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Introduction to Software

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

1

Materi : ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi

Computer software Package in Office Depot Puerto Vallara- Mexico

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Pengatahuan Dasar
Abstract view
user user
USER

...

USER

Application Software

System Software Computer Hardware

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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low-cost SW ± Era-4 (1986-2000-an) desk-top oriented. embedded intelligence. multiuser. real-time. custom software ± Era-2 (1964-1974). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 4 . product software ± Era-3 (1973-1988). artificial Neural Network. distributed. orientasi batch.Pengetahuan Dasar Perangkat lunak / software : ‡ Instruksi dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman. Expert System. DBMS. Object Object technology.parallel computing Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. distribusi terbatas. disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer ‡ Evolusi [PRE98] ± Era-1 (1950-1965).

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 5 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Komponen : ±machine-executable [dapat ieksekusi komputer secara langsung] ±non-machine-executable ‡ Lingkup Pengembangan : ± System Software [agar perangkat keras bekerja] ± Application software : Real-time [ game.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. online application] Business Engineering & Scientific Embedded [jaringan komputer. peralatan rumah tangga dll] PC-oriented Artificial Inteligent Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Low level (LLL).Intermediate level (ILL). C. Pascal.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Java . tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya contoh: autocoder.deskriptif [model] matematis . SPIM . tidak mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: machine language Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . assembler.High Level Language (HLL).Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Bahasa . dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: BASIC. FORTRAN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 6 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 7 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: ± Pendefinisian masalah ± Penyusunan algoritma & flowchart ± Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal ± Uji coba perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) ± Run program ± Dokumentasi ‡ Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode ± Aturan dan urutan langkah untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah ± langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi secara tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

com/kb_terms/algorithm. business and financial forecasting etc. economics.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar . typically of interest to only computer scientist. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 8 .html] 1. [ berbasis pada asumsi model yang diakui kebenarannya] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing.leveltendesign.Jenis algoritma [http://www. is used heavily in social sciences. [ memberikan jawaban dan metode terbaik pada pemrosesan] 2. Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 9 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± Runtut (sequential / linear) ± Alternatif (alternative/selection) ± Berulang (loop/repetition) ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± program flowchart [urutan langkah pada proses] ± system flowchart [urutan dan hubungan pada bagian2 sistem] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Program flowchart ± langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] ± hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 10 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. compiler [translate from HLL to LLL]. interpreter [to execute source code directly] ± Proses translasi o assembly o kompilasi (compilation).Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Translasi Bahasa [proses representasi ke bahasa lain] ± Dasar low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 11 . high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia. analisis:  leksikal (~ aturan penulisan )  sintaks (~ tata bahasa )  semantik (arti) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . perlu translator: assembler [a low level language for programming computers].

ubuntu. [ set perangkat lunak komplek ntuk mengontrol kemampuan perangkat keras agar dapat digunakandengan mudah] ± Utilities : ‡ assembler ‡ compiler / interpreter ‡ I/O routines ‡ diagnostic routines ‡ JCL (command language) ‡ DBMS (database management system] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Unix-like OS.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis Perangkat lunak ± Operating system (OS) [BRA91] the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 12 . a popular linux distribution.

Mac OS. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 13 . OS/MFT. ~ paradigma proses ± Batch processing [execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis OS . Unix.] ± Interactive / timesharing [alokasi waktu tiap proses] ± Multiprogramming ± Multiprocessing [multicomputer] ± Real time ± Network Operating System (NOS) ‡ Contoh OS CP/M. DOS. Windows Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 14 . komputer selalu siap dipakai ± Pemakaian komputer efisien.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Karakteristik OS ± Preinstalled [ter install sebelumnya] ± Selalu terbuka ± Menjalankan program & mengelola data ‡ Tujuan OS : ± Eksekusi user programs ± Memiliki Kernel. untuk beragam aplikasi ± Resource allocator ± Mengendalikan perangkat I/O Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

emacs. Adobe FrameMaker. Adobe InDesign. Eudora Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . LaTex. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 15 . uang dan memberikan informasi sesegera mungkin saat dibutuhkan] ± Jenis : ‡ word & text processing. QuarkXPress.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Adobe Acrobat ‡ Spreadsheet: lotus. and Corel VENTURA ‡ Internet Browser & e-mail: Netscape. contoh: WS. excel ‡ Desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker. MS Words.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi Bisnis ± Dasar use computer to saves time hence saves money have instant information when ever you need it [ untuk menghemat waktu.

mesin cuci. ± Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone ± Games Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 16 . pemakaian mudah. CASE. untuk : ± jaringan ± alat rumah tangga: microwave. CAD/CAM « ‡ Data logging tools. ± Jenis ‡ Design toolspackage: Autocad. untuk: cuaca. pekerjaan repetitif. didukung banyak libraries & methods. ‡ Robotics & Artificial Intelligent tools ‡ Embedded system tools.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis ± Dasar mendukung ide creatif. polusi. akurat. «.

Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 17 .

Materi Pengenalan Internet : ‡ Kronologi ‡ Pakar Pelopor ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 18 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

RAND Paul Baran. RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Leonard Kleinrock. First Paper on Packet Switching Theory. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal [http://www. "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.packet. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network.cc/internet. USSR meluncurkan Sputnik.´ ± 1962. ± Jul-61. satelit bumi buatan pertama. setelah serangan nuklir. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 19 .html] ± 1957.

