
and extensions
C Easy module replacement thanks
to self-supporting, individual modu-
les which are bolted together
C Safe-to-touch enclosure and stand-
ard connections for cable plugs of
the outside-cone or inside-cone
type
C Three-pole SF6-insulated modules
for the busbar with the three-posi-
tion switch and for the circuit-
breaker with the panel connection
C Single-pole-insulated and screened
couplings for interconnecting the
modules

Photo 4/10 NXPLUS

4/30 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:51 Uhr Seite 31

Medium Voltage

1 Door of low-voltage cubicle 7


2 Multifunction protection SIPROTEC 8
4 7SJ61/ 7SJ62 for control and 1 1
protection 9
3 Mimic diagram 10
4 EMERGENCY-OFF pushbutton, 11 17
mechanical
5 Door to mechanical control board 2 2
12 18
6 Cover of cable connection
compartment
13 19
7 Busbar cover and space for plug-
gable busbar current transformers
3 3
8 Busbar module, welded, SF6 -insu- 20
14
lated
4 4
9 Rupture diaphragm 21
9
10 Three-pole busbar system 5 5
11 Three-position disconnector, SF6 - 22
15
insulated, with the three positions: 6 6
CLOSED – OPEN – READY-TO- 23
GROUND 16
12 Module coupling between busbar
module and circuit-breaker module 24

13 Circuit-breaker module, welded,


SF6 -insulated, with integrated
cable connection Panel with integrated inside cone
14 Vacuum switching tube of
circuit-breaker
9
15 Pressure relief duct
16 Integrated cable connection as 13
inside cone 25 18
17 Low-voltage cubicle, standard: 26
935 mm high
27 23
Option: 1,100 mm high
24
18 Ring-core current transformer
19 Manual and motor operating me-
chanism of three-position switch
20 Mechanical control board Panel with outside cone

21 Manual and motor operating


mechanism of circuit-breaker
22 Voltage transformer connection
socket as inside cone
23 Cable connection compartment
24 Voltage transformer
25 Isolating device for feeder voltage
transformer
26 Voltage transformer connection
socket as outside cone
27 Cable connection as outside cone

Fig. 4/17 NXPLUS circuit-breaker panel with single busbar

4/31 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:51 Uhr Seite 32

SF6-insulated circuit-breaker switchgear NXPLUS

Rated voltage bis kV 24 40.5

Rated short-duration power-frequency Hz 50/60 50/60


withstand voltage

Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage kV 50 85

Rated short-circuit breaking current kV 125 185

Rated short-circuit breaking current max. kA 31.5 31.5

Rated short-time withstand current, 3 s max. kA 31.5 31.5

Rated short-circuit making current max. kA 80 80

Rated peak withstand current max. kA 80 80

Rated normal current of busbar max. A 2,000 1) 2,000 1)

Rated normal current of feeders max. A 2,000 1) 2,000 1)

1) with double busbar 2,500 A possible

Table 4/18 Electrical data

Single Double
busbar busbar

Width mm 600 600


Width of bus sectionalizer panel ≤ 2,000 A (> 2,000 A) mm 900 600
(1,200) (900)

Bus coupler mm – 600/1,200

Metering panel mm – 300

Height mm 2,450 2,600

Depth mm 1,600 1,840

Weight per panel incl. kg 1,200 1,600


packing (approx.)

Table 4/19 Dimensions and weights

4/32 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:51 Uhr Seite 33

Medium Voltage

Busbar fittings
Fittings
upstream of circuit-breaker module

Fittings
downstream of circuit-breaker module 3)

1) Panel connection
fittings

Capacitive 1 x plug-in Voltage Current


voltage cable, transformer, trans-
detection interface plug-in type former
system type 2 or 3

or 1 x plug-in or 2 x plug-in
cable, cable,
interface interface
type 2 4) type 2 or 3

or Voltage or 3 x plug-in
transformer, cable,
plug-in interface
type 4) type 2 or 3

or Surge or 4 x plug-in
arrester, cable,
plug-in interface
type 4) type 2

and Busbar or Solid-


2) current insulated bar
transformer

1) Capacitive voltage detection


system acc. to the LRM or IVDS
Surge system
arrester,
plug-in type 2) Not possible with busbar voltage
transformer
3) Requires cable connection with
container for separate inside cone
4) With single busbar only

Fig. 4/18 NXPLUS panel versions with cable connection as inside cone

Single busbar / double busbar – rated short-circuit breaking current


circuit-breaker panel up to 31.5 kA
– rated normal currents of busbars
With cable connection as inside
and feeders up to 2,000 A
cone for
– rated voltage up to 36 kV/40.5 kV
(single busbar only)

