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Eukaryotic cells are generally bigger (often
10 times in length and 1000 times in
volume) and more complex than prokaryotic
cells. Their genome is usually larger as well.

The genome is stored in a separate


nucleus.

There are organelles


(mitochondira/chloroplasts) with their
own DNA.

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ï Acquiring energy is one of the most important
problems that prokaryotes had to solve.

Cyanobacteria
 
     

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Õ 


Chloroplast

Plants and
Aerobic   m plantlike
bacteria protists

Nuclear Photosynthetic
envelope bacteria
evolving
Mitochondrion

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Animals, fungi, and non-


plantlike protists
   
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Œo to
Section:
 
    
ï are enclosed in double lipid bilayer membranes
ï   themselves    of nucleus
ï contain a  , circular, double-stranded DNA  
ï contain º  
  , for synthesis of proteins not coded for
by nuclear genes
ï the 16S rRNA of mitochondria shows a high degree of
homology with proteobacteria
ï 16S rRNA of chloroplasts shows a high degree of homology
with cyanobacteria
  

There are four kingdoms

Protists Fungi Plants Animals

Single-cellular Multi-cellular

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These are single cellular eukaryotes. Even so, they can be very complex.

Fungi- Yeast
Protists- Amoeba

Colonial Œreen Algae Protists- Œreen Algae


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Multicellular organisms, or Metazoans, have multiple cooperating cells that share the same
DNA. As each organism grows, cells differentiate into specialized cell types that each use
only part of the DNA. Differentiation itself is under DNA ͞program control͟ so the success or
failure of the whole organism is determined both by the success of the various
specializations and by the success of their orchestration.