"On Distributed Communications Networks". "OnLine Man Computer Communication". ± 1964. Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks.R. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 20 . ± Okt-65. Lawrence Roberts. MIT Lincoln Labs. First Paper on Internet Concept by J.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Agu-62. First Actual Network Experiment. [buku] ± Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice. Licklider & Welden Clark. Paul Baran. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .C. IEEE Transactions on Systems. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

First Paper on Network Experiments. ± Agu-68. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". ± Okt-67. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 21 . Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. ± Des-68. ARPA.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Original ARPANET Design Paper. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". Lawrence Roberts. Fall AFIPS Conf.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Fall AFIPS Conf. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers".: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 22 . Lawrence Roberts. ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Original ARPANET Design Paper. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". First Paper on Network Experiments. ± Okt-67. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. ± Des-68. ± Agu-68. ACM Gatlinberg Conf.

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). ± Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center ± Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed ± Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network ± Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission ± Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. ± Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network ± Mar-72, First basic Email Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. ± Jul-72, First Email Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts ± Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

24

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN ± May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe ± May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. ± Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) ± Nov-77, Complete Email Specification ( RFC 733) released by two Email pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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gov. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 26 .edu. ± 1986. and Craig Partridge to support the Email addressing space. . ± 2001 . . . Paul Mockapetris. creating .Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . NSF Opens Internet to commercial use.com. First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. & . Jon Postel. and Danny Cohen. ± 1989.mil.int.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.org. Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel. ± Nov-83. .net. . where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf. TCP Split into TCP and IP.Kronologi ‡ Periode Lanjut ± Mar-78. Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail ± 1991.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Leonard Kleinrock ± Packet Switching Theory.C. 1962 ± ARPA Computer Program. ARPANET measurement. paper. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 27 . 1962 ± First ARPA IPTO Director. 1968 ‡ J. paper. Licklider ± On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept). 1961 ± Communication Nets. book. 1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .R. 1964 ± Network Measurement Center at UCLA.

Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT]. 1967 ± Request For Proposals released for ARPANET.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 28 . 1965 ± ARPA Communications Program. 1971 ± First Email Management Program. 1966 ± Original ARPANET Design Paper.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Lawrence Roberts ± First Actual Network Experiment. 1966 ± ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET. 1969 ± Packet Satellite Technique. 1968 ± Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO.

‡ Robert Metcalfe ± First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC ‡ Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± First Internetworking Protocol.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. SNGMSG and READMAIL. Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol. ‡ Ray Tomlinson ± First basic Email Programs.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Steve Crocker ± Request For Comments (RFC) #1. ‡ Jon Postel ± FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) ± Domain Name System. the first output of the Network Working Group. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 29 . TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

com] ‡ LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN. dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval. high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) ‡ Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 30 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources.about. / System AN.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] ± (terminal. ± Kategori [http://compnetworking. server. komputer.

e. regional. or national boundaries ± LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system ± MAN > LAN < WAN. Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET. frame relay.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Network  LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan ATM.  MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city  WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i. extranet = WAN.. ± WAN (wide area network): ‡ LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas ‡ Internet = WAN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 31 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan. memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware.

secara publik maupun private. komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 32 . dan dapat diakses. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet ± Sistem informasi global yang: ‡ secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi. ‡ mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 33 . email discussion lists) ‡ akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web. dan lainnya. komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri. Gopher) ‡ remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet. chat) ‡ konferensi online (Usenet News. pemerintah. dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: ‡ komunikasi langsung (e-mail.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet : ± Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ftp). ± Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 34 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Intranet : ± LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW. atau ± Private Internet ‡ Private network enterprise. HTTP. ‡ Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security. dan IP lainnya. ‡ Implementasi TCP/IP.

menerapkan firewall server management: ‡ user authentication ‡ encryption of messages ‡ menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. ± Perlu keamanan dan privasi. ± Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 35 . customers.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Extranet : ± Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers. & lainnya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . vendors. partners.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Operasional Extranet ± Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML ± Berbagi katalog produk ± Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis ± Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama ± Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 36 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi ± Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 37 .isi. ± Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Agar info positif > negatif. scientist & engineer sangat penting.edu/in-notes/rfc2150. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . perolehan info relatif murah & banyak. dan hiburan [+audio. ± Integrasi informasi.txt] ± Akses sangat mudah. video. pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio. peranan artist. komunikasi.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Dampak [ftp://ftp.

‡ Ketersediaan ± Shareware.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Komunitas Global ± Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu ± Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs ± Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 38 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya. Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download ± Libraries. stores.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 39 . di mana top level : ‡ com untuk perusahaan komersil ‡ edu untuk institusi pendidian ‡ gov untuk situs pemerintah ‡ net untuk infrastruktur jaringan ‡ org untuk organisasi non-komersil ‡ us untuk situs di USA ‡ id untuk situs di Indonesia ± Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar.

remote service ± smtp = simple mail transfer protocol ± nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Jenis yang populer: ± http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] ± ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] ± telnet = telecommunication network protocol. 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: 123.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username ± Komputer harus memiliki IP address. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 40 .123.ext".com/lok-dir/filename.123] ± Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen ‡ misal: "http://www.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.waralaba.123.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 41 . ± Bulletin Board System (BBS). and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS¶s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dll.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. rec rekreasi. misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer. typically providing electronic messaging services. a computer + associated software. one-to-many ± Electronic mail ± Newsgroup. archives of files. sci = sains.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: ‡ Message-based Communications. electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community. soc= sosial.

an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas. etc. berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` ± Internet Relay Chat (IRC.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ‡ Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin. ± Multicasting. solve puzzles. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 42 . text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± MUD [Multi-User Dungeon]. to multiple sites simultaneously. technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets). WebChat).

] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . USA and is freely available.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see. hear and speak with other CUSeeMe users across the world. Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins. demons. New York. artists . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 43 . this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca.students.Real-Time Communications ± MUD. doctors patients.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum . [teachers . and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill ± Audio Video Conferencing.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . as private papers. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. memorabilia.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records. institutional records. ± Internet¶s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing. or photographs. etc. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 44 . documents. is kept. ± Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler].

yahoo.com/ ‡ Magellan . with search capabilities http://www.Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites.http://www.com/ ‡ DejaNews .mckinley.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Contoh search engine ‡ Yahoo .digital. with search capabilities http://www.WWW and USENET search engine http://www.com/ ‡ AltaVista .com/ Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .webcrawler.com/ ‡ Google . with search capabilities http://www.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.com/ ‡ WebCrawler .altavista.lycos.http://query.Index of WWW sites. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 45 .google.com/ ‡ Lycos .USENET (news groups) search engine http://www.Index of WWW sites.dejanews.

± klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± organisasi Web tidak hirarkis.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 46 . Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages). informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links.Penggunaan Internet ‡ World Wide Web ~ Web ± subset of the computers di Internet ± visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas.

midi equip. and viewing files..Penggunaan Internet ‡ Cara Akses ± Akses Internet ~ receiving. memerlukan dukungan: ‡ Internet Service Providers ‡ HW + SW + modem ‡ Web browser ‡ SW anti virus ‡ Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers.. CD-ROM player.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 47 . printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . downloading. menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet. video equip.

] ‡ Format file: public domain. vector. privacy. BBS. netiquette. advicing). suara & musik ‡ Publikasi ‡ Issues & Chalenges ± Security. viruses. trademark. video] ‡ Kreasi digital audio. dll. proprietary. cryptography. Chat. standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text ‡ Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Tahapan Pengembangan Situs ± Pembuatan & pendaftaran ± Kreasi isi ‡ Getting help [lewat: Forum. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 48 . dll. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Dampak Sosial Teknologi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 49 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 50 .Materi ‡ Kilas Balik ‡ Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kini & Masa Depan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. or store (information) in a computer or system of computers ‡ a society where computers are ubiquitous.com/dictionary/] ± Computer adalah mesin yang dapat diprogram untuk memanipulasi simbol. or conduct by means of a computer. biasanya dalam konteks bisnis [that deals with all things electronic]. precisely and reliably serta dapat menyimpan dan mengambil kembali banyak data dengan cepat sekali. termasuk networking and telecommunication.hyperdictionary. control.Kilas Balik ‡ Definisi [www. Komputer dapat mengerjakan prosesproses rumit dan berulang quickly. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .HW dan SW . ± IT (Applied computer systems) . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 51 . to carry out. process. ± Computerization ~ ‡ to enter.

EDSAC.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Sejarah Alat Hitung ± Alamiah ± Abacus ± Napier¶s Bones & Mistar hitung ± Pascaline ‡ Sejarah Komputer [elektronis] ± Babbage [Difference / analytical] engine ± ENIAC. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 52 . EDVAC ± Neuman¶s concept / IAS ± UNIVAC Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 53 . berdasar komponen utama] ± Tabung ± Transistor ± IC [Conductor / semiconductor / superconductor] ± SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI / ULSI ‡ Klasifikasi Komputer ± Supercomputer ± Large scale / mainframe computer ± Minicomputer ± Microcomputer / PC / desktop / workstation ± Laptop / palmtop / PDA ± etc.Kilas Balik ‡ Generasi Komputer [elektronis. ««« Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Kilas Balik ‡ Kemajuan Teknologi Lain ± Mesin uap ± Lampu listrik ± Telegraf & telepon ± Pesawat terbang ± Bom atom ± Laser ± Roket ± Satelit & pesawat ruang angkasa ± Bio / Nano / Material .technology Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 54 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

IBM 650 . ARPANet. BITNET ± 1990-an.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. IBM 1620 .WWW [era ubiquitous computing] ‡ Fungsi Komputer [sekarang].1st University machine ± 1960.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Proses & Komunikasi ± 1955.1st College machine [programer awal] ± 1964. 1st e-mail & personal computing [time sharing] ± 1975. sebagai ± Pencacah bilangan & General purpose system ± Utility & tool ± Komunikator ± Search Engine Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 55 . jaringan komputer di kantor & jaringan ± 1980-an. INTERNET . NSFNet.

the don¶t-wannabetrained] dapat membuat sebuah program.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Tingkatan dampak ? ± Penggantian aktifitas langsung dengan sedikit perubahan pada produktifitas ± Peningkatan berbagai aktifitas dengan perbaikan kecepatan dan efisiensi ± Perluasan ke berbagai aktifitas yang dahulu belum bisa dilakukan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 56 . untrained. untrainable.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Sejauh mana pengaruh TI ? ± Pemakai mulai berpaling dari elit professionally responsible ke komunitas dengan berbagai kepentingan yang makin luas ± Very high level applications memungkinkan kemudahan bagi tiap orang [trained.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. true / false.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Membagi ala DIJITAL ? ± High / low. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 57 . biner ± Kaya dan miskin ± Sekolah favorit dan sekolah pinggiran ± Tua dan muda ± Laki-laki dan perempuan ± Orangtua dan anak ± Kota dan kampung ± Atasan dan bawahan ± Dosen dan non-dosen Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . on / off.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 58 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kehidupan manusia bertambah baik / buruk? ‡ Manusia sangat tergantung pada komputer ? ‡ Akibat kemajuan teknologi [selain TI]. manusia sangat tergantung pada: ± Mobil ? ± Minyak bumi ? ± Listrik ? ± Telefon ? ± TV ? ± Pesawat ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