4/33 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:51 Uhr Seite 34

Busbar fittings
Fittings
upstream of circuit-breaker module

Fittings
downstream of circuit-breaker module

1) Panel connection
fittings

Capacitive 1 x plug-in Voltage Current


voltage cable transformer, trans-
detection discon- former
system nectable

or 1 x plug-in or 2 x plug-in
cable, cable
interface
type 2 3)

or Voltage or 3 x plug-in
transformer, cable
plug-in
type 3)

or Surge
arrester,
plug-in
type 3)

and Busbar
2) current
transformer

Surge arrester
or limiter, 1) Capacitive voltage detection
to be plugged in system acc. to the LRM or IVDS
additionally system
2) Not possible with busbar voltage
transformer
3) With single busbar only

Fig. 4/19 NXPLUS panel versions with cable connection as outside cone

Single busbar and double busbar circuit-


breaker panel
With cable connection as outside cone for
– rated voltage up to 24 kV
– rated short-circuit breaking current up
to 25 kA (for 12 kV: 31.5 kA)
– rated normal currents of busbars up
to 2,000 A and feeders up to 1,250 A

4/34 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:51 Uhr Seite 35

Medium Voltage

Bus sectionalizer
for
– rated voltage up to 36 kV/40.5 kV
Busbar
– rated short-circuit breaking current fittings
up to 31.5 kA Fittings upstream of
circuit-breaker
– rated normal current of busbars module
up to 2,000 A

Capacitive Current
voltage trans-
detection former
system

Fig. 4/20 NXPLUS bus sectionalizer

4/35 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 36

Fixed-mounted circuit-
breaker switchgear, type
8DA and 8DB up to 40.5 kV,
SF6-insulated

Versions
Fixed-mounted circuit-breaker
switchgear
C 8DA10 for single busbar applications
C 8DA11/8DA12 (single- and double-
pole) for traction power supplies
C 8DB10 for double busbar applica-
tions are metal-enclosed, metal-
clad, SF6-insulated switchgear
for indoor installation

Features
Environmental independence
Encapsulation with modular standard
containers made of noncorrosive alu-
minum alloys make 8DA and 8DB
switchgear
C insensitive to aggressive ambient 8DA10 8DA11/8DA12 8DB10
conditions such as panel panel panel
– salt water for single busbar for traction power supplies, for double busbar
applications single- and double-pole ver- applications
– air humidity sions (example 8DA11)
– dust
– temperature
Photo 4/11 8DA/8DB panels
C hermetically tight against ingress of
foreign substances such as e.g.
– dust Nearly no maintenance required Innovation
– dirt Switchgear containers as hermeti- The use of digital secondary
C independent of the installation cally sealed pressure system, no- technology and combined protective
height maintenance switchgear and encap- and control devices results in
sulated cable plugs ensure C a clear integration into process
Compactness C highest security of supply control
The use of SF6-insulation results in C safety of the personnel C flexible, simple adaptations to
small panel width of only 600 mm up C reduced operating costs new system states and thus, in
to 40.5 kV. C economic efficiency of the economical operation
Thus, investment
C existing switchrooms become
effectively usable
C new buildings become more
cost-effective
C inner-city areas are used
economically

4/36 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 37

Medium Voltage

8DA10 panel for single busbar, 3-pole Panels for traction power supply
8DA11 single-pole 8DA12 double-pole

8DB10 panel for double busbar, 3-pole

1 Low-voltage cubicle
2 Electronic operating interface,
1 e.g. multifunction protection
3 Operating mechanism and interlock for
the three-position switch-disconnector as
2 well as mechanical switch position indica-
tion of the three-position switch discon-
nector and circuit-breaker
4 Pressure gage for gas monitoring of the
4 8 feeder gas compartments
5 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism
3 6 Operating shaft for vacuum switching
tubes
5 7 Voltage detection system
8 Operating shaft for three-position
6 switch-disconnector

Fig. 4/21 Panel design (examples)

4/37 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 38

Single busbar

1 Busbar container
4 2 Busbar
3 Three-position switch-
5 disconnector
4 Gas-tight bushing be-
6
tween three-position
switch-disconnector and
7
circuit-breaker
8 5 Circuit-breaker container
6 Vacuum interrupter
9 7 Current transformer
8 Pole support plate
9 Panel connection

Double busbar

1
10

4
11 12
5 Pos. 1 to 9, see above
10 Gas-tight bushing be-
tween three-position
6 switch-disconnector or
switch-disconnector and
busbar
7
11 Gas-tight bushing be-
tween three-position
8 switch-disconnector
(busbar 1) and switch-
disconnector (busbar 2)
9 12 Busbar switch-discon-
nector for busbar sys-
tem 2

