Anda di halaman 1dari 97

TEACHING LISTENING THROUGH FLASH VIDEOS AND

ITS EFFECT TOWARD STUDENT’S LISTENING SKILL


(A Quasi-Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students of
SDN 2 Cibogogirang)

A RESEARCH PAPER

Submitted to the English Departement of STKIP Subang


in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan

By:
EKA RATNA SOPYANTI
NIM. 0618210113

ENGLISH EDUCATION PROGRAM


SEKOLAH TINGGI KEGURUAN DAN ILMU KEPENDIDIKAN
STKIP SUBANG
2010
TEACHING LISTENING THROUGH FLASH VIDEOS AND
ITS EFFECT TOWARD STUDENT’S LISTENING SKILL
(A Quasi-Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students of
SDN 2 Cibogogirang)

Approved by:

Supervisor I Supervisor II

WILLYANA RAMLAN, S.Pd., M.Pd. YAYAN RUHYANA, S.Pd., M.Ed.

Head of
English Education Study Programme

WILLYANA RAMLAN, S.Pd., M.Pd.

Head of
STKIP - Subang

Drs. ASEP PRIATNA, M.Pd.


TEACHING LISTENING THROUGH FLASH VIDEOS AND
ITS EFFECT TOWARD STUDENT’S LISTENING SKILL
(A Quasi-Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students of
SDN 2 Cibogogirang)

By:
EKA RATNA SOPYANTI
NIM. 0618210113

Approved By:

NO. EXAMINER SIGNATURE

1 Farida Hidyati, M.Pd.

2 Drs. Mardjito, M.Pd.

3 Yayan Ruhyana, M.Ed.

4 Elih Sutisna Yanto, S.Pd. MM.


To my parent who taught me to be more patient

“The best lesson is the abstruction in living that has exceeded


successful with resulteness,
soul and accurately”
PREFACE

Alhamdulillahi rabbil „alamin, by the grace of Allah SWT who has given

his most generous motivation to the writer to complete this paper entitled

“Teaching Listening through Flash Videos and Its Effect Toward Student‟s

Listening Skill (A Quasi-Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students of SDN 2

Cibogogirang).”

The research has tried to focus on using the teaching aids, this is flash

videos to help students easy to choose the dialy English expression correctly by

listening to the videos. The aims of writing this paper are: firstly, to fulfill one of

the requirements for the Sarjana Pendidikan examination; secondly, to offer some

of the possible teaching techniques of teaching listening.

The writer is aware of her weakness that paper is far from perfect,

therefore, she would greatly appreciate all comment, criticism and meaningful and

helpful suggestion.

Finally the writer hopes that her writing will be useful particularly to the

writer helpself and generally to the readers who are interested in this field of

study.

Purwakarta, Juli 2010

The Writer

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulillah, I have succedded in finishing this study, which has been


greatly improved by comments, corrections, guidance and ideas of many peoples.
It is hard to even begin to acknowledge personally all those who have had an
impact on my life and study during the making of this paper. In this occasion, the
writer would like to express her sincerest thanks to the following person:
1. Her beloved father, mother and son for their prayer, support and
encouragement to her to finish her study.
2. Wilyana Ramlan, S.Pd., M.Pd., her supervisor who has given the
writer his valuable guidance, advice and help during the process of
writing this paper.
3. Yayan Ruhyana, S.Pd., M.Ed., her supervisor who has given the writer
his valuable guidance, advice and help during the process of writing
this paper.
4. Asep Priatna, Drs. M.Pd. Dean of STKIP – Subang.
5. Wilyana Ramlan, S.Pd., M.Pd., head of the English Departement of
STKIP – Subang.
6. Hasanudin, A.Ma.Pd., headmaster of SDN 2 Cibogogirang, for
allowing her to do the research there.
7. Eka L. Koncara, S.Pd.I., the teacher of English and the fifth grade
students of SDN 2 Cibogogirang.
8. Suherman, A.Ma.Pd., headmaster of SDN Citekokaler where I work.
All in all, her greatest and deepst debt is to Allah SWT, whose guidance
has enabled her to complete her study.
May Allah SWT bless you all. Amin yaa robbal „alamin.

Purwakarta, Juli 2010


The Writer

ii
ABSTRACT

The title of the research is “Teaching Listening through Flash Videos and Its
Effect Toward Student‟s Listening Skill (A Quasi-Experiment Study at The Fifth
Grade Students of SDN 2 Cibogogirang).”
The aims of the research is to know whether watching English flash videos
can improve students‟ listening skill. The study is oriented towards: 1) To find out
the effectiviness of using flash videos to improve the students‟ listening skill; 2)
To find out the advantages of using flash videos in improving student‟s listening
skill.
In order to achieve the aim of research, the writer used Quasi-
Experimental method. Quasi-experimental designs are commonly employed in the
evaluation of educational programs. Although quasi-experimental designs need to
be used commonly, they are subject to numerous interpretation problems. In this
study, the writer took the students of SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang as population.
The samples are be fourty students in the fifth grade. Which are divided into
groups are experimental and control group.
The data needed was taken from a test. The test is used to identify the
students‟ achievement. The test is objective test. In the term pairing items consist
of 10 items. After observing the data, that is the score of pre-test and post test. The
writer calculating the mark of t-value and at least gives the interpretation of the
calculation.
Data : The scores of pre-test and post test.
Analysing Data : The writer count the value of t,
The writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20
students, and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two
groups were chosen as representative subjects. The total df {(Ne-1)+(Nc-1)} is 38.
The t-observation is 2.674. This t-observation greater than t-critical (2.674>1.68).
Consequently, it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. It means that the two
groups have different scores on the post-test, and the difference is statistically
significant. So, this fact support the claim that students who were taught listening
by using flash videos get better scores than those were taught conventionally. The
experimental teaching program can improve the students‟ listening skill
effectively (2.90) from that what they got in the pre-test, while control group can
improve the students‟ listening skill less than the experimental group (2.70).
The conclusion of this research is watching to the flash videos contributes
the improvement of students‟ listening skill, makes English lesson live, make
change from the of teacher and text book, helps the students feedback has been
very positive and they are enjoying the benefit of flash videos, so listening
practice becomes more effective. The writer would like propose her suggestion
that teachers should try to use flash videos in listening lesson, because watching
flash videos is one type of listening experience that is interesting.

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ........................................................................................................... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................. ii

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... iv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM .......................... 1

1.2 REASON FOR CHOOSING TOPIC .............................. 4

1.3 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY..................................... 4

1.4 RESEARCH PROBLEM ................................................ 4

1.5 AIM OF THE STUDY .................................................... 5

1.6 HYPOTHESIS ................................................................. 5

1.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF RESEARCH ....... 6

1.8 METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH . 6

1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER .............................. 7

1.10CLARIFICATION OF TERMS ...................................... 8

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION ...................................... 10

2.1 LISTENING .................................................................... 10

2.1.1 The Meaning of Listening.................................... 10

2.1.2 The Goal of Listening .......................................... 11

2.1.3 Aims of Listening ................................................ 12

iv
2.1.4 Listening is an Internal Process` .......................... 15

2.1.5 The Step of Listening ........................................... 16

2.1.6 Decoding .............................................................. 17

2.1.7 The Difficulties in Listening ................................ 19

2.1.8 A Skill Taxonomy for Domain of Listening Skill 19

2.1.9 Types of Classroom Listening Performance ........ 20

2.1.10 Listening Comprehension Test ............................ 21

2.2 LEARNING AIDS........................................................... 26

2.2.1 The Meaning of Learning Aids ............................ 26

2.2.2 Kinds and Characteristics of Learning Aids ........ 27

2.2.3 Flash Videos on Computer Learning Aids .......... 29

2.3 SUMMARY..................................................................... 31

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................ 32

3.1 KIND OF RESEARCH ................................................... 32

3.2 SUBJECT OF RESEARCH ............................................ 32

3.3 DATA COLLECTING INSTRUMENT ......................... 33

3.4 DATA PROCESSING ..................................................... 33

3.5 RESEARCH PROCEDURE............................................ 36

v
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION .......................................... 37

4.1 STUDENTS SCORE OF TRYOUT ................................ 37

4.1.1 Reliability Analisys .............................................. 37

4.1.2 Validity Analisys ................................................. 38

4.2 STUDENTS‟ SCORE OF PRE-TEST ............................ 39

4.3 STUDENTS‟ SCORE OF POST-TEST .......................... 43

4.4 STUDENTS‟ SCORE IMPROVEMENT ....................... 47

4.5 DISCUSSION .................................................................. 48

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ............................ 52

5.1 SUMMARY..................................................................... 52

5.2 SUGGESTIONS .............................................................. 53

REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 54

APPENDICES

CURRICULUM VITAE

vi
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM

Everybody has learned their language since they were children, especially

their mother tongue. The process occurs naturally and properly with a view to

communicate in society environment. Listening ability in English as foreign

language also plays an important role in building communication skill.

As we all know, communication is a part of human‟s daily activities.

Through communication by using language, we can share our ideas and througt

with other people. In that way, a smooth interaction between people can take

place.

In line with the more sophisticated world, we are demanded to be able to

communicate not only by using our mother tongue but also by using a foreign

language, especially English which obviously more difficult to do since we have a

limitation of knowledge about foreign language. On the other hand as an

international language, English is used to communicate information, chiefly in

science and technology.

Thus, the government has sattled English as one of the compulsory

subjects to study at school, from basic until highest. It is hoped that the students

will be able to communicate in English.

As the foreign language in our country, English is widely taught for the

first time at primary school. The teaching at the level aims to give knowledge of

1
the basic English to students and it will be developed when they are in the junior

and senior high school.

Teaching listening is one of the duties that has to be conducted by teachers

of English to improve the students‟ listening ability in English.

Listening is a skill that tends to get neglected for various reasons. Among

other things are:

1. The feeling among language teachers that this skill is automatically acquired

by the learner as he learns to speak the language.

2. Listening is not given serious attention the fact that incompetence in it is easy

to hide through nodding and shaking of the head, which may give the

impression of understanding even there is none.

3. Audio lingual courses give the impression that they are teaching listening

when in fact teaching other skill.

In KTSP, there are some competention standards and basic competentions

which have to be reach by students in learning English. In the fifth grade of

primary school, for listening skill, the students have to understand the simple

instructions by actions in school context as competention standard.

The basic competention is to respond simple instructions by right actions

in school context. The indicators of the learning process of these competention

standards and basic competentions are the students can respond by doing right

actions.

It is also necessary to mention that listening is one of the items on some

language tests is reason enough to be taught beside the enjoyable activities a

2
learner may indulge in the target language – such as listening to the radio,

listening to the English song and watching movies – demand that the learner

exercise this skill.

In learning English sometimes the students are bored with certain teaching

atmosphere. There are various techniques used for teaching language skills:

Listening, Speaking, Writing and Reading.

There are also various medias used for teaching English and improve their

listening skill which could make the students feel interest to the learning process

and enjoy it, such as pictures, sound of musics, English songs, English movies,

and also Computers.

Using computers as media in teaching English helps sensitivity to

students‟ sense of hearing. The influence of using computers is improving

students‟ listening skill. Many children and teenages like computers so much, and

it could make the learning process easier. They will be interested and happy to

learn English and using computers can improve their listening skill.

Concerning the facts above, it is expected that research on teaching

listening can offer an alternative in providing the technique in teaching listening,

motivating the students to learn English and can be useful for those who are

interested in teaching listening.

