Introduction to Software

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

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Materi : ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi

Computer software Package in Office Depot Puerto Vallara- Mexico

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Pengatahuan Dasar
Abstract view
user user
USER

...

USER

Application Software

System Software Computer Hardware

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Object Object technology. DBMS.Pengetahuan Dasar Perangkat lunak / software : ‡ Instruksi dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman. embedded intelligence. custom software ± Era-2 (1964-1974). artificial Neural Network. low-cost SW ± Era-4 (1986-2000-an) desk-top oriented. distributed. real-time. product software ± Era-3 (1973-1988). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 4 . disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer ‡ Evolusi [PRE98] ± Era-1 (1950-1965). orientasi batch. distribusi terbatas.parallel computing Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . multiuser.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Expert System.

peralatan rumah tangga dll] PC-oriented Artificial Inteligent Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 5 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. online application] Business Engineering & Scientific Embedded [jaringan komputer.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Komponen : ±machine-executable [dapat ieksekusi komputer secara langsung] ±non-machine-executable ‡ Lingkup Pengembangan : ± System Software [agar perangkat keras bekerja] ± Application software : Real-time [ game.

assembler.Intermediate level (ILL). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 6 . tidak mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: machine language Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. FORTRAN.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Bahasa . dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: BASIC. C.High Level Language (HLL). tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya contoh: autocoder. Java .deskriptif [model] matematis .Low level (LLL). Pascal. SPIM .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 7 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: ± Pendefinisian masalah ± Penyusunan algoritma & flowchart ± Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal ± Uji coba perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) ± Run program ± Dokumentasi ‡ Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode ± Aturan dan urutan langkah untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah ± langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi secara tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 8 .leveltendesign. economics. Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion. [ memberikan jawaban dan metode terbaik pada pemrosesan] 2.html] 1. business and financial forecasting etc. is used heavily in social sciences. [ berbasis pada asumsi model yang diakui kebenarannya] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Jenis algoritma [http://www. typically of interest to only computer scientist.Pengetahuan Dasar .com/kb_terms/algorithm.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± Runtut (sequential / linear) ± Alternatif (alternative/selection) ± Berulang (loop/repetition) ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± program flowchart [urutan langkah pada proses] ± system flowchart [urutan dan hubungan pada bagian2 sistem] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 9 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 10 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Program flowchart ± langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] ± hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia. interpreter [to execute source code directly] ± Proses translasi o assembly o kompilasi (compilation). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 11 . perlu translator: assembler [a low level language for programming computers]. analisis:  leksikal (~ aturan penulisan )  sintaks (~ tata bahasa )  semantik (arti) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. compiler [translate from HLL to LLL].Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Translasi Bahasa [proses representasi ke bahasa lain] ± Dasar low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin.

a popular linux distribution. ubuntu. [ set perangkat lunak komplek ntuk mengontrol kemampuan perangkat keras agar dapat digunakandengan mudah] ± Utilities : ‡ assembler ‡ compiler / interpreter ‡ I/O routines ‡ diagnostic routines ‡ JCL (command language) ‡ DBMS (database management system] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 12 . Unix-like OS.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis Perangkat lunak ± Operating system (OS) [BRA91] the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

] ± Interactive / timesharing [alokasi waktu tiap proses] ± Multiprogramming ± Multiprocessing [multicomputer] ± Real time ± Network Operating System (NOS) ‡ Contoh OS CP/M. Mac OS.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. OS/MFT.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis OS . Windows Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 13 . Unix. DOS. ~ paradigma proses ± Batch processing [execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction.

komputer selalu siap dipakai ± Pemakaian komputer efisien.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Karakteristik OS ± Preinstalled [ter install sebelumnya] ± Selalu terbuka ± Menjalankan program & mengelola data ‡ Tujuan OS : ± Eksekusi user programs ± Memiliki Kernel.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untuk beragam aplikasi ± Resource allocator ± Mengendalikan perangkat I/O Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 14 .

uang dan memberikan informasi sesegera mungkin saat dibutuhkan] ± Jenis : ‡ word & text processing. QuarkXPress. contoh: WS. and Corel VENTURA ‡ Internet Browser & e-mail: Netscape. Adobe Acrobat ‡ Spreadsheet: lotus. LaTex.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Adobe InDesign. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 15 . excel ‡ Desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker. Eudora Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Adobe FrameMaker. MS Words. emacs.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi Bisnis ± Dasar use computer to saves time hence saves money have instant information when ever you need it [ untuk menghemat waktu.

pekerjaan repetitif. ± Jenis ‡ Design toolspackage: Autocad. akurat. polusi. «. untuk: cuaca. ± Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone ± Games Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . untuk : ± jaringan ± alat rumah tangga: microwave. didukung banyak libraries & methods.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. CAD/CAM « ‡ Data logging tools. CASE.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis ± Dasar mendukung ide creatif. ‡ Robotics & Artificial Intelligent tools ‡ Embedded system tools. mesin cuci. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 16 . pemakaian mudah.

Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 17 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Materi Pengenalan Internet : ‡ Kronologi ‡ Pakar Pelopor ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 18 .

´ ± 1962.packet. USSR meluncurkan Sputnik. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . satelit bumi buatan pertama. setelah serangan nuklir. RAND Paul Baran. First Paper on Packet Switching Theory. "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal [http://www. ± Jul-61. RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber. Leonard Kleinrock.cc/internet.html] ± 1957.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 19 . USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

R. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . [buku] ± Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice. Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Agu-62. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32. "OnLine Man Computer Communication". First Actual Network Experiment. ± 1964. Lawrence Roberts. "On Distributed Communications Networks".C. Paul Baran. MIT Lincoln Labs. First Paper on Internet Concept by J. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 20 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. IEEE Transactions on Systems. Licklider & Welden Clark. ± Okt-65.

Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. ± Okt-67. Original ARPANET Design Paper.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 21 . ARPA. Fall AFIPS Conf. ± Des-68. First Paper on Network Experiments.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Agu-68. Lawrence Roberts. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts.

ARPA. ± Des-68. Original ARPANET Design Paper. First Paper on Network Experiments. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. Fall AFIPS Conf. Lawrence Roberts. ± Agu-68. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 22 . ACM Gatlinberg Conf. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers".: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. ± Okt-67.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts.

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). ± Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center ± Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed ± Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network ± Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission ± Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. ± Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network ± Mar-72, First basic Email Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. ± Jul-72, First Email Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts ± Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN ± May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe ± May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. ± Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) ± Nov-77, Complete Email Specification ( RFC 733) released by two Email pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 26 . ± 1989. ± Nov-83. First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. ± 1986. NSF Opens Internet to commercial use. Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail ± 1991. .mil. . Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel.Kronologi ‡ Periode Lanjut ± Mar-78. . .gov.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.int. . & . and Danny Cohen.net.Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . creating . ± 2001 . TCP Split into TCP and IP. Jon Postel. and Craig Partridge to support the Email addressing space.edu. where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf.com. Paul Mockapetris.org.

1962 ± ARPA Computer Program. paper. 1964 ± Network Measurement Center at UCLA.R. 1962 ± First ARPA IPTO Director. 1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Licklider ± On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept). ARPANET measurement.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Leonard Kleinrock ± Packet Switching Theory. book. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 27 . 1961 ± Communication Nets. 1968 ‡ J. paper.C.

1967 ± Request For Proposals released for ARPANET. 1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1971 ± First Email Management Program. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 28 . Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT]. 1966 ± ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET. 1968 ± Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO. 1966 ± Original ARPANET Design Paper. 1965 ± ARPA Communications Program.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Lawrence Roberts ± First Actual Network Experiment. 1969 ± Packet Satellite Technique.

‡ Robert Metcalfe ± First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC ‡ Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± First Internetworking Protocol.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Steve Crocker ± Request For Comments (RFC) #1. Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 29 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. SNGMSG and READMAIL. ‡ Jon Postel ± FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) ± Domain Name System. ‡ Ray Tomlinson ± First basic Email Programs. the first output of the Network Working Group. TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.com] ‡ LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN. high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) ‡ Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . server. dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval. komputer. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 30 . sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources.about. ± Kategori [http://compnetworking.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] ± (terminal. / System AN.

e. ‡ perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan. ± WAN (wide area network): ‡ LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas ‡ Internet = WAN.  MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city  WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 31 . frame relay. or national boundaries ± LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system ± MAN > LAN < WAN. dan ATM. memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware. Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET. regional.. extranet = WAN. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Network  LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 32 . ‡ mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet ± Sistem informasi global yang: ‡ secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]. dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. secara publik maupun private. dan dapat diakses.

komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet : ± Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik. chat) ‡ konferensi online (Usenet News. ftp). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 33 . ± Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku. pemerintah. email discussion lists) ‡ akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web. dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: ‡ komunikasi langsung (e-mail. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dan lainnya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Gopher) ‡ remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 34 . ‡ Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security. juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. HTTP. atau ± Private Internet ‡ Private network enterprise. ‡ Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Implementasi TCP/IP. LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Intranet : ± LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW. dan IP lainnya.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 35 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . menerapkan firewall server management: ‡ user authentication ‡ encryption of messages ‡ menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. customers. ± Perlu keamanan dan privasi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Extranet : ± Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers. vendors. partners. & lainnya.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 36 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Operasional Extranet ± Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML ± Berbagi katalog produk ± Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis ± Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama ± Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain. misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi ± Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

peranan artist.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Dampak [ftp://ftp.edu/in-notes/rfc2150. ± Integrasi informasi. multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. komunikasi.txt] ± Akses sangat mudah. ± Agar info positif > negatif. scientist & engineer sangat penting. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 37 . ± Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter.isi. video. dan hiburan [+audio. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. perolehan info relatif murah & banyak.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 38 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Komunitas Global ± Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu ± Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs ± Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. ‡ Ketersediaan ± Shareware. Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download ± Libraries. stores.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 39 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar. di mana top level : ‡ com untuk perusahaan komersil ‡ edu untuk institusi pendidian ‡ gov untuk situs pemerintah ‡ net untuk infrastruktur jaringan ‡ org untuk organisasi non-komersil ‡ us untuk situs di USA ‡ id untuk situs di Indonesia ± Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Jenis yang populer: ± http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] ± ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] ± telnet = telecommunication network protocol.waralaba. 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: 123.123] ± Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen ‡ misal: "http://www.123.123.ext". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 40 .com/lok-dir/filename. remote service ± smtp = simple mail transfer protocol ± nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username ± Komputer harus memiliki IP address.

sci = sains. and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS¶s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Bulletin Board System (BBS). typically providing electronic messaging services. a computer + associated software.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: ‡ Message-based Communications. rec rekreasi. one-to-many ± Electronic mail ± Newsgroup. dll. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 41 . soc= sosial. electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community. archives of files. misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets). to multiple sites simultaneously. berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` ± Internet Relay Chat (IRC.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± MUD [Multi-User Dungeon]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 42 . text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants. etc. solve puzzles.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ‡ Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin. an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas. ± Multicasting. WebChat).

audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see. New York.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum . [teachers . and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill ± Audio Video Conferencing. demons.Real-Time Communications ± MUD. hear and speak with other CUSeeMe users across the world.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 43 .students. artists . Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins. USA and is freely available. this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca. doctors patients.

Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records. institutional records. as private papers. memorabilia. ± Internet¶s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing. ± Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler]. etc. documents. or photographs. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . is kept. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 44 .

digital.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Contoh search engine ‡ Yahoo .lycos.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Index of WWW sites.http://query.altavista.dejanews.com/ ‡ Lycos .http://www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 45 .com/ ‡ AltaVista .com/ Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .USENET (news groups) search engine http://www.com/ ‡ Magellan .mckinley.com/ ‡ WebCrawler . with search capabilities http://www.WWW and USENET search engine http://www.com/ ‡ DejaNews .webcrawler.Index of WWW sites.google.yahoo.com/ ‡ Google . with search capabilities http://www. with search capabilities http://www.Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 46 . ± klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ World Wide Web ~ Web ± subset of the computers di Internet ± visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas. ± organisasi Web tidak hirarkis.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages). informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links.

downloading.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 47 . printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Cara Akses ± Akses Internet ~ receiving. memerlukan dukungan: ‡ Internet Service Providers ‡ HW + SW + modem ‡ Web browser ‡ SW anti virus ‡ Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers. CD-ROM player. and viewing files. midi equip.. menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet. video equip..

Penggunaan Internet ‡ Tahapan Pengembangan Situs ± Pembuatan & pendaftaran ± Kreasi isi ‡ Getting help [lewat: Forum. dll. Chat. privacy. netiquette. viruses.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. vector. video] ‡ Kreasi digital audio. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 48 . dll. cryptography. BBS. suara & musik ‡ Publikasi ‡ Issues & Chalenges ± Security. proprietary. trademark. advicing).] ‡ Format file: public domain. standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text ‡ Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap.

Dampak Sosial Teknologi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 49 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Materi ‡ Kilas Balik ‡ Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kini & Masa Depan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 50 .

Komputer dapat mengerjakan prosesproses rumit dan berulang quickly. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . to carry out.hyperdictionary.HW dan SW . precisely and reliably serta dapat menyimpan dan mengambil kembali banyak data dengan cepat sekali.Kilas Balik ‡ Definisi [www. or store (information) in a computer or system of computers ‡ a society where computers are ubiquitous. or conduct by means of a computer.com/dictionary/] ± Computer adalah mesin yang dapat diprogram untuk memanipulasi simbol. process. control.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. termasuk networking and telecommunication. biasanya dalam konteks bisnis [that deals with all things electronic]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 51 . ± IT (Applied computer systems) . ± Computerization ~ ‡ to enter.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 52 .Kilas Balik ‡ Sejarah Alat Hitung ± Alamiah ± Abacus ± Napier¶s Bones & Mistar hitung ± Pascaline ‡ Sejarah Komputer [elektronis] ± Babbage [Difference / analytical] engine ± ENIAC. EDSAC. EDVAC ± Neuman¶s concept / IAS ± UNIVAC Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

««« Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . berdasar komponen utama] ± Tabung ± Transistor ± IC [Conductor / semiconductor / superconductor] ± SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI / ULSI ‡ Klasifikasi Komputer ± Supercomputer ± Large scale / mainframe computer ± Minicomputer ± Microcomputer / PC / desktop / workstation ± Laptop / palmtop / PDA ± etc.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Generasi Komputer [elektronis. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 53 .

Kilas Balik ‡ Kemajuan Teknologi Lain ± Mesin uap ± Lampu listrik ± Telegraf & telepon ± Pesawat terbang ± Bom atom ± Laser ± Roket ± Satelit & pesawat ruang angkasa ± Bio / Nano / Material .technology Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 54 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

BITNET ± 1990-an. 1st e-mail & personal computing [time sharing] ± 1975.WWW [era ubiquitous computing] ‡ Fungsi Komputer [sekarang].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 55 .1st University machine ± 1960. INTERNET .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Proses & Komunikasi ± 1955. IBM 650 . jaringan komputer di kantor & jaringan ± 1980-an. ARPANet. NSFNet. sebagai ± Pencacah bilangan & General purpose system ± Utility & tool ± Komunikator ± Search Engine Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . IBM 1620 .1st College machine [programer awal] ± 1964.

‡ Tingkatan dampak ? ± Penggantian aktifitas langsung dengan sedikit perubahan pada produktifitas ± Peningkatan berbagai aktifitas dengan perbaikan kecepatan dan efisiensi ± Perluasan ke berbagai aktifitas yang dahulu belum bisa dilakukan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . the don¶t-wannabetrained] dapat membuat sebuah program. untrainable.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Sejauh mana pengaruh TI ? ± Pemakai mulai berpaling dari elit professionally responsible ke komunitas dengan berbagai kepentingan yang makin luas ± Very high level applications memungkinkan kemudahan bagi tiap orang [trained.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untrained. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 56 .

true / false.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Membagi ala DIJITAL ? ± High / low. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 57 . biner ± Kaya dan miskin ± Sekolah favorit dan sekolah pinggiran ± Tua dan muda ± Laki-laki dan perempuan ± Orangtua dan anak ± Kota dan kampung ± Atasan dan bawahan ± Dosen dan non-dosen Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. on / off.