. shareware. « ± Mobil [pribadi] ‡ Pendidikan ± Pelajaran + praktik TI tingkat PT/SMU/SMP/SD ± e-learning. online course. e-education ± Freeware. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 59 . TV. «. ± Alat komunikasi: telepon.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. opensource Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Alat hiburan: radio. «.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Kehidupan ± Alat rumah-tangga: microwave.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Bisnis & Industri ± e-commerce ± e-banking ± expert system [AI] ± CAD/CAM/CAX ««« ± Robotic ‡ Instansi/organisasi ± Komputerisasi / otomasi kantor ± Tingkat kepegawaian ± Teleworking ± Efisiensi sumberdaya Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 60 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 61 . pricing./material. bioinformatik ‡ Masalah ± Community change [indirect interactions] ± Cultural & National Sovereignty ± Workplace & economic impacts [organization & skills] ± Information impacts [equity of access. privacy. regulation./bio. consumer rights. e-freedoms] ± Legality & security [computer crime] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .tech].Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Sains & Teknologi (R & D) ± Lingkungan PT ± Lingkungan industri ± High Tech [Nano.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Pendekatan Solusi ± Risk Analysis ‡ Quantitative ± probability of an event occurring ± likely loss should it occur ‡ Qualitative (estimated potential loss) ± threats [fire. reporting. but all the operations & systems.] / vulnerabilities / controls ± Risk Management ‡ proactive / reactive / non-reactive [measures] ± Control & Audit ‡ evaluate & monitor company's risk management. . and control practices & make suggestions for improvement [not only organization's finance function. frauds. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 62 .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi ..: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

akibat otomatisasi ± Kriminal ‡ virus ‡ pembobolan ‡ pembajakan SW ‡ pencurian perangkat ± Privacy ‡ cracking / hacking ? ‡ pencurian informasi ‡ duplikasi & manipulasi informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Negatif ? ± Pengangguran. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 63 .

Manajemen Data dan Informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 64 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan informasi yang didesain agar semudah mungkin cara penyimpanan dan pengambilannya kembali untuk pemanfaatannya. Cara pembuatan. dan pemakaiannya tidak mudah dan tidak murah [instansi/organisasi]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 65 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengertian Dasar ‡ Data Management System (DMS) ± Kombinasi SW. dan pemakaiannya mudah dan murah [personal]. ± Dua jenis ‡ File management system (FMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat hanya mengakses data/informasi 1 tabel atau 1 file. pemeliharaan. pemeliharaan. HW. Cara pembuatan. ‡ Database Management System (DBMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat dapat mengakses banyak tabel / file.

Contoh: Oracle. & administer sebuah basisdata relasional. menentukan class dari objek dan inheritance dari class serta metoda-metoda untuk menangani objek-objek tersebut.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Relational DataBase Management System adalah sebuah program untuk create. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 66 . ± Object-oriented DataBase Management System ~ DBMS yang menunjang pemodelan dan kresi data sebagai objects. update. "Delete". "Insert". and "Drop´ ] untuk RDBMS. ± Structured Query Language (baca "S-Q-L" atau "sequel") ~ bahasa baku/standard ["Select". DB2. SQL Server.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. "Create". "Update".

± Common Object Request Broker Architecture . misal jdbc://www.com:400/databasefile. tanpa perlu memahami bahasa yang dipakai atau cara memintanya. untuk koneksi ke basisdata SQL menghasilkan database independent applications.swaps. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Open DataBase Connectivity ~ API baku yang dikembangkan berdasar pada spesifikasi SQL Access Group.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Java DataBase Connectivity ~ antarmuka agar dapat akses ke banyak basisdata lintas WWW dengan mudah.memungkinkan sebuah pr oram di satu komputer minta informasi pada program lain di komputer lainnya [dalam jaringan]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 67 .

Pengertian Dasar ‡ Prinsip Manajemen Data ± Access Restrictions . untuk menjaga privacy of human subjects. ‡ Temporer. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 68 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . perlu minta pendapat ahli hukum sebelun data dihancurkan. ‡ Permanen. ‡ Temporer.larangan akses & proses data ‡ Temporer. ± Data Retention and Storage ‡ Umumnya sebuah instansi/perusahaan dapat menentukan minimal 3 tahun sesaat mulai operasional.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Bila terkait dengan hak paten dan legalitas lainnya. untuk menjaga intellectual property. Banyak instansi besar menentukan < 5 tahun. ‡ Banyak ahli merekomendasikan 5 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. saat administrator meng-update & validasi. sebagai jaminan pada rekanan/sponsor.

hard / floppy disk.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengarsipan (Filing) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Byte / karakter = å bits = 8 bit [ASCII] String = rangkaian alfanumerik Field / data item = å bytes terbatas Record = å fields yang saling terkait File = å records sejenis Database = å files terintegrasi Directory = area media tempat penyimpan files Volume = satuan identifiable data storage. physically removable : tape cartridge / reel. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 69 .

penyimpanan acak di mana akses record memakai pointer ‡ Jenis File ± Master . diproses hanya bila perlu Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . terlengkap.file yang ³dipensiun´. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 70 .file terbaru. operasional ± Transaction .file untuk meng-update master ± Backup .Pengarsipan ‡ Kategori Akses <==> organisasi ± Serial.file duplikat master --> cucu-anak. ± Random/direct.kakek ± Scratch .file hasil pilahan dari master siap diproses ± History . penyimpanan runtut dengan urutan kunci ± Index Sequential.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. file sekuensial di mana akses record memakai tabel indeks. penyimpanan seadanya tanpa melihat urutan ± Sequential.

