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Supplemental Notes:

The Book
of
Daniel
Chapters 1 - 6

Chuck Missler

© 1994 Koinonia House Inc.

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1 1
Tape Listing

Tape 1: Chapter 1 - Dare to be a Daniel

Introduction to the Book: background, authentication, etc.

Tape 2: Chapter 2 - Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream

The poly-metallic image—an overview of all of Gentile dominion on


the Planet Earth. Daniel and his three friends avoid death penalty and
get promoted.

Tape 3: Chapter 3 - Bow or Burn

Nebuchadnezzar’s ego trip; the worship of his image; the fiery


furnace.

Tape 4: Chapter 4 - Nebuchadnezzar’s Testimony

The only chapter in the Bible written by a Gentile king; published


throughout the known world.

Tape 5: Chapter 5 - The Fall of Babylon

The “handwriting on the wall” and the fall of Babylon to the Persians.

Tape 6: The Mystery of Babylon

Babylon in Bible prophecy; its ultimate destruction, an update on


current events, the “Mystery Babylon” of Revelation.

Tape 7: Chapter 6 - Daniel in the Lion’s Den.

How Daniel avoided the “mark of the beast.”

Tape 8: The Magi

A supplemental study on the background on the “Magi” and their role


in the birth of Jesus Christ.

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Introduction

Why Daniel?

1. One of my favorites: impact on my early years.


Discovery: Message System; tightly engineered in theme, structure,
details; interdependence. Thus, 66 books, written by 40 authors over
thousands of years, yet evidences integrity of design and demon-
strates an origin from outside the domain of time. (See our related
Briefing Packages, The E.T. Scenario, Beyond Time and Space, et al.)

2. One of the few books that describes Gentile history, in advance. It


is as timely as tomorrow’s newspaper.

3. It contains the most amazing passages in the entire Bible.

When Written?

Doesn’t really matter. It’s in the Septuagint translation of the Old


Testament (LXX): 285-270 B.C. (Latin: septuaginta, “70.”) 72 elders
of Israel, 6 from each tribe, during the reign of Ptolemy II, Philadel-
phus (285-244 B.C.) in Alexandria (Letter of Aristeas). Many NT
quotes from LXX; including in the Letter to Hebrews. Thus, in
widespread use three centuries before Christ was born. The math-
ematical precision yields undeniable proof of His Deity.

Acts 17:11: Don’t believe anything Chuck Missler tells you. Check
it out for yourself!

Daniel in the Critics Den

No other book is as vindicated by history. Too specific to yield to


attempts to discredit it.

Josephus: During Alexander’s conquest of Jerusalem, 332 B.C., Priest


Jaddua showed him references to himself in Daniel; city spared.

R. Kodewey, 1899-1917: excavations of Nebuchadnezzar’s palace,


etc. Banquet hall found, 173' x 56'. (Rebuilt by Saddam Hussein.)
Daniel had to be an eyewitness. See Chapter 5.

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Ultimate authentication: Jesus quotes Daniel 3X; “Daniel the Prophet.”

Other Observations: Quoted 3X in Ezekiel (Ezek 14:14, 20; 28:3);


classed with Noah, Job, etc. Nothing evil spoken of him. (Only two:
Joseph and Daniel: both executives); vs. David, et al.

Foreign words: 15 Persian words; 3 Greek words. Expected from


Daniel’s position. As a teenager, deported; served at court; survived
into Persian Empire.

Chapters:
2-7: in Chaldean (Gentile focus).
4: written by a Gentile King!
8-12: focus on Israel.

Organization:
1-6 Narrative; history.
7-12 Visions.

Raised under King Josiah’s revival; good environment; an example.

Sabbath Year concept: Lev 25, 26; 490 years: failed; “owed” God 70:
2 Chr 36:21-22. 70 x 7: Four such periods in Israel’s history.

The “Seventy Sevens” of Israel

1) Abraham to the Exodus


Promise (Gen 12:4) 75 years
Gal 3:17 + 430
505
Ishmael, usurper (Gen 16:16; 21:5) -15 = 490
2) Exodus to the Temple
Begun: 1 Kgs 6 - 8 594
Completed: 1 Kgs 6:38 +7
601
Servitudes: Judges
Mesopotamia 3:8 8
Moabites 3:12-14 18
Canaanites 4:2,3 20
Midianites 6:1 7
Ammonites 10:7,8 18
Philistines 13:1 40
-111 = 490
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3) The Temple to the Edict of Artaxerxes
1 Kgs 8:1-66 1005 B.C.
Neh 2:1 445 B.C.
560
Babylonian Captivity -70 = 490
4) Artaxerxes to the Second Coming
Artaxerxes to the 1st Advent
“The Sixty Nine Weeks” (69 x 7) = 483
[Church parenthesis] ?
The “Seventieth Week” +7 = 490

Isa 39:5-7; Jer 25:8-12; 27:6-8; 29:10.

1st Siege of Nebuchadnezzar: “Servitude of Nation”

Battle of Carchemesh: 606 B.C.; Nebuchadnezzar vs Pharaoh Necco


W bank of Euphrates; Jer 46:1-6. Jehoikim fettered (2 Chr 36:5-8).
Jehoikim released as a vassal; Temple plundered (for museum);
hostages (Daniel et al.) taken. (Daniel of Royal line? Ch 1:4). Begins
“Servitude of the Nation”; 70 years to the day.

2nd Seige of Nebuchadnezzar

Jehoikim ignores Jeremiah’s counsel, rebels. 5 year battle; Jehoikim


dies; Jer 22:17-19. Jehiachin (“Jeconiah”) son reigns until siege over.
Jer 22:24-30. (Blood curse avoided by Christ’s virgin birth. See
Footprints of the Messiah.) His son captured; 10,000 captives; 1000
skilled artisans; etc. 2 Kgs 24:1-4. His uncle, Zedekiah, installed as
vassal. Jeremiah and Ezekiel prophesy; but false prophets again
prevail. Ego trip leads to:

3rd Siege of Nebuchadnezzar

“Desolations of Jerusalem” 587 B.C.; (also 70 years; but not cotermi-


nous with “Servitude.”) Contradictory prophecies: Jer 32:5, 39:7;
Ezek 12:13; 2 Kgs 25:6,7. God does not deal in approximations. City
and Temple destroyed 2 Kgs 24:17-20; 25:1-21.

A Provocative Conjecture
Ezekiel 4:1-8: 430 years of judgment predicted. 430 - 70 years
captivity = 360 unaccounted for? Leviticus 26:18, 21, 24, 28:
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Multiply by seven? 360 x 7 = 2520 years. 360 day years: Genesis
7:24, 8:3,4, etc.; 42 months; 3 1/2 years; 1260 days; being equivalent
in Revelation, etc.
2520 years360 = 907,200 days. 2483 years365 = 906,295 days, + ?

What about leap years?

The Julian year is 11 minutes 10.46 seconds longer than the mean
solar year. Therefore the Julian calendar contains 3 leap years too
many every 4 centuries. An error of 11 days occurred as of 1752 A.D.
and was corrected by the Gregorian reform, which declared Septem-
ber 3 to be September 14, 1752, and reckoning 1700, 1800, and 1900
as common years and 2000 as a leap year. Dividing 2483 by 4 = 621,
with 18 too many (3 excess every 4 centuries); 11 have already been
corrected for by the Gregorian reform: 18 - 11 = 7; 621 - 7 = 614.

2483 years365 = 906,295 days


plus, for leap years 614 days
9 months 270 days
21 days 21 days
2520 years360 907,200 days

Don’t confuse the “Servitude of the Nation” with the “Desolations of


Jerusalem.” The “Desolations of Jerusalem” was punishment for not
yielding to the “servitude”: Jeremiah 27:6, 8, 11; 38:17-21. Cf.
Jeremiah 29:10; Daniel 9:2.

Both the “Servitude of the Nation” and the “Desolations of Jerusa-


lem” were predicted to last 70 years, but these were also 360-day
years: 70 years360 = 25,200 days = 69 years365 less 2 days.

Servitude of the Nation:

606 B.C. + 69 years = 537 B.C.


If July 23, 537 B.C. was the release from the Servitude of the Nation,
then -537y 7m 23d
(no “year 0”): 1
2483y 9m 21d
1948 5 14
which is May 14, 1948. It was on this date that David Ben Gurion
declared on international radio, and using Ezekiel as his authority, the
re-establishment of Israel as the new Jewish homeland.

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Desolations of Jerusalem:

587 B.C. + 69 years = 518 B.C.


If August 16, 518 B.C. was the completion of the Desolations of
Jerusalem, then -518y 8m 16d
(no “year 0” 1 B.C. to 1 A.D.) 1
2483y 9m 21d
1967 6 7
which is June 7, 1967, when, as a result of the “Six Day War,” Israel
regained control of the Old City of Jerusalem for the first time since
the time of Christ.

Nebuchadnezzar began the period known as the “times of the Gen-


tiles.” Cf. Luke 21:24. Jer 25:9; Nebuchadnezzar is “my servant”!
Dan 2:21. No king from the line of David has ruled over Israel since
the Babylonian captivity.

Chapter 1
1] Who gave them into Neb’s hand?
Shinar = Babylon (7X).
Eunuchs = Officer. Potiphar was “Eunuch”; Master of Palace
Servants; Gen 37:36.
No blemish; top grade; teachable; 3 yr post-Graduate school. Babylon:
sciences; astronomy; 360 degrees; 60 secs/ min; 60 minutes/hour; etc.
360-day year. (For more on Stonehenge; Great Pyramid, and the
Planet Mars, see Monuments: Sacred or Profane. For more on the
Zodiac, the Hebrew Mazzeroth, see Signs in the Heavens.)

Children of Judah

Hebrew names:
Daniel; “God is my Judge”
Hananiah: “Beloved of the Lord”
Mishel: “Who is as God”
Azariah: “The Lord is My Help”

Babylonian names:
Beltashazzar: “Prince of Bel”
Shadrach: “Illumined by the Sun God”
Mishech: “Who is like unto the Moon God”
Abednego: “Servant of Nego, a shining fire”

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Dare to Be a Daniel

Peer pressure among teenagers; non-kosher kitchen. What would


YOU do? Nothing? Change everyone? “Purposed in his heart”; our
most important stewardship.

Officer’s fear was justified. Nebuchadnezzar known to put out eyes


(after killing progeny); Jer 39:6,7; make their houses into dung hills;
roasted officers over a fire, etc. Jer 29:22.)

12] 10 days: 10 always a test, measurement, testimony. Not “vegetarian”:


not violating dietary laws; sacrificed to idols. King’s food. Not
prisoner’s ration. Elite corps; His diet; wine, etc. Lev 11:1-47 (44);
17:10-14; 1 Cor 8:11-13; Acts 10:12-15. Withdrawal; not confron-
tational.

“Knelt about the time of evening oblation.” Temple in ruin 200 miles
away; demonstrates Daniel’s heart. In the most pagan of empires:
kept himself blameless before the Lord.

20] Judges give them a “10.” Upstaging just beginning. Competition was
not trivial.

21] Forecast: Cyrus the Persian. Daniel endured beyond all present.
Every episode also prophetic for you and I.

Daniel Chapter 2
Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream
[Chapter 1 through 2:3: in Hebrew...]

Nebuchadnezzar’s perspective: young successful victor; conquered


the known world! Old staff inherited. Does he trust them? Calibra-
tion test emerges; most famous in history. Job description: “Chaldeans”
= title, Advisory leadership.

3] Chapter 2:4 through Chapter 7 is in Aramaic, the Gentile language,


not Hebrew.

4] Dissembling ( v. 9): Professional development program explained


more clearly... Negotiations concluded.

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5] Dissembling: note v. 9.

10] Indeed! Isa 41:21-23.

18] (No committees, task force, or research projects.) The God of


Heaven, vs “gods of heaven”; Prayer: Jer 33:3; Ps 37:5; Phil 4:6-7;
Heb 13:15; Jas 1:5; 1 Pet 5:7.

20] Praise (7). Job 12:13-22; Ps 31:15; 41:13; 75:6; 103:1,2; 113:1,2.

22] 1 Cor 2:9-11.

23] Mt 11:25; 7:6.

25] Typical bureaucratic “humility.”

28] Cf Joseph: Gen 40:8; 41:16.

“Latter Days” 14X OT.


Messianic Age: Hos 3:5; Isa 2:2; Mic 4:1.
Israel: Gen 49:1; Num 24:14; Deut 4:30; 31:29; 2nd Coming: Jer
48:47; 49:39; 23:20; 30:24; Magog: Ezek 38:16. NT: Acts 2:17-21;
Joel 2:28-32; Last Days: Jn 6:39,40,44,54; 7:37; 11:24; 12:48; 2 Tim
3:1; Heb 1:2; Jas 5:3; 2 Pet 3:3; Last Time: 1 Pet 1:5,20; 1 Jn 2:18;
Jude 18.

29] Prophetic significance identified.

31] “Times of the Gentiles”; Luke 21:24; Hos 3:4, 5 [vs. “Fullness of
Gentiles”: Luke 19:42; until Rom 11:25; James’ summary: Acts
15:13-17 (Amos 9:11-12).]

Four Metals: Specific Gravity:

Gold 19.5
Silver 10.5
Bronze 8.0
Iron 5.0
Iron + Clay 1.9

38] Extent of rule! by God of Heaven.


Babylon = “City of Gold.” Isa 14:4

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39] Fall to Persians. Dan 5:28,31; 6:28; 8:20;
70 years fulfilled: 2 Chr 36:20,21.
Succeeded by Greece: Dan 8:21; 11:2.

40] 4th Kingdom (Cf. Dan 7:7; 9:26.)

41] Divided into pieces. Divided elements recombine: Dan 2:42-44.

42] Re-collected, but mixed with hasap, clay (brittle pottery fragments)
Clay = people: Job 10:9; 13:12; 33:6; Isa 29:16; 45:9; 64:8; Jer 18:4-
6; Rom 9:21.

45] Stone cut without Hands: (supernatural) Ex 17:3-6; 33:22; Ps


118:22; Isa 8:14; 28:16; Zech 3:9 (Cf. Rev 5:6); Mt 21:43,44; Acts
4:11; Rom 9:33; 1 Cor 10:4; 1 Pet 2:4-8.

Broke in pieces: Ps 2:9; 110:5; Rev 2:6-9. All 3: Iraq, Iran, Greece
recent...

Mountain: Isa 2:2; 9:6; Luke 1:32,33; Rev 17:9-11.

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Preview: Daniel Chapter 7
Four (only) Beasts
(Detailed in notes for Chapter 7.)

1] Lion with eagle’s wings; a new heart given to Nebuchadnezzar (Dan


4).

2] Bear, with three ribs: Babylon, Egypt, Lydia: unsuccessful defensive


alliance against Medes & Persians.

3] Leopard with four wings, four heads:

Lysimachus: North: Thrace, Bithynia (Turkey); Ruled from Pergamos;


Cassandra: West: Greece, Macedonia; ruled from Pella;
Seleucus: East: Syria, Persia, Babylonia, India; Ruled from Antioch;
Ptolomey: South: Egypt, Palestine, Arabia; ruled from Alexandria.
(Expanded in Daniel 8, 11)

4] iron teeth? Ten horns identified in v. 24. “little horn”; title of the
Coming World Leader.

[vv. 9-14: The Second Coming of Christ]

17] Only 4 kingdoms. We’re seeing the 4th.

21] He prevailed against them! Cf. Mt 16:18. Church “gap” between vv.
23 & 24?

24] Time, times (2) and 1/2= 3 1/2 years; 42 months; 1260 days.

Other References: Dan 9:24-27; Rev 13; 14:9-11;17; 18; Zech 5:5-
11. See also The Mystery of Babylon, MidEast Update, The Seventy
Weeks of Daniel, An Empire Reborn, and The Sword of Allah, by
Chuck Missler, Koinonia House.

Chronology:
Gold:

606 B.C. Battle of Carchemesh; Nebuchadnezzar establishes


Babylonian Empire.
587 B.C. 3rd Siege; Destruction of Jerusalem.

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Silver:

537 B.C. Ugbaru conquers Babylon for Cyrus, establishing


Persian Empire. Completes 70 years “Servitude of
Nation.”
518 B.C. End of the “Desolations of Jerusalem.”
445 B.C. Decree of Artaxerxes to authorizes the wall to be
rebuilt.

Bronze:

332 B.C Battles of Marathon, Alexander the Great conquers the


Persian Empire.

Iron, Phase One:

68 B.C. Rome emerges as the largest and most ruthless empire


with Julius Caesar as Emperor.
44 B.C. Julius Caesar assassinated.
31 B.C. Battle of Actium establishes Octavius as Caesar
Augustus.
64 A.D. Nero begins his persecutions.
284 Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianius divides empire
into two. (Two legs, east and west?)

The disintegration begins.

312 Constantine established as Emperor; Christianity


declared state religion; transfers capital to Byzantium in
the east; dies in 337.
455 Germanic tribes sack Rome.
476 Empire breaks into pieces...