manusia sangat tergantung pada: ± Mobil ? ± Minyak bumi ? ± Listrik ? ± Telefon ? ± TV ? ± Pesawat ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kehidupan manusia bertambah baik / buruk? ‡ Manusia sangat tergantung pada komputer ? ‡ Akibat kemajuan teknologi [selain TI]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 58 .

e-education ± Freeware. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 59 .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Kehidupan ± Alat rumah-tangga: microwave. « ± Mobil [pribadi] ‡ Pendidikan ± Pelajaran + praktik TI tingkat PT/SMU/SMP/SD ± e-learning. «.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. «. opensource Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . shareware. online course. ± Alat hiburan: radio. ± Alat komunikasi: telepon.. TV.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 60 .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Bisnis & Industri ± e-commerce ± e-banking ± expert system [AI] ± CAD/CAM/CAX ««« ± Robotic ‡ Instansi/organisasi ± Komputerisasi / otomasi kantor ± Tingkat kepegawaian ± Teleworking ± Efisiensi sumberdaya Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

e-freedoms] ± Legality & security [computer crime] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . privacy. bioinformatik ‡ Masalah ± Community change [indirect interactions] ± Cultural & National Sovereignty ± Workplace & economic impacts [organization & skills] ± Information impacts [equity of access. consumer rights. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 61 .tech]./bio. regulation. pricing./material.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Sains & Teknologi (R & D) ± Lingkungan PT ± Lingkungan industri ± High Tech [Nano.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 62 . frauds.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. but all the operations & systems. . reporting. and control practices & make suggestions for improvement [not only organization's finance function.] / vulnerabilities / controls ± Risk Management ‡ proactive / reactive / non-reactive [measures] ± Control & Audit ‡ evaluate & monitor company's risk management.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Pendekatan Solusi ± Risk Analysis ‡ Quantitative ± probability of an event occurring ± likely loss should it occur ‡ Qualitative (estimated potential loss) ± threats [fire..

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 63 .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Negatif ? ± Pengangguran.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. akibat otomatisasi ± Kriminal ‡ virus ‡ pembobolan ‡ pembajakan SW ‡ pencurian perangkat ± Privacy ‡ cracking / hacking ? ‡ pencurian informasi ‡ duplikasi & manipulasi informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Manajemen Data dan Informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 64 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan pemakaiannya mudah dan murah [personal]. ‡ Database Management System (DBMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat dapat mengakses banyak tabel / file. pemeliharaan. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Dua jenis ‡ File management system (FMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat hanya mengakses data/informasi 1 tabel atau 1 file. dan pemakaiannya tidak mudah dan tidak murah [instansi/organisasi]. pemeliharaan. HW. Cara pembuatan.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Data Management System (DMS) ± Kombinasi SW. dan informasi yang didesain agar semudah mungkin cara penyimpanan dan pengambilannya kembali untuk pemanfaatannya. Cara pembuatan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 65 .

± Object-oriented DataBase Management System ~ DBMS yang menunjang pemodelan dan kresi data sebagai objects. "Create". SQL Server. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 66 . and "Drop´ ] untuk RDBMS.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Relational DataBase Management System adalah sebuah program untuk create.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. "Update". & administer sebuah basisdata relasional. "Insert". ± Structured Query Language (baca "S-Q-L" atau "sequel") ~ bahasa baku/standard ["Select". "Delete". Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Contoh: Oracle. update. menentukan class dari objek dan inheritance dari class serta metoda-metoda untuk menangani objek-objek tersebut. DB2.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .com:400/databasefile. ± Common Object Request Broker Architecture . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 67 . misal jdbc://www. tanpa perlu memahami bahasa yang dipakai atau cara memintanya.memungkinkan sebuah pr oram di satu komputer minta informasi pada program lain di komputer lainnya [dalam jaringan]. ± Java DataBase Connectivity ~ antarmuka agar dapat akses ke banyak basisdata lintas WWW dengan mudah.swaps. untuk koneksi ke basisdata SQL menghasilkan database independent applications.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Open DataBase Connectivity ~ API baku yang dikembangkan berdasar pada spesifikasi SQL Access Group.

perlu minta pendapat ahli hukum sebelun data dihancurkan. Banyak instansi besar menentukan < 5 tahun. ‡ Temporer.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Banyak ahli merekomendasikan 5 tahun sesaat mulai operasional.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Prinsip Manajemen Data ± Access Restrictions . untuk menjaga intellectual property. untuk menjaga privacy of human subjects. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Permanen. ‡ Temporer. saat administrator meng-update & validasi.larangan akses & proses data ‡ Temporer. ± Data Retention and Storage ‡ Umumnya sebuah instansi/perusahaan dapat menentukan minimal 3 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 68 . sebagai jaminan pada rekanan/sponsor. ‡ Bila terkait dengan hak paten dan legalitas lainnya.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. hard / floppy disk. physically removable : tape cartridge / reel.Pengarsipan (Filing) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Byte / karakter = å bits = 8 bit [ASCII] String = rangkaian alfanumerik Field / data item = å bytes terbatas Record = å fields yang saling terkait File = å records sejenis Database = å files terintegrasi Directory = area media tempat penyimpan files Volume = satuan identifiable data storage. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 69 .