Fig. 4/22 Single-pole design

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TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 39

Medium Voltage

8DA10 8DB10 8DA11/8DA12


3-pole 3-pole single-/double-
Rated values Rated values pole
Rated Rated
-voltage max. kV 12 24 36 40.5 12 24 36 40.5 -voltage acc. to kV 15 25
-frequency 50 Hz1) 50 Hz1) EN 50163 and IEC 60850
-short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage kV 28 50 70 85 28 50 70 85 -isolation voltage max. kV 17.5 27.5
-lightning surge withstand voltage kV 75 125 170 185 75 125 170 185 -frequency Hz 16.7 50/60
-short-circuit breaking current max. 40 kA max. 40 kA -power-frequency to ground kV 50 95
-short-time withstand current, 3s max. 40 kA max. 40 kA withstand over isolating kV 60 110
voltage distance
-short-time making current max. 100 kA max. 100 kA
-peak to ground kV 125 200
-peak withstand current max. 100 kA max. 100 kA withstand over isolating kV 145 220
-normal current of busbar max. 4,000 A max. 4,000 A current distance
-normal current of feeders max. 2,500 A max. 2,500 A -short-circuit breaking current max. 31.5 kA
Dimensions in mm -short-circuit making current max. 80 kA
Compartment (width) -normal current of max. 2,500 A
Circuit-breaker panel 600 600 busbar
Switch-disconnector panel 600 – -normal current of feeders max. 2,000 A
Transverse coupling – 600 Dimensions in mm
Longitudinal coupling (2 panels) 2 x 600 2 x 600 Compartment (width)
Longitudinal coupling for connection 2 x 600 2 x 600 Incoming-feeder panel 600
in the cable basement (2 panels) Section feeder panel 600
Switchgear termination (end wall) Switchgear termination end wall
for left and right switchgear cabinet side 152 152 for left and right 152
Depth switchgear side
for all panel types 1,625 2,660 Depth
Height (switchgear front) for 8DA11, single-pole 865
Standard 2,350 2,350 for 8DA12, double-pole 1,245
with high low-voltage cubicle 2,700 2,700 Height switchgear front
with make-proof busbar 2,700 2,700 Standard 2,350
grounding switch Height switchgear rear side
Height switchgear rear side Standard 1,850
Standard 1,850 2,100
with make-proof busbar 1,960 2,210
grounding switch
with busbar isolation without 2,320 2,570
additional panel loss
Busbar module without disconnection option:
With voltage transformer up to 24 kV 2,220 2,390
36/40.5 kV 2,470 2,640
With cable connection for
– 1 connector, connection type 2 2,050 2,300
– 1 connector, connection type 3 2,030 2,280
– 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 2 2,110 2,360
– 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 3 2,130 2,380
– 4 to 6 connectors, connection type 2 2,250 2,500
With connection for all-insulated bar2) 1,930 2,180
Busbar modules with disconnection option:
With voltage transformer up to 24 kV 2,420 2,590
36/40.5 kV 2,670 2,840
With cable connection for
– 1 connector, connection type 2 2,180 2,430
– 1 connector, connection type 3 2,240 2,490
– 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 2 2,240 2,490
– 2 or 3 connectors, connection type 3 2,260 2,510
– 4 to 6 connectors, connection type 2 2,380 2,630
With connection for all-insulated bar2) 2,130 2,380

1) 60 Hz on request
2) The busbar supplier must be consulted about the dimensions

Table 4/20 Electrical data, dimensions

4/39 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 40

Circuit-breaker panel Busbar fittings

Fitting at the
circuit-breaker housing
Fitting over the
panel connection
1) Fitting at the
Panel connection panel termination
variants
Ohmic
voltage
1) Capacitive voltage Voltage 2) Current divider
detection system transformer, Plug-in cable transformer
fixed or dis-
2) – For plug-in cable connec- connectable
tion with inside cone acc.
to EN 50181 or all-insulated bar,
– Max. of 6 connections or Make-proof solid or gas
grounding insulation
per conductor possible, switch
depending on the con-
nector size 3)
Inductive
3) The use of these modules Cable or voltage
or
reduces the possible num- busbar connec- transformer
ber of connectable plug-in tion, fixed or
cables by 1 piece each disconnectable and/or 3)
Inductive voltage
transformer,
or Longitudinal connected via cable
disconnection
without additional and/or 3)
space require- Ohmic
ments voltage divider

or Busbar current
transformer

and/or 3)
Surge arrester

Switch-disconnector panel Busbar fittings

Fittings and connection


options same as for Fitting at the
riser housing
circuit-breaker panel
Fitting over the
panel connection
1)
Panel connection
variants