[Interval of the Church]

Iron, Phase Two: “mixed with clay”

1951 Treaty of Paris: European Coal and Steel Community


established as a multinational entity.
1957 March 25: Treaty of Rome: European Economic
Community and European Atomic Energy Community
established.

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1958 March 19: European Parliament established.

1959 Belgium, Luxemberg, & Netherlands form a single


BeNeLux group.

1967 July: Commissions of EEC, ECSC, and Euratom, merge


into “European Community.”

1973 Denmark, Ireland, and United Kingdom join. Greece,


Spain, and Portugal also join subsequently.

1991 Six European Free Trade Association nations agree to


combine with the E.C. in 1993.

1993 Maastricht Treaty signed: single foreign policy; single


military; single currency.

European Union
Original 6:

France (Benelux Countries):


Germany Netherlands
Italy Belgium
Luxembourg

1973: Britain
Ireland
Denmark

1981: Greece

1986: Spain
Portugal

1991: (German Reunification)

1995: Austria
Finland
Sweden

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National Anthem

Beethoven’s Ninth (“Choral”) Symphony, in D minor, Op. 125.


Choral stanzas adapted by Beethoven from Shiller’s Ode to Joy:

Freude, Tochter aus Elysium


Deine Zauber binden wieder,
Was die Mode streng getheilt;
Alle Menschen werden Brueder,
Wo dein sanfter Fluegel weilt...

In English (Translation by Louis Untermeyer):

Joy, O daughter of Elysium,


Thy pure magic frees all others
Held in Custom’s rigid rings;
Men throughout the world are brothers
In the haven of thy wings...

For a more complete update on Europe, see An Empire Reborn?

Daniel 3
Bow or Burn
18-23 years later? Traditions and children had grown. Rivals’
Revenge. [CBS Prime Time TV Special, Ancient Secrets of the Bible
II.]

Image

All Gold. 60 x 6 cubits. (What’s a cubit? 18 in.?)


[Colossus at Rhoedes = 70 cubits high.]
6 = 7 - 1 = number of man. 6th day of Genesis; Goliath measured in
6’s; 1 Sam 17:4-7; 6 steps for Solomon’s throne; 6 + 1: Menorah. In
our society: Man is deified: Humanism. Ultimate: Rev 13.

Dura = “enclosed by a wall”; 6 miles SE of Babylon.


CBS: (Dr. Wm Shea, Prof OT): 1956, published cuneiform tablets by
British Museum: revolt in 596 B.C. may have set the stage for the
reaffirmation and swearing support of Nebuchadnezzar.

Page 14
2] Officials (Aramaic, Greek) princes: Arabian ‘ahashdarpan, Greek
satrap; chief rep. or admn of king; governors, segan, prefect;
military; commanders, captains, peha, governor (civil); judges;
adargazar, counsellor, arbitrator; treasurers, qedabar, treasurer, coun-
sellors, detabar, lawyers; sheriffs, tiptay, magistrates, judge.;

5] [If you follow “heavy metal” music, this “hot” music group gives
“Metallica” a whole new meaning! The Christian equivalent would
be “Deliverance,” and that is, after all, what happens with Christ in the
picture as the three young men soon discover!]

6] tanup: execution furnace. Enforced state religion: Rev 13:4-15; 14:9-


11; 19:20; 20:4; 2 Thess 2:4. CBS: Dr. Ron Charles (designed for
Owens Corning Corporation): [His design: two story, 32 ft. high, 20
ft in chamber, 12 brick baking chamber. Backdraft killed 7? Cold
spots?]

12] Shadrach, “illumined by the Sun God”


Hananiah, “Beloved of the Lord”
Meshech, “Who is like unto the Moon God”
Mishael, “Who is God”
Abed-nego, Servant of Nego (“Shining Fire”)
Azariah, “The Lord is my help”

CBS Special: 5 side clay prism found in Babylon, now on display at


the Istanbul Museum: lists grouped by titles: Ha-nu-nu, Chief of the
Royal Merchants, a variation of Hananiah, or Shadrach; Mushal-e-
marduk: (less marduk) = Meshach. Ardi-nabu, Secretary to the
Crown Prince; an alternative form of Abed-Nego;

Prohibited in the Torah: Ex 20:4,5; Lev 26:1; Deut 16:22.

14] 2nd chance? They must have been favored.

17] Faithful “remnant”: Isa 1:9; Rom 11:5. Ps 2:5; Rev 7:14.

18] Though He slay me, yet will I trust in Him: but I will maintain mine
own ways before Him. Job 13:15 Also, Acts 4:19. “Our God is a
consuming fire” Heb 12:29; Deut 4:24.

19] Seven times?...

25] bar elahin, son of the gods (pl) (Aramaic); Elohim is always plural!

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“Angel” of v. 28. Theophany. Walking around loose!

Furnace: N. Iraq: brick furnaces, size of city block; pitch, sulfur; +


bellows. [Since Nebuchadnezzar’s Palace has been rebuilt, has
Saddam Hussein also built one of these?]

26] El Elyon, possessor of Heaven and Earth Nebuchadnezzar’s views


amplified in Ch.4!

27] [defeats “coldspot” theories] Bindings lost. Blessed loss. Many of


God’s servants never know the fulness of spiritual liberty till they are
cast into the midst of the furnace. Go into the furnace. Christ is in the
furnace with you.

Though the smell of fire had not passed on them, it must have left a
glow on their countenances and a glory on their persons which we find
nowhere else. Henceforth they are called “the three holy children.”

29] Nebuchadnezzar is mover and shaker.

Prophetic Types
Daniel 3 vs. Revelation 13
Image: Rev 13:11 (14,15) 18; Mt 24:15.

Nebuchadnezzar =? Antichrist?
Babel, Nimrod = one religion.
One religion = Rev 17; 2 Thess 2:4.

Mark of the Beast? vs. Ezek 9:4?


Cf. “seal” of the Holy Spirit
Cf. barcodes? Microchips inserted?

3 youths: Israel? 144,000? Rev 7, 15:2.

Fiery furnace = Tribulation? Isa 43:1,2; Dan 9.


Men destroyed by flames: 2 Thess 2:8; Rev 20:10; 19:20.

Fire: God’s
Presence Ex 3:1-4
Pathway Ex 13:21
Precepts Ex 19:16-18 (cf 20:1-17)

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Punishment Gen 19:23-24; Lev 10:2
Power 1 Kgs 18:24
Protection Dan 3:25
Prophecy 2 Thess 1:6-10; 2 Pet 3:10; Luke 17:29,30

Where’s Daniel?

Absent on affair of state? Istanbul prism: lists three; but no mention


of Daniel! Church? Not mentioned after Rev 4:1.
[Other “Type” examples: Gen 22. Where’s Isaac?]

Daniel 4
The Affadavit of a Gentile King! An statutory edict officially
published throughout the world. (Issued in 562 B.C., the year he
recovered from insanity.) [One of the longest chapters in Daniel.]
[Cf. the words of Elihu: Job 33:12-17.)

8] Daniel + Belteshazzar: remember, the edict went all over the world...
“Master of magicians” = scholars... cf. Ezek 28:3 ref: confirms a 6th
century Daniel.

Tree of the World

A man: Ps 1:3; 37:35; 52:8; 92:12; Isa 56:3; Jer 17:8.


Assyria: Ezek 31:3-18.
Mustard “tree” in Mt 13:31-32.
Olive tree: Israel; Rom 11:16-24.

2 Kgs 14:9; Ps 1:3; 37:35; 52:8; 92:12; Ezek 17. Ezek 31: Assyrian
and Egyptian Pharaoh are compared to cedar of Lebanon.

Transplanted shoot: Ezek 17:22ff; 22:24; stump: Isa 11:1.


Immediate application: Nebuchadnezzar.
Prophetic: ecumenical outreach of Babylonianism and Gentile power
in the last days and final overthrow. (Seven years of insanity and
confusion!?)

Conversion took place after the 7 years of madness. The tree did not
sprout again until after it had been cut down... Acts 15:14-17; “take
out” of them a people for his name... “after this I will return”...

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14] “His” branches...his...his...

15] “times” = “years” 7:25.

17] Councils in heaven: 1 Kgs 22:19-22; Job 1:6-12; 2:1-6. Powers that
be are ordained of God; Rom 13:1.

28] The Dream Fulfilled.

Babylon
Origin: Gen 10:8-10, Nimrod, the first world dictator. Herodotus: 15
miles square; 350 ft wall, 87 ft wide (6 chariots abreast!?); 2nd wall,
moat; 250 watchtowers, 100 ft above the wall; Tower of Bel (Bab-El)
600 ft!? Banquet hall: 56 x 173 ft. The magnificence of Babylon led
to Nebuchadnezzar’s downfall. He still had a major ego problem and
a Babylonian inscription has been discovered that highlights this:1

I, Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon,


I am the son of Nabopolassar, King of Babylon.
I who erected the Ezida Temple,
I who built Procession Street,
The Street of the Forgiven Son,
The Street of Nebu,
And paged it with shimmering stones.
Nebu, you the divine minister,
Grant me immortality.

Page 18
Hanging Gardens of Semiramis = one of the 7 wonders of the ancient
world. (Saddam Hussein has offered prizes if anyone can figure out
how they were irrigated...)

[Has a prophetic destiny at the end of the age. See Chap. 5.]

Pride

God hates it. Prov 6; 1 Cor 4:6,7; Phil 2:3-4; 1 Tim 6:4-10,17; James
4:13-17; Prov 16:5; 16:18; 21:24; 26:12; 29:23. [Why? Satan’s fall:
Isa 14:4-14] One of the most dangerous things in life is when things
are going well. Our mistakes are our lessons; our pains and sorrows
are our credentials.

Lycanthropy: (Greek: lykos, “wolf”; anthropos, “Man”)

Mental disorder in which the patient believes he is a wolf or some


other animal. Stimulated by the once widespread superstition of a
supernatural condition in which men actually assume the physical
form of werewolves or other animals. Linked with belief in animal
guardian spirits, vampires, totemism, witches, and werewolves. Folk-
lore, fairy tales, and legends of many nations and peoples show
evidence of lycanthropic belief. Romans called anyone who was
supposed to have been turned into a wolf by means of magic spells or
herbs versipellis (“turnskin”). Widely believed in Europe during the
Middle Ages.2

Boanthropy: an ox... Raymond Harrisons observed a case in British


mental institution in 1946. Early ‘20s; hospitalized for 5 years; fitted
description in 4:33. 3

Eusebius references from Abydenus, a Greek historian of 268 B.C.,


aspects of Nebuchadnezzar’s insanity, being on the roof, and other
details.

Josephus attributes to the Babylonian historian Berosus, a Chaldean


priest of the time of Alexander the Great, a definite reference
concerning a strange malady suffered by Nebuchadnezzar before his
death.4 Berosus learned Greek, opened a school, and had Abydenus
as one of his pupils. He wrote 3 books on Chaldean history; fragments
are preserved in Josephus and Eusebius.

Talmud: care provided by Daniel.

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Prayer of Nabonidus: found in Cave 4 at Qumran:
“The words of the prayer that Nabonidus, the king of A[ssyria and
Ba]bylon, the [great] king, prayed [when he was smitten] with a
malignant disease by the decree of the [Most High God] in [the city
of] Tema. I was smitten for seven years and from [men] I was put
away. But when I confessed my sins and my faults, He [God] allowed
me (to have) a soothsayer. This was a Jewish [man of the exiles in
Babylon. He] explained (it) and wrote (me) to render honor and g[reat
glor]y to the name of the [Most High God]...”5

Words in common to both accounts: pitgam, “decree, decision”; gaz


rayya, “soothsayer, diviner.” (Aramic nbny in Cave 4 = Nabodnidus?
(nbnd); confused with nbkd, Nebuchadnezzar.)

34] Restoration... Summary by Daniel: 5:20-21. Saved? A heart given


unto him: 7:4.

37] The last we read of Nebuchadnezzar. After his restoration, he lived


about one year. His son Evil-merodach succeeded him as Babylon’s
next ruling monarch; Jer 9:23-24.

Chapter 5: The Fall of Babylon


The Relevance of Babylon

First mention: Genesis 2:14.


Mentioned over 300 times in the Bible.
Alluded to 3 times in Christ’s genealogy.
Presently 100 kilometers (62 miles) south of Baghdad.

The Origin of Babylon

The first world dictator: Nimrod (“Rebel”).


The classical translation of Genesis 10:9 is misleading: “a mighty
hunter in defiance of the Lord.”

Nimrod built the famous Tower of Babel as the centerpiece of his


rebellion against God. (“Bav” = gate; “El” = God. Babel = “Gateway
to the gods”). This was the beginning of the city of Babylon. (This
ziggurat was later rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar as Etemenanki, “the
building which is the foundation of heaven and earth.”)

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God disrupted this rebellious coalition through the “confusion of
tongues” in Genesis 11. This rebellion against God is still with us.
The residuals from Babylon include most of the traditions of idol
worship, astrology, and the occult that continue to the present day.
The original Biblical significance of the zodiac (or “Mazzeroth”) was
corrupted by the Babylonian religious system and continues in all
cultures to this day. (See our Briefing Package, Signs in the Heavens.)

The Battle of the Nine Kings

In Genesis 14 we find Abraham’s dramatic rescue of his nephew Lot


in the Battle of the Nine Kings. There were four attacking kings from
southern Mesopotamia who defeated five kings of the plain.

The four kings had, for 12 years, been under the leadership of
Cherdorlaomer, the King of Elam. It is provocative that in the list
which introduces these kings in Genesis 14:1, the one mentioned first
is Amraphel, King of Shinar (Babylon), one of the secondary kings at
the time.

First Mention of Jerusalem

Also in Genesis 14, after Abraham’s stunning victory, we encounter


a mysterious character Melchizedek, King of Salem (Ps 110; Heb 5,
7, etc.), a location later to be known as Jerusalem (Ps 76:1,2; 2 Sam
18:18).

This begins an antithetical relationship between Jerusalem and Babylon


that climaxes with the destruction of Babylon in the “Day of Lord”
(Revelation 16 - 19) and with the presentation of the “New Jerusalem”
in Revelation 21.

The Early Years

Assyria rose to power in the second millennium B.C. and emerged as


the dominant power until the rise of the Chaldeans in the seventh
century B.C. Various early kings appointed governors over the city of
Babylon before the Amorite invasion led to the founding of the first
Semitic dynasty of Babylon under Sumu-abum (1894 B.C.). The sixth
king of the line, Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.) enlarged the city and
made it a prosperous capital and trading center. Hammurabi and his
son, Samsu-iluna, reigned from 1749 to 1712 B.C. It was during this

Page 21
period that the nation Israel was living in Egypt. Soon the south was
in revolt and by the end of his reign, the founder of a new dynasty in
the marshlands in the south, Iliman, controlled Babylonia as far north
as Nippur. This new dynasty was known as Sealand, and for over a
100 years the Sealanders held an effective political force holding the
south against the Kassites and others who were eventually to supplant
them on the Babylonian throne. With the capture of the city by the
Hittites, (1595 B.C.) and then the subsequent occupation by the
Kassites who ruled for some 400 years.

During the first millennium B.C., Babylon endured as a minor tribal


center, and as a mere pawn of Assyrian politics.

An Instrument Of Judgment

King Hezekiah’s victory over the Assyrians: Isaiah 36 and 37.


Hezekiah falls victim to his pride and takes credit for God’s handi-
work. 2 Kings 20:12-18. God announces that He will bring judge-
ment upon the nation Israel by having Babylon take them captive as
slaves. Isaiah 39.

Jeremiah predicted that the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews was to


last 70 years, and it did. Jeremiah 25:11, 12. Failure to keep the
Sabbath of the land for 490 years (70 times 7) was the cause for the
particular period of 70 years of captivity (2 Chronicles 36:21). (Cf.
“70 times 7” Mt 18:22.)

The Rise of Nebuchadnezzar

In 627 B.C. a governor of the Sealands (modern Kuwait), Nabopolassar,


rallied the tribes and broke out from besieged Erech and cleared
Babylon from the Assyrians for the last time. Six weeks later the
people of Babylon invited Nabopolassar to be their king.
Nabopolassar’s son, Nebuchadnezzar, used the city as a base from
which he marched on many campaigns to Syria and Palestine. He was
destined to bring in the Chaldean dynasty’s finest hours and Babylon’s
most famous period.

The Battle of Carchemish

In 612 B.C. the combined forces of Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians


attacked and destroyed the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. The only

Page 22
remaining power of significance was the Egyptians. The Babylonian
Chronicle records the defeat of Pharaoh Necco and the Egyptians at
the famous battle at Carchemish and the then-known world was under
Babylonian rule.

Conquest of Jerusalem

In 606 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar succeeded in his siege of Jerusalem and


Jehoiakim of Judah became his vassal. Jehoiakim would also revolt
three years later, 2 Kgs 24:1; Dan 1:1,2. Nebuchadnezzar’s first
expedition was before he ascended to the throne; Nebuchadnezzar’s
first year was concurrent with Jehoiakim’s fourth year, Jeremiah
25:1. This is in agreement with Clinton, Pussey, Anderson (p.229-
240.) This initiated a 70-year period known Biblically as the “servi-
tude of the nation.”