3
1.2 REASON FOR CHOOSING TOPIC

Listening is one of aspects in learning foreign language, including English.

For many students, listening is a difficult skill to be improved. So that, teacher

have to get right method and right media in improving students‟ listening skill.

Computer, specially flash video, is one of medias which is very good to be

used to improve students‟ listening skill. It could help sensitivity to students‟

sense of hearing. The influence of using videos is improving students‟ listening

skill. Many young students like videos, including at SDN 2 Cibogogirang Plered–

Purwakarta.

To get accurate result about the effect of flash videos to improve students‟

listening skill, the writer has choosen the title “Teaching Listening through Flash

Videos and Its Effect Toward Student‟s Listening Skill (A Quasi-Experiment

Study at The Fifth Grade Students of SDN 2 Cibogogirang)”.

1.3 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The research will be limited only deal with improving students‟ listening

skill through flash videos with the title “The Monkey and The Turtle” in to the

fifth grade students of primary school.

1.4 RESEARCH PROBLEM

Research problem is question to find the solution or answer through

research, which was formulated in a sentence a question, it is questionable.

(Arikunto, 2006:61)

4
To do the right research and make clearly whatever that appear in using

flash videos as media to improve students‟ listening skill. Here are two main

problems, that had formulated as folows:

1. Is using flash videos able to improve student‟s listening skill?

2. What are the advantages of using flash videos in learning listening?

1.5 AIM OF THE STUDY

Considering the problems above, the study is oriented towards the

following aims:

1. To find out the effectiviness of using flash videos to improve the

students‟ listening skill.

2. To find out the advantages of using flash videos in learning listening.

1.6 HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis can be interpreted as a tentative answer to the research

problem, until proven by the data collected. (Arikunto, 2006:71)

Based on the problem stated so the hypothesis that using flash videos are:

1. Able to improve student‟s listening skill.

2. Effective to students‟ listening skill.

5
1.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLES OF RESEARCH

Population is all research subject. In Encyclopedia of Educational

Evaluation tertulis: A population is a set (or collection) of all elements prossessing

one or more attributes of ineterest. (Arikunto, 2006:130)

A sample is a representative of the population which studied or to

generalize research results to the population. (Arikunto, 2006:131)

The population are fourty students in the fifth grade of SDN 2

Cibogogirang Plered–Purwakarta in academic year 2009/2010.

The samples are twenty students which are choosen randomly from fourty

students in the fifth grade of SDN 2 Cibogogirang Plered–Purwakarta in academic

year 2009/2010. As Suharsimi Arikunto (2006:134) said that each subject in a

homogeneous population have the same opportunity to be sampled.

1.8 METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH

In order to achieve the aim of the research, is used a quasi-experimental

method.

Quasi-experimental designs are commonly employed in the evaluation of

educational programs when random assignment is not possible or practical.

Although quasi-experimental designs need to be used commonly, they are subject

to numerous interpretation problems. (Gribbons, Barry & Herman, Joan (1997).

True and quasi-experimental designs. Practical Assessment, Research &

Evaluation, 5(14). Retrieved July 23, 2010 from http://PAREonline.net/

getvn.asp?v=5&n=14)

6
The procedure of the research are:

1. Developing the research instrument

2. Selecting the sample from the population

3. Giving pre-test to the students

4. Doing treatment, in three steps:

a. Pre-listening

b. While listening

c. Post-listening

5. Giving post-test

6. Expert judgement

7. Calculating and analysing the test scores

8. Finding and discussing the result of the research

1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER

The primary contents of the paper are as follows:

Chapter I is introduction.

The chapter consists of: Background of the problem, Reason for choosing

topic, Limitation of the study, Research problem, Hypotesis, Aim of the study,

Population and samples of research, Method and procedure of the research,

Organization of the paper, and Clarification of terms.

7
Chapter II is theoretical foundation.

This part contain of literatures and theories that proposed by some experts

to support the research and a basic for investigating the problem.

Chapter III is research methodology.

This chapter deals with Kind of research, Subject of research, Data

collecting instrument, and Data processing.

Chapter IV is data analysis.

This chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation.

Chapter V is conclusion and sugestion.

This chapter gives the conclusion and sugestion of the research.

1.10 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

In order not to be confused, on this chapter will be explaint about the

definition of words used in the study, as follows:

1. Flash Video (FLV) or Shockwave Flash (SWF) is video file format

commonly used on the internet. Online, these files can only be used

with flash player software. But for learning purposes, the writer has

downloaded it, so it can be used offline by GOM Player software.

GOM Player software can only be used with a computer.

Computer is a tool used to process the data according to procedures

that have been formulated. Computer assisted learning or Computer

Assisted Instruction (CAI) is the use of computers as teaching aids.

Title : The Monkey and The Turtle

8
Format : Shockwave Flash (SWF)

Size : 1,38 MB

Source :

http://useit.vn/useit/images/stories/flash/Fairy%20Tale/30.04.08/monk

ey.swf

2. Media is a broker or introductory messages from the sender to the

recipient of the message. Broadly speaking, the media is human,

material, or events that establish conditions that make students able to

gain knowledge, skills, or attitudes.

3. Listening is conscious attention to the mesagge of what is said

(Shelagh Rixon:1986). In this paper, what is meant by using computers

by students of SDN 2 Cibogogirang at the fifth grade.

4. Listening skills is students‟ ability of understanding the plot of the

story.

9
CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

2.1 LISTENING

2.1.1 The Meaning Of Listening

Listening is one of the language skills, in this case, quoted the definition of

listening is quoted from KBBI:

“Mendengarkan (memperhatikan) baik-baik apa yang diucapkan atau


dibaca orang.” (Depdiknas, 2008)

The listening activities develop a wide variety of listening in details, and

inferring meaning form context. These exercises often require completing an

authentic task while listening, such as taking missing words in completion items,

text of the song, or taking telephone messages. The recordings on the class

cassetttes contain both scripted and unscripted conversation with natural pauses,

hesitation and interruption that occur in real speech.

Listening is a very important part of learning English. It could be seen on

the following statement.

“The important of listening in language teaching can hardly be over-

estimated. Through reception, we internalize linguistic information without which

we could not produce language. In classroom, students always do more listening

than speaking. Listening competence is universally “larger” than speaking

competence. Is it any wonder, then, that is recent years the language teaching

profession has placed a contert emphasis on listening comprehension?” (Brown,

1994:233)

10
“Listening as a major component in language learning and teaching first

hit spotlight in the late 1970s with Asher‟s work on Total Physical Response, in

which the role of comprehension was given prominence as learners were given

great quantities of language to listen to before they encouraged to respond orally.

Similarly, the natural Approach recommended a significant “silent period” during

which learners were allowed the security of listening without being forced to go

through the anxiety of speaking before they were “ready” to do so” (Brown,

1994:234)

2.1.2 The Goal of Listening

Listening can be characterized as problem solving activities involving the

formation hypothesis, the drawing of inference, and the resolution of ambiguities

and uncertainties in the input through the generation of “mages” (a set of items:

sensory, emotional, temporal, relational, purposive or verbal in nature) or as

Stevick‟s view the goal of listening is to generate the intended image from the

input and react appropriately.

But, the effect of prior knowledge and context also seem to be

instrumental in listening in listening tests, such as Ommagio says that listener

construct meaning by recognizing their previously acquired knowledge to

accommodate new information and concept. (Sekartiadiningsih, 2005)

So, the goal of listening is to promote understanding. If done well it

actually creates a sense of wellbeing in those being heard. Although most

everyone is capable of listening, few develop and leverage this skill to its fullest

potential.

11
In elementary school, the aspect of listening is one of four aspects which

are taught to students on English subject, as set out in the Content Standard of

Curriculum SD/MI/SDLB year 2006 for English subject.

In some places, many teachers are still confused about how the teaching

techniques of this listening aspect, especially in the selection of teaching methods

and medias. Therefore, this research may help to solve this problem, especially in

terms of selection and using the appropriate teaching media.

2.1.3 Aims of Listening

According to Rixon (1986:1), the aim of teaching listening comprehension

is (or should be) to help learners of English cope with listening in real life, but

there is a large varienty of different types of listening in real life.

Rixon (1986:2) mentions some situations in which listening is important,

1. Listening to announcement in stations, airport etc

2. Listening to the radio

3. Participating in a conversation face to face

4. Watching a film, play or TV

5. Participating in e meeting, seminar or discussion

6. Taking a part in a lesson

7. Listening to talk or lecture

8. Eavesdropping on other people‟s conversation

9. Participating in a telephone conversation

Rixon (1986:28) also distinguished between listening and hearing. There is

an every day distinction between hearing and something and listening to it.

12
Hearing is simply the recognition of sound, as when we say, “I‟m sorry, I didn‟t

hear exactly what you said.” Listening implies some conscious attention to the

message of what is said, as when we say. “Are you listening to me?”

Rost (1991:3) proposes that in order to define listening, we can ask two

basic questions: What are the component skills in listening? And what does a

listener do?

In terms of the necessary components, we can list the following:

1. Discriminating between sounds

2. Recognizing word

3. Identifying grammatical grouping of words

4. Identifying “pragmatic units” – expressions and sets of utterances which

function as whole units to create meaning

5. Connecting linguistic cues to paralinguistic cues (intonation and stress)

and to non-linguistic cues (gestures and relevant object in the situation) in

order to construct meaning

6. Using background knowledge (what we already know about the content

and the form) and content (what has already been said) to predict and then

to confirm meaning

7. Recalling important words and ideas

Rost (1991:4) says, successful listening involves an integration of these

component skills. In this some, listening is a coordination of the component skills,

not the individual skills themselves. This integration of the component skills, not

13
the individual skills themselves. This integration of these perception skills,

analysis skills and synthesis skills is what we will call a person‟s listening ability.

Rost (1991:4) has also argued that even throught a person may have a

good listening ability, he or she may not always be able to understand messages,

some conscious action is necessary to use this ability effectively in each listening

situation. This action that listener must perform is „cognitive‟ or mental, so it is

not possible to view it directly, but we can see the effect of this action. The

underlying action for successful listening is decision making. The listener must

make these kinds of decisions.

1. What kind of situation is this?

2. What is my plan for listening?

3. What are the important words and units of meaning?

4. Does the message make sense?

Successful listening requires making effective „real time‟ decisions about

these questions. In this sense, listening is primarily a thinking process-thingking

about meaning as they listen. The way in which the listener makes these decisions

is what we will call a listening strategy.

Rost (1991:70) stated that there are four principles for developing

listening ability:

1. Listening ability develops through face-to-face interaction.

By interacting in English, learner have the chance for new language input

and the chance to check their own listening ability. Face to face interaction

provides stimulation for development of listening for meaning.

14
2. Listening develops through focusing on meaning and trying to learn new

and important content in the target language.

By focusing on meaning and real reasions for listening in English, learners

can mobiles both their linguistic and non-linguistic abilities to understand.

3. Listening ability develops through work on comprehension activities.

By focusing on specific goals for listening. Learners can evaluate their

efforts and abilities. By having well-defined comprehension activities,

learners have opprotunities for assessing what have achieved and revision.

4. Listening ability develops through attention to accuracy and a anlysis of

form.

By learning t perceive sounds and words accurately as they work on

meaning oriented activities, our learners can make steady progress. By

learning to hear sounds and words accurately, learners gain confidence in

listening for meaning.