± Size ~ volume / kapasitas ± Activity ~ hit rate = jml % volume file yang diproses persatuan waktu ± Expansion ~ growth = tingkat pertumbuhan maksimum kapasitas sebuah file yang direncanakan. ‡ Updating ± Add ± Change ± Delete ± Modify Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengarsipan ‡ Karakteristik File ± Volatility ~ frekuensi updating tinggi >< static.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 71 .

5 / 0.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 72 .Pengarsipan ‡ Media Penyimpan ± Kertas ± Tape ‡ organisasi sekuensial ‡ kerapatan (density): 800. 1600 ‡ gap [record / block]: 0.75 inch ± Disk ‡ organisasi indeks / acak ‡ kerapatan ‡ gap ‡ sector & track. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 73 .PDT (Pengolahan Data Tradisional) ‡ Siklus Hidup ± Identifikasi masalah & objektif [studi kelayakan] ± Determinasi kebutuhan informasi & Analisis sistem lama ± Desain sistem baru ± Pemrograman & dokumentasi SW ± Uji coba & penyempurnaan ± Penerapan & evaluasi ± Operasional ‡ Sumberdaya Manusia ± Manajemen ± Analis ± Pemrogram ± Administrator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

proses data dan pembuatan keluaran. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 74 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. distribusi hasil ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .PDT ‡ Prosedur Umum ± ± ± ± ± Rencanakan kebutuhan data Rancang format data masukan dan keluaran Rencanakan cara pengumpulan & klasifikasi data Definisikan & rancang organisasi file [-file] Bagaimana cara entri data ? ‡ Verifikasi ‡ Validasi ± Rencanakan cara penyimpanan & pengamanannya ± Bagaimana cara pengambilan kembali.

sebagian di-update ± Inflexibility: desain tidak terpadu => respons lambat / nihil ± Limited data sharing Û Uncontrolled redundancy ± Poor standards => operasional tidak efektif ± Low programmer productivity Û Poor standards ± Excessive program maintenance ‡ Pendekatan Richard Nolan ± Data Processing Era. Control ± Information Technology Era.Architecture. 3 stages : Integration. Contagion. Distribution Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 75 . 3 stages : Intiation.PDT ‡ Kelemahan ± Uncontrolled redundancy: aplikasi Û file sendiri ± Inconsistent data: 1 file di bbrp lokasi.

Basisdata ‡ Database ~ S files terintegrasi ‡ Data Format ± Representasi: karakter. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 76 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dapat diakses oleh business managers. menghasilkan ad hoc queries & reports. numerik. records. service providers & researchers yang berhak untuk: dianalisis. campuran? ± Ukuran fields. administrators. files ? ± Bagaimana cara menampilkan informasi di monitor dan di kertas ? ± Bagaimana cara penyimpanan internal ? ‡ Data warehouse ± Kumpulan terpadu data perusahaan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan cara pemeliharaan data subsets.

dan bagaimana setiap item database akan saling terkait. ‡ Data Model ± Hasil proses desain basisdata yang dapat dipakai untuk mengidentifkasi dan mengorganisasi data logically & physically.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Basisdata ‡ Data Mining ± Aktifitas ekstraksi informasi yang tujuannya untuk menemukan faktafakta tersembunyi dalam basisdata. bagaimana cara penggunaannya. ± Akan menunjukkan semua informasi yang harus ada dalam basisdata. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 77 . yang memungkinkan prediksi hasilhasil pada masa datang.

Basisdata
‡ Tingkat Model Data ± External (user views) Conceptual ± Internal [DBMS dependent] Physical ‡ Jenis Basisdata, piramid ± Operasional transaction processing ± Manajerial management information system ± Stratejik decision support system ‡ Asosiasi data ± One-to-one : NIM Nama-mhs ± One-to-many : NIM Cek-medis ± Many-to-many : S NIM S Mt-kul

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

78

Basisdata
‡ Logical Model ± Hierarchy ± Network ± Relational ± Object-oriented ‡ Terminologi ± Attribute ~ kolom tabel ± Entity ~ konsep/objek data terdefinisi ± Table ~ file ± Tupple ~ baris tabel ~ record

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

79

MIS (Management Information System)
‡ Definisi ± Segala sumberdaya & prosedur yang dibutuhkan untuk mengumpulkan, proses, dan distribusi informasi yang akan digunakan untuk ambil keputusan. ± Sistem user-machine terpadu yang menghasilkan informasi untuk menunjang operasi, manajemen, analisis, dan fungsi-fungsi pengambilan keputusan dalam organisasi. ‡ Sifat dari needed information ± Accuracy ± Timeliness ± Completeness ± Conciseness

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

80

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 81 . technology ± Kontemporer: IS Û technical (computer sc. management sc.. psychology. decision making. ± Basisdata ‡ Perspektif ± Bisnis: IS Û organization. control. management. planning.. OR). sociology) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. behavioral (Economics.MIS ‡ Istilah ± MIS ~ IS ~ IPS ~ CBIS ‡ Menggunakan ± Komputer [HW & SW] ± Prosedur-prosedur manual ± Model-model untuk: analysis.

production. management control. operational. tactical.MIS ‡ Struktur ± Berbasis aktifitas manajemen: strategic. operational control.. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . logistics.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. personnel. ‡ Sintesis ± Conceptual structure ~ organizational MIS ± Physical structure ~ integrated processing & common modules. transaction processing) versus (sales & marketing. ± Berbasis fungsi organisasi: (strategic planning. top-man). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 82 . finance& accounting. information proc.