It was in this first siege that Daniel and his three friends were deported
as teenagers to be educated there and to serve at the Babylonian court.
These “hostages” might help assure the continued loyalty of the
vassal king in Jerusalem.

Despite Jeremiah’s warnings, Jehoiakim rebelled three years later


after the Egyptians had beaten the Babylonian army in open battle.
Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem a second time, seized Jehoiakim,
and appointed a king of his own choice, Zedekiah; 2 Kgs 25:1; Jer
39:1; 52:4; Ezek24:1. Babylonian Chronicle, as quoted in D. J.
Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldean Kings (626-556 B.C.) in the British
Museum, 1956. The capture of Jehoiachin and his substitution by a
Babylonian nominee, Mattaniah-Zedekiah, accords with the Biblical
accounts of the same events. 2 Kgs 24:10-17; 2 Chr 36:5-10; Jer 37:1.

Skilled craftsmen from Judah were deported to assist the immense


building program then current at Babylon, where in Esagalia and
other temples the spoils of war were dedicated to be displayed on state
occasions; 2 Chr 36:7; Dan 5:3. Tablets from the vaulted rooms by
the Ishtar Gate include four listing rations given to “Yau’kin of
Judah.” Five sons of Jehoichin are also mentioned as well as five
carpenters from Judah, presumably captives from the siege of Jerusa-
lem.

Again, despite Jeremiah’s repeated warnings, Zedekiah also rebelled,


which led to the third and final siege by Nebuchadnezzar, and the
complete destruction of Jerusalem. This initiates the period known as

Page 23
the “desolations of Jerusalem” that also lasted exactly 70 years. Many
commentators make the mistake of treating the “servitude of the
nation” and the “desolations of Jerusalem” as synonyms since they
both were predicted to be 70 years in duration. The “desolations of
Jerusalem” was a punishment for not yielding to the “servitude.”
Jeremiah 27:6, 8, 11; 38:17-21; Cf. Jeremiah 29:10, Daniel 9:2.

Nebuchadnezzar’s Successors

Nebuchadnezzar’s death was followed by a steady weakening of the


regime. His successor, Amel-Marduk (“Evil-Merodach” of 2 Kings
25:27; Jeremiah 52:31), ruled but two years and was replaced in 560
B.C. after an army coup by the commander in chief, Neriglissar
(Nergal-Sharezer of Jeremiah 39:3), son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar.
After frequent absences from active service, he was, in turn, ousted,
and his weak son Labashi-Marduk lasted only a few months before
another coup d’etat brought Nabonidus to the throne.

Soon after his election, Nabonidus led the army to Palestine and
Northern Arabia, leaving his son Belshazzar as co-regent in Babylon.
Nabonidus’ decision to stay in Arabia resulted from his unpopularity
at home as much as from his desire to found a settlement there with
exiles from Palestine.

In Babylon there had been inflation brought on both by the continuing


military expenditure and by the extensive program of public works
begun by Nebuchadnezzar. This inflation rate amounted to 50%
between 560 B.C. and 530 B.C., resulting in widespread famine.

In the last year of Nabonidus, the Babylon Chronicle (British Mu-


seum) records that the idols of the cities around Babylon, except
Borsippa, Kutha, and Sippar, were brought in, an action taken only at
the sign of impending war. This cylinder, one of 4 bearing the same
text found at the four corners of the ziggurat at Ur, is inscribed in
Babylonian cuneiform: prayer to the moon-god Sin, to whom the
Ziggurat is consecrated; mentions “Belshazzar, the son first (born) the
offspring of my heart (body).” Inscriptions designate Daniel as “the
3rd Ruler in the kingdom.” (5:29)

The Rise of Cyrus

Cyrus II (“the Great,” 559-530 B.C.) was the founder of the Achaemenid
Persian Empire that continued for two centuries until the time of
Page 24
Alexander the Great (331 B.C.). Cyrus’ father, Cambyses I (600-559
B.C.), was king of Anshan, a region in eastern Elam. His mother was
Mandane, a daughter of Astyages, king of Media (585 -550 B.C.)
When Cambyses I died in 559 B.C., Cyrus inherited the throne of
Anshan and, after unifying the Persian people, attacked his father-in-
law, the weak and corrupt Astyages. The Median general Harpagus,
whom Astyages had previously wronged, deserted the king and
brought his army to the side of the young Cyrus. Astyages was soon
captured and the Persians took the capital city of Ecbatana in 550 B.C.
without a battle. (This was also to be the result at Babylon 11 years
later.)

Cyrus succeeded in welding the Medes and Persians into a unified


nation. Moving swiftly to the west, he absorbed all the Median
territories as far as the Halys River in Asia Minor. When Croesus, the
fabulously wealthy king of Lydia, refused to recognize the sover-
eignty of Medo-Persia, Cyrus defeated him in battle and took over his
empire in 546 B.C. Seven years later, he was ready to launch the great
assault against Babylon itself.

Babylon was in no position to resist a Medo-Persian invasion in the


year 539 B.C. During the preceding fourteen years, Nabonidus the
king had not so much as visited the capital city, leaving the adminis-
tration of the metropolis to his profligate son Belshazzar, to whom he
also “entrusted the kingship.” (“Verse Account of Nabonidus,”
Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 313.) Nabonidus further
weakened the empire by incurring the displeasure of the powerful
Babylonian priesthood.

Toward the end of September, the armies of Cyrus, under the able
command of Ugbaru, district governor of Gutium, attacked Opis on
the Tigris River and defeated the Babylonians. This gave the Persians
control of the vast canal system of Babylon. On October 10, Sippar
was taken without a battle and Nabonidus fled.

Two days later, on October 12, 539 B.C., Ugbaru’s troops were able
to enter Babylon without a battle. Herodotus describes how the
Persians diverted the River Euphrates into a canal upriver so that the
water level dropped “to the height of the middle of a man’s thigh,”
which thus rendered the flood defenses useless and enabled the
invaders to march through the river bed to enter by night. (Herodotus
1.191.)

Page 25
The Handwriting on the Wall

The Talmud suggests that the writing was vertical and backwards:
(Aramaic, like Hebrew, reads from right to left. We’ve reversed the
chart to read backwards for Western readers):

Mene,
Mene,
Tekel,
Peres.

Mene: numbered, reckoned. “God hath numbered thy kingdom and


finished it.” Your number is up.

Tekel: weighed. “Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found
wanting.”

Peres: (rendered “upharsin”: “u” is Aramaic for “and”; “pharsin” is


the plural form of “peres.”) broken, divided. “Thy kingdom is
divided, and given to the Medes and the Persians.” (By implying a
different vowel, “paras” rather than “peres.” It also becomes a play on
words: paras was the word for Persia.)

Page 26
God’s Personal Letter to Cyrus

Cyrus was able to boast that the conquest was almost bloodless with
no significant damage to the city. Daniel (who lived at least until the
third year of Cyrus) presented Cyrus with the writings of Isaiah
(Josephus, Antiq. XI, i.2) that includes a letter addressed to Cyrus by
name, written 150 years earlier: Isaiah 44:27 - 45:7.

The famous Steele of Cyrus: “...without any battle, he entered the


town, sparing any calamity...I returned to sacred cities on the other
side of the Tigris, the sanctuaries of which have been ruins for a long
time...and established for them permanent sanctuaries. I also gath-
ered all their former inhabitants and returned to them their habita-
tions.”

This cylinder, discovered by Hormuzd Rassam in the 19th century,


can presently be seen in the British Museum in London.

The Jews were actually encouraged by Cyrus to return to Jerusalem


and to rebuild their temple (2 Chr 36:22; Ezra 1:1-4). Furthermore, he
gave them back the vessels that Nebuchadnezzar had plundered from
Solomon’s Temple and he contributed financially to the construction
of their second temple. About 50,000 Jews responded to this royal
proclamation and returned to Jerusalem under the leadership of
Zerubbabel.

A year later, on July 23, 537 B.C., the return of Jewish exiles under
Zerubbabel got under way just seventy years after the captivity began
just as Jeremiah had predicted. The foundations of the second Temple

Page 27
were laid by the spring of 536 B.C. It was a successor, Artaxerxes I
(465 - 423 B.C.) who issued the specific decree concerning the
rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem. This decree is the trigger for one
of the most remarkable prophecies in the Bible: the famous “Seventy
Sevens” of Daniel 9.

The Decline
The Achaemenids

Cyrus claimed the title “King of Babylon” and made his son Cambyses
to act as his viceroy in Babylon in 538 B.C. Things remained peaceful
until his death in 522 B.C.

In the reign of Darius II (521-486 B.C.) a further return of exiles to


Jerusalem was allowed. His rule did not go unchallenged and several
local Babylonians controlled the city for varying periods, usually
taking the throne-name of “Nebuchadnezzar” to bolster their claims.
Thus Nidintu-Bel (“Nebuchadnezzar III”) held sway October-De-
cember 522 B.C. Araka (“Nebuchadnezzar IV”) was put to death
November 27, 521 B.C.

Darius introduced a rigid royal control with local administrative


reforms aimed at curbing corruption and establishing a courier system
between Babylon and other capitals. He built himself a palace
(Apadana), a house for his crown prince, and an arsenal.

In the fourth year of Xerxes (485-465 B.C.) the Babylonians made


another attempt to gain their independence. Bel-shimanni and
Shamash-eriba claimed the throne in 482 and this revolt was sup-
pressed with much cruelty and damage to Babylon. On his visit in 460
B.C., Herodotus reported that the city was virtually intact, however.

Xerxes and his successors (Artaxerxes I - Darius III, 464-332) had


little to spare for Babylon amid their lengthy and expensive wars with
Greece. Irrigation work was neglected and the diversion of trade to
the main Persian road from Sardis to Susa aided the decline of the
city’s influence.

The Rise of Greece

On October 1, 331 B.C. Alexander (III, “the Great”) was welcomed by

Page 28
the Babylonians when he entered the city after his victory over the
Medes at Gaugamela. He was acclaimed king and on his return from
the east nine years later he planned extensive renovations including
the creation of a port for the city large enough for 1000 warships.
Though the site of Esagila was cleared, work ceased on Alexander’s
ambitious plans at his death in Babylon on June 13, 323 B.C.

The career of Alexander is detailed in Daniel 8. His successors, in


Daniel 11.

His four key generals divided it among themselves: Cassander took


over Greece and Macedonia; Lysimachus took Thrace and Bithynia;
Seleucus took Syria, Babylonia, and portions all the way to India;
Ptolemy took Egypt, Palestine, and Arabia.

The subsequent struggles among his generals did not leave the city
unscathed. Seleucus, who claimed the title of king in 305 B.C. was
acknowledged from 311 when all documents were dated by his “era.”
The foundation of a new rival capital city, Selucia, on the River Tigris
expedited the decline of the ancient metropolis.

The dispersal of Jews from Babylon is reported by Josephus. (Antiq.


XVIII, ix 6-9.)

Atrophy and Decay

The city subsequently underwent a gradual decay, even though the


ruins remained occupied. Documents on clay from a school for
priests in the city continued at least until 100 A.D.

Early in the first century A.D. a colony of merchants from Palmyra


brought brief prosperity, but they left about 75 A.D. (Garner, p 7-8.)

The city was visited by Trajan in 115 A.D. Babylon was first reported
deserted by Septimus Severus 84 years later.

As recently as the 1800’s the village of Hillah, containing over 10,000


inhabitants, stood on the site of ancient Babylon. (Rich, p.157.)

In the late nineteenth century, the German archeologist Robert


Koldewey conducted extensive studies at Babylon and the four Arab
villages situated on the site. Babylon had been inhabited for some
time even before his arrival. The great prophecies concerning the city

Page 29
of Babylon in Isaiah chapters 13 and 14 and Jeremiah 50 and 51 have
never been fulfilled.

The Destruction of Babylon


The Prophecies of Isaiah

In Isaiah 13 and 14, the destruction of Babylon is predicted. In


vigorous terms, Isaiah describes how Babylon will be destroyed and
then will never again be inhabited. This identifies the time of the
destruction as that particular period known as the “Day of The Lord”
that is mentioned throughout the scripture and is associated with the
final day of God’s vengeance. (Joel 2:10; Mal 4:5; Dan 12:1; Mt
24:21-22.) When God destroys Babylon, he will destroy all the evil
in the world.

Isaiah 13

10] This exact imagery is used in Revelation 6 to describe the judgment


of the Tribulation just before the Second Coming.

11] This startling idea parallels Matthew 24:21-22. We can’t say that the
world’s population has been on the brink of annihilation before.

13] This clearly is yet future.

17] This reference to the Medes is one of the reasons why many have
viewed this as referring to the events of 539 B.C. However, nothing
prohibits the Medes from being involved in the future. The Medes
were a people who occupied the mountainous area of northwestern
Iran and northeastern Iraq, presently occupied by the Kurds today.
They have been fighting Turkey, Iran, and Iraq in an attempt to
establish their own independent country of Kurdistan. Hundreds of
Kurdish women and children were the victims of Saddam Hussein’s
poison gas attacks in 1987 and 1988 and the hatred by the Medes for
the Babylonians runs deep.

19] “The glory of the Babylonians’ pride”: not Rome, nor allegorical:
literally, the Chaldeans’ pride. Overthrown like Sodom and Gomorrah,
that is, with “fire from heaven.” This has yet to happen to Babylon.

20] After the Fall of Babylon under the Persians, it was inhabited, even by
Alexander and subsequently.

Page 30
Isaiah 14

1] It is also important to note that this judgment on Babylon will take


place at a time when Israel is resettled in their own land from many
nations. This cannot be applied to the fall of Babylon to the Persians,
during which Israel was still in captivity and in exile from the land.

22] Clearly, this is part of God’s climactic scenario as part of the “Day of
the Lord” and is part of the final scenes at the end of the “Seventieth
Week” of Daniel 9, and that is highlighted in Matthew 24 and
Revelation 6 through 19.

The Prophecies of Jeremiah

50:1-3] Does the “nation from the north” refer to Magog or the Russians?

50:4] Again, the spiritual position of Israel is described.

50:9] Again, it appears to be an alliance of many nations that are coming


against Babylon.

50:10-3] Again, the absence of subsequent habitation marks this event as


yet future.

50:15] Again, the period of time is the “Day of Vengeance” of God, a time
of climax described throughout the Scripture and yet future.

50:20] The repeated references to the forgiveness of Israel imply a time


that is after the New Testament period alluded to in Romans 11:25. It
certainly cannot be applied to Israel at the time of her return from the
Babylonian captivity (Zech 12:10; 13:1).

50:40] A repeated comparison to the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah,


which has never yet happened to Babylon.

50:41, 46] A multinational force, not just the Persians.

51:7] A reading of the language clearly links this with Revelation 17 and
18.

51:26] Again, a reference to the non-reuse of remaining materials. When


Robert Koldewey arrived in Babylon in the late 1800’s, he found

Page 31
entire sections of the old city being mined for bricks. (Kodewey,
p.168.)

51:45] Again, remarkably similar language as in Revelation 17 and 18.

The destruction of Babylon predicted by both Isaiah and Jeremiah has


never been fulfilled.

Revelation 17

Notice that the prostitute is not the beast, but rides the beast. She
initially exploits the beast, but is eventually destroyed by him. (Rev
17:16,17.)

The reference to the “cup” is another link with Jeremiah, et al.

Again, note the distinction between the Woman and the Beast.

Mystery Babylon as a false religious system is here identified with the


city of Rome from the first century until this present hour.

Revelation 18

The destruction of Mystery Babylon continues in Chapter 18, with


commercial as well as religious overtones. Notice that there are three
groups that bemoan her fall: kings, merchants, and those who trade by
sea. Notice that here are 28 literal commodities listed: perhaps this
is to prevent us from allegorizing these references (see chart on next
page).

The clear references to Rome, in both religious and commercial


terms, have caused most commentators to identify “Mystery Babylon”
as the Roman religious system commingled with the emerging
European Community. This allegorical view has overlooked the
reemergence of a literal city of Babylon as well.

Babylon Reemerges?

The strange vision in Zecharaiah 5:5-15 suggests that there will be an


appropriate time when the commercial and religious power center of
the Planet Earth will, once again, migrate back to its original site of
the literal city of Babylon.

Page 32
Note that the “ephah” and the “talent” were the standard commercial
measures of volume and weight, respectively. The two carriers had
the “wings of a stork” which is an unclean bird. The captive woman
called “wickedness” may be a reference to the harlot of Revelation 17
and 18.

“Mystery Babylon”

All forms of occultic practices have had their origins in the original
city of Babylon. Isaiah chapter 47 brings this out clearly. (See also
Hislop in bibliography.) Tammuz, the son of Nimrod and his queen,
Semiramis, was identified with the Babylonian Sun God, and wor-
shipped following the winter solstice, about December 22.