By using flash video, it is expected that students can develop their ability

through focusing on meaning and trying to learn new and important content in the

target language.

2.1.4 Listening is an Internal Process

Like reading, listening is an internal process that cannot be directly

obseved. It‟s rather difficult to say what happens when we listen and understand

others. Ommagio (1986 in Persulessy 1986:3) say that

“Listening and reading are both highly complex process that draw on the
knowledge of the linguistic code (lnguage form), cognitive processing skill
(the skill to process in the mind). Schome-based understanding

15
(background knowledge), and contextual cues both with in and outside the
text.”

2.1.5 The Step of Listening

In general, the teacher has to do the following steps:

1. Go first over the instructions with the class, making certain that materials

are understood by all the students.

2. Pronounce the words or phrases at least two times in a clear and distinct

voice and at normal speed.

3. Where the questions precede the text, read the question twice in order to

direct the students‟ attention. Then, read the entire text two times at

normal speed. Teacher should feel free to vary according to the abilities of

the students.

4. With longer texts, it is advisable for the teacher to write guide question on

the board or dictate them to the students. The questions should require a

understanding of the general ideas, in the text rather than detailed

knowledge. The teacher then reads the text for the first time.

5. After giving the students enough time to answer the guide questions she/he

discuses the answer with them.

6. The teacher continue with more detailed questions for the students to

answer either in the written or oral modality. Discussion follows the above

activity.

7. Other possible related activities for further intensive practice can be

carried out such as:

a. Summarize the passage orally

16
b. Formulate questions which the students will ask their classmates to

answer with long or short response.

c. Write a short summary at home

The possibilities of using each of the passage included in the text are

infinite. Some suggestions above maybe particularly pertinent for less

able students‟ abilities in the other language skills-speaking, reading,

and writing-will also develop. At the some time they will be able to

understand on wide range of topics, which undertake the linguistic

aspects of listening comprehension.

Jack in (Persulessy, 1994:4) mention the model of the listening process

includes the following steps:

1. The listener takes in raw speech and holds an image of it in short-term


memory.
2. The type of interactional act or speech event in which the listener is
involved is determined.
3. An attempt is made to organize what was heard into constituents,
identifying their content and function.
4. As constituents are identified, they are used to contruct propositions,
grouping the propositions together to form a coherent message.
5. Script relevant to the other particular situation are recalled.
6. The goals of the speaker are inferred through reference to the situation the
script and the sequential position of the utterance.
7. An illocutionary meaning is assigned to the message.
8. This information is retained and acted upon, and the form in which it was
originally received is deleted.

2.1.6 Decoding

Decoding is the process of trying to understand (comprehend) the meaning

of a word, a phrase or a sentence.

The processes in decoding (comprehending/understanding) are:

1. Hold the utterance in short term memory.

17
2. Analyze the utterance, is what is said by any one person says before or

after another person begins to speak or something said or emitted as a

vocal sound. For example, “yeah!” (one word), “have you done your

homework?” (one sentence), “you raise me up, so I can stand a

mountain.” (more than one sentence) into segments (chunk). Chunk is

constituent is part of utterance, for example: “Because of the rain he was

late.” The sentence has two chunks (part), because of and I was late.

Besides analyze the utterance also identify:

a. Word is meaningful unit of language sounds. A meaningful sound or

combination of sounds that is a unit of language or its representation

in a text.

b. Clause is group of words that contains a subject and a verb.

c. Proposition/prepositional meaning is basic meaning of

sentence/utterance.

d. Concept is meaning of words.

e. Illocutionary meaning is effect of the utterance to the listener/reader.

For example: “I am thirsty” (utterance) has two meanings to show the

physical state of the speaker (as prepositional meaning) and the

function of language to request for something to drink (as

illocutionary meaning).

18
2.1.7 The Difficulties in Listening

As you contemplate designing lesson and techniques that are exclusively

for teaching listening skill, or that have listening components in them, a number

of special characteristic of spoken language need to be taken into consideration.

Second language learners need to pay special attention to such factor because they

highly influence the processing of speech and can often block comprehension if

they are not attended to. In other words, they can make the listening process

difficult. The following characteristics of spoken language are adapted from

several sources (Dunkel, 1991; Richards, 1983; Ur, 1984)

1. Colloquial Language
Leaners who have been exposed to standard written English and/or “text
book” language sometimes find it surprising and dificult to deal with
colloquial language. Idioms, slang, reduced forms, shared cultural
knowledge are all manifested at some points in comversations.
Colloquialisms appear in both monologues and dialogues.
2. Rate of delivery
Virtually every language learner initially thinks that native speakers speak
too fast! Actually, as Richards (1983 in Brown, 1994) points out:
The number and length of pauses used by speaker is more crucial to
comprehension than sheer speed. Learners will nevertheless eventually
need to be able to comprehend language delivered at varying rates of
speed and at times, delivered with few pauses. Unlike reading, where a
person can stop and go back reread something, in listening the hearer may
not always have the opportunity to stop the speaker. Instead, the stream of
speech will continue to flow.

2.1.8 A Skill Taxonomy for Domain of Listening Skill

An example of skill taxonomy for the domain of listening skills. Briendley

(1997 in Richards J., 2001:140) mention:

1. Orienting one self to a spoken text


a. Identifying the purpose/genre of a spoken text
b. Identifying the topic
c. Identifying the broad roles and relationships of the participants (e.g.
Superior/subordinate)

19
2. Identifying the main idea/s in a spoken text
a. Distinguishing the main ideas from supporting deatil
b. Distinguishing fact from example
c. Distinguishing fact from opinion when explicitly stated in text
3. Extracting the specific information from a spoken text
a. Extracting key details explicitly stated in text
b. Identifying key vocabulary items
4. Understanding discourse structure and organization
a. following discourse structure
b. identifying key disourse/cohesive markers
c. tracing the development of an argument
5. Understanding meaning
a. Relating utterance to the social/situational context
b. Identifying the speaker‟s attitudes
c. Recognizing the communitcative function of stress/intonation patterns
d. Recognizing the speaker‟s illocutionary intent
e. Deducing meanings of unfamiliar words
f. Ealuating the adequacy of the information provided
g. Using infromation from the discourse to make a reasonable prediction

From what has been mentioned above, the domain that are most associated

with aspects of listening are taught in primary schools, especially those that use

flash video as media, is identifying the main ideas in a spoken text.

2.1.9 Types of Classroom Listening Performance

With literally hundreds of possible techniques for teaching listening skills.

It will be helpful for the teacher to think in terms of several kinds of listening

performance that is, what the students do in a listening technique. Sometimes

these types of performance are embedded in a boarder technique or task and

sometimes they are themselves the sum total of the activity of a technique. The

one of types classroom listening performance is reactive.

Sometimes the teacher simply want a learner to listen to the surface

structure of an utterance for the sole purpose of repeating it back to the teacher.

While this kind of listening performance requires littles meaningful processing. It

20
is nevertheless maybe a legitimate even through a minor, aspect of an interactive,

communicative classroom. This role of the listener as merely a “tape recorder”

(Nunan, 1991b:18) must be very limited, otherwise the listener as a generator of

meaning does not reach fruition. About the only role of that reactive listening can

play in an interactive classroom is in brief choral or individual drills that focus on

pronunciation.

2.1.10 Listening Comprehension Test

An effective way of developing the listening skill is through the provision

of carefully selected practice material. Such material is in many ways similar to

that used for testing listening comprehension. Although the auditory skill are

closely linked to the oral skills in normal speech situations, it is frequently

desirable to separate the two skill for teaching and testing, since it is possible to

develop listening ability much beyond the range of speaking ability if the practice

material is not dependent on spoken responses or written exercises.

An awareness of the ways in which the spoken language differs from the

written language is of crucial importance in the testing of the listening skills. For

instance, the spoken language is much more complex than the written language in

certain ways, as a result of the large element of “redundancy” that it contains. An

example can be seen in the spoken question “Have you got to go now?” the

question being signaled by the rise in pitch on go now and by the inversion of the

word order (i.e. by both phonological and grammatical features). Thus, if the

listeners did not hear the questions signal have, the rise in pitch would make him

aware that a question was being asked. If the speaker slurred over got to, the

21
question would still be intelligible. In addition, meaning might also be conveyed,

emphasized and “repeated” by means of gestures, eye movements and slight

changes in breathing. Such features of redundancy as those described make it

possible for mutilated messages to be understood, even though the full message is

only partially heard. Furthermore, the human brain has a limited capacity for the

reception of information and, were there no such features built into the language,

it would often be imposibble to absorb information at the speed at which it is

conveyed through ordinary speech. Such conversational features as repetition,

hesitation and grammatical re-patterning are all examples of this type of

redundancy, so essential for the understanding of spoken messages.

The significance of features for testing purposes:

1. The ability to distinguish between phonemes

However important, does not in itself imply an ability to understand verbal

messages. Moreover, occasional confusion over selected pairs of

phonemes does not matter too greatly because in real-life situations the

listener is able to use contextual clues interpret what he hears. Although

the listener relies on all the phonological clues present, he can often afford

to miss some of them.

2. In prompt to speech

It is often easier to understand carefully prepared (written) material when

the latter is read aloud. Written tests are generally omit many of the

features of redundancy and impart information at a much higher rate than

normal speech does. Consequently, it is essential to make provision in

22
writing material for aural test. The length of the segments the greater

amount of information and the greater the strain on the auditory memory.

Segments of about 20 syllables are considered to be approximately the

right length to allow the receiver to digest what he has heard. The pauses

at the end of each segment should also be lengthened to compensate for

the lack of redundant features.

Although not always possible when auditory tests are conducted on a wide

scale, it is helpful if the listeners can see the speaker. However excellent the

quality of a tape-recorder, a disembodied voice is much more difficult for the

foreign learner to follow. In practice, most tape recorders are not of a high quality

and are used in rooms where the acoustics are unsatisfactory. If the quality of the

reproduction is poor, the test will be unreliable, especially when such discrete

features as phoneme discrimination, stress and intonation are being tested.

Apart from the use of video-tape, however, the tape-recorder is the only

way of ensuring complete uniformity of presentation and thus a high degree of

reliability. It is possible, moreover, to use recordings made by native speakers and

thus present perfect models of the spoken language an important advantage in

countries where native speakers are not available to administer the test.

For the purpose of convenience, auditory tests are divided here into some

broad categories:

1. Type 1

a. This type of discrimination test consists of a picture, accompanied by 3

or 4 words spoken by the examiner in person or on tape.

23
b. Conversely, 4 pictures may be shown and only one word spoken. In

this case, it is usually better if the word is spoken twice.

2. Type 2

a. In this type of the test three words are spoken on tape: A, B, and C.

sometimes all three words are the same; sometimes two are the same;

and sometimes all are different. On the tester‟s answer sheet appear the

letters.

b. This is a similar type of test, but here the individual words in the

previous test are replaced by sentences in which a single distinction in

sound effects the meaning. The tested hears three sentences and has to

indicate which sentences is the same, etc.

3. Type 3

a. In each of these items one word is given on the tape: in the answer

booklet three words are printed in ordinary type. (In some tests four

words are given and the word on tape is spoken twice). The tested is

required to the spoken word.

b. This type of item is similar to the previous one; this time, however, the

words spoken by the tester occur in the sentences. The four options

may then be either printed or spoken.

c. This item is similar to type 3 (a) one word is spoken by the tester

(preferable twice). However, instead of a choice of four words, the

tested has in front of him a choice of four definitions. He has thus to

select the correct definition for the words he hears.