file sekuensial di mana akses record memakai tabel indeks.file untuk meng-update master ± Backup . operasional ± Transaction .file terbaru. penyimpanan runtut dengan urutan kunci ± Index Sequential. penyimpanan seadanya tanpa melihat urutan ± Sequential. terlengkap.file yang ³dipensiun´. ± Random/direct.file duplikat master --> cucu-anak. diproses hanya bila perlu Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. penyimpanan acak di mana akses record memakai pointer ‡ Jenis File ± Master . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 70 .Pengarsipan ‡ Kategori Akses <==> organisasi ± Serial.file hasil pilahan dari master siap diproses ± History .kakek ± Scratch .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 71 .Pengarsipan ‡ Karakteristik File ± Volatility ~ frekuensi updating tinggi >< static.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Size ~ volume / kapasitas ± Activity ~ hit rate = jml % volume file yang diproses persatuan waktu ± Expansion ~ growth = tingkat pertumbuhan maksimum kapasitas sebuah file yang direncanakan. ‡ Updating ± Add ± Change ± Delete ± Modify Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

5 / 0.Pengarsipan ‡ Media Penyimpan ± Kertas ± Tape ‡ organisasi sekuensial ‡ kerapatan (density): 800.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .75 inch ± Disk ‡ organisasi indeks / acak ‡ kerapatan ‡ gap ‡ sector & track. 1600 ‡ gap [record / block]: 0. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 72 .

PDT (Pengolahan Data Tradisional) ‡ Siklus Hidup ± Identifikasi masalah & objektif [studi kelayakan] ± Determinasi kebutuhan informasi & Analisis sistem lama ± Desain sistem baru ± Pemrograman & dokumentasi SW ± Uji coba & penyempurnaan ± Penerapan & evaluasi ± Operasional ‡ Sumberdaya Manusia ± Manajemen ± Analis ± Pemrogram ± Administrator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 73 .

PDT ‡ Prosedur Umum ± ± ± ± ± Rencanakan kebutuhan data Rancang format data masukan dan keluaran Rencanakan cara pengumpulan & klasifikasi data Definisikan & rancang organisasi file [-file] Bagaimana cara entri data ? ‡ Verifikasi ‡ Validasi ± Rencanakan cara penyimpanan & pengamanannya ± Bagaimana cara pengambilan kembali. distribusi hasil ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . proses data dan pembuatan keluaran.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 74 .

Contagion. Distribution Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . 3 stages : Integration. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 75 . Control ± Information Technology Era.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 3 stages : Intiation. sebagian di-update ± Inflexibility: desain tidak terpadu => respons lambat / nihil ± Limited data sharing Û Uncontrolled redundancy ± Poor standards => operasional tidak efektif ± Low programmer productivity Û Poor standards ± Excessive program maintenance ‡ Pendekatan Richard Nolan ± Data Processing Era.Architecture.PDT ‡ Kelemahan ± Uncontrolled redundancy: aplikasi Û file sendiri ± Inconsistent data: 1 file di bbrp lokasi.

Basisdata ‡ Database ~ S files terintegrasi ‡ Data Format ± Representasi: karakter. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 76 . administrators. dapat diakses oleh business managers. files ? ± Bagaimana cara menampilkan informasi di monitor dan di kertas ? ± Bagaimana cara penyimpanan internal ? ‡ Data warehouse ± Kumpulan terpadu data perusahaan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. numerik. records. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . campuran? ± Ukuran fields. menghasilkan ad hoc queries & reports. dan cara pemeliharaan data subsets. service providers & researchers yang berhak untuk: dianalisis.

yang memungkinkan prediksi hasilhasil pada masa datang.Basisdata ‡ Data Mining ± Aktifitas ekstraksi informasi yang tujuannya untuk menemukan faktafakta tersembunyi dalam basisdata. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 77 . bagaimana cara penggunaannya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dan bagaimana setiap item database akan saling terkait. ‡ Data Model ± Hasil proses desain basisdata yang dapat dipakai untuk mengidentifkasi dan mengorganisasi data logically & physically.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Akan menunjukkan semua informasi yang harus ada dalam basisdata.

Basisdata
‡ Tingkat Model Data ± External (user views) Conceptual ± Internal [DBMS dependent] Physical ‡ Jenis Basisdata, piramid ± Operasional transaction processing ± Manajerial management information system ± Stratejik decision support system ‡ Asosiasi data ± One-to-one : NIM Nama-mhs ± One-to-many : NIM Cek-medis ± Many-to-many : S NIM S Mt-kul

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

78

Basisdata
‡ Logical Model ± Hierarchy ± Network ± Relational ± Object-oriented ‡ Terminologi ± Attribute ~ kolom tabel ± Entity ~ konsep/objek data terdefinisi ± Table ~ file ± Tupple ~ baris tabel ~ record

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

79

MIS (Management Information System)
‡ Definisi ± Segala sumberdaya & prosedur yang dibutuhkan untuk mengumpulkan, proses, dan distribusi informasi yang akan digunakan untuk ambil keputusan. ± Sistem user-machine terpadu yang menghasilkan informasi untuk menunjang operasi, manajemen, analisis, dan fungsi-fungsi pengambilan keputusan dalam organisasi. ‡ Sifat dari needed information ± Accuracy ± Timeliness ± Completeness ± Conciseness

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

80

psychology. management sc. behavioral (Economics. OR).. control. ± Basisdata ‡ Perspektif ± Bisnis: IS Û organization. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 81 . decision making.. management. planning.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.MIS ‡ Istilah ± MIS ~ IS ~ IPS ~ CBIS ‡ Menggunakan ± Komputer [HW & SW] ± Prosedur-prosedur manual ± Model-model untuk: analysis. sociology) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . technology ± Kontemporer: IS Û technical (computer sc.

tactical. operational control.. top-man). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 82 . operational. ‡ Sintesis ± Conceptual structure ~ organizational MIS ± Physical structure ~ integrated processing & common modules. logistics. finance& accounting. management control. ± Berbasis fungsi organisasi: (strategic planning. personnel. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . transaction processing) versus (sales & marketing.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.MIS ‡ Struktur ± Berbasis aktifitas manajemen: strategic. information proc. production.