Page 33
As Babylon was conquered by subsequent empires, this entire reli-
gious system was transplanted, first to Pergamos (Rev 2:12-17) and
then to Rome. When Constantine established Christianity as the
official state religion of Rome, many of the religious traditions and
practices of the earlier pagan worship were adapted and incorporated
into the resulting system. As the Babylonian religious system was
integrated with Christian ceremonial observances, many of our tradi-
tions surrounding Christmas emerge.

The Babylonian worship of Ishtar, the Golden Egg of Astarte, and the
fertility rites of spring give us Easter (“Ishtar,” the mother goddess of
Babylon).

The calendar year-end on October 31, and its associated occultic


rituals, gave us our Halloween. Many ancient cultures (Celts, Druids,
et al.) observed October 31, the Eve of Samhain, as their year-end.
This was related to worship of Baal (Mars) and may have been
stimulated by the perturbation of the orbit of the earth associated with
the planet Mars. See our Briefing Package, The Signs in the Heavens.

Most of what we associate with pagan Rome had its origins in ancient
Babylon. It was the appearance of these idolatrous influences that has
evoked the intense criticism of Roman Catholicism by Protestant
commentators over the centuries (Rev. 2:18-19). To equate “Mystery
Babylon” with the Papacy, however, may be a myopic oversimplifi-
cation It appears more likely that it is an “ecumenical” integration of
all the world’s religions, including the ancient Babylonian occult
forms that presently masquerade as the “New Age.”

The Conspiracy Theories

Bab-El, Babylon, Nimrod: Pantheism; Polytheism; Occult; Kabbalah;


Gnostics, et al. ZendAvesta; India; Egypt, etc.
Knights Templar (Protection for the Crusaders).
HQ: Jerusalem, Acra, Cypress.
Wealth; Lands. Corruption (at beginning? later?).
1100-1300: Satan Worship.
Catholics reluctant; ultimately they burn at stake; movement goes
underground.
1500s re-emerge: Rosecrucians; Order of the Rose.
1600s, 1700s: Secret societies within secret societies.
May 1, 1776: “Illuminati”; Adam Weishaupt, Prof of Law, Univ of
Englestasdt, Bavaria.

Page 34
1870: “Merger” with the Freemasons.
Open worship of Satan; hidden from rank and file.
33 levels of secrecy. ...search their own libraries!

Great Seal of the United States

Designed and accepted in 1782 by Freemasons; influenced by Euro-


pean mysticism; put on the dollar bill by Henry A. Wallace, VP under
FDR. Wallace fascinated by the occult.

Annuit Coeptis: Announcing the birth of...


Novus New
Ordo Order
Seclorum World

Eagle: Egyptian Sun god Amun Ra; Egyptians, Greeks, and Persians:
eagle sacred to the sun. Eagle was the Living Symbol of Mendes, a
representative of the Sun. (Nine tail feathers: Inner Circle of Nine of
the Illuminati?) 32, 33 wing feathers: 32 degrees of the Scottish Rite
of Freemasonry; 33 on the left: the honorary 33rd degree.

All Seeing Eye: The Open Eye of Egypt; Symbol of Osiris; Ubiquity
of Masonic Law; Sun God is associated with Lucifer.

Council for Foreign Relations 1921

Dream: One World Government; 3000 members; members must not


divulge meetings; no minutes taken. Control of most senior officials
for decades?

Spin-offs: Bilderbergers (Castle) - Europe; David Rockefeller; Major


Media; Tri-Lateral Commission; Europe/Japan/U.S.; One World
Government.
Signs? (Satan loves symbols).
Crescent Moon: Shriners. Islam, Vatican.
(See our Briefing Package, The Sword of Allah.)

Federal Reserve (A private corporation)

Fears of Thomas Jefferson, et al: Control of the currency; thus,


explicitly prohibited in The Constitution.

Page 35
Not “one” conspiracy (except in the Satanic sense)—many.

[Any preoccupation with other than the Bible seems to open avenues
of corruption of even the most well-intentioned pursuits.]

Babylon Today
Nebuchadnezzar V?

Saddam Hussein was born in 1937 in the village of Tikrit, 100 miles
north of Baghdad on the Tigris River. (About 800 years earlier,
Saladin, the greatest Muslim warrior of the twelfth century, was born
in the same village. It was Saladin’s capture of Jerusalem in 1187 that
resulted in the Third Crusade.)

Saddam Hussein’s exploits on behalf of the Baath Party became


legend and when they seized control in 1968, Saddam Hussein, at the
age of 31, became a leader in Iraq. A few weeks after becoming
president of Iraq in 1979, he executed some of his closest friends and
fellow members of the ruling Baath Party.

Page 36
Saddam Hussein has spent almost 20 years—60 million bricks, and
many hundreds of millions of dollars—rebuilding the city of Babylon
as a deliberate stratagem to identify himself with the Nebuchadnezzar
of old. Part of his strategy is to vigorously build his Babylonian
identity to appeal to the entire Arab world to unite against Israel and
the “infidel West.”

Between 1983 and 1988, Iraq spent $34 billion to outfit and modern-
ize Saddam’s army.

Progress to date

Perhaps of greatest interest is the southern palace that includes


Nebuchadnezzar’s throne room where the famous “handwriting on
the wall” took place in Daniel 5. This very large ceremonial room has
been used for various state occasions over the past several years.

A replica of the famed Ishtar Gate, the main Processional Way, the
Ninmakh Temple, the Ishtar Temple and others are all presently in the
process of being completed.

The Tower of Babel is being planned as a hotel, with plans for


connecting to a monorail around the city. Also being completed is the
4000 seat Greek Theatre (originally established during the reign of
Alexander) as well as other facilities.

Page 37
Daniel 6
1] Faith: Lockjaw in the Lion’s Den Heb 11:33
Sampson Judg 14:5,6
David 1 Sam 17:34-36; Ps 57:4,7; 58:6
Benaiah 2 Sam 23:20

Daniel: at least 83 years old; over 60 years in public office; still in a


position of honor.

Darius, the Mede?

1) Cyrus himself? Donald J. Wiseman of the British Museum


2) Cambyses, son of Cyrus? Charles Boutfolower
3) Gubaru, appointed to rule over Babylon by Cyrus? John
Whitcomb. [See Wood, p.154]

“Darius” may be an honorable title, meaning “holder of the scepter.”


Used of five later Persian rulers.

The return of the Jews was made in Cyrus’ 1st year, 538/537 B.C. (2
Chr 36:22; Ezra 1:1,2); probably only a few months before the Lion’s
Den.

Ezra 1:2-4; 6:3-5:


Temple to be rebuilt (Cyrus helped finance).
Jews free to go; others to assist financially.
Nebuchadnezzar’s booty returned.

(Was it Daniel’s influence and role that influenced Cyrus?)

“Satraps” = “Kingdom Protectors.”

4] No evil recorded of Daniel; Rev 14:1-5; Rev 7:1-4

[Jealousy leads men to attack a colleague who is more competent than


themselves. A man in the Kingdom of God will prompt the kingdom
of this world to drive its members to display a more extreme bitterness
in their assault.]

The emerging persecution of the “Religious fundamentalists” and


“dangerous religious cultists,” et al.

Page 38
(Remember the Waco Massacre! Randy Weaver at Ruby Creek, etc.)

5] Laws of submission Lk 20:25; Rom 13:1; 1 Pet 2:3; Acts 5:29


vs.
Law of Persians vs. Law of God

7] Assumed “divinity” of kings derives from ancient legends from Gen


6: demigods. Examples: Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Seleucid, and
Roman empires. We’ll see it again.

“den” = gob, from Heb. verb gub, to dig: a pit or cistern.

10] Prayer (cf. Ch 2, 6, 9)


A habit; Jer 29:1-12
windows habitually open.
Solomon: pray toward their land (2 Chr 6:36-39; 1 Kgs
8:33,35,38,44,48).
David (Ps 5:7; 28:2; also 1 Kgs 8:54; Ezra 9:5).
New Testament (Jn 4:21-24).
3X/day? (Ps 55:16,17).
Knees?
Lord: Lk 22:41
Stephen: Acts 7:60
Peter: Acts 9:40
Paul: at Miletus Acts 20:36
at Tyre Acts 21:5

[Honored for not kneeling in Chap 3; also 1 Kgs 8:54; Ezek 9:5.]

Note: Praise not absent, even with pending danger. Our own country
was founded by men who knew and believed in the power of prayer.

12] They bugged his apartment.

13] Did he sign? Why did they ask first?

14] Knew Daniel for more than a year... Aramaic word order places
Daniel first in the sentence, the stressed position: “And as for Daniel,
he set his mind to deliver him.”

15] Monarchy not absolute. Diodorus Siculus records a similar paradox


with King Darious III. Also Esther 1:19; 8:8.

Page 39
16] “whom you serve continually”: what a witness!

17] Both rings would be needed to remove the stone.

Parallels with Christ:


By law to die John 19:7.
Stone, sealed Mt 27:62-66.
Power of resurrection Phil 3:10.
Also Acts 5:17-22; 12:5-10, 18.

18] Sleepless in the palace...

19] Daniel was not kept from his hour of trial!

22] By faith (Heb 11:33). Secret of safety: the Breastplate of righteous-


ness (but whose?)

Angels: Ps 91:11; Heb 1:14; Ps 34:7; Ps 103:20.

24] Kindred also: Ammianus Marcellinus confirms this Persian custom.


Dathan, Abiram, Korah: Num 16
Mosaic law more lenient: Deut 24:16

Principle of lex talionis:


False witnesses: Deut 19:16-21
Haman Est 7:9-10

Aramaic, and other early languages, have a singularly strong idiom


for “slander”: “eat the pieces of a man.” (Found in the Assyrian and
Amarna letters.)

When Daniel came out the next morning, he was the gainer: The king
approved him, admired him, loved him. Everybody heard of it; what
awe he must have inspired. The king was not regarded as half as much
a “god” as Daniel. The counselors never troubled him again. The
lions had taken care of them.

25] Satan’s attempt to extinguish the light of the Living God in Babylon:
Cf. Rev 12...

Wrath restrained: “Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the
remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain.” Ps 76:10.

Page 40
28] 1 Chr 22:13.

Parallels

Faithful remnant: Edward Dennett (1893), A.C. Gaebelein, G.H.


Lang, H.A. Ironside, O.B. Greene, P.R. Newell.

Foreshadows a Man of Sin, claiming divine honors, under penalty of


death: Rev 7:3,14; 12:13-17; Mt 24:13-14; Mk 13:13.

Regathered the Second time: Isa 11:11; Jer 30:3-7; Isa 13:1-13;
43:6,7; Ezek 36:24ff; Lk 21:20,24; Rom 11:25; Zech 13:8,9...

Dan 6:4 Cf. Rev 14:1-5.

“Roaring Lion”: 1 Pet 5:8; 2 Tim 4:17; Rev 13:2.

Daniel did not receive the “mark of the Beast.” Cf. Seal of 144,000 in
Rev 7, 14.

Lessons

Safety in persecution....!
Faithfulness of God
Inspiring faith of one consecrated
Blessing of obeying God rather than men
Reward of separation
God is equal to every emergency
“Thou shalt prosper, if thou takest heed” 1 Chr 22:13

Magi Traditions
Eastern tradition: 12. Christmas: Jan 6.
Western tradition: 3. Epiphany: Jan 6.

3rd century: Kings bearing gifts, Ps 72:10, 68:29.

6th century chronicle, (Exerpia Latina Garbari):

Bithisarea, Balthasar
Melichior, Melchior
Gathaspa, Gasper

Page 41
Bede (673-735): three sons of Noah--Asia, Africa, Europe--Shem,
Ham, Japheth.

14th century Armenian tradition:

Balthasar King of Arabia


Melchior King of Persia
Gasper King of India

Relics attributed to them discovered in the 4th century; transferred


from Constantinople to Milan, 5th century; to Cologne by Frederick
Barbarossa in 1162 where they remain enshrined.

From Latinized form of Magoi (Herodotus, 1:101); Ancient Greek


transliteration of the Persian original (Sing., magus, “magic”). How-
ever, “Magicians” (a profession, rather than citizenship or cultural
link) are presented in Acts as vile men without standing or morals:
Simon Magus in Samaria, Acts 8:9-24: Elymas Magus at Paphos on
the Island of Cyprus associated with Sergius Paulsu the proconsul
(Inter. Dict. 3:222).

Persian Cult

Rab-mag, Chief of the Magi. (Untranslated title of Nergal-shar-ezer


in Nebuchadnezzar’s court, Jer 39:3,13.) Magi of lesser rank in Dan
2:10, 27; 4:7,9; 5:11. Cf. Magi are Median (vs. Chaldean).

Title of Daniel (Dan 4;9; 5:11); His Jewish appointment may have had
repercussions among the hereditary Median priesthood, leading to
the plot of Daniel 6.

Persian magi credited with profound and extraordinary religious


knowledge. (Babylonian magi often considered imposters.)

Established as the state religion of Persia by Darius the Great, after


some Magi who were considered to be expert in the interpretation of
dreams had been attached to the Median court. (Oneiromancy, not
astrology, is the key skill mentioned by Herodotus, et al. I.107, 120;
VII.19.)

It was in this dual capacity, whereby civil and political counsel was
invested with religious authority, that the Magi became the supreme
priestly caste of the empire.

Page 42
In the tri-lingual inscription of Bisitun: Darius I (The Great) (550-486
B. C.; reigned 522-486); Three languages: Elamite, Akkadian/
Babylonian, Old Persian/Aramaic. (Speaks of his speedy and final
triumph over a revolt of Magi in 522 B.C.)

Not originally followers of Zoroaster (Encyc. Britannica 7:691)

The subsequent syncretistic Magian religion of Archaemenid days


had much in common with the religion of the Jews: Each had its
monotheistic concept of one beneficent creator, author of all good,
who, in turn, was opposed by a malevolent evil spirit. Each had its
hereditary priesthood which became the essential mediator between
God and man by virtue of a blood sacrifice. Each depended upon the
wisdom of the priesthood in divination (The Urim and Thummim of
the Levite, the barsoms, small bundles of divining rods); mutually
held concepts of clean and unclean forms of life.

Developed into an hereditary priesthood, serving several religions;


the priestly caste during Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian periods.

NT Magi (Matthew 2:1-12)

Political Background:

Since the days of Daniel, the fortunes of both the Persian and the
Jewish nation had been closely intertwined.

Both nations had in their turn fallen under Seleucid domination in the
wake of Alexander’s conquests. Subsequently both had regained
their independence: the Jews under Maccabean leadership, and the
Persians as the dominating ruling group within the Parthian empire.
It was at this time that the Magi, in their dual priestly and governmen-
tal office, composed the upper house of the council of the Megistanes
(“magistrates”?) whose duties included the absolute choice and
election of the king of the realm.

It was, therefore, a group of Persian-Parthian king makers who


entered Jerusalem in the latter days of the reign of Herod. Herod’s
reaction was understandably one of fear when one considers the
background of Roman-Parthian rivalry that prevailed during his
lifetime.

Page 43
Pompey, the first Roman conqueror of Jerusalem in 63 B.C. had
attacked the Armenian outpost of Parthia. In 55 B.C. Crassus led
Roman legions in sacking Jerusalem and in a subsequent attack on
Parthia proper. The Romans were decisively defeated at the battle of
Carrhae with the loss of 30,000 troops, including their commander.

The Parthians counterattacked with a token invasion of Armenia,


Syria, and Palestine.

Nominal Roman rule was reestablished under Antipater, the father of


Herod, who in his turn retreated before another Parthian invasion in
40 B.C.

Mark Antony reestablished Roman sovereignty in 37 B.C., and like


Carssus before him also embarked on a similarly ill-fated Parthian
expedition. His disastrous retreat was followed by another wave of
invading Parthians which swept all Roman opposition completely out
of Palestine (including Herod himself, who fled to Alexandria and
then to Rome).

With Parthian collaboration Jewish sovereignty was restored and


Jerusalem was fortified with a Jewish garrison.

Herod by this time secured from Augustus Caesar the title of “King
of the Jews.” However, it was not for three years, including a five
months’ siege by Roman troops, that the king was able to occupy his
own capital city. Herod had thus gained the throne of a rebellious
buffer state which was situated between two mighty contending
empires. At any time his own subjects might conspire in bringing the
Parthians to their aid.

At the time of the birth of Christ, Herod may have been close to his
final illness. Augustus was also aged; and Rome, since the retirement
of Tiberius, was without any experienced military commander. Pro-
Parthian Armenia was fomenting revolt against Rome (which was
successfully accomplished within two years). The time was ripe for
another Parthian invasion of the buffer provinces, except for the fact
that Parthia itself was racked by internal dissension.

Phraates IV, the unpopular and aging king, had once been deposed
and it was not improbable that the Persian Magi were already involved
in the political maneuvering requisite to choosing his successor. It is
possible that the Magi might have taken advantage of the king’s lack

Page 44
of popularity to further their own interests with the establishment of
a new dynasty which could have been implemented if a sufficiently
strong contender could be found.