Longitudinal coupling
Busbar fittings
Consisting of 2 panels
(circuit-breaker arranged
optionally in the left or
right panel)

Fitting at the
1) riser housing

Busbar Current
current transformer
transformer

Fig. 4/23 8DA10 single busbar panels, 3-pole (panels 8DA11, single-pole and 8DA12, double-pole on request)

4/40 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 41

Medium Voltage

Circuit-breaker panel Busbar fittings


BB1
BB2
Fitting at the
circuit-breaker housing
Fitting over the
panel connection
1)
Fitting at the
Panel connection panel termination
variants
Ohmic
current
Voltage 2) Current divider
or Plug-in cable
transformer, transformer
fixed
BB1 BB2

or All-insulated
or Voltage bar, solid or
transformer, gas insulation
BB1 BB2 disconnec-
table
and/or 3)
Inductive
Make-proof voltage
or
grounding transformer
switch
BB1 BB2
and/or 3)
Inductive voltage
transformer,
or Cable or bar connected via cable
BB1, connection,
fixed and/or 3)
BB1 BB2 BB2 Ohmic voltage
divider

or BB1, Cable or bar


BB2 connection,
HA35-2444 eps

BB1 BB2 disconnectable


and/or 3)
Surge arrester

or Busbar
current
BB1 BB2 transformer

or BB1 Longitudinal
BB2 disconnection
without additional
space require-
ments

Abbreviations
BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2
1) Capacitive voltage detection system
2) – For plug-in cable connection with inside cone acc. to EN 50181
– Max. of 6 connections per conductor possible, depending on the connector size
3) The use of these modules reduces the possible number of connectable
plug-in cables by 1 piece each

Fig. 4/24 8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/41 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 42

Transverse coupling Busbar fittings


BB1
BB2

1) Fitting at the
riser housing

or Voltage Current
transformer, transformer
fixed
BB1 BB2

or Voltage
tranformer,
BB1 BB2 disconnectable

or Make-proof
grounding
switch
BB1 BB2

or Cable or bar
BB1, connection,
BB1 BB2 BB2 fixed 1)

or BB1, Cable or bar


BB2 connection,
BB1 BB2 disconnectable

or Busbar
current
BB1 BB2 transformer

or BB1 BB2 Longitudinal


disconnection
without additonal
space require-
ments

Abbreviations
BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2
1) Capacitive voltage detection system

Fig. 4/25 8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/42 Totally Integrated Power by Siemens


TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 43

Medium Voltage

Longitudinal coupling
for busbar 1 and 2 Busbar fittings BB1
BB2
consisting of 2
assembled panels

1) 1)

Busbar current Current


BB1 transformer at transformer
BB1

oder Busbar current


transformer at
BB2 BB2

Longitudinal coupling
Busbar fittings
for connection in the BB1
BB2
cable basement
consisting of 2
Fitting at the
separate panels circuit-breaker housing

1) 1) 1) 1)
Fitting above the
panel connection

Busbar Ohmic
BB1 current voltage
transformer divider
at BB1 Panel connection
variants:
or Busbar or Single plug-in cable,
current sizes 1 to 3 or bar (solid
BB2 transformer or gas insulation)
at BB2

Fitting per panel at


the circuit-breaker or
riser panel termination

Current
transformer

Abbreviations
BB1 = busbar 1
BB2 = busbar 2
1) Capacitive voltage detection system