Sekuriti dan Etika Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 83 .

tsl.html] ‡ Taksonomi pokok.html] ± Confidentiality .albion.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak dapat diakses oleh unauthorized persons. ± Authentication .state. integrity & confidentiality informasi yang dikelola.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak diubah oleh unauthorized persons kecuali oleh authorized users. CIA: [www. ± Integrity .Sekuriti ‡ Apakah Computer Security ? ± Prosedur-prosedur technological & managerial yang diterapkan pada sistem komputer untuk menjaga availability.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.penjaminan bahwa users adalah persons they claim to be (yang berhak). [www. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .tx.com/security/intro-4.us/ld/pubs/compsecurity/ glossary. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 84 .

Sekuriti ‡ Taksonomi lain ± Access control . who maintains it. ± Nonrepudiation .penjaminan bahwa pengirim messages tidak dapat menyangkal fakta.penjaminan bahwa users hanya akses ke resources and services yang telah ditentukan & qualified users tidak ditolak akses ke services that legitimately expect to receive.penjaminan bahwa individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 85 . how it is used. ± Availability . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and what purpose it is used for. ± Privacy . loss of availability disebut "denial-of-service´.penjaminan bahwa sebuah sistem operational & functional tiap saat [redundancy]. who has used it.

proteksi perangkat jari. assignment of privilege. proteksi network servers & transmissions. monitoring. pengendalian akses dari untrusted networks.penjaringan pegawai: background screening. monitoring processes. and handling departures. ± Network security -.pengendalian comings and goings of people and materials. and auditing.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. log-keeping. training.mencakup segala hal mulai dari managerial policy decisions sampai dengan reporting hierarchies.Domain ± Physical security . security briefings. & telekomunikasi. maintaining file and filesystem integrity. memerangi penyadapan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 86 . ± Personnel security . firewalls. ± Operational/procedural security . dan deteksi intrusi. proteksi terhadap elements & natural disasters.pengawasan akses & otentikasi users. backups. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± System security .

[It's best if the vendors announced along with fixes]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 87 . ± R-3: [Farmer's Law. [Computer security can never be implemented in a vacuum.albion.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . promulgated disebar-luaskan] by computer security researcher Dan Farmer:] "The Security of a Computer System Degrades in Direct Proportion to the Amount of Use the System Receives.com] ± R-1: Security through obscurity [samar] doesn¶t work.[X-Files: "There's always someone watching.´ ± R-4: Do it before someone does it wrong for you.´] ± R-2: Full disclosure of bugs & holes benefits security.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.

or "white hats" and "black hats. or better eqquiped than you [Be careful about the assumptions you make concerning the threats your systems face.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www. ± R-7: There are no turnkey security solutions [There's no checklist that will account for all vulnerabilities. more knowledgeable. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.albion.´ ].]. [Don't underestimate the value of deterrence / rintangan.] ± R-6: There¶s always someone out there smarter. ± R-9: Think like the enemy [akibat R-8]. ± R-8: The Good & Evil blend into gray [There are "good guys³ and "bad guys" out there.].com] ± R-5: The fear of getting cought is the beginning of wisdom. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 88 . ± R-10: Trust is a relative concept [´Trust no one" is the strongest policy].

au/people/RogerClarke/II/Netethiquettecases] ± Information overload. gosip. ± Negligent defamation. ± Inadequate care with data. pengomentari dengan hal-hal yang sifatnya rahasia. info dari situs diakui hasil sendiri.anu.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. me-reply email dengan tambahan info sensitif/rahasia. ± Rumour & accidental misinformation. ± Persistence. ± Trawling / Spidering. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . karena kiriman data /email yang banyak/besar & tidak relevan. sebaran fitnah krn ceroboh. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 89 . anggota milis keluar lupa dihapus.edu. ± Minor plagiarism.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Accidental [www.

kirim email berbahasa kasar/kotor (foul /abusive). ± Surveillance. ngintip isi email-email banyak orang.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Socially Aggressive ± Intentional misinformation. sebaran fitnah.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Incitement. pemalsuan identitas gender di milis. ± Flaming. ± Intentional defamation. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 90 . ± Harassment. penyebaran fitnah. ± Impersonation. ± Mail-bombing. ± Obscenity. pengiriman banyak email ke suatu mailbox. progam / email untuk pengacauan trafik. penyediaan material yang asusila di situs. berita hasutan melalui bulletin board.

± Advertising. promotion. ngirim program perusak melalui jar. ± Hacking. ± Abuse of intellectual property rights. merugikan terkirim.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Economically Aggressive ± Spamming.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Viruses & worms. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis dengan banyak jawaban sehingga mailbox overflow. pengambilan bahan dari situs tanpa menyebut sumber. dll. pemakaian transaksi jaringan tanpa modal. ± Security breach. & soliciting. ± Secondary use of data. pembobolan keamanan sistem. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . sebaran iklan ke banyak milis tapi intruder. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 91 . ± Serious plagiarism. penjiplakan karya tulis dari situs. penyebaran program SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks).

such that the messages can be decrypted provided that several of them collaborate. ] ± Compound cases [Someone brings the story to the attention of the 'victim'. but registers various parts of the encryption key with various different people and organisations. ] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . contoh: Someone establishes a web-server in a tax haven. removes the sender's identification. and offers merchants a service whereby net-facilitated sales are legally made in that location. and forwards it to the intended recipient. thereby avoiding paying tax in which the buyer and/or seller operate.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] ± Obscuration [penyamaran.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Avoidance ± Circumvention [menghindari. ] ± Anonymisation [A so-called 'anonymous remailer' receives email addressed to a third party. contoh: A sender encrypts their messages. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 92 .