At this time it was entirely possible that the Messianic prophecies of


the OT, culminating in the writings of Daniel, one of their own
Magians, was of profound motivating significance. The promise of
divinely imposed world dominion at the hands of a Jewish monarch
was more than acceptable to them.

(Their own Persian and Medo-Persian history was studded with


Jewish nobles, ministers, and counselors; and in the great Achaemenid
days some of the kings themselves were apparently of Jewish blood.)

In Jerusalem the sudden appearance of the Magi, probably traveling


in force with imaginable oriental pomp, and accompanied by ad-
equate calvary escort to insure their safe penetration of Roman
territory, certainly alarmed Herod and the populace of Jerusalem.

It would seem as if these Magi were attempting to perpetrate a border


incident which could bring swift reprisal from Parthian armies. Their
request of Herod regarding him who “has been born king of the Jews”
(Mt 2:2) was a calculated insult to him who had contrived and bribed
his way into that office.

In the providence of God, the Messianic prophecy of the kingdom was


not then fulfilled; the Magi “being warned in a dream” (a form of
communication most acceptable to them) departed to their own
country with empty hands.

Within two years Phraataces, the parricide son of Phraates IV, was
duly installed by the Magi as the new ruler of Parthia. Later: Philo
of Alexandria, Cicero, and Philo, and others, record that Magi were
attached to senior Roman courts with acknowledged gifts and stand-
ing.

Star of Bethlehem?

Balaam’s prophecy in Num 24:17? Num 24:17 and Isa 60:3 not
quoted by Matthew. (Note Simon Bar Cocheba, “Son of the Star.”)
Conjunctions? Kepler suggested that the conjunction of Jupiter and
Saturn in the constellation of Pisces in 7 B.C. (Wrong date: 2 B.C. 4
B.C. suggested from an erroneous inference from Josephus.) (See

Page 45
Signs in the Heavens for a discussion of the Hebrew Mazzeroth and
the Zodiac.).

* * *
Endnotes:

1. Los Angeles Times, Sept. 6, 1990.


2. Encyclopedia Britannica, 7:582; 18:912.
3. Walvoord. Other examples: D.H. Tuke, Dictionary of Psychological
Medicine, P.5, 752; Dr. D. R. Burrell, American Journal of Insanity,
April, 1894, pp. 493-504.
4. Josephus, Contra Apion, I, 20 (Thackery’s translation).
5. J.T. Milik, Ten Years of Discovery in t he Wilderness of Judea, pp. 36,
37.

Bibliography

Commentaries on Daniel

Anderson, Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince, Hodder & Stoughton,
London, 1895. A classic work on the Seventy Weeks Prophecy of
Daniel 9.
Baldwin, Joyce G., Daniel, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, Inter-
Varsity Press, Downers Grove, Illinois, 1978.
Barnes, Albert, “Daniel,” 2 Vols. Notes on the Old Testament. Ed. by
Robert Frew. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, 1950
Bloomfield, Arthur E., The End of the Days, Bethany Fellowship, Minne-
apolis, Minnesota, 1961.
Charles, Robert H., Apocrypha and Pseudipigrapha of the Old Testament
in English, Vol 2. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1913.
Culver, Robert D., Daniel and the Latter Days, Moody Press, Chicago,
1954
DeHaan, Martin R., Daniel the Prophet, Zondervan Publishing House,
Grand Rapids, 1947.
Driver, Samuel R., The Book of Daniel, University Press, Cambridge,
1900.
Faucsset, A.R., The Book of Daniel, A Critical and Experimental Com-
mentary, Vol. IV. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids,
Michigan, 1945.
Feinberg, Charles, Premillennialism or Amillennialism? Zondervan Pub-
lishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1936.

Page 46
Gaebelein, Arno C., The Prophet Daniel, Our Hope Publishers, New
York, 1911.
Hartman, Louis F., and Di Lella, Alexander A., The Book of Daniel,
Doubleday & Company, Garden City, New York, 1977.
Ironside, Henry A., Lectures on Daniel the Prophet, Loizeaux Bros., New
York, 1920.
Keil, Carl F., The Book of the Prophet Daniel, Biblical Commentary on the
Old Testament, translated by M.G. Easton. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh,
1891.
Larkin, Clarence, The Book of Daniel, Clarence Larkin, Philadelphia,
1929.
Leupold, Herbert C., Exposition of Daniel, Baker Book House, Grand
Rapids Michigan, 1969.
McClain, Alva J., Daniel’s Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks, Zondervan
Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1940.
Newell, Philip R., Daniel: the Man Greatly Beloved and His Prophecies,
Moody Press, Chicago, Ill., 1962.
Pentecost, J. Dwight, Things to Come, Dunham Publishing Co., Findlay,
Ohio, 1958.
Pritchard, James B., ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old
Testament, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1950.
Pusey, Edward B., Daniel the Prophet, Funk & Wagnalls, New York,
1891.
Strauss, Lehman, The Prophecies of Daniel, Loizeaux Bros., Neptune
N.J., 1965.
Walvoord, John F., Daniel, The Key to Prophetic Revelation, Moody
Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1971.
Whitcomb, John C., Jr., Darius the Mede, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1959.
Wilson, Robert Dick, Studies in the Book of Daniel, Baker Book House,
Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1979.
Wiseman, Donad J., The Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings (626-556
B.C.), Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1956.
Wood, Leon, A Commentary on Daniel, Zondervan, Grand Rapids,
Michigan 1973
Young, Edward J., The Prophecy of Daniel, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1949.

Babylon

Allen, Kenneth W., “The Rebuilding and Destruction of Babylon,”


Bibliotheca Sacra, January 1976.

Page 47
Dyer, Charles H., The Rise of Babylon, Tyndale House Publishers,
Wheaton, Illinois, 1991.
Gordon G. Garner, Curses and Prophecies, Buried History 9 (March
1973).
Grayson, A.K., Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, Texts from Cunei-
form Sources, J.J. Augustin Publisher, Locust Valley, N.Y, 1975.
Hislop, Alexander, The Two Babylons, Loizeaux Brothers, Neptune New
Jersey, 1916.
King, Leonard W., A History of Babylon, From the Foundation of the
Monarchy to the Persian Conquest, Ams Press, New York, 1969
(Reprinted from the edition of 1915, London.
Koldewey, Robert, The Excavations at Babylon, trans. Agnes S. Johns,
Macmillan and Company, London, 1914.
MacQueen, James G., Babylon, Robert Hale, London, 1964.
Oates, Joan, Babylon, Thames and Hudson, London, 1979.
Pritchard, James B., ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old
Testament, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1950.
Rich, Claudius J., Babylon and Persepolis, Duncan & Malcolm, London,
1839.
Seignobobs, Charles, The World of Babylon, Leon Amiel Publisher, Paris,
1975.
Snaith, Norman H., The Jews from Cyrus to Herod, Abingdon Press, New
York.
Wiseman, Donad J., The Chronicles of the Chaldean Kings (626-556
B.C.), Trustees of the British Museum, London, 1956.

Conspiracy Theory of History

Epperson, A. Ralph, The Unseen Hand, Publius Press, Tucson AZ, 1985.
McAlvany, Don A., Toward a New World Order, Western Pacific,
Phoenix AZ, 1992.
McManus, John F., The Insiders, The John Birch Society, Appleton, WI,
1992.
Morey, Robert, The Truth About Masons, Harvest House, Eugene OR
1993. A well researched, more balanced view of Masonic history.
Quigley, Carroll, Tragedy and Hope, McMillan Press, 1972. (Taken out
of print by the Rockefellers.)

Page 48
Supplemental Notes:

The Book
of
Daniel
Chapters 7 -12

Chuck Missler

© 1994 Koinonia House Inc.

Page 49
Tape Listing - Volume 2
Tape 1: Chapter 7 - The Times of the Gentiles

The four empires which climax Gentile dominion on the Earth.

Tape 2: European Update

An update of the emergent European Suprastate.

Tape 3: Chapter 8 - The Ram and The Goat

The succession of the Persian and Greek Empires and the rise of
Alexander the Great. Foreshadowings of the final World Ruler.

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel


The most amazing prophecy in the Bible.

Tape 4: Chapter 9A - The 69 Weeks

The Angel Gabriel predicts the precise day on which Jesus presented
Himself as the “Meshiach Nagid” (The Messiah the King).

Tape 5: Chapter 9B - The 70th Week of Daniel

The mysterious interval between the 69th and 70th “weeks” of Daniel
and the final seven years of world history.

The Final Vision

Tape 6: Chapter 10 - The Dark Side

The spooky glimpse of the spiritual warfare that lies behind world
events.

Tape 7: Chapter 11 - Coming Future Kingdoms

The amazing prediction of the conflicts between the Ptolemaic and


Seleucid Empires and the emergence of the final World Leader.

Tape 8: Chapter 12 - The Climax of All History


Page 50
Daniel 7
“Times of the Gentiles”

Begins the Second Division of the Book: Daniel’s Visions.

Chapter:
7 1st yr of Balshazzar (after Chapter 4, before 5)
8 3rd yr of Balshazzar (before 5)
9 1st yr of Darius
10-12 [3rd yr of Cyrus?]

The most comprehensive and detailed prophecy of future events to be


found anywhere in the Old Testament. Cf. Dan 2, Rev 13, 17.

Daniel 2 (Man’s View): human progress; bright, shiny (emphasizes


unity). (Review notes on Chapter 2.)

Daniel 7 (God’s View): voracious beasts (emphasizes diversity).

1] Nabonidus made Belshazzar his co-regent in his 3rd year: 553 B.C.
Daniel was about 67 years old. Nebuchadnezzar had died 9 years
earlier (Daniel 5 occurs 14 years later).

“Sum”: essential summary. (This the first vision given directly to


Daniel.)

2] “I saw”: 9X this chapter— “was beholding.”

“Four winds”: Rev 7. Hurt God’s elect during trib? Lord’s rebuke?
Eph 2:2? Job 1:19. (Wind: 120 refs: 90 OT, 30 NT.)

“Great Sea”: Mediterranean? Num 34:6-7; Josh 1:4; 9:1; 15:11,12,47;


23:4; Ezek 47, 48:28 (all four empires on the coast...)

Symbolic? Isa 8:7-8; 17:12-13; 27:1; 57:20; Jer 6:23; 46:7-9; 47:2;
Rev 13:1; 17:1, 15.

4] Lion + eagle: both regal. Winged lion on gates of Babylon (British


Museum); Jer 4:7; 48:40; 49:19-22; 50:17, 43-44; Lam 4:19; Ezek
17:3,12; Hab 1:8.

Man’s heart: Dan 4?

Page 51
5] Bear: less regal; ponderous; ungraceful (Xerxes: 2.5 million men!).

Unbalanced: Cf. Dan 8:3, two horns. One-sided union; Media already
swallowed up by Persia by 550 B.C.

Three Ribs: Babylon, Egypt, Lydia defeated (Isa 13:17,18).

6] Lion devours; the bear crushes; the leopard springs upon its prey.

Four heads:
Cassander: Greece & Macedonia
Lysimachus: Thrace & Bithynia (Asia Minor)
Seleucus: Syria, Babylonia (>India)
Ptolemy: Egypt, Palestine, Arabia Petrea

Composite of three animals: Hos 13:5-8! Rev 13:2; 1 Sam 17:34-36;


Prov 28:15; Jer 5:6; Amos 5:9.

7] Rome: Occupation of Sicily in 241 B.C., victory in the first Punic


conflict. Mediterranean becomes a Roman lake by the beginning of
second century B.C. Spain conquered first; then Carthage at the battle
of Zama in N. Africa, 202 B.C.; Subjugates are north of Italy; they then
moved east, conquering Macedonia, Greece, and Asia Minor. Pompey
swept into Jerusalem in 63 B.C. after destroying remnants of the
Seleucid Empire (Syria). (Cf. Chapter 11 notes.)

Following decades: Empire controls southern Britain, France, Bel-


gium, Switzerland, and Germany west of the Rhine River. Grew for
four centuries, peaking in A.D. 117.

Declined slowly, beginning in the third century; left Britain in A.D.


407; Rome sacked by the Visigoths in 410. It was not until A.D. 1453
that the last Roman or Byzantine ruler was killed in battle and
Mohammed II conquered Constantinople.

Cf. v. 24; Rev 17:12. Remains until replaced by Kingdom of Heaven:


26, 27.

10 nations: Compare Dan 2:31-35; 40-45; 7:7-8; 19-24; Rev 13:1-2;


17:3,7,12-18.

8] “Little Horn”: First mention in Daniel.

Page 52
“before”: behehewn, between. “Plucked up by the roots”: agar,
uprooted gradually. “Eyes, mouth” = an individual.

“Big Mouth”: v.11; Rev 11:36; 13:5,6. [See list of allusions to the
Coming World Leader at the end of the notes on Chapter 11.]

Coming of the Son of Man in Glory: Cf. Rev 4,5...

9] Ancient of Days: 3 times in this chapter. Rema, located, placed (not


“cast”).

[Thrones, plural. Where are the 24 elders? (Church hidden in OT; Mt


13:34,35; Eph 3:5,9.)]

Fire: Ex 3:2; 19:18


Consuming fire: Deut 4:24 (Heb 12:29); 9:3.
Jesus: 2 Thess 1:8; Ps 18:8; 104:4; 50:3; Ez 1:4; 13:21;
Rev 4:5 (note 15:2).
Sodom and Gomorrah:, Gen 19:24; Nahab and Abihu,
Lev 10:2; Isa 66:15-16.

Fiery Stream: Ez 1, 10:1.


Throne: Ex 24:10.

10] Books: Ex 32:32.


Isa 65:6 Evil deeds;
Mal 3:16, Book of Remembrance;
Dan 12:1; Luke 10:20;
[Note: Rev 20:10, 12-15 after millennium? how Rev 10:20? Dan
7:10!]

11] Rev 19:19-21.

12] Joel 3:1-2; Mt 25:31-46; Rev 1:13; Mk 14:61. Continue for a season:
survive in another form in the kingdom that replaces them.

Absorbed by Rome:
Greece in 146 B.C.;
Lysimachus’ kingdom, 133 B.C.;
Seleucus’ in 64 B.C.;
Ptolemy’s, Egypt in 31 B.C.

Page 53
Reappear in recent times:
Greece reappears in 1830;
Egypt in 1922;
Turkey (Lysimachus and
part of Seleucus’) in 1924;

The rest of Seleucus’ kingdom(s):


Afghanistan, 1921;
Iran, 1925;
Lebanon, 1930;
Jordan, 1946;
Pakistan, 1947;
Israel, 1948.

“Son of Man” only OT use for Christ (Chapter 3?)

Son receives the Father’s gift: Ps 2:6-9; will rule over all nations: Ps
72:11; Rev 19:15-16 (cf. 7:9-12; Rev 4,5; Isa 6:1-3; Ez 1:4-28; 10:1-
14).

Clouds:

OT: Ex 13:21; 19:9; 24:16; 34:5; Lev 16:2; 1 Kgs 8:10-11;


Ps 18:11,12; 78:14; 97:2-4; Isa 19:1; Jer 4:13; Ezek 10:4; Nah 1:3.

NT: Mt 17:5; 24:30; Lk 21:27; Acts 1:9,11; Mk 14:61,62;


Mt 26:64; 1 Thess 4:17; Rev 1:7; 14:14.

14] Kingdom: Dan 2:44,45; Isa 9:6; 11:3-5; Mic 4:1-7; 5:2-5; Zech
14:9,16,17; Mt 24,25; Mk 14:61,62; Lk 1:32,33; 2 Thess 2:6-10; Rev
19, 20:1-4.

God’s purpose: Eph 1:10; Phil 2:10,11; 1 Cor 15:27-28.

15] “Body”: nidneh, sheath. “Troubled”: behal, alarm.

17] Melech, malku: king, kingdom.

18] Saints: qaddishin, “Holy Ones” (7X). OT: Mt 27:52,53; Ex 19:6. NT:
1 Cor 1:2; Eph 1:1; Phil 1:1, etc. Tribulation: Rev 13:7; see v. 21.

20] That “mouth” again...

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21] War with saints, 2/3 fall: Zech 13:8,9. Jerusalem falls: Zech 14:1,2.
Prevail, overcome? (also Rev 13:7; 11:3; 12:6; 13:5) vs. Mt 16:18;
Rev 2, 3 (1 Jn 5:5!).

The Coming World Leader


24] “out of” this kingdom: Arise (“1 hour”: Rev 17:12); “another” (11th)
after them...diverse from the others...

25] [Big Mouth again...] “Against”: le’tsad, “at the side of”: (2 Thess
2:4). Change the Law (singular) Gen 1:4; 17:21; 18:14. The
“Roman” Empire will cease to exist when the Little Horn is judged.

Time, times, the dividing of time: Dan 7:25 (Dan 4:16, 23, 25)
[times = a dual, later lost in Aramaic]1
3½ years Dan 12:7
42 months Rev 11:2; 13:5
1260 days Rev 11:3; Dan 12:6
½ “week” Dan 9:27

27] Everlasting kingdom: Deut 28:1-44; Isa 65:17-25; 2 Tim 2:12; Rev
5:10; 20:6.