Fig. 4/26 8DB10 double busbar panels, 3-pole

4/43 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 44

Generator level
G

Primary
distribution level

4.2 Secondary Utilities


Secondary
Distribution Systems, distribution level, Utilities
Utilities cus-
tomer transfer
distribution
substation,
substation substation industrial plant
Switchgear and with switchgear of
the 8DJ and 8DH
types
Substations
General information
In its basic version, the secondary
distribution system consists of con-
sumer substations with ring-main
feeders and directly fed transformer
feeders.
In order to minimize transmission
losses and attain an economical solu-
Low-voltage
tion for switchgear and transformer distribution
substations, the system configuration
and switchgear technology should be
optimally designed and dimensioned. Further
To limit transmission losses, the utilities
substations
packaged transformer substations/
consumer substations must be Fig. 4/27 Secondary distribution system
located directly in the load center.
Therefore, switchgear and substa- Furthermore, the large number of Block-type switchgear are ring-main
tions with a high degree of safety substations within the distribution units available with various schemes.
and reliability and, at the same time, system asks for a cost-effective solu-
minimum dimensions are to be Medium-voltage ring-main units and
tion, e.g. switchgear made of cli-
preferred. switchgear in secondary distribution
mate-independent, maintenance-free
The large number of substations systems must reliably meet the oper-
switching devices, making mainte-
installed in the distribution system ational requirements regarding:
nance work unnecessary throughout
requires a high degree of stand- C Various layouts of the different
the entire service life of the substa-
ardization and the application of switchgear types for optimum ap-
tions in operation. Block-type ring-
technically mature products. The plication in the different substation
main units (non-extendable) and mod-
switchgear types described below sizes
ular switchgear (extendable) have
fulfill these quality requirements in C Personal safety
been developed for such packaged
every respect. C Operational reliability
transformer substations. Extendable
C Maximum possible environmental
The packaged transformer substa- switchgear consists of switch-discon-
independence
tions consisting of medium-voltage nectors, optionally with or without
C Cost-efficiency
switchgear, transformer and low- HV HRC fuses, circuit-breaker panels,
voltage distribution are available as metering panels and bus section-
factory-assembled units or as single alizer panels.
components and can be installed in
any building and room at the site of
installation.

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Medium Voltage

Siemens has developed switchgear The 8DJ secondary distribution


Standards
which complies with all the afore- switchgear and 8DH switchgear are
mentioned requirements. type-tested, factory-assembled, The 8DJ, 8DH10 and SIMOSEC
metal-enclosed switchgear with switchgear correspond to the following
8DJ secondary distribution SF6 gas insulation. They have been standards and specifications:
switchgear and 8DH switchgear proven to reliably comply with all
IEC VDE
requirements of operation with
are metal-enclosed, gas-insulated standard standard
regard to:
switchgear for indoor installation.
IEC 60694 VDE 0670 Part 1,000
C 8DJ type as ring-main units in
Maximum personal safety
block-type construction, extension IEC 60298 VDE 0670 Part 6
installation not possible C Arc-fault-tested stainless-steel
IEC 62271-100 VDE 0671 Part 100
C 8DH type as modular switchgear vessel and cable connection com-
“line-up and extendable type“ in partment tested on the resistance IEC 62271-102 VDE 0671 Part 102
panel-type construction to accidental arcs
IEC 60265-1 VDE 0670 Part 301
C Logic interlockings
More than 400,000 8DJ/8DH-type
C Guided operation IEC 62271-105 VDE 0671 Part 105
switchgear panels are in operation
C Capacitive voltage indication
worldwide. IEC 61243-5 VDE 0682 Part 415,
integrated in switchgear
DIN EN 61243-5
C Isolation from supply can be safely
Application areas
tested on the closed switching IEC 60529 VDE 0470 Part 1
8DJ/8HD switchgear is used in front
IEC 60071 VDE 0111
secondary distribution systems, e.g. C Locked and grounded covers for
substations, customer transfer sub- the fuse section and the cable
stations and distribution substations terminal compartment Instrument transformers (e.g. for
of power supply companies and 8DH or SIMOSEC switchgear)
municipal utilities or industrial plants.
Further information can be IEC VDE
Typical application areas are obtained at: standard standard
C Wind power stations
www.siemens.com/ptd Current transformers
C High-rise buildings
C Airports IEC 60044-1 VDE 0414 Part 1
C Lignite open-cast mining
Voltage transformers
C Underground stations
C Sewage plants IEC 60044-2 VDE 0414 Part 2
C Docks
Combined transformers for 8DH
C Traction power supplies
switchgear
C Automobile industry
C Oil industry IEC 60044-3 VDE 0414 Part 5
C Chemical industry
C Cement industry Table 4/21 Standards

4/45 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 46

Specifications Insulation Type of Busbar Compartments


construction, system
installation

Access Operational Type of


option availability compartment

LSC 2A
Cable connection
Medium-voltage Gas-insulated Non-extendable
indoor Single Accessible
switchgear,
type-tested HV HRC fuse
according to compartment
IEC 62271-200,
IEC 60298

Busbar
Not
accessible
Switching devices

LSC 2A/B
Cable connection

Gas-insulated Extendable
Single Accessible Busbar

HV HRC fuse

Switching devices
Not
accessible

Air-insulated Extendable LSC 2A/B


Single Accessible Busbar

Circuit-breaker

Cable connection

Disconnector
Not
accessible

LSC2 A/B Busbar

1)
LS = circuit-breaker Accessible HV HRC fuse
2)
LTS = switch-disconnector
3)
LST = circuit-breaker with disconnecting function
4)
PM = partition of metal Cable connection