24
The test items described in this section are all useful for diagnostic testing

purposes, thus enabling the teachers to concertrate later on specific pronunciation

difficulties. The items are especially useful when tested have the same first

language background and when a contrastive analysis on the mother tongue and

the target language can be use. Most the items type described are short, enabling

the tested to over a wide range in sounds. In certain items which test only

individual words (e.g., type 1 (a), 1 (b) and 2 (a), up to one hundred items can be

tested in ten minutes).

Type 3 (c), however, is an example of an impure test items because test

not only the ability to discriminate between the different sounds of language but

also a knowledge of vocabulary. A tested who may be able the discriminate

accurately will nevertheless find the test very difficult if he cannot understand the

definition in the options. Similarly, type 3 (a) is test of phoneme discrimination

and spelling ability. Type 3 (b) can also result in impure test items: in this type of

item, proficiency in grammatical structure will favore the tested. Thus, for

example, a test who cannot discriminate between thread, tread, treat and dread

may immediately role out the distract ores threat and dread since they cannot be

put in the pattern, I‟ll………if for you.

Each individual test item in all types describe must be kept fairly simple.

Obscure lexical items should be avoided. This may seem to be simple enough

principle to obsever, but the avoidance of difficult lexical items frequently makes

it impossible to test all the sound contrast that need to be included in the test. For

example, the contrast shark, sock, sack, shock would not be suitable for inclusion

25
in atest intended from elementary learners of English. Much of material in such

test is unfortunately artificial differing greatly from continuous. Frequently there

is a tendency fir the tester to adopt a certain tone pattern and rhythm which may

be a source of irritation to the listener of affect his concentration. However, if the

tester changes pitch (example live, leave, live) this will only confuse the tested.

Thus, the tested must attempt to pronounce every syllable using the same stress

and pitch pattern.

The ability to discriminate between certain phonemes may sometimes

prove very difficult for native speakers. Many English dialects fail to make some

of the vowel and consonant contrast and thus. In addition to all the other variables

(example the acoustic of the room the quality of the tape-recorder, etc). these tests

are affected by the pronunciation different native speakers.

2.2 LEARNING AIDS

2.2.1 The Meaning of Learning Aids

Media is a broker or introductory messages from the sender to the recipient

of the message. Broadly speaking, the media is human, material, or events that

establish conditions that make students able to gain knowledge, skills, or attitudes.

Learning is a process of change in behavior from not knowing to knowing,

and from can not be can not.

Winataputra (2005:2.3) said: ”Learning is a mental and emotional

processes or processes of thinking and feeling. Someone is called learning if his

26
thoughts and feelings active. There are three main attributes of learning, they are:

process, behavior, and experience”

Sikun Pribadi, a master in IKIP (UPI) Bandung, qouted by Ahmad Tafsir

(2008:7) said: ”Learning is an activity which involves coaching children about

solely in terms of cognitive and psychomotor.”

Learning is a learning environment system that consisted of the following

components: learning objectives, subject matter, teaching and learning activities,

methods, media, learning resources, and evaluations.

In learning activities, the media can be defined as something that can bring

information and knowledge in the ongoing interaction between educators and

students. (Sutikno, 2008:101)

2.2.2 Kinds and Characteristic of LearningAids

Sudrajat in an article ”Learning Media” (http://akhmadsudrajat/wordpress.

com/, January 12th 2008) mentioned kinds of learning aids, they are:

1. Visual Media, such as: charts, diagrams, posters, cartoons, comics;

2. Audio Media, such as: radio, tape recorder, language laboratory;

3. Projected Still Media: slide, projector;

4. Projected Motion Media: movies, television, video (VCD, DVD, VTR),

computer.

There are some characteristics of media, they are:

1. Ability in presenting images (presentation);

2. Size factor (size): large or small;

3. The color (color): black and white or color;

27
4. Motion factors: still or moving;

5. Language factor: a written or oral;

6. Relation factor between image and sound: a picture only, sound only, or a

combination of image and sound.

Winataputra (2005:5.5) suggests several reasons why the media is very

important that should be integrated in the learning process, they are:

1. The learning process will be more successful if students actively

participate in the learning process, and this can only happen with the

media.

2. The average amount of information obtained through the senses of a

person has the following composition:

a. 75% through sight (visual);

b. 13% through hearing (audio);

c. 6% through touch;

d. 6% through smell and taste.

3. Knowledge that a person can be remembered among other things through

the senses depend on what he gained his knowledge.

In another book, Winataputra (2008:9.23) revealed the nature of teaching

as the following media:

1. Laying the concrete foundations for thinking, thus reducing the verbal.

2. Enlarge the students' attention and interest towards learning the material.

3. Make learning more settled and not easily forgotten.

4. Provide real experiences to students.

28
5. Foster an orderly and sustainable thinking.

6. Assisting the growth of understanding and language development.

7. Attract students to talk about it further.

2.2.3 Flash Video on Computer Leraning Aids

Flash video is a container file format used to transmit video over the

internet using Adobe Flash Player (originally produced by Macromedia). Flash

video content may also be embedded within SWF files. Audio and video on FLV

files are encoded in the data in the same way when they are in a SWF file.

SWF (originally stood for "Small Web Format") later changed to

"Shockwave Flash" by Macromedia, is a video file format which can contain

animations or applets of varying degrees of interactivity and function.

SWF is currently functioning as the dominant format for displaying

animated vector graphics on the web, far exceeding the W3C open standard SVG

usage, which has met with problems over competing implementations. May also

be used for programs, usually games, using Actionscript.

Online, these files can only be used with flash player software. But for

some purposes, it can be used offline by FLV or SWF Player softwares. The

softwares can only be used with a computer.

Computer is a tool used to process the data according to procedures that

have been formulated. “Computer” word originally used to describe people whose

job perform arithmetic calculations, with or without hearing aids, but the meaning

of the word is then transferred to the machine itself.

29
Origins, processing information almost exclusively related to arithmetical

problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks unrelated to

mathematics. In such definition, there are tools such as slide rules, mechanical

calculators types ranging from abacus, and so on, until all contemporary electronic

computers. The term better suited to a broader term such as "computer" is "that

process information" or "information processing system."

Computer-assisted learning or Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is the

use of computers as learning aids. This computer opens many possibilities that

can be utilized to education. When compared with conventional teaching, students

with computers can learn faster. However, student learning outcomes were not

assessed based on the norms in the classroom, because students work individually.

(Nasution, 2000:60)

Media of today's computers have become very popular and became one of

the most loved learning media by the students. This is because the computer as a

learning medium, other instructional materials that are capable of displaying

audio-visual nature, but also can be used interactively. This is one of the

advantages the computer media that are not owned by any media in the world

today.

The use of computers as a medium of learning nowadays is no longer

inevitable. Form of communication in the culture of teachers 'talk and chalk' must

start be eliminated, because almost no changes were prominent in the learning

outcomes achieved.

30
2.3 SUMMARY

Teaching is to train by practice an exercise, impact skill and facility to

show.

Teaching Aids is something designed to give help in teaching.

The things are commonly used to give help in teaching are: picture, realia,

rods, dolls, audio cassettes, video films, OHP, games, etc.

The meaning of listening according to Oxford Advanced Learner‟s

Dictionary, listening is to pay attention to somebody/something that you can hear.

The aim of teaching listening is helping the learners to improve their

ability in listening a word, sentence correctly.

The goal of Listening as Stevick‟s view, the goal of listening is: to

generate the intended image from the input and react appropriately.

Test, the text used for listening test use in English language, here is the

dialogue of the English movies.

Teaching is to train by parctice an exercise.

Aids are thing that help. Teaching aids is something designed to give help

in teaching, e.g. pictures, realia, rods, dolls, audio cassettes, video films, games,

OHP, etc.

The techniques used in teaching listening by using computers are

phonemes discrimination test.

31
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter deals with of research, subject of research, data collecting

instrument and research procedure.

3.1 KIND OF RESEARCH

In order to achieve the aim of the research, is used a quasi-experimental

method.

Quasi-experimental designs are commonly employed in the evaluation of

educational programs when random assignment is not possible or practical.

Although quasi-experimental designs need to be used commonly, they are subject

to numerous interpretation problems. (Gribbons, Barry & Herman, Joan (1997).

True and quasi-experimental designs. Practical Assessment, Research &

Evaluation, 5(14). Retrieved July 23, 2010 from http://PAREonline.net/

getvn.asp?v=5&n=14)

This research was selected because it used as evaluation of educational

programs.

3.2 SUBJECT OF RESEARCH

Population is all research subject. In Encyclopedia of Educational

Evaluation tertulis: A population is a set (or collection) of all elements prossessing

one or more attributes of ineterest. (Arikunto, 2006:130)

32
A sample is a representative of the population which studied or to

generalize research results to the population. (Arikunto, 2006:131)

The population are fourty students in the fifth grade of SDN 2

Cibogogirang Plered–Purwakarta in academic year 2009/2010. The samples are

all students in the fifth grade of SDN 2 Cibogogirang Plered–Purwakarta in

academic year 2009/2010. As Arikunto (2006:134) said that if the population

numbered fewer than 100 people, then the whole are sampled.

3.3 DATA COLLECTING INSTRUMENT

The data needed was taken from a test. The test is used to identify the

students‟ achievement. The test is objective tests are 10 completion items`.

3.4 DATA PROCESSING

Instruments used is the pre-test and post-test. Pre-test aims to measure

students' abilities before learning and testing process to find a level of validity and

reliability of the instrument. While the post-test aims to measure student learning

outcomes after the learning process.

Validity is a measure that indicates the level of instrument validity.

(Arikunto, 2006:169)

Reliability shows an understanding that an instrument is reliable enough to

be used as a means of collecting data because the instrument is already good.

(Arikunto, 2006:178)

33
For that, after testing data collected, the authors then calculate the level of

validity and reliability of the instrument by using the Pearson formula:

rxy = Corellation coefficient

N = The number of samples

ΣX = Total score odd items statement

ΣY = Total score even items statement

ΣXY = The number of multiplication of X and Y (Sudjana, 2005:368)

Writer then calculated r-count dan t-count by using Spearman-Brown formula:

rXY = Corellation coefficient

n = The number of samples (Sudjana, 2005:377)

Besides, experts are also involved to decide the validity and reliability of

the instruments.

All the research data collected, whether the value of pre-test and post-test

from control and experiment group, then calculated and analyzed using t-test to

get t-value, the correlation between x variable and y variable, with the following

steps:

Find out the mean (M) of each group:

∑X
M = (Sudjana, 2005:67)
n

34
Where

M is the means of the sample

∑X is the total amount of all the individual observation

n is the samples

Find out standard deviation (Sd) of each group. The formula for obtaining

the standard deviation is:

(∑X)2
∑X2 -
Sd = N (Sudjana, 2005:93)
N–1

Where

Sd is standard deviation

∑X2 is the sum of the squared raw scores

(∑X)2 is the sum of the raw scores squared

N is number of the students

With the standard error of the mean, a critical ratio is formed to find the

deviation in standard error unit teams of the difference between the means. This

ratio is called the ratio. In this research the writer took the formula as follows:

M1 – M2
t= Sd12 Sd22 (Sudjana, 2005:189)
+
N1 N2

Where

M1 is mean of experimental group

M2 is mean of control group

Sd1 is standard deviation of experimental group

Sd2 is standard deviation of control group

35
N1 is number of students of experimental group

N2 is number of students of control group

3.5 RESEARCH PROCEDURE

The prosedures of the research are:

1. Developing the research instrument

2. Selecting the sample from the population

3. Giving pre test

4. Treatment: pre-listening, while listening, and post-listening

5. Giving post test

6. Expert judgment

7. Calculating and analysing the test scores

8. The result of the test

36
CHAPTER IV

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter displays the analysis and interpretations of the data which has

been collected through direct observation in the experimental activities, and a

discussion of the findings.