28] (First sentence: Angel finishes; began in v. 23.) Daniel: “Color me


shocked.” [Text changes from Aramaic back to Hebrew. Distin-
guishes the two major programs of God in the OT.]

Daniel 8
The Ram and the Goat

Now the text reverts back to Hebrew: “Third section” = Israel. Two
years after vision of Dan 7; 12 years before Belshazzar’s feast in
Chapter 5.

1] Third year: 51 B.C.

At Shushan in the palace: Susa, 150 miles north of head of Persian


Gulf, midway between Ecbatgana and Persepolio; later main resi-
dence of Persian kings. Susa served as the capital of Elamites in
antiquity. Famous palace begun by Darius I and later enlarged. Code
of Hammurabi found there in 1901.

Page 55
230 miles east of Babylon. Daniel projected to a town little known at
that time, destined to be capital of Persian empire, home of Esther, city
of Nehemiah, Neh 1:1; Est 1:2, 5; 2:3, 5.

“Awake?” Many opinions. Josephus believes he was actually there.


Also Keil, Rosenmuller, Bertholdt. Others: in a vision? Montgom-
ery, Syriac, Vulgate, John Calvin. Cf. Ezekiel 8:3; 40:1ff to Jerusa-
lem; Rev 17:3, John in the wilderness.

3] Two horns, unequal. W-N-S. v. 20: Medo-Persia. One empire, not


two.

Keil: Guardian spirit of Persian kingdom in the form of a ram with


clean feet, sharp-pointed horns; The Persian king, at the head of his
army, wore the head of ram instead of the diadem. (Ammianus
Marcellinus, fourth century historian.)

Zodiac: Persia = Aries, the Ram; Greece = Capricorn, the goat (L.
caper, goat; cornu, horn.) Shared with Syria from Seleucid monar-
chy.

5] “buck of the goats”: v.21 First king: Alexander the Great. One-
horned goat was a symbol for the ancient Macedonians.

Alexander crossed the Hellespont with 35,000 troops, first met and
defeated the Persians at the Granicus River in Asia Minor in May 334
B.C. 1½ years later, the battle at Issus near the NE tip of Mediterranean
Sea, Nov 333 B.C.; Finally broken at Gaugamela (Arbella) near
Nineveh in Oct 331 B.C.

8] Great horn broken: Died at 32, dissipated life, drunken debauch, at


Babylon (11 years after leaving home country).

Empire took 22 years to divide. Cassander: Macedonia and Greece.


Lysimacus: Thrace, Bithynia, most of Asia Minor: Phrygia, Lydia,
Mysia. Seleucus: Syria, lands to the east, including Babylonia to
India; declined during Seleucus II, beginning 246 B.C.; converted to
a Roman province by Pompey in 64 B.C. Ptolemy: Egypt, Cyrene,
Coele-Syria, Arabia Petraea, southern parts of Asia Minor. (A fifth
contender: Antigonus, soon defeated, 301 B.C.)

9] Little Horn. S: Egypt;

Page 56
E: Medo-Persia, Armenia;
Pleasant Land: Dan 11:16,41,45; Jer 3:19; Ezek 20:6,15; Mal 3:12.

Antiochus Epiphanes, 8th King of the Syrian dynasty, 175-164 B.C.


(1 Macc 1:10; 6:16); infamous brother of Cleopatra. Ascended the
throne following the murder of his brother, the former king, Seleucus
Philopator. The son of Seleucus, Demetrius, the rightful heir to the
throne still lived but was held as hostage in Rome. Antiochus
succeeded in obtaining the throne largely through flattery and bribery
(11:21). Not even rightful heir; once crowned, assumed “Epiphanes,”
“Illustrious.” (See also notes on Chapter 11.)

‘Erets hatstsebi (“glorious land”) taken from the Ptolemies in a series


of battles between Antiochus III, the father, and Ptolemy V in 202-
198 B.C.

10] Host: people of God (Gen 15:5; 22:17; Dan 12:3; Mt 13:43).

11] Desolation of Sanctuary: the “Abomination of Desolation.” (Contro-


versies begin here...11-14; 20-26.) Stopped morning and evening
sacrifices.

“Daily sacrifices”: tamid, applies to the daily offerings (Cf. Ex


29:38ff; Num 28:3ff).

“And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities
of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land, to
forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the
sanctuary, to profane Sabbaths and feasts, to defile the sanctuary and
the priests, to build altars in sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to
sacrifice swine and unclean animals, and to leave their sons uncircum-
cised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything
unclean and profane, so that they should forget the law and change all
the ordinances. And whoever does not obey the command of the king
shall die.”
1 Maccabees 1:44-49
(cf. Dan 9:27)

“one saint speaking” = “awesome numberer”?

14] “2,300 days?” Year-day? Seventh Day Adventists: 1884, 2nd


Coming? 24-hour days?

Page 57
171 B.C., Onias III (Sept 6?), the legitimate high priest murdered;
pseudo-priest assumed power. Onias III had been removed from
office and replaced by his wicked brother, Jason, who had bribed
Antiochus for the position. In 172 B.C. another brother, Menelaus,
succeeded in replacing Jason by promising a larger bribe. In 171,
Menelaus murdered the good Onias III who had rebuked him for
giving away and selling many of the gold utensils of the Temple. 2
Macc 4:7-50. (Actual desecration, Dec 25, 167 B.C. re: John 10:22,
coins found with title “Epiphanes.”)

164 B.C.: Death of Antiochus. [Not precise day.] 6y 3m 20d


Evening-Mornings (‘ereb boker) = (1150 days)? (110 days short of
3½ years.)

17] “Gabriel”: First mention in the Bible of an Angel by name. Gaber,


man; El, God (Dan 9:21; Lk 1:19, 26).

“Michael,” Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; Jude 9; Rev 12:7.

18] Deep Sleep: aroused (cf. Ezek 1:28-2:2). [“Out of body” view from
Babylon?]

Indignation (also Dan 11:36): God’s anger against Israel.


v.17, 19: time of end? Cf. Dan 9:27; 11:35ff.

Is the Little Horn of 7 = Little Horn of 8? = Willful King of


Chapter 11? Not identical, except as types: one of the 4th; other one
of the 3rd, empires. The third kingdom not Rome.

8:15-17: A dual fulfillment? Scofield, Louis T. Talbot, William


Kelly, Nathaniel West, Joseph A. Seiss. [Temple always destroyed on
9th of Av, Tisha B’av...]

King of Javan (melek yawan) = Greece (Gen 10:2,4; Isa 66:19; Ezek
27:13).

23-25]
1) He is to appear in the later times of Israel’s history, 8:23;

2) Through alliance with other nations, he achieves worldwide


influence, 8:24;

3) A peace program helps his rise to power, 8:25;

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4) Extremely intelligent and persuasive, 8:23;

5) Characterized by Satanic control, 8:24;

6) Great adversary against Israel and the prince of princes, 8:24-25;

7) A direct judgment from God terminates his rule (“Terminator


III”), 8:25;

He will appear in the later time of their kingdom: when transgressors


are come to the full (?); forcing punishment (Israel themselves); Gen
15:16; Mt 23:32; 1 Thess 2:16; Cf. Gen 15:13-16;

As the days of Noah: Gen 6:5-13.

Cf. “We will not have this man to reign over us”: Lk 19:14.

Interprets dark sentences (1 Kgs 10:1).

Broken without hand: Antiochus died of a foul disease.

Different character than Little Horn of Daniel 7?


Roman, not Greek!
King of the North = Syria; Dan 11:6-15?
Assyrian of Micah 5:5-6?
Or will the Antichrist come out of Syria?

23] Absorbed by Rome: See current summary on page 54.

26] “Preserve”: shut up.

27] Immediate resumption of duties: was Daniel in Babylon all the time?
[Still worked for Belshazzar? Or Nabonidus?]

time of the end 17


latter time...appointed... 19
latter time 23
Matthew 24:15, Mark 13:14: 200 years after!...

Indignation? Deut 29:24-28; adultery of unprincipled woman: Ezek


16:32; Hosea 1-4...Amos 9:8.

Strange work, Isa 28:21; Dan 9:24.

Page 59
Daniel 9
The Seventy Weeks

The Most Amazing Passage in the Bible!

Authentication

LXX Background: Daniel was part of the Old Testament which was
translated into Greek 285 - 270 B.C. Although Daniel is one of the
most authenticated books of the Bible, this serves to easily establish
its existence long before the events it predicts.

Matthew 24 - The Confidential Briefing: Four disciples came to


Jesus for a confidential prophecy briefing on His Second Coming:
Matthew 24 & 25; Mark 13 & 14, and Luke 21 & 22. Jesus highlighted
this very passage as the key to prophecy in Matthew 24:15.

Responsible to understand. Note Jewishness: “Pray that your flight


be not on the Sabbath Day.”

[Daniel 9: Time, 538 B.C. Feast of Chapter 5 between Chapters 8 &


9.]

1] Darius: Uncle of Cyrus? [Same as Chapter 6?]


“...was made”: passive.

[Review Daniel presenting Isaiah 44, 45 to Cyrus.] Here he was


reading Jeremiah’s prophecy.

2] Daniel took it literally! [Jer 25:11,12; 29:10] 67 of 70 years had


passed...

YHWH: 7X in this chapter only.

3] Prayer (for that which was certain?): Daniel is, again, our example:
in the Word and in Prayer! (Prayers: Ezra 9; Nehemiah 9?)

Fasting: Mt 9:14,15; Acts 13:2,3; 14:23; 1 Cor 7:5; 2 Cor 6:5; 11:27.

5] “We have sinned...”: (Only two in OT of which no evil spoken of...


Joseph and Daniel.)

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11] National destiny determined by their behavior (2 Chr 7:14)!

16] Focus: Jerusalem.

17-19] Note the increasing tempo of the verbs of action...

20] “The Interrupted Prayer of the OT” (2/3 of chapter).

21] “man”: ish, servant.

Gabriel: Always on a mission of Messianic announcement.

“Beginning”: Dan 8:15-16.

23] “Beloved”: Abraham, disciples: “friends” => prophecy.


Daniel, John: “beloved” => apocalyptic details.

The Seventy Weeks

24] shabu’im = sevens, “week.” (Gen 29:26-28; Lev 25, 26.)


hatak, determined, reckoned.

Scope (Verse 24)

1) The focus of the passage is on the Jews, not the Church or the
Gentile world.

2) The six major items listed have yet to be completed.

to finish the transgressions;


to make an end of sins;
to make reconciliation for iniquity;
to bring in everlasting righteousness;
to seal up (close authority of) the vision;
to anoint the godesh gadashim, the Holy of Holies.

Unfulfilled in 2000 years (therefore, are not contiguous!).

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The Structure of the Passage

24] The Scope of the entire passage.

25] The 69 Weeks.

26] The Interval Between the 69th & 70th Week . The key to understand-
ing this passage is to realize that the 70 “Weeks” are not all contigu-
ous. (At least 40 years +...)

27] The 70th Week.

Background: Sabbatical Years

Note: focus of entire prophecy is Israel, not the Gentile world (Daniel
9:24).

Seventy “Sevens” imply weeks of years (Gen 29:27, et al.).

Sabbath for the land ordained: Lev. 25:1-22; 26:33-35; Deut 15; Ex
23:10, 11. Failure to keep the sabbath of the land was basis for 70
years captivity: 2 Chr 36:19-21.

The 69 Weeks (Verse 25)


360-Day Years (Background): All ancient calendars were based on
a 360-day calendar: Assyrians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Hebrews,
Persians, Greeks, Phoenicians, Chinese, Mayans, Hindus, Cartha-
ginians, Etruscans, Teutons, etc.

All these calendars were based on a 360-day year; typically, twelve


30-day months. (In ancient Chaldea, their calendar was based on a
360-day year and it is from this Babylonian tradition that we have 360
degrees in a circle, 60 minutes to an hour, 60 seconds in each minute.)

All Calendars Change in 701 B.C?

In 701 B.C., all calendars appear to have been reorganized. Numa


Pompilius, the second King of Rome, reorganized the original calen-
dar of 360 days per year, by adding 5 days per year. King Hezekiah,
Numa’s contemporary, reorganized his Jewish calendar by adding a
month each Jewish leap year (on a cycle of 7 every 19 years).

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(A fascinating conjecture as to the cause of this calendar change is
detailed in Signs in the Heavens, a Briefing Package exploring the
possible orbital antics of the Planet Mars.)

The Biblical Calendar uses 360-day years (Gen 7:24; 8:3,4, etc. In
Revelation, 42 months = 3 1/2 years = 1260 days, etc.). We are
indebted to Sir Robert Anderson’s milestone work for this insight.

The Trigger: (terminus ad quo)

The Decrees to “Rebuild Jerusalem”?


1) Cyrus, 537 B.C., Ezra 1:2-4;
2) Darius, Ezra 6:1-5, 8, 12;
3) Artaxerxes, 458 B.C,. Ezra 7:11-26;
4) Artaxerxes, 445 B.C., Neh 2:5-8, 17, 18.

(1) (2) & (3) were to build the Temple. Only the last one (4) was to
rebuild the city, the walls, etc. Note: rehob, “street”; haruts, moat,
fortification.

Why “7 + 62”? Time to build the city? Time to close the OT canon?
Time between testaments?

The Target (terminus ad quem)

The Meshiach Nagid: “The Messiah the King.” The prediction is


to the presentation of the Messiah the King (“Nagid” is first used of
King Saul).

On several occasions in the New Testament when they attempted to


take Jesus as a King, He invariably declined, “Mine hour is not yet
come.” (Jn 6:15; 7:30, 44; etc.) Then one day, He arranges it.

The Triumphal Entry: All four Gospels, Mt 21:1-9; Mk 11:1-10;


Lk 19:29-39; Jn 12:12-16. Nisan 10: “take to everyone a lamb.” Jesus
deliberately arranges to fulfill Zech 9:9. This is the only day He
allows them to proclaim Him King (Luke 19:38).

The Pharisees assure our noticing the significance! Hallel Psalm: Ps


118:26. Jesus held them accountable to recognize this day. (Luke
19:41-44).

Page 63
This was the 10th of Nisan, prior to the Passover on the 14th of Nisan,
32 A.D.: (Luke 3:1: Tiberius appointed, 14 A.D.; 15th year = 29 A.D.;
4th Passover, 32 A.D. (April 6). See the chart on next page.

[Other examples of Precision: Gen 8:4, Noah’s new beginning, 7th


month, 17th day. (Exodus 12:2: Nisan becomes 1st month). Jesus
resurrected on anniversary of the “New Beginning” under Noah!]

Interval (Verse 26)

26] After the 69th, before the 70th:

Karat, execution; death penalty (Lev 7:20; Ps 37:9; Prov 2:22).


“Not for Himself”: nothingness: rejection, substitution.
“Flood”: diaspora.

Titus Vespasian: 38 years later; (not 3½!).

An interval, or gap, clearly required by v. 26: events described are


after the 69th and prior to the 70th week: Messiah “cut off” (karat =
executed); Sanctuary destroyed, etc.

38 years are included with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.


1900 years have transpired so far.

Interval also implied: Dan 9:26; Isa 61:1,2 (re: Lk 4:18-20); Rev
12:5,6. Also: Isa 54:7; Hos 3:4,5; Amos 9:10,11; (Acts 15:13-18);
Micah 5:2,3; Zech 9:9,10; Luke 1:31,32; 21:24.

Interval defined: Luke 19:42 until Rom 11:25. This interval is the
period of the Church, an era kept secret in OT: Mt 13:34,35; Eph 3:5,9.

“Israel” is never used of the Church (73X). [Gal 6:16 misunderstood,


by ignoring the kai in the Greek which clearly distinguishes the two
groups.] Heresy: Romans 9-11.

It seems that the Lord deals with Israel and the Church mutually
exclusively. [The example of a Chess Clock...]

The Church: (Our need: Ecclesiology, not Eschatology!) Born at


Pentecost: Col 1:18; 1 Cor 12:13; Acts 1:5, 11:15-16. Prerequisites—
Atonement: Mt 16:18, 21; Resurrection: Eph 1:20-23; Ascension:
Eph 4:7-11 (Spiritual gifts only after ascension).

Page 64
Page 65
Mystery Character:
Body Concept: Eph 3:3-5,9
Indwelling every believer: Col 1:26-27
Bride of Christ: Eph 5:22-32
Rapture: 1 Cor 15:50-58

One “New Man”: Eph 2:15


(Cf. Rev 12:5...)

Distinguished: 1 Cor 10:32

70th Week (verse 27)


“Midst of the week” - The most documented period of time in the
Bible. Time, times, the dividing of time (Dan 7:25; 4:16, 23, 25).

[Times = a dual, later lost in Aramaic]2


3½ years Dan 12:7
42 months Rev 11:2; 13:5
1260 days Rev 11:3; Dan 12:6
½ “week” Dan 9:27

Which “Prince”? Antecedent: “The Prince that shall come...”

After death of Nero, General Galba was recalled to become Emperor.