Switch-
Not disconnector and
accessible
grounding switch
Circuit-breaker

Table 4/21a Secondary distribution systems – selection matrix

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Medium Voltage

Accidental Feeder Application, use Switchgear


arc or type
classifi- switching
cation device

Access Compart-
control ment class

Interlocking PM4) IAC RK2) Ring-main unit for packaged 8DJ10


control (metal (IEC TR2) transformer substations,
partitions) 60298) LS13) standard type 1:
Tool- – for substations with
dependent very narrow widths
– transformer cable connection
at the top
Interlocking
control
Ring-main unit for packaged 8DJ20
transformer substations,
standard type 2:
– for compact substations,
substations with control aisle
– transformer cable connection
at the front (standard)

Interlocking PM4) IAC RK2)


control (metal (IEC TR2)
partitions) 60298) LS11)
Tool- LS21)
dependent LTx1)
LST3)
SE2) Switchgear for substations, 8DH10
Tool- ME1 customer transfer substations,
dependent ME2 distribution and switching
ME32) substations, circuit-breaker
switchgear up to 630 A
Interlocking
control

PM4) IAC LS111)2)


Tool- (metal (IEC LS321)2)
dependent partitions) 60298)

Interlocking
control

Interlocking
control

Switchgear for substations, SIMOSEC


customer transfer substations,
distribution and switching
substations, circuit-breaker
Tool- PM4) IAC RK1) switchgear up to 1,250 A
dependent (metal (IEC TR1)
partitions) 60298) LS12)
SE1)
Interlocking
control ME1
ME31)
HF

4/47 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:52 Uhr Seite 48

Switchgear Technical data


type

Rated lightning surge Rated Maximum rated short- Rated operating


withstand voltage Up voltage Ur time withstand current current
7.2/12 17.5/24 [kV] [kA] [kA] for busbar for feeder
[kV] [kV] 1s 3s [A] [A]
8DJ10

60/75 95/125 7.2–17.5 25 20 630 up to 630


60/75 95/125 7.2– 24 20 20 630 up to 630

8DJ20

60/75 95/125 7.2–17.5 25 20 630 up to 630


60/75 95/125 7.2– 24 20 20 630 up to 630

8DH10 630 1)
60/75 95/125 7.2–17.5 25 20 max. 1,250 up to 630
60/75 95/125 7.2– 24 20 20 630 1) up to 630
max. 1,250

SIMOSEC
60/75 95/125 7.2–17.5 25 11.5 max. 1,250 up to 1,250
60/75 95/125 7.2– 24 20 20 max. 1,250 up to 1,250

1)
Standard

Table 21b Secondary distribution systems – selection matrix / technical data

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Medium Voltage

Operational reliability / Maximum environmental


no maintenance required independence
C Non-corrosive, hermetically tight C Robust, non-corrosive, no-mainte-
welded, stainless steel vessel nance operating mechanisms
without gaskets, stable under vari- C No-maintenance, climate-inde-
able pressures pendent and safe-to-touch cable
C Insulating gas which complies with connections
the requirements to insulating and C Free from leakage currents and
extinguishing tasks throughout the partial discharges
entire service life C No-maintenance, safe-to-touch
C Single-pole enclosure outside the HV HRC fuse assembly that is
vessel not affected by climatic impacts
C Clear ‘ready-for-service’ indicator
Environmental compatibility
independent of temperature and
site altitude C Continuous and integrated
C Complete protection zone of environmental management from
switch-disconnector/fuse assem- manufacture to disposal
bly even with thermal overload of C Tightly sealed vessel, virtually
the HV HRC fuse (thermal protec- no loss of gas
tion function) C Easy installation and
C Easy replacement of HV HRC commissioning
fuses without tools
Quality and environment
C Reliable electrical and mechanical
switching device that requires no Quality and environmental mange-
maintenance ment systems in compliance with
DIN EN ISO.

Cost-efficiency
The switchgear is cost-effient not
only in purchase but also in service
due to its compactness and minimum
space requirements as well as its
no-maintenance, climate independ-
ent-design.

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2 ring-main feeders 3 ring-main feeders 4 ring-main feeders


1 transformer feeder 1 transformer feeder 2 transformer feeders
Scheme 10 Scheme 71 Scheme 62