‡ Pelaku ? ± Hacker. person which hacking for profit. removal of. and/or their related functions.com] ± Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer. manipulation of computer systems. use of. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Cracker. interference with. access to. to data or programs.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.hyperdictionary. ± Any criminal activity involving the copy of. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 93 .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Computer Crime ? [www. mereka yang berwatak arogan [bangga diri ?] (proud of ) dengan apa yang mereka dilakukan dan publish their achievement.

Computer Crimes ‡ Apa motif penyusup/pembobol ? ± Kesombongan / ego [ingin menguji kemampuan yang lain] / mpo. ± Iri / ingin merugikan perusahaan. ± Politik (hactivism).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 94 . ‡ Konsekuensi perusahaan ± Kredibilitas turun ± Kemajuan terhambat ± Menyesatkan pelanggan ± Kehilangan peluang bisnis Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

leccorder. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 95 .Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks yang sering ? [www.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Invasion of privacy. ± Viruses. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . flexlm. misalnya dengan TCP Grab atau Passfinder.com] ± Password sniffing. ftpd. access & modification to private data. ± CGI PHF (packet handling function) dapat dipakai untuk extract password file. «) ± Hostile [musuh ?] Java Applets. ± Holes in public commercial & domain software (sendmail.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 96 .]. ± Pencurian fisik [Laptops. ± Malfeasance [penyalah-gunaan jabatan] by Computer. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . mencuri private files.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dll. ± Denial-of-service attacks.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks ³favorit´ ? ± Theft of data and resources. ± Malicious codes and viruses. ± Penyerangan melalui email/internet. ± Seseorang memakai computer account yang lain. PC. ‡ Jenis pencurian data ? ± Menyusup ke sebuah komputer.

receiving any mail.. «« ± ± Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 97 . Akibatnya ? ‡ Pekerjaan terhambat ‡ Menghalangi komunikasi melalui e-mail ‡ e-activity [eCommerce. e-mail bombs.] terganggu / mati. . eLearning. Contoh ? ‡ Web sit-ins [protes. getting any online orders. ‡ Keeping you from doing any work. bahkan mungkin sampai crash.Computer Crimes ‡ DoS attack ± Caranya ? ‡ Mengunci komputer / website sehingga tidak berfungsi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. demo].

‡ Apa yang mungkin jadi penyebabnya ? ± Memakai /membeli SW bajakan. potentially negative impact. ± Pemrogram sebuah Univ. ± Pegawai secara rahasia membangun DB sebagai usaha sampingan. membuat program jadwal kuliah lalu pindah ke universitas lain dengan membawa kopi program untuk dipakai di tempat baru. ± Seseorang memakai account number & password orang lain untuk melihat isi sebuah DB. despite its widespread.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Pelanggan memberi unlisted telephone number di swalayan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 98 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Malfeasance by Computer ? [= "gray" areas of computer abuse] ± Computer-related behavior stretches the bounds of legality and may be viewed as only technically wrong.

htm ] ± Program ganas/jahat penyebab kerugian (harm) ekstensif. agar tiap pemilik komputer selalu memproteksinya dari tiap attacks mendatang. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Malicious Program ‡ Apa Malicious Program ? [www.rbs2. ‡ Untuk apa tahu Malicious Program ? ± Bila tahu kerusakan terjadi. bila ada Malicious Program baru [dan mungkin lebih ganas] maka hukum perlu diperbaru.com/cvirus. ± Hukum yang ada hanya bereaksi pada kerusakan yang terakhir. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 99 . ± Agar penegak hukum mengganjar pembuat Malicious Program seberat mungkin.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. tiap insiden harus dihadapi konsekwensi legal [penerapan hukum bagi pembuat program.

± Hoax ~ something intended to deceive [bohong]. It is a parasite program.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. [www. deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 100 .edu/cgi-bin/webwn] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .cogsci. needing another program to survive. ‡ Program that is designed to hide in the background and replicate itself from one computer to another by attaching itself to existing programs or parts of the operating system.Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Virus ~ ‡ Program that can reproduce by changing other programs to include a copy of itself.princeton.

‡ Biasanya dikirimkan di dalam sebuah game Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Sabotage. .. credit card numbers. files. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 101 . ‡ Penyebaran DoS attacks or worms/viruses. especially by insiders (time bombs). ± Trojan Horse ~ Program yang menyamar (masquerade) sebagai sesuatu yang useful or amusing. tetapi melakukan sesuatu yang tak terduga.dsb. ‡ Pencurian passwords.Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Worm ~ Program yang menyebarkan diri sendiri dari sistem ke sistem sepanjang jaringan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

1987. Nov. ahli virus yakin virus dibuat sebagai bentuk iklan BCS.COM pada disket DOS di Lehigh Univ. virus untuk MS DOS dibuat 1986 berisi [unencrypted text] nama.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Brain virus. Worm memunculkan suatu citra pohon conifer di monitor. ± Christma Worm. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . virus yang menginfeksi file COMMAND. ± Lehigh Virus. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 102 . Robert Slade. Virus menginfeksi boot sector disket 5¼ . worm dalam bahasa REXX dibuat mahasiswa di Jerman Desember 1987 di jaringan IBM mainframe di Eropa.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. sambil mencari 2 files pada user's account to collect e-mail addresses kemudian secara otomatis sent itself ke adres-adres tersebut. adres. & nomor telefon Brain Computer Services (BCS) swalayan di Lahore. Pakistan.