A conspiracy had him assassinated. After Galba, Ortho was made
emperor; he was unfit and committed suicide. After revolution and
political instability, the general-in-command of the Roman-Israeli
expedition was recalled to restore order and become Emperor: Gen-
eral Vespasian, father of Captain Titus who remained general in
charge of the siege. Just a few days before the final assault on
Jerusalem, Vespasian was crowned Emperor of the Roman Empire,
making Titus a prince.

The Covenant Enforced with “The Many” - “The many” is an idiom


for Israel. This is the “Covenant with Hell,” Isa 28:15; Zech 11:15-17
etc.

The Abomination of Desolation

Historical precedent: 167 B.C., Antiochus IV (“Epiphanes”) des-

Page 66
ecrated the Temple, erecting a pagan idol in the Holy of Holies;
incited the Maccabbean Revolt, which succeeded in rededicating the
Temple. This is still commemorated at Hanukkah. (Authenticated by
the Holy Spirit: John 10:22.)

The sacrifices and oblations cease; 2 Thess 2:4. These require a


Temple previously consecrated in Jerusalem. (Preparations have
begun!)

The Great Tribulation

This “Time of Jacob’s Trouble” climaxes in the “Day of the Lord”: Isa
61:2; Zech 12, 14; Rev 19:19; et al. (Note that this is 3 1/2 years, not
7, as is so often assumed.)

Revelation 6 through 19 is essentially an elaboration of the events


during the “70th Week” of Daniel 9.

Historical Review

The issue of Imminence (80 anti-Nicene references, 325 A.D.). Upon


conversion of Constantine: Edict of Toleration made Christian Church
official state religion in A.D. 325. Premillennial view of Christ became
unpopular with Roman leadership.

Allegorical methods adopted by third century theologian Origen;


Augustine adopted the amillennial view; it becomes the dominant
view of the Roman Catholic Church. Many of the Protestant reform-
ers failed to adequately challenge these views from the medieval
Church. A literal interpretation was favored by Irenaeus, Sir Isaac
Newton, et al.

The perception of the “gap” of Dan 9:26 appears in the Epistle of


Barnabas, A.D. 100 and other early writings.

[Did not begin with Emmanuael Lacunza (Ben Ezra), 1812; Edward
Irving, 1816; Margaret McDonald, 1830; or J.N. Darby (1820).]

Other early writers: Irenaeus, Against Heresies; Hippolytus, a dis-


ciple of Irenaeus, (second century) (Ante Nicene Fathers, Vol v.
p.182.); Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho.

Page 67
Later writers: Peter Jurieu, 1687, Approaching Deliverance of the
Church, (courtesy of Grant Jeffrey); Philip Doddridge’s Commentary
on the New Testament, 1738; Dr. John Gill’s Commentary on the New
Testament, 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17, 1748; James Macknight’s Com-
mentary on the Apostolical Epistles, 1763; Thomas Scott’s Commen-
tary on the Holy Bible, 1792.

Timing of the Rapture (Greek, harpazo, Latin, rapturo)

1) 70th Week is defined by the enforcement of a covenant with the


Coming World Leader (Dan 9:27).

2) The Leader cannot enforce the covenant until after he appears in


power.

3) He cannot even appear until after the Restrainer (the Holy Spirit
as He indwells the Church) is removed: 2 Thess 2:7-9.

4) Therefore, the rapture of the Church precedes (by an indetermi-


nate amount) the entire 70th Week, not just the Great Tribulation.

Is the “70th Week” Near?

Israel Now Regathered as a Nation: On May 14, 1948, Israel was


re-established exactly as the Bible predicted. On June 6, 1967, Israel
regained control of Biblical Jerusalem, the “Old City.”

Temple Being Rebuilt: This is explicitly predicted three times in the


New Testament (Mt 24:15; 2 Thess 2:4; Rev 11:1, 2.) This Temple
is a prerequisite for the desecration described by Daniel and Jesus as
the “Abomination of Desolation.” After 1900 years a Temple is now
being prepared to be built in Jerusalem.

Babylon Being Rebuilt: Isaiah 13 & 14, Jeremiah 50 & 51, and
Revelation 17 & 18, describe the destruction of the city of Babylon as
a climactic event at the end of the “70th Week.” Although Babylon
was conquered by the Persians, it was never destroyed in the manner
that the Bible has detailed. (Saddam Hussein has spent over 20 years
rebuilding the city of Babylon on its traditional site.)

European Suprastate Emerging: The confederation of almost 30


European countries is setting the stage for the very scenarios pre-
dicted in Daniel 2 and 7.
Page 68
Russia and the Islamic Invasion Imminent: Russia (“Magog” of
Ezekiel 38 & 39) and the Moslem republics of Iran and those of
Central Asia (which this passage has detailed) now appear to be
setting the stage for the very events that Ezekiel so clearly described.
The apparent use of nuclear weapons in Ezekiel 39 is also descriptive
of current technology. It is our view that this battle could happen at
any time, and would thus set up the need for the famous “peace treaty”
of the Biblical scenario.

The “Seventy Sevens” of Israel


1) Abraham to the Exodus

Promise (Gen 12:4) 75 years


Gal 3:17 +430
505
Ishmael, (Gen 16:16;21:5) -15
490 years

2) Exodus to the Temple

Begun: 1 Kgs 6 - 8 594


Completed: 1 Kgs 6:38; +7
601
Servitudes: Judges
Mesopotamia 3:8 8
Moabites 3:12-14 18
Canaanites 4:2,3 20
Midianites 6:1 7
Ammonites 10:7,8 18
Philistines 13:1 40
-111
490 years

3) The Temple to the Edict of Artaxerxes

1 Kgs 8:1-66 1005 B.C.


Neh 2:1 445 B.C.
560
Babylonian Captivity -70
490 years

Page 69
4) Artaxerxes to the Second Coming

Artaxerxes to the 1st Advent


“The Sixty Nine Weeks” 483
[Church interval] ?
The Seventieth Week” +7
490 years

Daniel 10
The Dark Side

Chapter 10 = a prelude and introduction to three chapters: 10-12. A


spooky glimpse of the Invisible World, and the Invisible War in
hyperspace. [See our briefing package, Beyond Perception, for a
review of the current implications of quantum physics.]

“Angel” = angelos, military messenger. A unique form of created


being; not preexistent, but with formidable capabilities.

1] Dan 1:21, “unto the first year of King Cyrus”; official public career;
“third year” out of public life. [Cf. John on Patmos.]

Two years after “return” (2 Chr 36:23,32; Ezra 1:1-3) vs. Ezek
2:64,65, Neh 7:62. Only 49,697 return (“first yr”). Daniel still there?
(Retired? ill? over 80 years old.)

2] “First month”: Nisan, (Abib, Ex 23:15). He completes his fasting on


the 24th. He started on the 3rd of Nisan.

The month of Nisan:


1-2, Feast of Rejoicing: New Year (1 Sam 20:18,19,34).
10, Presentation of lamb(s).
14, Passover.
15-21, Feast of Unleavened Bread.
Daniel was not on an “absolute” fast (healthy); Lord commands. Who
was visitor? “Sent...”

7] (What scared them?) Cf. Saul on the Damascus Road: others heard,
unintelligibly.

8] “Corruption”: awareness of his lack of holiness; Cf. Isa 6.

Page 70
9] “Deep sleep”: Cf. Adam in Genesis 2.

12] From the 1st day (3 wks before).

13] But... (withstood for 21 days!) Blocked by a lineman...

Warfare: withheld; conflict.

“Prince of the Kingdom of Persia”(?) Prince: Cf. Michael, a chief


“prince” (Eph 6:11,12). [Role of fasting?]

Michael: Dan 10:13, 21; Dan 12:1; Jude 9; Rev 12:7. Strength: Ex
4:10-12; Isa 6:6,7.

20] Now I will return... (Michael holding him off?) Prince of Greece?

Angels

Heb 13:2 (men) entertained unawares: Gen 18; Judg 13


Created beings: Eph 1:20-21; Col 1:16
Saw world created: Job 38:4-10
Bodies: 1 Cor 15:38-40, 44; Luke
20:27-36 (Acts 23:8)

Ministry of angels:
Lord: Birth Lk 2:8-14
Temptation Mt 4:1-11
(note ownership of world!)
Transfiguration Mt 17:1-8
Resurrection Lk 22:39-46
Ascension Acts 1:10-11
Return Mt 13:39; 24:31

Guardian? Mt 18:10
Slay 185,000! 2 Kgs 19:35; Isa 37:36
Desire to learn: Job 1; 2 Chr 18

Satan: His angels cast out (Rev 12:9; 12:4) “stars” (1/3); Isa 14:12-17;
Five “I will’s” [pride!] Ezek 28:11-18; Numero Uno; “sum,” epitome;
“thou has been in Eden”?

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Demons

OT: Lev 17:7; Deut 32:17; 2 Chr 11:15; Ps 106:36-37; Isa 13:21;
34:14. NT: Mt 12:45,43; Mk 1:23-27; Lk 4:33; 1 Tim 4:1; Rev 16:14;
1 Cor 10:20-21.

Books: Ex 32:32; Ps 139:15,16; Ps 69:22-28. All living; erased when


unrepentant.
Book of Life: Rev 13:8; 21:27.
Book of Remembrance: Mal 3:16!
Records: Ez 9:2, 11.

Who? Rev 1:13-16 Lord? vs. 13!? Ezek 1:13,14.


Lord strengthened 2X; Mt 4:11; Lk 22:43.

7-8] Acts 9:3-7 (John 13:25,29?) [Lehman Strauss: First Book, Yes; 10
yrs later, No]

Loners: Abraham Gen 13:14-18; 18


Jacob Gen 32:24
Joshua Josh 5:13-15
Elijah 1 Kgs 17:1-7
Ezekiel Ezek 1:1-28
Paul Gal 1:11-17

Eph 6:10-1; (chained to Roman soldier? or Isa 52:7, 59:17).

Rom 8:38-39: Principalities (8X); = governments. Satan: Prince (of


this world) 3X: Jn 12:31; 14:30; 16:11. [Luke 4:5 ownership!] Prince
(of devils) 2X: Mt 9:34; 12:24.

Michael: Jude 9? 1 Thess 4:16! Why was body needed? (Mt 17? Rev
11?)

Don’t be fearful (Rev 21:8!). Greater is He that is in you...


Isa 24:21: Punish the “high ones.” Romans 8:28-39 (“check that it
is still there”).

3 Unclean Spirits (out of mouths) Rev 16:13-14


Mouth: David Ps 51:15; Jer 1:3-9;
Isa 6:5-7

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18] Strengthen (3X?): Gethsemane (Mt 26:39-44; Mk 14:35-41); Angel
(Lk 22:39-44).

20] Medo-Persians continue 200 years after vision. [Time domain = ?]


Acts 1:8?

Three altogether?
11-15] Another Angel?
18-21]
Ch 12:5 Another.. (2)
Ch 12:6 “Man”

To Consider

1) Suppose Daniel had stopped fasting after 20 days?


2) Is there a “Prince of the Power of the U.S.”?

You have an opportunity to “be a Daniel.” You can undertake a


spiritual mission on behalf of the U.S. Jonah & Nineveh: 40 days until
“ground zero.”

Chapter 11
Coming Future Kingdoms

Chapter 11 chronicles 150 years of warfare between the Ptolemies


and the Seleucids. (Verses 2-20 has past. Verses 36-45 are clearly
future. Verses 21-35 apparently has elements of both.)

1] The angel (of Chapter 10) announces three kings: Cyrus, Cambyses,
and Darius Hystapes (Smerdis).3 (He helped establish Darius as king
in the first year of his reign.)

2] The fourth king, Xerxes, would instigate trouble with the Greeks
(486-465 B.C.) (He appears to be Ahasureus of Ezra 4:6, Esther 1:1-
12.) He instituted tax reforms, became very powerful, trained over 2
million warriors for 4 years, built special barges, and attacked Greece
in 480 B.C. He crossed the Hellespont in 7 days. This attack laid the
basis for the vendetta that Alexander exploited later.

3] The rise of the Greeks, under Alexander the Great, was detailed in
Chapter 8.

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4] Alexander died without a qualified heir. His half brother, Philip
Arrhidaeus, was mentally defective. His two sons (illegitimate
Hercules, by Basina, the daughter of Darius, and Young Alexander,
posthumously by Roxana) were murdered within 13 years after their
father’s death. After 22 years of fighting, Alexander’s four generals
divided up the Empire (as detailed in the notes on Chapter 7).

5] Ptolemy I Soter taking Egypt and Seleucus Nicator taking Syria led
to 150 years of warfare, and the repeated trampling through Israel.
Chapter 11 chronicles this warfare between the “King of the South”
(Egypt) and the “King of the North” (Syria) that continued until Rome
marched east and the conquests of Pompey established Roman rule
over the area.

The continued attempts by Bible critics to “late date” this passage is


a testimony to its accuracy.

Ptolemy Soter I Soter (323-285 B.C.) was one of Alexander’s wisest


and most capable generals and grew very powerful, but now Ptolemy
II Philadelphus (285-245 B.C.) grew even more powerful. It was under
Ptolemy II’s rule that the great library was established at Alexandria
and the translation of the Old Testament into Greek (the “Septuagint”
translation) was commissioned. The famed mathematician Euclid
taught geometry in Ptolemy’s court.

Ptolemy I captured Jerusalem in 321 B.C. on the Sabbath day without


resistance.4 However, in 316 B.C. Israel was lost to Ptolemy’s rival,
Antigonus. After the Battle of Gaza in 312 B.C., Ptolemy reclaimed
it. Seleucus I Nicator (312-281 B.C.), who cooperated with Ptolemy,
made himself the master of Babylon and established the Seleucid
Empire, ruling from Antioch.

6] “end of years” = after a lapse of several years (2 Chr 18:2; Dan


11:8,13). A political marriage was arranged between Antiochus II
Theos (262-246 B.C.) and Ptolemy II Philadelphus’s daughter, Bernice.
Antiochus was required to divorce his own wife, Laodiceia, to
facilitate this arrangement. Bernice was unable to prevail against her
rival Laodiceia who poisoned Antiochus, murdered Bernice, and set
her elder son, Seleucus II Callinicus, on the throne (246 - 226 B.C.).
[Note: this occurs after the Septuagint translation of the OT (285-270
B.C.), which included the book of Daniel!]

7] Ptolemy III Euergetes (245-221 B.C.), the brother of murdered Bernice,

Page 74
invaded Syria, seized the port of Antioch, and overran Seleucus’
empire as far as Babylon.

8] His spoils for Egypt included 4000 talents of gold, 40,000 talents of
silver, and 2500 idols.5 These included some carried from Egypt by
Cambyses 280 years earlier. He continued more years than his rival:
24 years vs. 20.

9] After 2 years Seleucus reorganized and marched south against Egypt,


got clobbered, and returned to Antioch with only a small remnant of
his army.

10] The sons of Seleucus II were Seleucus III Ceraunus (226-223 B.C.),
who was murdered during a campaign in Asia Minor, and Antiochus
III (“The Great”) (223-187 B.C.) who recovered the fortress of
Seleucia, the province of Coele-Syria, Tyre, and then resumed the war
with Egypt.6

In 312 B.C. a large Egyptian army, led by Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-


203 B.C.), marched through Judea until it was met in Lebanon by
Antiochus who routed it and captured many Judean cities both west
and east of the Jordan.

Initially, the army of Ptolemy IV was larger than that of Antiochus III.
In the spring of 219 B.C., at the battle at Raphia (20 miles south of
Gaza), Antiochus commanded 60,000 men and Ptolemy, 70,000.
Antiochus was defeated with a loss of 10,000 infantry and 300
cavalry. Ptolemy, indolent and dissolute, signed a peace treaty with
Antiochus III.

Ptolemy IV celebrated his victory by a tour of the eastern Mediterra-


nean provinces including Jerusalem. He was prevented from entering
the Holy of Holies by paralysis. Returning to Egypt, he took out his
chagrin and humiliation by persecuting the Egyptian Jews.

13] After the death of Ptolemy IV, his son, four years old, succeeded him
as Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203-181 B.C.). Twelve years after the Battle
of Raphia, Antiochus III set out with a greater army than before for the
conquest of Egyptian territory.

14] The many that stood up against the King of the South included
Antiochus and his ally, Philip of Macedon, as well as risings among
the vassals of Egypt. In 200 B.C., an Egyptian mercenary named

Page 75
Scopas attempted to wrest Judea from Antiochus. After a temporary
success, he was defeated by 100,000 troops at Sidon in 198 B.C. None
were able to stand against Antiochus III (“The Great”).

16] (“The glorious land” is Judea, cf. Dan 8:9; Jer. 3:19.)

17] In 197 B.C., Antiochus III set out with a fleet to attack Cilicia, Lycia,
and Caria, which were under Egyptian control. However, he encoun-
tered a disastrous defeat by an upstart power rising on the banks of the
Tiber: Rome.