Those analysis and interpretations relate to:

1) students‟ scores of pre-test; 2) students‟ scores of post-test; 3) students‟ scores

of improvement.

The data are presented in the form of tables and statistical results that are

estimated to be necessary for the discussion. The complete steps of statistical

calculation can be found in the appendices.

4.1 STUDENTS SCORE OF TRY OUT

In order to measure the reliability and validity of the test instrument, the

instrument was tried out to another class before enrolling the program and pretest.

The class consisted of 20 students.

4.1.1 Reliability Analysis

The result of the calculation of the test instrument reliability is as

follows:

Subject Judge 1 Judge 2


∑ X2 ∑ Y2 ∑ XY
∑N ∑X ∑Y
20 48 44 146 138 109

37
The data above were computed through the Pearson‟s Product

Moment fomula to get the correlation coefficient, and the figure 0.095 was

obtained. Then this result calculated by using Spearman-Brown formula to

find its coefficient reliability. The coefficient reliability (r11) is 0.774.

According to the criterion of coefficient reliability with df 18, alpha level 5%

= 0,468. However, it can be summarized that the reliability of the test is

reliable enough. (Arikunto, 2006:180)

4.1.2. Validity Analysis

Students (∑N) : 20

Items : 10

Correlation (rXY) :

Items
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0.116 0.465 0.233 0.403 0.435 0.453 0.462 0.435 0.537 0.524

r-count :

Items
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0.497 2.227 1.016 1.868 2.052 2.158 2.208 2.052 2.699 2.613

Nilai r-table : 0,444

Author analyzes the validity by using the sampling distribution

formula of correlation coefficient, the results were consulted with r-product

moment table. (Sudjana, 2005:377)

38
Because the r-count value of each items are greater than r-table value

(0.444), then the whole items can be declared valid to use as research

instrument.

4.2 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF PRE-TEST

Students‟ listening level at the beginning of the research is one of possible

intervening variables. It is very crucial as a starting point to ensure that the

experimental group and the control group have an equal level in speaking. The

result of pre-test data analysis can be seen in table below.

STUDENTS‟ SCORES OF PRE-TEST

Control class:

Correct Incorrect
No Name Score
answer answer
1 Sample 1 6 4 6
2 Sample 2 7 3 7
3 Sample 3 7 3 7
4 Sample 4 6 4 6
5 Sample 5 5 5 5
6 Sample 6 6 4 6
7 Sample 7 7 3 7
8 Sample 8 6 4 6
9 Sample 9 6 4 6
10 Sample 10 1 9 1
11 Sample 11 1 9 1
12 Sample 12 3 7 3
13 Sample 13 2 8 2
14 Sample 14 5 5 5
15 Sample 15 5 5 5
16 Sample 16 1 9 1
17 Sample 17 3 7 3

39
18 Sample 18 4 6 4
19 Sample 19 6 4 6
20 Sample 20 4 6 4
Mean 4.55

Experimental class:

Correct Incorrect
No Name Score
answer answer
1 Sample 1 10 0 10
2 Sample 2 10 0 10
3 Sample 3 7 3 7
4 Sample 4 7 3 7
5 Sample 5 2 8 2
6 Sample 6 9 1 9
7 Sample 7 9 1 9
8 Sample 8 6 4 6
9 Sample 9 8 2 8
10 Sample 10 2 8 2
11 Sample 11 3 7 3
12 Sample 12 9 1 9
13 Sample 13 9 1 9
14 Sample 14 3 7 3
15 Sample 15 2 8 2
16 Sample 16 3 7 3
17 Sample 17 4 6 4
18 Sample 18 7 3 7
19 Sample 19 4 6 4
20 Sample 20 3 7 3
Mean 5.85

40
Mean of Experiment Group Pre-Test

∑X
M1 =
n
= 117
20
= 5.85

Standard Deviation of Experiment Group Pre-Test

(∑X)2
∑X2 -
Sd1 = N
N–1

1172
851 -
= 20
20 – 1

13689
851 -
= 20
19

= 851 – 684.45
19

= 166.55
19

= 8.766

= 2.961

Mean of Control Group Pre-Test

∑X
M 2=
n
= 91
20
= 4.55

41
Standard Deviation of Control Group Pre-Test
(∑X)2
∑X2 -
Sd2 = N
N–1

912
495 -
= 20
20 – 1

8281
495 -
= 20
19

= 495 – 414.05
19

= 80.95
19

= 4.261

= 2.064

t-value of Pre-Test
M 1 – M2
t= Sd12 Sd22
+
N1 N2

5.85 – 4.55
= 2.9612 2.0642
+
20 20

1.3
= 8.768 4.260
+
20 20

1.3
= 0.438 + 0.213

1.3
= 0.651

1.3
= 0.807

= 1.611

42
STUDENTS‟ SCORE OF PRE-TEST

N M Sd p- t-critical t-obs.
Df
Group E 20 5.85 2.961 level (t-table) (t-value)

Group C 20 4.55 2.064 38 0.05 1.68 0.611

The table shows that there is a difference in means (M) or standard

deviation (Sd). The t-test, however, describes that the two groups are similar in

the terms of subject‟s knowledge background. Moreover, t-obs of pre-test is less

than t-critical (0.611<1.68). It means that the null hypothesis of no different is

accepted. Therefore, it indicates that both groups have similarity in listening level.

4.3 STUDENTS’ SCORES OF POST-TEST

The post-test was carried out to both groups at the end of the program to

find out whether there are any differences between the experimental group and the

control groups‟ achievement. Table below presents the results of post-test.

STUDENTS‟ SCORES OF POST-TEST

Control class:

Correct Incorrect
No Name Score
answer answer
1 Sample 1 5 5 5
2 Sample 2 9 1 9
3 Sample 3 9 1 9
4 Sample 4 5 5 5
5 Sample 5 9 1 9
6 Sample 6 8 2 8
7 Sample 7 9 1 9
8 Sample 8 9 1 9
9 Sample 9 10 0 10

43
10 Sample 10 8 2 8
11 Sample 11 9 1 9
12 Sample 12 5 5 5
13 Sample 13 2 8 2
14 Sample 14 10 0 10
15 Sample 15 7 3 7
16 Sample 16 5 5 5
17 Sample 17 5 5 5
18 Sample 18 5 5 5
19 Sample 19 9 1 9
20 Sample 20 7 3 7
Mean 7.25

Experimental class:

Correct Incorrect
No Name Score
answer answer
1 Sample 1 10 0 10
2 Sample 2 10 0 10
3 Sample 3 10 0 10
4 Sample 4 8 2 8
5 Sample 5 7 3 7
6 Sample 6 10 0 10
7 Sample 7 9 1 9
8 Sample 8 9 1 9
9 Sample 9 10 0 10
10 Sample 10 8 2 8
11 Sample 11 7 3 7
12 Sample 12 10 0 10
13 Sample 13 9 1 9
14 Sample 14 7 3 7
15 Sample 15 8 2 8
16 Sample 16 8 2 8
17 Sample 17 9 1 9
18 Sample 18 10 0 10
19 Sample 19 8 2 8

44
20 Sample 20 8 2 8
Mean 8.75

Mean of Experiment Group Post-Test


∑Y
M1 =
n
= 175
20
= 8.75

Standard Deviation of Experiment Group Post-Test


(∑Y)2
∑Y2 -
Sd1 = N
N–1

1752
1555 -
= 20
20 – 1

30625
1555 -
= 20
19

= 1555-1531.25
19

= 23.75
19

= 1.25

= 1.118

Mean of Control Group Post-Test


∑Y
M2 =
n
= 145
20
= 7.25

45
Standard Deviation of Control Group Post-Test
(∑Y)2
∑Y2 -
Sd2 = N
N–1

1452
1147 -
= 20
20 – 1

21025
1147 -
= 20
19

= 1147-1051.25
19

= 95.75
19

= 5.039

= 2.245

t-value of Post-Test
M 1 – M2
t= Sd12 Sd22
+
N1 N2

8.75 – 7.25
= 1.1182 2.2452
+
20 20

1.5
= 1.25 5.040
+
20 20

1.5
= 0.063 + 0.252

1.5
= 0.315

1.5
= 0.561

= 2.674

46
STUDENTS‟ SCORE OF POST-TEST

N M Sd p- t-critical t-obs.
Df
Group E 20 8.75 1.118 level (t-table) (t-value)
Group C 20 7.25 2.245 38 0.05 1.684 2.674

The writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20

students, and the degree of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two

groups were chosen as representative subjects. The total df {(Ne-1)+(Nc-1)} is 38.

The t-observation is 2.674. This t-observation greater than t-critical (2.674>1.68).

Consequently, it is quite safe to reject the null hypothesis. It means that the two

groups have different scores on the post-test. So, this fact supports the claim that

students who were taught listening by using flash videos get better scores than

those were taught conventionally.

4.4 STUDENTS’ SCORES IMPROVEMENT

To gain students‟ scores improvement, the students scores of post-test

were subtracted into the students‟ score of pretest. The result of computation is as

follow:

Group E Group C
Pre-test mean 5.85 4.55
Post-test mean 8.75 7.25
Improvement mean 2.90 2.70

The table above shows that the experimental group improvement is higher

than the control group. It indicates that teaching listening by using flash videos is

better to improve the students‟ listening skill.

47
It can be concluded that the experimental teaching makes the students‟

listening skill is better than the control group. It means that it supports the

hypothesis of this research, that teaching listening by using flash videos facilitates

the students to improve their listening skill.

4.5 DISCUSSION

The experimental and the control groups, at the beginning of the research,

had similar background, and this was considered as a potential variable.

After carrying out the program and calculating the result of test, the result

of the investigation answer the research question stated in chapter I.

The conclusions are as bellow:

1. Using flash videos able to improve student‟s listening skill.

The experimental and the control groups were analyzed differently. The

experimental group was observed directly by the writer to know their

progress in the program. The students‟ score of post-test and pre-test were

compared to gain the students‟ achievement on the listening skill. The

calculation of improvement shows that the experimental group is higher

than the control group. It means that the experimental group could improve

their listening skill better than the control group.

2. The advantages of using flash videos that is better than teaching

conventionally in improving student‟s listening skill.

As was mentioned before that flash video is one of the visual aids or visual

materials where it is the most effective in use. Because by seeing the

48
videos students can know and understand about the message from the text

directly. Videos can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items.

Teaching listening by using flash videos, especially for children can be the

one way to help them in learning process. It showed by interview to all

research subjects after they follow the treatment by using flash videos.

This interview consist of five questions include of difficultness on English

teaching learning activity, Media on English teaching learning activity,

and their opinion about flash videos it self. This interview processed to all

the research subjects. Not only experimental group, but also control group.

Based on their answers, it can be conclude that flash videos can improve

students listening skill and more effective than teaching conventionally.