Photo 4/12 Ring-main transformer block versions

8DJ10 secondary distribu- Specific features of the standard – for ground cables via adapter
tion switchgear: standard type 8DJ10, the narrowest type systems
type 1 by Siemens C Easy installation
C 2 heights available C Detachable lever mechanism (op-
7.2–24 kV, gas-insulated, – 1,360 mm tional: rotary operating mechanism)
non-extendable – block-type – 1,650 mm C With capacitive voltage detection
construction C Switchgear design with up to system at ring-main feeders
6 feeders C Optional motor operating mecha-
8DJ10 secondary distribution C Three-pole primary enclosure, nism for switch-disconnector
switchgear is factory-assembled, metal-enclosed (24 V DC up to 230 V AC for
type-tested and metal-enclosed C Insulating gas SF6 remote control)
switchgear for indoor installation. C Gas-tight, welded switchgear ves-
Cost-efficiency
Application areas sel made of stainless steel, with
Extremely low ”life-cycle costs”
8DJ10 secondary distribution welded-in bushings for electrical
and maximum availability due to:
switchgear is used for power distri- connections and mechanical com-
C Maintenance-free concept
bution in substations – also for se- ponents
C Climatic independence
vere ambient conditions – e.g. in: C No maintenance required
C Minimum space requirements
C Industry C Independent of climate
C Damp, sandy or dusty areas C Three-position switch-disconnector
C Simple outdoor substations with switch-disconnector and
make-proof grounding switch
Main fields of application function
C Compact substations C Cable connection for bushings with
C Compact transformer substations, outside cone
e.g. for wind power stations C Connection with cable plugs
C Garage and vault substations – in ring-main feeders with bolted
C Low-lying and underfloor contact (M16)
substations – in transformer feeders with
C Pavement substations plug- in contact
C Accessible substations C Connection of conventional cable
C Extremely narrow designs sealing ends (cable feeders)
More than 80,000 8DJ10 secondary – for thermo-plastic-insulated
distribution switchgear is in operation cables via AKE 20/630 elbow
worldwide. adapter (by Siemens)

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Medium Voltage

8DJ10 switchgear

Rated voltage Ur kV 7.2 12 15 17.5 24


Rated insulation level:
Rated short-duration power-frequency kV 20 28 36 38 50
withstand voltage Ud
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up kV 60 75 95 95 125
Rated frequency fr Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Rated normal current Ir
for ring-main feeders A 400 or 630 400 or 630 400 or 630 400 or 630 400 or 630
for transformer feeders depending on the A 200 200 200 200 200
HV HRC fuse link
Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s kA – – – 16 16
20 20 20 20 20
25 25 25 25 –
Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s (option) kA 20 20 20 20 20

Rated peak withstand current Ip kA – – – 40 40


50 50 50 50 50
63 63 63 63 –
Rated short-circuit making current Ima 1)
for transformer feeder kA 25 25 25 25 25
for ring-main feeder kA – – – 40 40
50 50 50 50 50
63 63 63 63 –
Ambient temperature T °C – 40 to +70
Pressure values for insulation:
Rated filling pressure pre (at 20°C) hPa (absolute) 1,500
1) Depending on HV HRC fuse set; please observe the max. let-through current of the HV HRC fuse elements

Table 4/22 Electrical data, temperature, filling pressure

Supply overview Scheme 10 Scheme 71 Scheme 62

2 ring-main feeders and 3 ring-main feeders and 4 ring-main feeders and


1 transformer feeder 1 transformer feeder 2 transformer feeder
(identification symbols 2RK + 1T) (identification symbols 3RK + 1T) (identification symbols 4RK + 2T)

Width mm 710 1,060 1,410

Depth 1) mm 775 775 775

Height mm 1,360 1,650 1,360 650 1,360 650

Weight 2) 270 300 340 390 500 580


net weight approx. kg
RK = ring-main feeder
T = transformer feeder
1) Additional wall distance required: ≥ 15 mm
2) Depending on the equipment, e.g. motor operating mechanism

Table 4/23 Dimensions and weights: block versions consisting of ring-main and transformer feeders

For further technical data: please refer to the catalog HA 45.11 8DJ10 switch-disconnector system

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TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:53 Uhr Seite 52

Ring-main transformer block Transformer feeder Ring-main feeder


Section A-A Section B-B
A B 17

11
24
1 18

2 12
25
3
13
20
4

5 14
30
6
15 20
7 10
8 19
26
L1 L2 L3
9 21 26 21
2
10 31
16
32
22 22

27 29

Standard Cable connection with screw contact


B A Cable connection for cable (M 16), optionally for:
elbow plug with plug-in contact, – cable T-plugs or right-angle cable plugs
Scheme 10
cable routing to the back – AKE 20/630 right-angle adapter
(by Siemens) for conventional cable
sealing ends