Sekuriti dan Etika Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 83 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.penjaminan bahwa users adalah persons they claim to be (yang berhak).penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak diubah oleh unauthorized persons kecuali oleh authorized users.tx. [www.albion.html] ‡ Taksonomi pokok.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak dapat diakses oleh unauthorized persons. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 84 . CIA: [www.tsl.com/security/intro-4.state. integrity & confidentiality informasi yang dikelola. ± Integrity .Sekuriti ‡ Apakah Computer Security ? ± Prosedur-prosedur technological & managerial yang diterapkan pada sistem komputer untuk menjaga availability.us/ld/pubs/compsecurity/ glossary. ± Authentication .html] ± Confidentiality .

± Availability .penjaminan bahwa users hanya akses ke resources and services yang telah ditentukan & qualified users tidak ditolak akses ke services that legitimately expect to receive.penjaminan bahwa sebuah sistem operational & functional tiap saat [redundancy]. loss of availability disebut "denial-of-service´.penjaminan bahwa pengirim messages tidak dapat menyangkal fakta.Sekuriti ‡ Taksonomi lain ± Access control .penjaminan bahwa individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them. how it is used.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and what purpose it is used for. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 85 . who maintains it. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . who has used it. ± Nonrepudiation . ± Privacy .

backups. dan deteksi intrusi. firewalls. ± Operational/procedural security . monitoring processes. and auditing. proteksi network servers & transmissions.penjaringan pegawai: background screening. monitoring.pengawasan akses & otentikasi users. maintaining file and filesystem integrity. proteksi terhadap elements & natural disasters. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . security briefings. log-keeping.Domain ± Physical security . assignment of privilege. ± Network security -. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 86 . ± System security . & telekomunikasi. pengendalian akses dari untrusted networks. training.proteksi perangkat jari. and handling departures.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Personnel security .pengendalian comings and goings of people and materials. memerangi penyadapan.mencakup segala hal mulai dari managerial policy decisions sampai dengan reporting hierarchies.

´ ± R-4: Do it before someone does it wrong for you. [Computer security can never be implemented in a vacuum.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. promulgated disebar-luaskan] by computer security researcher Dan Farmer:] "The Security of a Computer System Degrades in Direct Proportion to the Amount of Use the System Receives.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .[X-Files: "There's always someone watching.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.albion. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 87 .´] ± R-2: Full disclosure of bugs & holes benefits security. ± R-3: [Farmer's Law.com] ± R-1: Security through obscurity [samar] doesn¶t work. [It's best if the vendors announced along with fixes].

± R-9: Think like the enemy [akibat R-8].] ± R-6: There¶s always someone out there smarter. [Don't underestimate the value of deterrence / rintangan. or "white hats" and "black hats.´ ]. ± R-8: The Good & Evil blend into gray [There are "good guys³ and "bad guys" out there. or better eqquiped than you [Be careful about the assumptions you make concerning the threats your systems face.albion.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .]. ± R-10: Trust is a relative concept [´Trust no one" is the strongest policy]. ± R-7: There are no turnkey security solutions [There's no checklist that will account for all vulnerabilities. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 88 .].com] ± R-5: The fear of getting cought is the beginning of wisdom. more knowledgeable.

edu. gosip.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Accidental [www. karena kiriman data /email yang banyak/besar & tidak relevan. sebaran fitnah krn ceroboh. ± Trawling / Spidering. pengomentari dengan hal-hal yang sifatnya rahasia. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 89 . ± Inadequate care with data.anu. me-reply email dengan tambahan info sensitif/rahasia. anggota milis keluar lupa dihapus. ± Minor plagiarism. info dari situs diakui hasil sendiri. ± Rumour & accidental misinformation. ± Negligent defamation. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Persistence.au/people/RogerClarke/II/Netethiquettecases] ± Information overload.

± Incitement. ± Impersonation. ± Flaming. sebaran fitnah. kirim email berbahasa kasar/kotor (foul /abusive). pengiriman banyak email ke suatu mailbox. ± Surveillance.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. penyebaran fitnah. berita hasutan melalui bulletin board. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 90 .Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Socially Aggressive ± Intentional misinformation. pemalsuan identitas gender di milis. progam / email untuk pengacauan trafik. ± Obscenity. ± Mail-bombing. ± Harassment. penyediaan material yang asusila di situs. ± Intentional defamation. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ngintip isi email-email banyak orang.

penyebaran program SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks). ± Advertising.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. penjiplakan karya tulis dari situs.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Economically Aggressive ± Spamming. merugikan terkirim. promotion. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis tapi intruder. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pembobolan keamanan sistem. pemakaian transaksi jaringan tanpa modal. ± Serious plagiarism. ngirim program perusak melalui jar. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 91 . ± Viruses & worms. ± Secondary use of data. ± Security breach. ± Abuse of intellectual property rights. ± Hacking. dll. & soliciting. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis dengan banyak jawaban sehingga mailbox overflow. pengambilan bahan dari situs tanpa menyebut sumber.

contoh: Someone establishes a web-server in a tax haven.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Avoidance ± Circumvention [menghindari. and forwards it to the intended recipient. removes the sender's identification. and offers merchants a service whereby net-facilitated sales are legally made in that location. thereby avoiding paying tax in which the buyer and/or seller operate. ] ± Compound cases [Someone brings the story to the attention of the 'victim'.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 92 . such that the messages can be decrypted provided that several of them collaborate. but registers various parts of the encryption key with various different people and organisations. contoh: A sender encrypts their messages.] ± Obscuration [penyamaran. ] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ] ± Anonymisation [A so-called 'anonymous remailer' receives email addressed to a third party.

interference with. mereka yang berwatak arogan [bangga diri ?] (proud of ) dengan apa yang mereka dilakukan dan publish their achievement. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . removal of. and/or their related functions.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. to data or programs. ‡ Pelaku ? ± Hacker. ± Cracker. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 93 . access to. person which hacking for profit.com] ± Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer. ± Any criminal activity involving the copy of. manipulation of computer systems.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Computer Crime ? [www.hyperdictionary. use of.