But, teaching english by using flash videos is rather difficult in rural

environments, due the minimum ability of english teacher in operating

computers.

English is a language that is hard to learn. To find out that problem the

writer interviewed students, there are some problem that students faced in learning

English:

1. In listening

2. In treasury of vocabulary

3. In the meaning of English word

Some factors that make some words more difficult than others are:

Pronunciation “the word that is difficult to pronounce are more difficult to learn”.

Spelling “spelling mismatches are likely to be the cause of errors, either of

49
pronunciation or spelling, and can contribute to a word‟s difficult”. Meaning

“when two words overlap in meaning, learners are likely confuse them.

Unfamiliar concepts many make a word difficult to learn”.

In introducing vocabulary on the names of animal, that familiarize students

with vocabularies related to animals. Moreover, students expected to be able to

memorize and pronounce and write each vocabulary correctly, and try to perform

a word to the picture that seen by the teacher.

Young children, especially those up to age of nine or ten, learn differently

from older children in the following ways:

1. They response the meaning even if they do not understand individual

word.

2. They often learn indirectly rather than directly-that is-they take-in

information from all side, learning from everything around them rather

then only focusing on the precise topic they are being thought.

3. They generally display an enthusiasm for learning and a curiosity about

the world around them.

4. They learn to talk about themselves, and response well to learning that

uses themselves and their own lives as main topics in the classroom.

5. They have a limited attention, unless activities are extremely engaging,

they can easily get bored, losing interest after ten minutes or so.

In the light of these activities, it can be concluded that good teacher at this

level used to provide a rich diet of learning experiences which encourage their

students to get information from a variety of sources. They need to work with

50
their students individually and in group developing relationship. They need to

arrange of activities for a given period, and the flexible enough to move on to the

next exercise when they see their students getting bored.

In fact, learning is human activity which is least needs manipulation by

other. Most learning is not the result of instruction. It is rather the result of

unhampered participation in a meaningful setting.

Based on the findings, especially in learning at primary it is a big

challenge, because in their ages, they still difficult to understand the meaning of

English words. There, needs teacher‟s patiently in learning process, teacher must

translating word by word until could be understood by students. Moreover, when

they face compound word, when they need to produce language try to find the

right word to fit the intended meaning is frustating when the teacher‟s stored of

words is limited, and when words get confused with each other.

51
CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter presents 1) the summary of the research, 2) answer to

research questions and hypothesis, 3) implication and suggestion, and 4)

recommendation for further research.

5.1 CONCLUSIONS

The title of the research is “Using Flash Videos as Media to Improve

Students‟ Listening Skill (A Quasi-Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students

of SDN 2 Cibogogirang Plered – Purwakarta).”

The aims of the research is to know whether watching English flash videos

can improve students‟ listening skill. The study is oriented towards: 1) To find out

the effectiviness of using flash videos to improve the students‟ listening skill; 2)

To find out the advantages of using flash videos in improving student‟s listening

skill.

Having done the research by calculating the result of the test given to the

students, the result of the investigation answer the research question as follow:

1. Using flash videos is able to improve student‟s listening skill.

The experimental and the control groups were analyzed differently. The

experimental group was observed directly by the writer to know their

progress in the program. The students‟ score of post-test and pre-test were

compared to gain the students‟ achievement on the listening skill. The

52
calculation of improvement shows that the experimental group is higher

than the control group. It means that the experimental group could improve

their listening skill better than the control group.

2. The advantages of using flash videos that is better than teaching

conventionally in improving student‟s listening skill.

As was mentioned before that flash video is one of the visual aids or visual

materials where it is the most effective in use. Because by seeing the

videos students can know and understand about the message from the text

directly. Videos can be used to explain the meaning of vocabulary items.

Teaching listening by using flash videos, especially for children can be the

one way to help them in learning process. It showed by interview to all

research subjects after they follow the treatment by using flash videos.

This interview consist of five questions include of difficultness on English

teaching learning activity, Media on English teaching learning activity,

and their opinion about flash videos it self. This interview processed to all

the research subjects. Not only experimental group, but also control group.

Based on their answers, it can be conclude that flash videos can improve

students listening skill and more effective than teaching conventionally.

But, teaching english by using flash videos is rather difficult in rural

environments, due the minimum ability of english teacher in operating

computers.

Based on the problem stated the writer puts forward the hypothesis is using

flash videos can improve the students‟ listening skill. And after carrying out the

53
program and calculating the result of test, the writer gets that the hypotesis

“teaching listening by using flash videos facilitates the students to improve their

listening skill”, is accepted.

5.2 SUGGESTIONS

From the finding, the writer would like propose her suggestion as follows:

1. Teachers should try to use flash videos in listening lesson, because

watching flash videos is one types of listening experience that is

interesting.

2. Nowadays, the use of technological aids in the teaching of language such

as radio-cassette, video and television is likely to increase not diminish.

So, the writer thinks now is the time for teachers and students to learn

using them.

3. Teachers also should be smart and creative in using flash videos in the

classroom because successful language learning depends on the teacher‟s

technique to use the flash videos, since the teacher is the fundamental

classroom aid to language learning.

54
REFERENCES

Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2006). Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.


Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Brown, H.D. (1994). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to
Language Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.
Dunkel, P. (1991). Listening in The Native and Second/Foreign Language:
Toward an Integration of Research and Practice. TESOL Quarterly.
Hatch, Evelyn and Hossein Farhady. (1982). Research Design and Statistic
Bowley. ROWLEY, LONDON, TOKYO: Newbury House Publisher, Inc.
Heffner, Christopher L. (2004). Licensed Psychologist. http://allpsych.com/
researchmethods/preexperimentaldesign.html
Nasution, S. (2000). Berbagai Pendekatan dalam Proses Belajar dan Mengajar.
Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.
Nunan, David. (1991). Language Teaching Methodology. UK: Prentice Hall.
Persulessy, G.H. (1988), Listening Improvement Exercise for Students of English,
Jakarta: Depdikbud Dirjen Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan
dan Tenaga Pendidikan.
Richards, J. (1983). Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure.
TESOL Quarterly.
Rixon, Shelagh. (1986). Developing Listening Skills. London and Basinstoke:
Mac Millan Publisher, Ltd.
Rost, Michael. (1991). Listening in Action. UK: Prantice Hall Intenational, Ltd.
Sudjana. (2005). Metode Statistika. Bandung: Tarsito.
Sudrajat, Akhmad. Media Pembelajaran. http://akhmadsudrajat/wordpress.com/.
accessed on January 12th 2008.
Sutikno, M. S. (2008). Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Bandung: Prospect.
Tafsir, Ahmad. (2008). Psikologi Pendidikan dengan Pendekatan Baru. Bandung:
PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.
Winataputra, Udin S. (2005). Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Universitas
Terbuka
_______. (2008). Strategi Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka

55
Appendices
SILABUS

Kelas : 5 (Lima)
Semester : 2 (Dua)
Standar Kompetensi : Mendengarkan
5. Memahami instruksi sangat sederhana dengan tindakan dalam konteks sekolah
Penilaian
Kompetensi Materi Kegiatan Alokasi Sumber
Indikator Bentuk Contoh
Dasar Pokok/Pembelajaran Pembelajaran Teknik Waktu Belajar
Instrumen Instrumen
5.1 Merespon instruksi Descriptive Text - Memperhatikan - Merespon dengan Tes Tulis Responding Watch the 4 x 35 Multimedia
sangat sederhana deskripsi yang menulis/menceritak computer menit Computer /
dengan tindakan - Characteristic of diperlihatkan/ an kembali deskripsi carefully, Notebook
secara berterima Something diperdengarkan benda yang and
dalam konteks (Sifat/Ciri Suatu lewat komputer. diperlihatkan/ complete
sekolah Benda) - Memahami diperdengarkan. your
sifat/ciri benda worksheet!
yang
dideskripsikan
lewat komputer.

Mengetahui, Purwakarta, 8 Juni 2010


Kepala Sekolah Guru B. Inggris
SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang Mahasiswa / Peneliti

Hasanudin Eka L. Koncara, S.Pd.I. Eka Ratna Sopyanti


NIP. 195807271978031003
RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(Control Group)

Satuan Pendidikan : SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang


Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : 5/2
Pertemuan ke- : 1–2

Tema : My School
Aspek : Listening

Standar Kompetensi : 5. Memahami instruksi sangat sederhana dengan tindakan dalam


konteks sekolah

Kompetensi Dasar : 5.1 Merespon instruksi sangat sederhana dengan tindakan secara
berterima dalam konteks sekolah

Indikator : - Merespon dengan menulis/menceritakan kembali deskripsi


benda yang diperlihatkan/ diperdengarkan.

Tujuan Pembelajaran : - Siswa dapat memahami isi teks deskriptif yang diperdengarkan
dengan menulis/menceritakan kembali.

Materi Pokok : Characteristic of Something


(Sifat/Ciri Suatu Benda)

Metode : Ceramah

Alokasi Waktu : 4 x 35 menit

Langkah
Pembelajaran
Awal : a. Berdoa, memeriksa kehadiran siswa.
(2 x 5 menit) b. Tanya jawab/percakapan pembuka tentang tema dan tujuan
belajar yang harus dicapai.
Inti
Pertemuan I : a. Melakukan tes awal
(25 menit) b. Peserta didik memperhatikan dekripsi sifat/ciri benda yang
diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan oleh guru.
c. Guru membimbing siswa dalam memahami dekripsi sifat/ciri
benda yang diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan oleh guru.
d. Melakukan tanya jawab tentang sifat/ciri benda yang
diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan oleh guru.
Pertemuan II : a. Peserta didik memperhatikan dekripsi sifat/ciri benda yang
(25 menit) diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan oleh guru.
b. Guru membimbing siswa dalam memahami dekripsi sifat/ciri
benda yang diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan oleh guru.
c. Melakukan tanya jawab tentang sifat/ciri benda yang
diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan oleh guru.
d. Melakukan tes akhir.
Akhir : a. Menyimpulkan hasil pembelajaran
(2 x 5 menit) b. Penutup dan do‟a.
Sumber/Media : a. Buku Bahasa Inggris Kelas 5 SD.
Belajar

Penilaian
Teknik : Tes Tulis
Bentuk : Responding
Instrumen : Listen to your teacher carefully, and complete your worksheet!
Num Name Characteristic
……
……
1 …… ……
……
……
……
……
2 …… ……
……
……

Rambu : Betul =1
Salah =0
Nilai = Jumlah Skor

Mengetahui, Purwakarta, Juli 2009


Guru Mata Pelajaran Mahasiswa/Peneliti

Eka L. Koncara, S.Pd.I. Eka Ratna Sopyanti

Mengetahui,
Kepala SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang

HASANUDIN
NIP. 1958 07 27 1958 03 1 003
RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
(Experiment Group)

Satuan Pendidikan : SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang


Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : 5/2
Pertemuan ke- : 1–2

Tema : My School
Aspek : Listening

Standar Kompetensi : 5. Memahami instruksi sangat sederhana dengan tindakan dalam


konteks sekolah

Kompetensi Dasar : 5.1 Merespon instruksi sangat sederhana dengan tindakan secara
berterima dalam konteks sekolah

Indikator : - Merespon dengan menulis/menceritakan kembali deskripsi


benda yang diperlihatkan/ diperdengarkan.

Tujuan Pembelajaran : - Siswa dapat memahami isi teks deskriptif yang diperdengarkan
dengan menulis/menceritakan kembali.