Antiochus’ daughter, Cleopatra, was given in a political marriage to


Ptolemy (arranged in 197, consummated in 193 B.C., the groom being
10 years old) along with Coele-Syria, Phoenicia, and Judea as dowry,
and in the hopes that he could eventually annex Egypt. He was
disappointed, however, as she became a devoted wife instead and
sided with Egypt (and her new ally, Rome).

In 196 B.C., Antiochus had turned toward the west in Greece, Asia
Minor, and crossed the Hellespont to seize part of Thrace. It was
Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, who encouraged Antiochus III to
fight with the Romans. In 191 B.C., Antiochus was defeated by the
Romans at Thermopylae. In 190 B.C. his army of 80,000 suffered an
ignominious defeat in a decisive battle near Smyrna where the Roman
commander, Lucius Scipio, forced him to renounce all claims in
Europe and Asia Minor.7 He had to surrender all territory west of the
Taurus Mountains and pay a heavy tribute of 15,000 talents (over 30
million dollars). He was ruined.

19] He took it all out on the northeastern part of his kingdom, plundering
the temples in his realm.

20] Seleucus IV Philopater (187-175 B.C.) succeeded Antiochus III,


giving his son Demetrius as a hostage in the place of his brother
Antiochus, and to meet heavy Roman tribute, oppressed Israel through
taxation.8 After 12 years of rule, he is murdered by his treasurer,
Heliodorous, who hoped to take over but is out-intrigued by Antiochus
IV (“Epiphanes”)175-164 B.C.

21] Legitimate candidates might have included Demetrius, the son of the
Seleucus IV, held as a hostage in Rome, or the younger son, also
named Antiochus, who was still a baby in Syria. Antiochus IV was
the brother of Seleucus IV, who had also been a hostage for his father

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in Rome for 14 years. Just prior to the murder of his brother by
Heliodorus, he had been recalled to Antioch. His brother died before
he reached the capital, and with the help of the king of Pergamum, and
posing as the guardian of young Antiochus who was in Syria,
Antiochus IV, with numerous intrigues, gained the throne.

22] “Prince of the covenant” refers to the murder of Onias III, the High
Priest in 171 B.C.9

23] Unlike his fathers, Antiochus IV robbed the richest places of the
country under his control. He attacked his enemies when they least
expected it. There was a power contest between Antiochus’ two
nephews, Ptolemy VI Philometer (181-145 B.C.) and Ptolemy VII
Euergetes (Physicon) for control of Egypt.

25] After the death of his mother, Cleopatra, Ptolemy IV Philometer


received bad advice regarding Antiochus IV who swept over his
army. When Antiochus conquered Ptolemy Philopater, the
Alexandrians brought his brother Ptolemy Physcon to the Egyptian
throne.

27] Antiochus took Philometer under his protection. As uncle and


nephew, they eat together at one table and, with lies, discussed policy
with one another.

28] Antiochus returned from his first Egyptian campaign with great
riches and turned his attention to despoiling the Temple in Jerusa-
lem.10

29] In his second campaign against Egypt, Antiochus was less successful
and failed to take Alexandria. Furthermore, he encountered the
Roman navy.

30] Chittim, or Kittim, is found in the Dead Sea Scrolls as a general


reference to the people of the Mediterranean, Cyprus in particular.
The Roman fleet of Caius Popillius Laenas sailed from Cyprus to
Egypt after a stunning Roman victory over Perseus of Macedon near
Pydna, south of Thessalonica.11 The intimidation of the Romans
caused Antiochus to return in humiliation to Syria and, looking for
someone to take it out on, he then focused on oppressing the Jews.

31] The famed “abomination of desolation” now takes place.12 (Two


centuries later Jesus predicted this would occur again in the future. It

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requires the Temple, the preparations for which have begun.)

32] The opposition led to the Maccabean revolt, and the ultimate re-
dedication of the Temple (celebrated to this day at Hanukkah) and the
period of the Hasmoneans.

[In verses 1-35, approximately 135 prophetic statements have been


counted. This is an impressive introduction to the section which
follows.]

The remainder of the chapter, verses 36 - 45, has yielded a number of


diverse views. Some have attempted to restrict the passage to the
historical Antiochus IV, and while his meglamania lends itself to such
views, the language seems to go far beyond that. The “Willful King”
has been identified by Ibn-Ezra with Constantine the Great; Rashi and
Calvin understood him to represent the Roman Empire; Jerome,
Theodoret, Luther, J.N. Darby and most “Pre-trib” scholars see him
as the Antichrist.

The similarity to other prophetic passages are striking: 2 Thess 2, etc.

He Will Be:

An intellectual genius: Dan 7:20; 8:23; Ezek 28:3


An persuasive orator: Dan 7:20; Rev 13:2
A shrewd political manipulator: Dan 11:21
A successful commercial genius:
Dan 8:25; Rev 13:17; Ps 52:7; Dan 11:38, 43; Ezek 28:4,5
A forceful military leader:
Dan 8:24; Rev 6:2; Rev 13:4; Isa 4:16
A powerful organizer: Rev 13:1,2; 17:17
A unifying religious guru: 2 Thess 2:4 (“Allah”?); Rev 13:3, 14, 15
See also: Psa 10, 52, 55; Isa 10,11,13,14; Jer 49-51; Zech 5; Rev 18.

Jew or Gentile?

Some believe this leader will be a Jew: Ezek 21:25-27; Ezek 28:2-10
(of the circumcision); Dan 11:36,37; Jn 5:43 (allos, not heteros: thus,
a Jew, not a Gentile); received by Israel, Jn 5:43; Ps 55.

Some believe he will be a Gentile: Roman Prince, etc. [Remember,


there are two players in Rev 13.]

Page 78
The Leader will be the Son of Satan: Gen 3:15; Isa 27:1; Ezek 28:12-
19; Rev 13. (Other allusions to this Coming World Leader are in the
list below.)

Verses 40-45 seem to outline the “Armageddon Scenario” of the final


conflict climaxing in Rev. 16, 19, etc. Chapter 12 continues, with a
clear description of the Tribulation period.

Allusions to the Antichrist


Old Testament: (33)

Adversary Ps 74:8-10; Isa 59:19; Lam 4:11,12; Amos 3:11


Assyrian Isa 10:5,12
Belial Nahum 1:15
Bloody and Deceitful Man Ps 5:6
Branch of the Terrible Ones Isa 25:5; (Cf. Isa 14:19)
Chief Prince Ex 38:2
Crooked Serpent Job 26:13; Isa 27:1
Cruel One Jer 30:14,23
Destroyer of the Gentiles Jer 4:7
Enemy Ps 55:3; Jer 30:14, 23
Evil Man Ps 140:1
Head over many countries Ps 110:6
Head of Northern Army Joel 2:20
Idol Shepherd Zech 11:16, 17
King of Princes Hos 8:10
King of Babylon Isa 14:11-20; (Cf. 30:31-33)
Little Horn Dan 7:8-11, 21-26; 8:9-12, 23-25
Man of the Earth Ps 10:18
Merchant, with balances of deceit Hos 12:7
Mighty Man Ps 52:1
Nail Isa 22:25
Prince that shall come Dan 9:26
Prince of Tyre Ezek 28:2-10
Profane Wicked Prince of Israel Ezek 21:25-27
Proud Man Hab 2:5
Rod of God’s anger Isa 10:5
Seed of the Serpent Gen 3:15
Son of the Morning Isa 14:12
Spoiler, Destroyer Isa 16:4,5
Vile Person Dan 11:21

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Violent Man Ps 140:1, 10, 11
Wicked, Wicked One Ps 9:17; 10:2,4; Isa 11:4; Jer 30:14, 23
Wilful King Dan 11:36
New Testament: (13)
Angel of the Bottomless Pit Rev 9:11
Antichrist, Pseudo-Christ 1 Jn 2:22
Beast Rev 11:7; 13
False Prophet Rev 13
Father of the lie Jn 8:44; 2 Thess 2:11
Lawless One 2 Thess 2:8
Man of Sin 2 Thess 2:3
One come in his own name Jn 5:43
Prince of Darkness 1 Thess 5
Son of Perdition 2 Thess 2:3
Star Rev 8:10; 9:1
Unclean Spirit Mt 12:43
Vine of the earth Rev 14:18

Judas Reincarnated?

(Some believe he is Judas Iscariot reincarnated: Ps 55:11-14; Death


& Hell: Isa 28:18, Rev 6:8; Mt 12:41-43; Jn 17:12; Jn 6:7; 2 Thess 2:3;
Acts 1:25, with Rev 11:7.) He emerges out of the Abousso, Rev 11:7

Nomenclature Issues
“Pre/Mid/Post-Tribulation” Views:

Millennium
Begins

Page 80
Daniel 12
The Climax of All History

Closes Section Three of the book: Chapters 10-12.

(Remember: Chapter 12 is in Hebrew—Israel is the focus.) Refers to


Daniel’s people, not the Church (Dan 9:16, 19, 24, 24; 10:14; 12:1).

Summary: 11:36 - 12:3

1) A world ruler.
2) A world religion.
3) A world war.
4) A time of tribulation for Israel.
5) Deliverance for the people of God at the end of the tribulation.
6) Resurrection and judgment.
7) Reward of the righteous.

1] “At that time” (3X) What time? (Dan 9:27).

be, “during” = continuation.

Michael (“your prince”) = the angel who oversees Israel. Mentioned


4X in Scripture. Who is he always battling? Satan (Rev 12:7-9). Note
“dignity”: Jude 9; Cf. Dan 10:13-21.

Satan is a created being... vs. “Christ & Satan.”

vs. traditions: Milton, Dante, Goethe, et al. Where does he rule? not
Hell: here! We’re on his turf. Paradox: ignoring vs. over-reaction...

“Time of Trouble”

Jesus quotes (Mt 24:21; Mk 13:19(!); Rev 7:14).

“Time of Jacob’s trouble”: Deut 4:30; Jer 30:7; Joel 2:2; Zech 13:8
(parallel to Dan 11:40-45); Cf. Ex 9:18, 24).

Israel to “pass under the rod” Ezek 20:34-38;


“Furnace of affliction” Ezek 22:18-22;
Only 1/3 spared Zech 13:8,9

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Woman of Rev 12 (Satan cast out: Rev 12:10.) No longer able to
accuse.

Thy people (2X) shall be delivered...”: Dan 7:18, 27; Zech 12:10;
13:8-9; Jer 30:7,11; Rev 12:6-7. (This is the Hebrew portion of the
book.) Also, Isa 14:12-17; Job 1:6; 2:1-7; Zech 3:1-5; cf. Ruth,
“threshing floor scene” in Chapter 3.

[Visit Yad Vashem; “Never Again” = futile...]

Abomination of Desolation: (“seen” throughout Judea?) Mt 24:15;


Dan 12:11.

Rapture: Only the Church?

“Written in the book” Ex 32:32, 33; Ps 69:28; Lk 10:20


Rev 13:8; 17:8; 20:15; 21:27
Not all prepared Ezek 20:33-38
Israel “unblinded” Rom 11:25

Blotted out? Ex 32:31-33; Ps 69:28; (cf. Rev 3:5; overcomers in 1


John 5:5). [Distinctive: not all “saints” or “elect” are the same.]

2] Elect? (Mt 24:22); 144,000 (Rev 7:4); Saved (Rom 11:26). “Israel,
Mine Elect” (Isa 45:4); Isa 11:11; 27:12-13; Jer 30:7; Ezek 37:21-28;
Hos 3:4-5; Amos 9:11-15.

NT “God’s Elect”: Rom 8:33; Col 3:12. [John the Baptist: Mt


11:11,12.]

“Spiritual resurrection”? Dead in sins (Eph 2:1; 4:18); quickened by


the Word of God (Rom 10:17; Heb 4:12); passed from death to life (Jn
5:24; Eph 2:5-6).

“National resurrection”? Isa 26:12-19; Jer 16:14-15; Ezek 20:33-44;


37:1-28 (Gaebelein, Kelly, Ironside: national, not bodily(?); to sup-
port OT at rapture).

Second Resurrection? Eph 4:8-10; 1 Pet 3:18-20; Mt 27:52-53;


Isa 61:1,2; 2 Cor 5:1-8; Rev 20:5,6;

“Many”: but not “all.”

Page 82
Abraham Gen 22:5; Heb 11:19
Job Job 19:25-26
Isaiah Isa 26:19(!)
Hosea Hos 13:14
of Christ Ps 16:9-10

There seems to be no passage in Scripture which teaches that the OT


saints will be raised at the time the church is raptured; before the final
tribulation.

Hebrew sharply separates two classes of resurrection:

“And many from among the sleepers of the dust of the earth shall
awake; these shall be unto everlasting life; but those, the rest of the
sleepers, those who do not awake at this time, shall be unto shame and
everlasting contempt.”
(Tregelles, Culber, Seiss, Nathaniel West)
Rev 20:5, 12-13

Shame, contempt: olam (everlasting) modifies both. An eternal state


for the wicked!

“First Resurrection” is a class, not an event: Christ, the firstfruits of


them that slept; the rapture; and the two witnesses are all in the “first”
resurrection.

3] This is the first occurrence of “everlasting life” in the OT? Ps 16:10;


49:15; Isa 25:8; 26:19; Hos 13:14; Heb 11:17,18; cf. Dan 11:33.

Jewish “teachers”: Dan 11:33-35; Rev 7:4-8; 11:2-12.

“brightness of the expanse”: Zachar, to be brilliant.

“lights”: Mt 5:14-16; Jn 5:35; Eph 5:8; 2 Cor 4:6; 1 Cor 15:41-42.

4] “Revealed” in last days; primary application to “the time of the end.”

The Book of Revelation is not sealed. Rev 22:10; 1:3

[If Knowledge doubles each decade? then, 50% of all “knowledge”


has been added these past 10 years!?]

Page 83
Hebrew hadda’at, “the knowledge,” i.e. this prophecy. Link with v.3
(vs. Amos 8:12). Israel’s blindness to be relieved (Rom 11:25).

Sealing: made secure; preserved; until end (11:35,40).

“to/fro” = search: 2 Chr 16:9; Jer 5:1; 49:3; Amos 8:12; Zech 4:10.
(Daniel was now over 80 years old.)

5] Jesus is “man” in linen? Two others were probably angels.


Two witnesses: Deut 19:15; 31:28; 2 Cor 13:1.

Oath: Gen 14:22; Deut 32:40; Rev 10:5-7.

7] 3 1/2 years (Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 11:2; 13:5); 1260 days; 42 months;
mid-week...

8] Daniel did not understand. (Theory of inspiration!?)

9] “Go” (mental attitude): Words sealed.

10] Wicked will not understand (1 Cor 2:14; 21 Thess 2:11; Rev 22:11,12).

11] 30 days between 1260 and 1290 unrevealed. Tamid, regular ceremo-
nies (8:11; 11:21). Zeus/Jupiter Olympus; 2300 were literal.

12] 45 days: judgments? Ezek 20:34-38; Mt 25:31-46


Start of Millennium? Borders of Gen 15:18?

So closes the most comprehensive prophetic revelation in the OT.

* * *

Notes:

1. Walvoord, p. 176, note 83.


2. ibid
3. Herodotus III. 89-97.
4. Josephus, Antiquities XII. i. 1.
5. Polybius, Histories V. 38.
6. Polybius, Histories, II. 71.
7. Appian, Roman History: The Syrian Wars, XI. i. 5; XI. vii. 38.
8. 2 Maccabees 3:1-12, 24-31.
9. 2 Maccabees 4:30-35.

Page 84
10. 1 Maccabees 4:30-35.
11. Livy’s Annales, XLIV. 37.
12. 2 Maccabees 5:11-18; 6:1-11. Josephus, Antiquities, XII. ii. 6.

Supplemental Bibliography

Eastman, Mark, and Smith, Chuck, The Search for Messiah, The Word for
Today, Costa Mesa, CA, 1993.
Faulstich, E.W., History, Harmony & Daniel, Chronology Books, Spen-
cer IA, 1988.
Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G., Israelology, Ariel Ministries, Tustin, CA,
1989.
Jeffrey, Grant R., Messiah, Frontier Research Publications, Toronto,
Ontario, 1991.
Missler, Chuck, Expositional Commentary on Revelation, 4 Volumes,
Koinonia House, 1993.

Page 85
About The Cover Design

The “Front” cover:

The Greek border: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the
ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come,
the Almighty (Revelation 1:8).” The center design element symbol-
izes the Word of God Incarnate, illuminated by the Holy Spirit.

The “Back” cover: (the “front” to the Jewish reader)

The Hebrew border: “Hear O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord:
and thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with
all thy soul, and with all thy might (from the Sh’ma, Deut 6:4-5).”

The center design represents the Burning Bush, made up of Hebrew


letters which proclaim “the Eternal One cannot lie.”

The Spine:

The spine includes a Menorah from the Old Testament, a Maranatha


Dove suggesting the New Testament, and the Koinonia House logo
at the base.

Koinonia House
P.O. Box D
Coeur d’Alene Idaho
83816-0347
1-800-KHOUSE-1
www.khouse.org

ISBN 1-880532-09-3

Page 86