± Politik (hactivism).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Iri / ingin merugikan perusahaan. ‡ Konsekuensi perusahaan ± Kredibilitas turun ± Kemajuan terhambat ± Menyesatkan pelanggan ± Kehilangan peluang bisnis Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa motif penyusup/pembobol ? ± Kesombongan / ego [ingin menguji kemampuan yang lain] / mpo. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 94 .

Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks yang sering ? [www. «) ± Hostile [musuh ?] Java Applets. flexlm. ± CGI PHF (packet handling function) dapat dipakai untuk extract password file. ± Invasion of privacy. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 95 . ± Holes in public commercial & domain software (sendmail. misalnya dengan TCP Grab atau Passfinder. ftpd.leccorder. ± Viruses.com] ± Password sniffing. access & modification to private data.

Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks ³favorit´ ? ± Theft of data and resources. ± Seseorang memakai computer account yang lain. ± Penyerangan melalui email/internet. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 96 . ± Malfeasance [penyalah-gunaan jabatan] by Computer. ± Pencurian fisik [Laptops. mencuri private files.]. PC.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Jenis pencurian data ? ± Menyusup ke sebuah komputer. dll. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Denial-of-service attacks. ± Malicious codes and viruses.

e-mail bombs.. . demo].Computer Crimes ‡ DoS attack ± Caranya ? ‡ Mengunci komputer / website sehingga tidak berfungsi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] terganggu / mati. getting any online orders. eLearning. Akibatnya ? ‡ Pekerjaan terhambat ‡ Menghalangi komunikasi melalui e-mail ‡ e-activity [eCommerce. «« ± ± Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 97 . bahkan mungkin sampai crash. receiving any mail. Contoh ? ‡ Web sit-ins [protes. ‡ Keeping you from doing any work.

± Pelanggan memberi unlisted telephone number di swalayan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Pemrogram sebuah Univ. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 98 . despite its widespread. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . membuat program jadwal kuliah lalu pindah ke universitas lain dengan membawa kopi program untuk dipakai di tempat baru.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Malfeasance by Computer ? [= "gray" areas of computer abuse] ± Computer-related behavior stretches the bounds of legality and may be viewed as only technically wrong. ‡ Apa yang mungkin jadi penyebabnya ? ± Memakai /membeli SW bajakan. ± Seseorang memakai account number & password orang lain untuk melihat isi sebuah DB. ± Pegawai secara rahasia membangun DB sebagai usaha sampingan. potentially negative impact.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 99 . bila ada Malicious Program baru [dan mungkin lebih ganas] maka hukum perlu diperbaru.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. agar tiap pemilik komputer selalu memproteksinya dari tiap attacks mendatang.Malicious Program ‡ Apa Malicious Program ? [www. ± Hukum yang ada hanya bereaksi pada kerusakan yang terakhir.rbs2. ± Agar penegak hukum mengganjar pembuat Malicious Program seberat mungkin.htm ] ± Program ganas/jahat penyebab kerugian (harm) ekstensif. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . tiap insiden harus dihadapi konsekwensi legal [penerapan hukum bagi pembuat program.com/cvirus. ‡ Untuk apa tahu Malicious Program ? ± Bila tahu kerusakan terjadi.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 100 . needing another program to survive. ‡ Program that is designed to hide in the background and replicate itself from one computer to another by attaching itself to existing programs or parts of the operating system. It is a parasite program.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Virus ~ ‡ Program that can reproduce by changing other programs to include a copy of itself. [www. deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Hoax ~ something intended to deceive [bohong].cogsci.

‡ Sabotage.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. files.dsb.. credit card numbers. ‡ Pencurian passwords. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 101 .Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Worm ~ Program yang menyebarkan diri sendiri dari sistem ke sistem sepanjang jaringan. . ‡ Biasanya dikirimkan di dalam sebuah game Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Trojan Horse ~ Program yang menyamar (masquerade) sebagai sesuatu yang useful or amusing. especially by insiders (time bombs). tetapi melakukan sesuatu yang tak terduga. ‡ Penyebaran DoS attacks or worms/viruses.