Materi Pokok : Characteristic of Something


(Sifat/Ciri Suatu Benda)

Metode : Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

Alokasi Waktu : 4 x 35 menit

Langkah
Pembelajaran
Awal : a. Berdoa, memeriksa kehadiran siswa.
(2 x 5 menit) b. Tanya jawab/percakapan pembuka tentang tema dan tujuan
belajar yang harus dicapai.
Inti
Pertemuan I : a. Melakukan tes awal
(25 menit) b. Peserta didik memperhatikan dekripsi sifat/ciri benda yang
diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan lewat komputer.
c. Guru membimbing siswa dalam memahami dekripsi sifat/ciri
benda yang diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan lewat komputer.
d. Melakukan tanya jawab tentang sifat/ciri benda yang
diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan lewat komputer.
Pertemuan II : a. Peserta didik memperhatikan dekripsi sifat/ciri benda yang
(25 menit) diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan lewat komputer.
b. Guru membimbing siswa dalam memahami dekripsi sifat/ciri
benda yang diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan lewat komputer.
c. Melakukan tanya jawab tentang sifat/ciri benda yang
diperlihatkan/diperdengarkan lewat komputer.
d. Melakukan tes akhir.
Akhir : a. Menyimpulkan hasil pembelajaran
(2 x 5 menit) b. Penutup dan do‟a.
Sumber/Media : a. Buku Bahasa Inggris Kelas 5 SD.
Belajar b. Computer/Notebook Multimedia.

Penilaian
Teknik : Tes Tulis
Bentuk : Responding
Instrumen : Watch the computer carefully, and complete your worksheet!
Num Name Characteristic
……
……
1 …… ……
……
……
……
……
2 …… ……
……
……

Rambu : Betul =1
Salah =0
Nilai = Jumlah Skor

Mengetahui, Purwakarta, Juli 2009


Guru Mata Pelajaran Mahasiswa/Peneliti

Eka L. Koncara, S.Pd.I. Eka Ratna Sopyanti

Mengetahui,
Kepala SD Negeri 2 Cibogogirang

HASANUDIN
NIP. 1958 07 27 1958 03 1 003
RANGKUMAN MATERI

Adjectives
(Characteristics of Something)

A Monkey and A Turtle

One day, a monkey and a turtle ran a race.


The monkey said, “I am big. I can ran fast. I will win.”
The turtle said, “I am small. Iam slow. But I will do my best.”
The monkey ran faster than the turtle.
Then, the monkey‟s friend, the rabbit, came out.
The rabbit said to the monkey, “Let‟s play!”
The monkey thought he would win anyway.
So he played with the rabbit.
The turtle ran slowly, but he ran and ran.
Finally, the turtle won. The turtle shouted, “I won!”
The monkey was still playing with the rabbit. Then the monkeyfound the
turtle.
He was surprised. But it was too late.

1. Big (Besar) – Small (Kecil)


2. Tall (Tinggi) – Short (Pendek)
3. Fast (Cepat) – Slow (Lambat)
4. Win (Menang) – Lost (Kalah)
5. Sombong (Arrogant) – Humble (Rendah Hati)
6. Dilligent (Rajin) – Lazy (Malas)
7. Happy (Bahagia) – Sad (Sedih)
8. Conscious (Bersemangat)
9. Surprised (Kaget/Terkejut)
10. Dissapointed (Kecewa)
INSTRUMEN PENELITIAN

Teaching Listening through Flash Videos and Its Effect Toward Student’s Listening Skill
(An Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students of SDN 2 Cibogogirang)

Control Group

Student‟s Name : ......................................

Listen to your teacher carefully, and complete your worksheet!


Num Name Characteristic

……
……
1 …… ……
……
……

……
……
2 …… ……
……
……

Score
INSTRUMEN PENELITIAN

Teaching Listening through Flash Videos and Its Effect Toward Student’s Listening Skill
(An Experiment Study at The Fifth Grade Students of SDN 2 Cibogogirang)

Experiment Group

Student‟s Name : ......................................

Watch the computer carefully, and complete your worksheet!


Num Name Characteristic

……
……
1 …… ……
……
……

……
……
2 …… ……
……
……

Score
Pre-Test / Post-Test Instrument

Name: ……………………………………………

Watch the movie carefully, and draw some lines to connect the dialogue boxes to the
expression boxes!

1. Hurry, you got to see this!

2. Last christmas, right?

3. Hello, it’s me!


Certainment
4. Hi Kate, this place is so great!

5. Really? You’re getting to marry


again?
Attention
6. Wow, you are so beautiful!

7.
Look at me!
Admiration
8.
It’s unlimited invitation, isn’t it?

9.
Cool, the house is cleaning itself!

10.
Listen to me!

SCORE
Answer Key of Pre-Test/Post-Test Instrument

1. Hurry, you got to see this!

2. Last christmas, right?

3. Hello, it’s me!


Certainment
4. Hi Kate, this place is so great!

5. Really? You’re getting to marry


again?
Attention
6. Wow, you are so beautiful!

7.
Look at me!
Admiration
8.
It’s unlimited invitation, isn’t it?

9.
Cool, the house is cleaning itself!

10.
Listen to me!
TREATMENT

According to Shelagh Rixon (1986:63-64) there are three phases of listening lesson.

Rixon says that commonsense way of dividing up a listening lesson is into three phases:

1. Things to do before the students hear the passage (the movie), to help them get

most out of what they are going to hear.

2. Activities and exercise to be carried out as the students listen to the passage (the

movie), to guide them as they try to grasp the main information in it.

3. Things to do once the class has come to grasp with the meaning and content of the

passage, and is ready to look back to reflect on some of the language points in it,

or to do some extention work based on the content of the passage (the movie).

Rixon summarized the three phases as follows:

PRE-LISTENING : Preparing the students to achieve the most from the passsage (the

movie).

WHILE-LISTENING : Challenging and guiding them to handle the information and

messages in the passage (the movie)

FOLLOW-UP : Reflection on the language of the passage (sound, grammar and

vocabulary).

Based on the three phases above, the writer made treatment steps, as follows:

I. PRE-LISTENING

1. First of all, the writer explained about the movie, she told them what is on the

computer, who is the star and where they/she/he comes from.

2. And then, the writer explained about how to do the exercise.

3. The writer told the students something about some scenes in the movie, but not too

much. This helps them to recognize the actual words used in the passage.
4. The writer explained essential terms or pieces of information which they would not be

able to work out from the context. Without this knowledge or experience, the whole

points of the listening practice will be lost and the lesson will not processed usefully.

5. The writer emphasized that a lesson is a training session, not a test, to prevent panic.

Students should feel that a wrong answer is not a disaster.

II. WHILE-LISTENING

1. The writer made sure that all students did listen by themselves and attempted the task

on their own.

2. The writer lets the students watch to the movie several times. They should not be

expected to find the answer immediately. Students often need time to think about

their answers and consider them.

III. FOLLOW-UP

1. The writer and the students discussed the right answers.

2. The writer gave information or advice to tackle particular problems found by students.
Score of Experiment Group Score of Control Group
X Y X Y
2 2
Num. Students’ Name Pre Post X Y XY Num. Students’ Name Pre Post X2 Y2 XY
Test Test Test Test
1 Nuraidah 10 10 100 100 100 1 Dede Sihabudin 6 5 36 25 30
2 Rida Parida 10 10 100 100 100 2 Agis Murtadoilah 7 9 49 81 63
3 Bagus 7 10 49 100 70 3 Aldi Fathurohman 7 9 49 81 63
4 Muhamad Syahidin 7 8 49 64 56 4 Dede Abdul Wahab 6 5 36 25 30
5 Parhanudin 2 7 4 49 14 5 Ayus Ali Yusron 5 9 25 81 45
6 Siti Rokayah 9 10 81 100 90 6 Ali Gojali 6 8 36 64 48
7 Lia Sipa 9 9 81 81 81 7 Acep Sodikin 7 9 49 81 63
8 Ujang Muslih 6 9 36 81 54 8 Neng Yayu 6 9 36 81 54
9 Harun Al Rasyid 8 10 64 100 80 9 Neng Siti Fatimah 6 10 36 100 60
10 Teti Susanti 2 8 4 64 16 10 Neng Ina Nur'aeni 1 8 1 64 8
11 Ujang Rijik Paojudin 3 7 9 49 21 11 Neng Ulpah 1 9 1 81 9
12 Teti Rosmayanti 9 10 81 100 90 12 Acep Hamzah 3 5 9 25 15
13 Tuti Kusherawati 9 9 81 81 81 13 Ade Hamzah 2 2 4 4 4
14 Siti Parida 3 7 9 49 21 14 Eha Julaeha 5 10 25 100 50
15 Lukman Hasanudin 2 8 4 64 16 15 Neng Intan Siti 5 7 25 49 35
16 Sri Fani Syadiyah 3 8 9 64 24 16 Iis Nurcahyati 1 5 1 25 5
17 Nadzarudin 4 9 16 81 36 17 Arip Hidayatulloh 3 5 9 25 15
18 Didin Jamaludin 7 10 49 100 70 18 Aah Siti Robeah 4 5 16 25 20
19 Ujang Pahrudin 4 8 16 64 32 19 Aris Jamaludin 6 9 36 81 54
20 Andri Abdul Aziz 3 8 9 64 24 20 Dadah Siti Saodah 4 7 16 49 28
N=20 117 175 851 1555 1076 N=20 91 145 495 1147 699
Items Score Analysis of Pre-Test

Experiment Group

Items
Num Students' Name Score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Nuraidah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
2 Rida Parida 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
3 Bagus 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 7
4 Muhamad Syahidin 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 7
5 Parhanudin 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
6 Siti Rokayah 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
7 Lia Sipa 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
8 Ujang Muslih 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 6
9 Harun Al Rasyid 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 8
10 Teti Susanti 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
11 Ujang Rijik Paojudin 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
12 Teti Rosmayanti 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 9
13 Tuti Kusherawati 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
14 Siti Parida 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 3
15 Lukman Hasanudin 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
16 Sri Fani Syadiyah 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3
17 Nadzarudin 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 4
18 Didin Jamaludin 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 7
19 Ujang Pahrudin 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 4
20 Andri Abdul Aziz 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3
Total 15 10 12 12 12 11 14 9 11 11 117
Items Score Analysis of Post-Test

Experiment Group

Items
Num Students' Name Score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Nuraidah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
2 Rida Parida 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
3 Bagus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
4 Muhamad Syahidin 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 8
5 Parhanudin 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 7
6 Siti Rokayah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
7 Lia Sipa 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 9
8 Ujang Muslih 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 9
9 Harun Al Rasyid 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
10 Teti Susanti 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 8
11 Ujang Rijik Paojudin 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 7
12 Teti Rosmayanti 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
13 Tuti Kusherawati 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
14 Siti Parida 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 7
15 Lukman Hasanudin 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 8
16 Sri Fani Syadiyah 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 8
17 Nadzarudin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 9
18 Didin Jamaludin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
19 Ujang Pahrudin 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 8
20 Andri Abdul Aziz 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 8
Total 20 18 15 18 18 18 18 17 18 15 175
Items Score Analysis of Pre-Test

