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PERANG DUNIA II

PERANG DUNIA II

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PENDAHULUAN

Dimulai tahun 1939 ² 1945 Blok Sentral & Blok Sekutu Periode Jalannya PD II : 1. Periode Permulaan ( 1939 ² 1942 ) 2. Turning Point /saat ² saat membalik (1942) 3. Periode Terakhir ( 1943 ² 1945 )

LAHIRNYA NEGARA TOTALITARIAN
1. Fascisme Italia 2. Naziisme Jerman 3. Militerisme Jepang 

SEBAB ² SEBAB PERANG 1. Sebab Umum
* Kegagalan Liga Bangsa ² Bangsa Menjalankan Tugasnya * Munculnya Politik Aliansi * Kekacauan Bidang Ekonomi Menyebabkan Timbulnya Pemerintahan Diktaktor * Munculnya Nasionalisme Berlebihan * Munculnya Paham ² Paham Baru * Munculnya Politik Agresi Militer

2.

Sebab Khusus
- Serangan Jerman atas Polandia tanggal 1 September 1939 mengawali pertempuran di front Eropa dan Afrika Utara - Serangan Jepang terhadap pangkalan angkatan laut Amerika Serikat di Pearl Harbour, Hawai tanggal 7 Desember 1941 mengawali pertempuran di Front Pasifik

Mussolini dan Hitler

JALANNYA PERANG
Tahun 1939
a. 1 September 1939 Jerman menyerbu Polandia b. 3 September Inggris dan Prancis mengumumkan perang kepada Jerman

* Tahun 1940
1) 9 April, pasukan Jerman menyerbu Denmark dan Norwegia 2) 10 Mei, Pasukan Jerman menyerbu Belgia dan Belanda

3) 10 Juni, Italia mengumumkan perang kepada Inggris dan Prancis 4) 13 Juni, Paris jatuh ke tangan Jerman, Prancis menyerah dan daerahnya dibagi 2 yaitu bagian utara dikuasai Jerman dan bagian selatan dikuasai Jendral Henry Philippe Petain. AL Prancis direbut Inggris

5) 22 Juni, Prancis menandatangani senjata dengan Jerman

gencatan

6) 10 Juli, Pertempuran Britain dimulai
Albert Kesselring German field marshal Albert Kesselring, one of Adolf Hitler·s top defense advisers in World War II (1939(19391945), led the German air force during the Battle of Britain in 1940 and 1941.

7) 27 September, Jerman, Italia dan Jepang bersatu dalam perjanjian 3 negara membentuk poros Roma-Berlin-Tokyo Roma-Berlin-

Tahun 1941
i. Tentara Jerman menyerbu Balkan sampai ke Pulau Kreta. Rumania dan Bulgaria memihak Jerman. Tentara Italia dipukul mundur di Afrika bagian utara oleh Inggris. Tentara Jerman di bawah Erwin Rommel menyerbu Afrika ii. 6 April, pasukan Jerman menyerang Yunani dan Yugoslavia iii. 13 April, Rusia dan Jepang mengadakan perjanjian non-agresi noniv. 22 Juni, Jerman menyerang Uni Soviet, Jerman terpaksa mengurangi kekuatannya di front barat dalam menghadapi Sekutu. Oleh sebab itu, Inggris terbebas dari serangan AU Jerman dan menang dalam The Battle of Britain v. 8 September, pasukan Jerman memblokade yang berlangsung sampai Januari 1944

vi. 7 Desember, Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbour, Hawaii ( awal perang Pasifik )

vii. 8 Desember, AS, Inggris, Kanada mengumumkan perang kepada Jepang
Declaration of War Against Japan On December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress and asked for a declaration of war against Japan. Roosevelt called December 7 ´a date which will live in infamy.µ

Japanese Conquests in Asia and the Pacific
War in Asia and the Pacific Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces compiled an impressive list of conquests in a remarkably short time. By May 1942 the Japanese stood with open avenues of attack to both India and Australia. However, three events in 1942 helped turn the tide of the war for the Allies. The Doolittle bombing raid on Tokyo in April unnerved Japanese officials who had believed the home islands were secure. Then, when they attempted to capture more islands to the south and east to prevent another such raid, the overextended Japanese naval forces were crushed by the U.S. Navy at the battles of Coral Sea and Midway in May and June of 1942. With their naval offensive capacity crippled, the Japanese were forced to adopt a more defensive posture, while the Allies had time to regroup and halt further Japanese expansion and to formulate the island-hopping strategy used to islandreconquer the Pacific.

Tahun 1942 1942
a) 15 Februari, Singapura jatuh ke tangan Jepang b) 26 ² 28 Februari, armada laut Jepang mengalahkan kekuatan laut Sekutu dalam Pertempuran Laut Jawa c) 9 April, pasukan AS dan Filipina menyerah di semenanjung Bataan d) 18 April, armada udara AS membom Tokyo dalam Serangan Doolitle e) 4 ² 8 Mei, armada laut Sekutu membendung serangan Jepang dalam Pertempuran Terumbu Karang

f) 4 ² 6 Juni, pasukan Sekutu mengalahkan Jepang dalam Pertempuran Midway

g) 7 Agustus, pasukan marinir AS mendarat di Guadalcanal

h) 25 Agustus, Hitler memerintahkan pasukannya merebut Stalingrad i) 23 Oktober, pasukan Inggris menyerangkedudukan pasukan Sentral di El Alamein, Mesir j) 8 November, pasukan Sekutu mendarat di Aljazair dan Maroko

h) 12 November, Jerman dipukul mundur dalam Pertempuran di el-Alamein di muka elAlexandria oleh Jendral Montgomery

Tahun 1943
1) 2 Februari, pasukan Jerman menyerah di Stalingrad 2) 13 Mei, pasukan Sentral di Afrika Utara menyerah 3) 4 Juli, pasukan Jerman menyerang kota Kursk, Uni Soviet

Tank Shipment to the USSR With greatly improved mobility and firepower, World War II tanks played a major role in the battle for Europe. While German tanks could outgun most of those of their enemies, the Soviets won the greatest tank battle in history at Kursk in 1943 against the Germans. More than 3000 tanks took part in this battle.