± Christma Worm.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Brain virus.COM pada disket DOS di Lehigh Univ. Worm memunculkan suatu citra pohon conifer di monitor. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 102 . sambil mencari 2 files pada user's account to collect e-mail addresses kemudian secara otomatis sent itself ke adres-adres tersebut. Nov.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. worm dalam bahasa REXX dibuat mahasiswa di Jerman Desember 1987 di jaringan IBM mainframe di Eropa. 1987. Pakistan. adres. & nomor telefon Brain Computer Services (BCS) swalayan di Lahore. virus untuk MS DOS dibuat 1986 berisi [unencrypted text] nama. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . virus yang menginfeksi file COMMAND. Virus menginfeksi boot sector disket 5¼ . ± Lehigh Virus. ahli virus yakin virus dibuat sebagai bentuk iklan BCS. Robert Slade.

berupa 3 shareware programs: ‡ Obnoxious Tetris [game] ‡ Ten Tile Puzzle [game] ‡ Tetriscycle [Trojan Horse berisi encrypted copy dari MBDF.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.. Japan.. ± Komputer yang terinfeksi MBDF Virus ada di seluruh wilayah USA. ± MBDF Virus. attacks Apple Mac. 1992 . first-year CS graduate student Cornell Univ. Europe. worm yang secara efectif shut down Internet untuk beberapa hari. Doe.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Morris Worm.Robert Tappan Morris.4 undergraduate students [Blumenthal. Australia. ?] di Cornell Univ. created and released virus MBDF. 2 November 1988 . Pilgrim. and Canada. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 103 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

S.2000 menyerang ³ 1/2 perusahaan di USA dan ³ 105 mail servers di Eropa. pertama ditemukan di Hong Kong 4 .5 .Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Pathogen Virus.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. released on 26 March 1999 di-design to infect macros in wordprocessing documents used by the Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000 programs. pemrogram] yang uploading infected file ke computer bulletin board. ± Melissa virus.[Internal e-mail systems at U. ± ILOVEYOU worm. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 104 .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Senate & Britain's House of Commons were shut down. di mana korban dapat download a copy of the file. April 1994 di-release di UK oleh Christopher Pile [³Black Baron´.

‡ A comprehensive guide to all aspects of electronic [do's and don'ts of online] communication.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. mencakup segala aturan.com] ± Ethic [etika] ~ the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group.. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Etiquette [etiket] ~ rules governing socially acceptable behavior.Etika . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 105 .Netiket ‡ Apa etiket = etika ? [pcwebopaedia. .com]/www. format sederhana. "a person with oldfashioned values´. cara diskusi.Etiket .hyperdictionary. including Telnet and FTP. panduan etiket untuk posting pesan-pesan layanan online [newsgoups]. "the Puritan ethic". ± Netiquette ~ ‡ Internet/network etiquette.

ccis. respect for the work and personal expression of others is especially critical in computer environments. unauthorized access. It applies to works of all authors and publishers in all media.Netiket ‡ Prinsip umum etika [www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 106 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . invasion of privacy.Etiket . and right to determine the form.edu/Departments/TechnologyServices] ± Respect for intellectual labor and creativity to academic discourse and enterprise.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. manner and terms of publication and distribution. including plagiarism. Violations of authorial integrity. It encompasses respect for the right to acknowledgment. ± Because electronic information is so volatile and easily reproduced.Etika . right to privacy. may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community. and trade secrets and copyright violations.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Netiket ‡ Bagaimana cara Ethical and Responsible Use of Computers ? ± Ingat bahwa semua fasilitas & perangkat komputasi adalah for purposes of work [business. instruction. ± Jaringan komputer & telekomunikasi untuk free exchange of ideas and information. or to interfere with their work on the computer. as well as enabling employees to work more efficiently and productively.Etiket . illegal. & research].Etika . discriminating. or intended to defame or harass others. ± Taati semua aturan dan prosedur yang berlau. jadi enhancing teaching & research.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Users must not use systems of any kind to send material that is obscene. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 107 .

± Abusers of computing privileges will be subject to disciplinary action. ± Software license agreements serve to increase compliance with copyright and patent laws.Etika . ? ± Everyone who use the computers have the right to security of their computer programs and data.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.. ± Security systems for computers exist to ensure that only authorized users have access to computer resources. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 108 .Netiket ‡ Bagaimana «. authors and developers of return on their investments. and to help insure publishers. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Etiket .

dfcc.Etika . etc. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and no more than 12 lines. check all your mail subjects before responding. always say goodbye or some other farewell.edu/cs/rfc1855. mail on the Internet is not secure. etc. not send heated messages / "flames´. make things easy for the recipient. leave some margin.] ‡ Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer [use mixed case and proper punctuation. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 109 .Etiket .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. respect the copyright. if forwarding / re-posting don¶t change the wording. Netiquette Guidelines [www. never send chain letters via electronic mail.html] ± Komunikasi 1 .. . remember that talk is an interruption to the other person.1 ‡ Email [ownership.]. write out no more than 70 characters.

Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users. etc. auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house communication. Messages and articles should be brief and to the point. Consider that a l arge audience will see your posts.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Komunikasi 1 .Etika . Assume that individuals speak for themselves. Save the subscription messages for any lists you join. etc.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 110 . ]. it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have sent them. ‡ Mailing list [Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate address.N ‡ General [Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything.Etiket . Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions will do.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 111 .] ± Kelompok NetNews ‡ sci .for discussions which center around NetNews itself. send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.the alternate hierarchy Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .business related postings.long-winded never-ending discussions.recreational activities. check the Distribution" section of the header. [posting/cossposting. and ‡ alt .science related discussions. etc. ‡ biz .computer related discussions. ‡ comp .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest. ‡ news . ‡ rec .social issues. read all of a discussion in progress before posting replies.Etiket . ‡ soc . ‡ talk .Etika .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Etika .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Information services [services belong to someone else. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 112 . Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication technology is in use. start problem solving by checking locally.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-todate and/or accurate. with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers].xyz.com. that any information you submit to a system is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear".Etiket . ‡ Gopher ‡ Wais ‡ World Wide Web (WWW) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . information services also use conventions such as www.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 113 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 114 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

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