1 Feeder designation 23 10 Lock for cable compartment cover


label 11 HV HRC fuse assembly, cover
2 Sockets for voltage removed
detection system 18 12 Lock for HV HRC fuse assembly
3 Ready-for-service 14 Rating and type plate
indicator
16 Arrangement of cable connections
4 Switch position indi-
cation for grounding 17 Cable elbow plug with plug-in
function ”OPEN – contact
Option
GROUNDED” Cable connection for straight 18 Transformer cable connection
5 Switch position indi- cable plugs with plug-in contact, 20 Three-position switch-disconnector
cation for switch-dis- cable routing to the top
21 Switchgear vessel, filled with
connecting function SF6 gas
”CLOSED – OPEN”
22 Cable connection compartment
6 Locking device
(option for three- 17 23 Straight cable plug with plug-in
position switch- contact
disconnector) 24 Cover of the HV HRC fuse
7 Manual operating 18 compartment
mechanism for the 25 Spring-operated/stored-energy
grounding function mechanism
8 Manual operating 26 Cover of cable connection
mechanism for the compartment
switch-disconnecting Option
27 Grounding connection M12
function (only for schemes 10 and 71)
cable connection for elbow 29 Cable support rail
9 Short-circuit/ground-
plug with plug-in contact, 30 Spring-operated mechanism
fault indicator (option)
cable routing to the right
31 Ring-main cable connection
32 Option: Elbow adapter AKE 20/630
Personnel safety with conventional cable sealing end
All feeder covers can only be opened when (M16 bolted contact)
the respective three-position switch-discon-
nector is switched to ”GROUNDED”.

Fig. 4/28 Switching panel design – example

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Medium Voltage

Radial transformer panel Ring-main transformer block Ring-main transformer block


1 transformer feeder 2 ring-main feeders 3 ring-main feeders
1 radial cable connection 1 transformer feeder 2 transformer feeders
Scheme 01 Scheme 10 Scheme 82

Photo 4/13 Typical versions

8DJ20 secondary distribu- Specific features of the standard – for ground cables via adapter
tion switchgear: standard type 8DJ20, the most diverse type systems
type 2 by Siemens C Easy installation
C 3 heights available C Detachable lever mechanism (op-
7.2–24 kV, gas-insulated, – 1,200 mm tional: rotary operating mechanism)
non-extendable – block-type – 1,400 mm C With capacitive voltage detection
construction – 1,760 mm system at ring-main feeders
C Switchgear design with up to C Optional motor operating mecha-
8DJ20 ring-main units are factory- 5 feeders nism for switch-disconnector
assembled, type-tested and metal- C Three-pole primary enclosure, (24 V DC up to 230 V AC for
enclosed switchgear for indoor metal-enclosed remote control)
installation. C Insulating gas SF6 C Various possibilities for transformer
Typical uses C Gas-tight, welded switchgear ves- cable connection:
8DJ20 secondary distribution sel made of stainless steel, with – Standard: front
switchgear is used for power distri- welded-in bushings for electrical – Option: bottom, for cable routing
bution in substations – also for se- connections and mechanical to the rear
vere ambient conditions – e.g. in: components
Cost-efficiency
C Industry C Maintenance-free
Extremely low ”life-cycle costs”
C Damp, sandy or dusty areas C Independent of climate
and maximum availability due to:
C Simple outdoor substations C Three-position switch-disconnector
C Maintenance-free concept
with switch-disconnector and
Main fields of application C Independence of climate
make-proof grounding switch
C Integrated substations C Minimum space requirements
function
C Integrated transformer substations, C Cable connection for bushings
e.g. for wind power stations with outside cone
C Garage and vault substations C Connection with cable plugs
C Low-lying and underfloor – in ring-main feeders with bolted
substations contact (M16)
C Pavement substations – in transformer feeders with
C Accessible substations plug-in contact
C Connection of conventional cable
sealing ends
– for thermo-plastic-insulated
cables via AKE 20/630 elbow
adapter (by Siemens)

4/53 4
TIP_Kap04_E 11.08.2005 18:53 Uhr Seite 54

8DJ20 switchgear

Rated voltage Ur kV 7.2 12 15 17. 5 24

Rated insulation level:


Rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage Ud kV 20 28 36 38 50
Rated lightning impulse withstand voltage Up kV 60 75 95 95 125

Rated frequency fr Hz 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

Rated normal current Ir


for ring-main feeders A 400 or 630 400 or 630 400 or 630 400 or 630 400 or 630
for transformer feeders depending on the A 200 200 200 200 200
HV HRC fuse link

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s kA – – – 16 16


20 20 20 20 20
25 25 25 25 –

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s (option) kA 20 20 20 20 20

Rated peak withstand current Ip kA – – – 40 40


50 50 50 50 50
63 63 63 63 –

Rated short-circuit making current Ima 1)


for transformer feeder kA 25 25 25 25 25
for ring-main feeder kA – – – 40 40
50 50 50 50 50
63 63 63 63 63

Ambient temperature T °C – 40 to +70

Pr