Control Group

Items
Num Students' Name Score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Dede Sihabudin 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 6
2 Agis Murtadoilah 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 7
3 Aldi Fathurohman 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 7
4 Dede Abdul Wahab 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 6
5 Ayus Ali Yusron 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 5
6 Ali Gojali 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 6
7 Acep Sodikin 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 7
8 Neng Yayu 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 6
9 Neng Siti Fatimah 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 6
10 Neng Ina Nur'aeni 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
11 Neng Ulpah 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
12 Acep Hamzah 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
13 Ade Hamzah 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
14 Eha Julaeha 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5
15 Neng Intan Siti 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5
16 Iis Nurcahyati 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
17 Arip Hidayatulloh 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4
18 Aah Siti Robeah 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4
19 Aris Jamaludin 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 6
20 Dadah Siti Saodah 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 4
Total 15 7 9 10 9 10 6 9 9 8 92
Items Score Analysis of Post-Test

Control Group

Items
Num Students' Name Score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Dede Sihabudin 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 5
2 Agis Murtadoilah 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
3 Aldi Fathurohman 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 9
4 Dede Abdul Wahab 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 5
5 Ayus Ali Yusron 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 9
6 Ali Gojali 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 8
7 Acep Sodikin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 9
8 Neng Yayu 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 9
9 Neng Siti Fatimah 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
10 Neng Ina Nur'aeni 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 8
11 Neng Ulpah 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 9
12 Acep Hamzah 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5
13 Ade Hamzah 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
14 Eha Julaeha 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
15 Neng Intan Siti 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 7
16 Iis Nurcahyati 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 5
17 Arip Hidayatulloh 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 5
18 Aah Siti Robeah 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 5
19 Aris Jamaludin 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 9
20 Dadah Siti Saodah 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
Total 20 15 14 16 12 15 12 16 13 12 145
Validity Analysis

Items Number (x) Score Items Number (x2) Items Number (xy)
Num Students' Name y2
(y)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 Dede Sihabudin 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 6 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 36 6 0 6 6 6 0 6 6 0 0
2 Agis Murtadoilah 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 7 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 49 7 7 0 7 7 7 0 0 7 7
3 Aldi Fathurohman 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 7 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 49 7 7 0 7 0 7 7 7 0 7
4 Dede Abdul Wahab 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 36 6 0 6 0 6 0 0 6 6 6
5 Ayus Ali Yusron 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 25 0 5 5 5 0 5 0 5 0 0
6 Ali Gojali 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 6 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 36 6 0 0 6 6 0 0 6 6 6
7 Acep Sodikin 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 7 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 49 7 7 0 7 7 7 7 0 7 0
8 Neng Yayu 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 6 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 36 6 0 6 6 6 0 6 0 6 0
9 Neng Siti Fatimah 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 6 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 36 6 0 6 0 6 6 0 6 0 6
10 Neng Ina Nur'aeni 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
11 Neng Ulpah 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 Acep Hamzah 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 3 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 Ade Hamzah 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
14 Eha Julaeha 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 25 0 5 5 0 0 5 0 5 5 0
15 Neng Intan Siti 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 25 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 5 5 5
16 Iis Nurcahyati 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 Arip Hidayatulloh 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 16 4 0 4 0 4 4 0 0 0 0
18 Aah Siti Robeah 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 16 4 4 0 0 0 4 0 4 0 0
19 Aris Jamaludin 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 6 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 36 0 6 0 6 0 6 6 0 6 6
20 Dadah Siti Saodah 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 16 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 4 4
Total 15 7 9 10 9 10 6 9 9 8 92 15 7 9 10 9 10 6 9 9 8 502 71 41 46 54 50 55 36 50 52 47
rXY = N. XY-( X).( Y)
N X2-( X)2.N Y2-( Y)2

r-count = rXY n-2


1-r2
Items N(∑xy)- (N∑x2-(∑x)2) (N∑x2-(∑x)2)
N ∑x ∑y ∑xy ∑x2 ∑y2 N∑xy N∑x2 N∑y2 ∑x∑y (∑x)2 (∑y)2 (∑x)(∑y) (N∑y2-(∑y)2) (N∑y2-(∑y)2)
rxy
Number
1 20 15 92 71 15 502 1420 300 10040 1380 225 8464 40 118200 343.802 0.116
2 20 7 92 41 7 502 820 140 10040 644 49 8464 176 143416 378.703 0.465
3 20 9 92 46 9 502 920 180 10040 828 81 8464 92 156024 394.999 0.233
4 20 10 92 54 10 502 1080 200 10040 920 100 8464 160 157600 396.989 0.403
5 20 9 92 50 9 502 1000 180 10040 828 81 8464 172 156024 394.999 0.435
6 20 10 92 55 10 502 1100 200 10040 920 100 8464 180 157600 396.989 0.453
7 20 6 92 36 6 502 720 120 10040 552 36 8464 168 132384 363.846 0.462
8 20 9 92 50 9 502 1000 180 10040 828 81 8464 172 156024 394.999 0.435
9 20 9 92 52 9 502 1040 180 10040 828 81 8464 212 156024 394.999 0.537
10 20 8 92 47 8 502 940 160 10040 736 64 8464 204 151296 388.968 0.524

Num N N-2 N-2 r r2 1-r2 1-r2 r-count r-table Validity

1 20 18 4.243 0.116 0.014 0.986 0.993 0.497 0.444 Valid


2 20 18 4.243 0.465 0.216 0.784 0.885 2.227 0.444 Valid
3 20 18 4.243 0.233 0.054 0.946 0.972 1.016 0.444 Valid
4 20 18 4.243 0.403 0.162 0.838 0.915 1.868 0.444 Valid
5 20 18 4.243 0.435 0.190 0.810 0.900 2.052 0.444 Valid
6 20 18 4.243 0.453 0.206 0.794 0.891 2.158 0.444 Valid
7 20 18 4.243 0.462 0.213 0.787 0.887 2.208 0.444 Valid
8 20 18 4.243 0.435 0.190 0.810 0.900 2.052 0.444 Valid
9 20 18 4.243 0.537 0.288 0.712 0.844 2.699 0.444 Valid
10 20 18 4.243 0.524 0.275 0.725 0.851 2.613 0.444 Valid
Reliability Analysis

Items Number
Num Students’ Name 1 Score X Y X2 Y2 XY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
1 Dede Sihabudin 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 6 4 2 16 4 8
2 Agis Murtadoilah 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 7 3 4 9 16 12
3 Aldi Fathurohman 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 7 2 5 4 25 10
4 Dede Abdul Wahab 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 6 4 2 16 4 8
5 Ayus Ali Yusron 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 1 4 1 16 4
6 Ali Gojali 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 6 3 3 9 9 9
7 Acep Sodikin 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 7 4 3 16 9 12
8 Neng Yayu 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 6 5 1 25 1 5
9 Neng Siti Fatimah 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 6 3 3 9 9 9
10 Neng Ina Nur'aeni 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
11 Neng Ulpah 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
12 Acep Hamzah 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 4 1 2
13 Ade Hamzah 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 4 0 0
14 Eha Julaeha 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 2 3 4 9 6
15 Neng Intan Siti 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 5 3 2 9 4 6
16 Iis Nurcahyati 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
17 Arip Hidayatulloh 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 9 1 3
18 Aah Siti Robeah 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 1 3 1 9 3
19 Aris Jamaludin 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 6 2 4 4 16 8
20 Dadah Siti Saodah 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 2 2 4 4 4
1 1 1
Total 7 9 9 6 9 9 8 92 48 44 146 138 109
5 0 0

rXY = N. XY-( X).( Y)


N X2-( X)2.N Y2-( Y)2

= 20.109-48.44
20.146-482.20.138-442

= 2180-2112
2920-2304.2760-1936

= 68
616.824

= 68
507584
= 68
712.449

= 0.095

t-count = 2rXY
1+rXY

= 0.19
1.095

= 0.774

tcount > ttable

0.774 > 0.468 So, tcount is reliable


Mean of Experiment Group Pre-Test
∑X
M1 =
n
= 117
20
= 5.85

Standard Deviation of Experiment Group Pre-Test

(∑X)2
∑X2 -
Sd1 = N
N–1

1172
851 -
= 20
20 – 1

13689
851 -
= 20
19

= 851 – 684.45
19

= 166.55
19

= 8.766

= 2.961
Mean of Experiment Group Post-Test
∑Y
M1 =
n
= 175
20
= 8.75

Standard Deviation of Experiment Group Post-Test

(∑Y)2
∑Y2 -
Sd1 = N
N–1

1752
1555 -
= 20
20 – 1

30625
1555 -
= 20
19

= 1555-1531.25
19

= 23.75
19

= 1.25

= 1.118
Mean of Control Group Pre-Test
∑X
M 2=
n
= 91
20
= 4.55

Standard Deviation of Control Group Pre-Test

(∑X)2
∑X2 -
Sd2 = N
N–1

912
495 -
= 20
20 – 1

8281
495 -
= 20
19

= 495 – 414.05
19

= 80.95
19

= 4.261

= 2.064
Mean of Control Group Post-Test
∑Y
M2 =
n
= 145
20
= 7.25

Standard Deviation of Control Group Post-Test

(∑Y)2
∑Y2 -
Sd2 = N
N–1

1452
1147 -
= 20
20 – 1

21025
1147 -
= 20
19

= 1147-1051.25
19

= 95.75
19

= 5.039

= 2.245
t-value of Pre-Test
M 1 – M2
t= Sd12 Sd22
+
N1 N2

5.85 – 4.55
= 2.9612 2.0642
+
20 20

1.3
= 8.768 4.260
+
20 20

1.3
= 0.438 + 0.213

1.3
= 0.651

1.3
= 0.807

= 1.611

t-value of Post-Test

M 1 – M2
t= Sd12 Sd22
+
N1 N2

8.75 – 7.25
= 1.1182 2.2452
+
20 20

1.5
= 1.25 5.040
+
20 20

1.5
= 0.063 + 0.252

1.5
= 0.315
1.5
= 0.561

= 2.674

Data Collected

Experimen Group

Mean of Pre-Test : 5.85

Mean of Post-Test : 8.75

Standard Deviation of Pre-Test : 2.961

Standard Deviation of Post-Test : 1.118

Control Group

Mean of Pre-Test : 4.55

Mean of Post-Test : 7.25

Standard Deviation of Pre-Test : 2.064

Standard Deviation of Post-Test : 2.245

t-value

t-value of Pre-Test : 1.611

t-value of Post-Test : 2.674

Degree of Freedom (df)

= (N1 + N2) – 2

= (20 + 20) – 2

= 40 – 2

= 38
P = 0.05

tt = 1,68

Pre-test t1 = 1.611

Post-test t2 = 2.674

tt = 1,68

So t1 < tt < t2

1.611 < 1.68 < 2.674


CURRICULUM VITAE

Name : Eka Ratna Sopyanti

Place, Date of Birth : Ciamis, December 10th 1980

Gender : Female

Religion : Islam

Address : Kp. Tegal Astana RT. 05/16 Desa Liunggunung

Kecamatan Plered Kabupaten Purwakarta 41162

Jawa Barat

Father‟s Name : Mr. Sulaeman

Mother‟s Name : Mrs. Harmilah, A.Ma.Pd.

Profession : Theacher of Elementary School

(SD Negeri Citekokaler – Plered)

Graduation : 1. SDN Bangun Jaya – Ciamis in 1992

2. SMPN 1 Plered – Purwakarta in 1995

3. SMUN 1 Sukatani - Purwakarta in 1998

4. Continued to English Education Study Program of

STKIP SUBANG in 2006

Writer

Eka Ratna Sopyanti


0618210113