attacks Apple Mac.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. first-year CS graduate student Cornell Univ. Australia. Europe. ± MBDF Virus. 2 November 1988 . berupa 3 shareware programs: ‡ Obnoxious Tetris [game] ‡ Ten Tile Puzzle [game] ‡ Tetriscycle [Trojan Horse berisi encrypted copy dari MBDF.. Japan.Robert Tappan Morris.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Morris Worm. ?] di Cornell Univ. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Komputer yang terinfeksi MBDF Virus ada di seluruh wilayah USA.4 undergraduate students [Blumenthal. and Canada.. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 103 . created and released virus MBDF. 1992 . Pilgrim. Doe. worm yang secara efectif shut down Internet untuk beberapa hari.

± ILOVEYOU worm.S.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. pertama ditemukan di Hong Kong 4 . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 104 .5 . released on 26 March 1999 di-design to infect macros in wordprocessing documents used by the Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000 programs.[Internal e-mail systems at U. pemrogram] yang uploading infected file ke computer bulletin board.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . di mana korban dapat download a copy of the file. ± Melissa virus. Senate & Britain's House of Commons were shut down. April 1994 di-release di UK oleh Christopher Pile [³Black Baron´.2000 menyerang ³ 1/2 perusahaan di USA dan ³ 105 mail servers di Eropa.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Pathogen Virus.

. ‡ A comprehensive guide to all aspects of electronic [do's and don'ts of online] communication.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Netiket ‡ Apa etiket = etika ? [pcwebopaedia.Etiket .hyperdictionary.Etika . mencakup segala aturan.com] ± Ethic [etika] ~ the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. ± Etiquette [etiket] ~ rules governing socially acceptable behavior. "a person with oldfashioned values´. format sederhana. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 105 . "the Puritan ethic".com]/www. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . including Telnet and FTP. panduan etiket untuk posting pesan-pesan layanan online [newsgoups].. cara diskusi. ± Netiquette ~ ‡ Internet/network etiquette.

Etiket . unauthorized access. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 106 . It encompasses respect for the right to acknowledgment. invasion of privacy. and trade secrets and copyright violations. may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community. respect for the work and personal expression of others is especially critical in computer environments. It applies to works of all authors and publishers in all media.edu/Departments/TechnologyServices] ± Respect for intellectual labor and creativity to academic discourse and enterprise.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Violations of authorial integrity.Etika . right to privacy. and right to determine the form.ccis. ± Because electronic information is so volatile and easily reproduced. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . including plagiarism. manner and terms of publication and distribution.Netiket ‡ Prinsip umum etika [www.

illegal. & research].Netiket ‡ Bagaimana cara Ethical and Responsible Use of Computers ? ± Ingat bahwa semua fasilitas & perangkat komputasi adalah for purposes of work [business.Etika . instruction.Etiket .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Taati semua aturan dan prosedur yang berlau. ± Jaringan komputer & telekomunikasi untuk free exchange of ideas and information. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . or intended to defame or harass others. jadi enhancing teaching & research. as well as enabling employees to work more efficiently and productively. or to interfere with their work on the computer. discriminating. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 107 . ± Users must not use systems of any kind to send material that is obscene.

Etika .Etiket . and to help insure publishers. ± Abusers of computing privileges will be subject to disciplinary action. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 108 . ± Security systems for computers exist to ensure that only authorized users have access to computer resources. ? ± Everyone who use the computers have the right to security of their computer programs and data. ± Software license agreements serve to increase compliance with copyright and patent laws. authors and developers of return on their investments.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Netiket ‡ Bagaimana «.. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

check all your mail subjects before responding.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. never send chain letters via electronic mail. leave some margin. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .. Netiquette Guidelines [www.dfcc.Etiket .html] ± Komunikasi 1 .]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 109 .] ‡ Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer [use mixed case and proper punctuation. respect the copyright. if forwarding / re-posting don¶t change the wording. .edu/cs/rfc1855. and no more than 12 lines. etc. not send heated messages / "flames´. mail on the Internet is not secure. remember that talk is an interruption to the other person. write out no more than 70 characters.1 ‡ Email [ownership. etc. always say goodbye or some other farewell.Etika . make things easy for the recipient.

‡ Mailing list [Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate address. etc.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Etika . Assume that individuals speak for themselves. etc.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Komunikasi 1 . it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have sent them.Etiket . ]. Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions will do. Save the subscription messages for any lists you join. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 110 . Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users. Consider that a l arge audience will see your posts.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.N ‡ General [Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything. Messages and articles should be brief and to the point. auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house communication.

‡ soc .for discussions which center around NetNews itself. ‡ biz .social issues.Etika . send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.recreational activities. ‡ rec .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Etiket . [posting/cossposting. ‡ talk .business related postings.long-winded never-ending discussions.] ± Kelompok NetNews ‡ sci .computer related discussions. ‡ news . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 111 .science related discussions.the alternate hierarchy Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest. read all of a discussion in progress before posting replies. etc. ‡ comp . and ‡ alt . check the Distribution" section of the header.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 112 .xyz. information services also use conventions such as www. ‡ Gopher ‡ Wais ‡ World Wide Web (WWW) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. start problem solving by checking locally. Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication technology is in use. do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-todate and/or accurate. that any information you submit to a system is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear".Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Information services [services belong to someone else.Etiket . with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers].com.Etika .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 113 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 114 .

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