4) 10 Juli, pasukan Sekutu menyerang Sicilia 5) 3 September, Italia menyerah kepada Sekutu 6) 9 September, Pasukan Sekutu mendarat di Salerno, Italia 7) 20 November, pasukan AS menyerang Tarawa

Big Three, Tehr n, Iran Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, United States president Franklin D. Roosevelt, and British prime minister Winston Churchill, seated left to right, meet in Tehr n, Iran, in 1943 to discuss their military strategy and post-World War II policy for Europe. The leaders decided to invade France in 1944, against Churchill·s recommendations. The meeting marked the apex of the East-West wartime alliance. Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill, the leaders of the three major Allied powers, came to be known as the ´Big Three.µ

Tahun 1944
I. 1 Mei, Italia menyerah pada Sekutu yang dipimpin oleh Jenderal Eisenhower 6 Juni, pasukan Sekutu mendarat secara besar ² besaran di Normandia, Prancis. Peristiwa itu terkenal dengan sebutan D-Day D-

II.

General Gener l wight . i t isenhower i enhower romoted to fourfourstar general, the t r ener l, . . rmy· hi hest rmy·s highest r nk at that time, rank t General wi ht . wight isenhower became ecame supreme llied commander in urope and organi or ani ed the lar est sea-tolargest sea-to-land invasion in history, dubbed peration verlord. he llies crossed the nglish hannel and invaded the northern coast of occupied rance.

D-Day Troops The United States First Army moves supplies inland from beaches codecodenamed Utah and Omaha in northern France on June 6, 1944. D-Day, as DGeneral Dwight D. Eisenhower called it, surprised the Germans, who expected the invasion to come from farther north.

III. 19 ² 20 Juni, AL AS mengalahkan Jepang dalam Pertempuran Filipina IV. 18 Juli, PM Tojo mengundurkan diri V. 20 Juli, persekongkolan untuk membunuh Hitler mengalami kegagalan VI. 24 Agustus, Rumania menyerah kepada Rusia, diikuti Bulgaria. Prancis berhasil direbut AS VII. 2 September, Belgia dibebaskan oleh AS

VIII. 8 September, Yugoslavia dibebaskan

bersama dengan pasukan gerilyanya IX. 20 Oktober, pasukan Sekutu mendarat di Filipina X. 23 ² 26 Oktober, pasukan Sekutu menghancurkan armada laut Jepang dalam Pertempuran Teluk Leyte di Filipina XI. 16 Desember, pasukan Jerman menyerang pasukan AS dalam pertempuran Bulge

Tahun 1945
a. 13 Februari, Hongaria menyerah kepada USSR b. 16 Maret, pasukan marinir AS merebut Iwo Jima c. 30 April, Hitler bunuh diri di Berlin d. 7 Mei, Jerman menyerah tanpa syarat di Reims, Prancis. Peristiwa itu mengakhiri PD II di Eropa e. 21 Juni, pasukan marinir AS merebut Okinawa

f. 6 Agustus, bom atom dijatuhkan di Hiroshima

g. 8 Agustus, Uni Soviet mengumumkan perang kepada Jepang h. 9 Agustus, bom atom dijatuhkan di Nagasaki i. 14 Agustus, Jepang menyerah tanpa syarat

j.

2 September, Jepang menandatangani penyerahan di kapal perang U.S.S. Missouri di Teluk Tokyo

The Yalta Conference
Allied Leaders at Yalta In February 1945 the leaders of the Allied powers, known as the Big Three, met at Yalta on the Crimean Peninsula to discuss Allied military strategy in the final months of World War II. The leaders included British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, left, American President Franklin Roosevelt, center, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, right.

PERJANJIAN ² PERJANJIAN PERDAMAIAN 
Konferensi Postdam ( 2 Agustus 1945 )
The Potsdam Conference was held in 1945 in the city of Potsdam, near Berlin, ten weeks after Germany¶s surrender in World War II. Leaders represented at the conference included, from right to left, Premier Joseph Stalin of the USSR, President Harry S. Truman of the United States, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom. At Potsdam the conferees met to to clarify and implement agreements previously reached at the Yalta Conference. 

Perjanjian Perdamaian Sekutu dengan Jepang (1945) di Jepang  Perjanjian Perdamaian Sekutu dengan Italia (1945) di Paris  Perjanjian Perdamaian Sekutu dengan Austria (1945) di Austria  Perjanjian Perdamaian Sekutu dengan Hongaria, Bulgaria, Rumania, Finlandia (1945) di Paris

AKIBAT PD II
Sektor politik Sektor ekonomi Sektor sosial Sektor kerohanian

AKHIR PD II

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