Introduction to Software

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

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Materi : ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi

Computer software Package in Office Depot Puerto Vallara- Mexico

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Pengatahuan Dasar
Abstract view
user user
USER

...

USER

Application Software

System Software Computer Hardware

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer ‡ Evolusi [PRE98] ± Era-1 (1950-1965).parallel computing Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . orientasi batch. product software ± Era-3 (1973-1988). artificial Neural Network. embedded intelligence. DBMS. Expert System. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 4 .Pengetahuan Dasar Perangkat lunak / software : ‡ Instruksi dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman. Object Object technology. multiuser. distribusi terbatas. real-time.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. distributed. low-cost SW ± Era-4 (1986-2000-an) desk-top oriented. custom software ± Era-2 (1964-1974).

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 5 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Komponen : ±machine-executable [dapat ieksekusi komputer secara langsung] ±non-machine-executable ‡ Lingkup Pengembangan : ± System Software [agar perangkat keras bekerja] ± Application software : Real-time [ game. online application] Business Engineering & Scientific Embedded [jaringan komputer. peralatan rumah tangga dll] PC-oriented Artificial Inteligent Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

deskriptif [model] matematis . FORTRAN.Intermediate level (ILL). Pascal. Java . assembler. dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: BASIC.High Level Language (HLL).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Bahasa . C. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 6 .Low level (LLL). SPIM . tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya contoh: autocoder. tidak mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: machine language Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 7 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: ± Pendefinisian masalah ± Penyusunan algoritma & flowchart ± Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal ± Uji coba perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) ± Run program ± Dokumentasi ‡ Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode ± Aturan dan urutan langkah untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah ± langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi secara tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

is used heavily in social sciences.Jenis algoritma [http://www. economics.com/kb_terms/algorithm.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. [ memberikan jawaban dan metode terbaik pada pemrosesan] 2. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 8 . Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion. business and financial forecasting etc.Pengetahuan Dasar . [ berbasis pada asumsi model yang diakui kebenarannya] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .leveltendesign. typically of interest to only computer scientist.html] 1. Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± Runtut (sequential / linear) ± Alternatif (alternative/selection) ± Berulang (loop/repetition) ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± program flowchart [urutan langkah pada proses] ± system flowchart [urutan dan hubungan pada bagian2 sistem] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 9 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 10 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Program flowchart ± langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] ± hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 11 . interpreter [to execute source code directly] ± Proses translasi o assembly o kompilasi (compilation). perlu translator: assembler [a low level language for programming computers]. high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia. analisis:  leksikal (~ aturan penulisan )  sintaks (~ tata bahasa )  semantik (arti) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . compiler [translate from HLL to LLL].Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Translasi Bahasa [proses representasi ke bahasa lain] ± Dasar low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. [ set perangkat lunak komplek ntuk mengontrol kemampuan perangkat keras agar dapat digunakandengan mudah] ± Utilities : ‡ assembler ‡ compiler / interpreter ‡ I/O routines ‡ diagnostic routines ‡ JCL (command language) ‡ DBMS (database management system] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . a popular linux distribution. Unix-like OS. ubuntu. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 12 .Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis Perangkat lunak ± Operating system (OS) [BRA91] the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention.

OS/MFT. Windows Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ~ paradigma proses ± Batch processing [execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction. Mac OS. Unix. DOS. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 13 .Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis OS .] ± Interactive / timesharing [alokasi waktu tiap proses] ± Multiprogramming ± Multiprocessing [multicomputer] ± Real time ± Network Operating System (NOS) ‡ Contoh OS CP/M.

komputer selalu siap dipakai ± Pemakaian komputer efisien.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Karakteristik OS ± Preinstalled [ter install sebelumnya] ± Selalu terbuka ± Menjalankan program & mengelola data ‡ Tujuan OS : ± Eksekusi user programs ± Memiliki Kernel. untuk beragam aplikasi ± Resource allocator ± Mengendalikan perangkat I/O Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 14 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 15 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. emacs. LaTex. contoh: WS. excel ‡ Desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker. and Corel VENTURA ‡ Internet Browser & e-mail: Netscape. Adobe Acrobat ‡ Spreadsheet: lotus. Adobe InDesign. MS Words. uang dan memberikan informasi sesegera mungkin saat dibutuhkan] ± Jenis : ‡ word & text processing. Eudora Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi Bisnis ± Dasar use computer to saves time hence saves money have instant information when ever you need it [ untuk menghemat waktu. QuarkXPress. Adobe FrameMaker.

± Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone ± Games Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . «.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. CAD/CAM « ‡ Data logging tools. untuk: cuaca. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 16 . polusi. pekerjaan repetitif.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis ± Dasar mendukung ide creatif. untuk : ± jaringan ± alat rumah tangga: microwave. ± Jenis ‡ Design toolspackage: Autocad. CASE. mesin cuci. didukung banyak libraries & methods. ‡ Robotics & Artificial Intelligent tools ‡ Embedded system tools. pemakaian mudah. akurat.

Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 17 .

Materi Pengenalan Internet : ‡ Kronologi ‡ Pakar Pelopor ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 18 .

"Information Flow in Large Communication Nets. First Paper on Packet Switching Theory.packet.html] ± 1957. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network.´ ± 1962. satelit bumi buatan pertama.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal [http://www.cc/internet. setelah serangan nuklir. RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber. USSR meluncurkan Sputnik. Leonard Kleinrock. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). RAND Paul Baran. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 19 . ± Jul-61.

"OnLine Man Computer Communication". Licklider & Welden Clark. MIT Lincoln Labs. Lawrence Roberts. First Actual Network Experiment. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . IEEE Transactions on Systems. ± Okt-65. Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. [buku] ± Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice. ± 1964.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Agu-62.C. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32.R. Paul Baran. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 20 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. First Paper on Internet Concept by J. "On Distributed Communications Networks".

First Paper on Network Experiments. Original ARPANET Design Paper. ± Des-68. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. ± Agu-68.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 21 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ARPA. Fall AFIPS Conf. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". Lawrence Roberts. ± Okt-67. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ".

± Des-68. Original ARPANET Design Paper. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. ARPA. First Paper on Network Experiments.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 22 . BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Agu-68.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Fall AFIPS Conf. Lawrence Roberts. ± Okt-67. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ".

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). ± Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center ± Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed ± Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network ± Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission ± Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. ± Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network ± Mar-72, First basic Email Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. ± Jul-72, First Email Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts ± Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN ± May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe ± May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. ± Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) ± Nov-77, Complete Email Specification ( RFC 733) released by two Email pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . . where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf.Kronologi ‡ Periode Lanjut ± Mar-78. .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± 1989.org. ± 2001 . . Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel.edu. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 26 .int. Paul Mockapetris. NSF Opens Internet to commercial use. & . creating . ± 1986. and Danny Cohen. TCP Split into TCP and IP. . . ± Nov-83.gov. First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch.net. and Craig Partridge to support the Email addressing space.com.mil. Jon Postel. Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail ± 1991.

1968 ‡ J. 1961 ± Communication Nets. paper. 1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . 1962 ± First ARPA IPTO Director.C.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Licklider ± On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 27 . ARPANET measurement. 1962 ± ARPA Computer Program. paper. 1964 ± Network Measurement Center at UCLA.R.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Leonard Kleinrock ± Packet Switching Theory. book.

1967 ± Request For Proposals released for ARPANET. 1966 ± Original ARPANET Design Paper. 1965 ± ARPA Communications Program. 1968 ± Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1969 ± Packet Satellite Technique.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Lawrence Roberts ± First Actual Network Experiment. 1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT]. 1971 ± First Email Management Program. 1966 ± ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 28 .

Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol. ‡ Ray Tomlinson ± First basic Email Programs. the first output of the Network Working Group. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 29 .Pakar Pelopor ‡ Steve Crocker ± Request For Comments (RFC) #1.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. SNGMSG and READMAIL. ‡ Jon Postel ± FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) ± Domain Name System. TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Robert Metcalfe ± First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC ‡ Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± First Internetworking Protocol.

komputer. / System AN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 30 . ± Kategori [http://compnetworking.com] ‡ LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN. high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) ‡ Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . server.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval. sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] ± (terminal.about.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. frame relay. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan..  MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city  WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i. memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware. dan ATM.e. regional.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Network  LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 31 . Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . extranet = WAN. ± WAN (wide area network): ‡ LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas ‡ Internet = WAN. or national boundaries ± LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system ± MAN > LAN < WAN. ‡ perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN.

komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]. dan dapat diakses. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet ± Sistem informasi global yang: ‡ secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi. secara publik maupun private. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 32 . dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya.

pemerintah. dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: ‡ komunikasi langsung (e-mail. chat) ‡ konferensi online (Usenet News. dan lainnya. ftp). komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri. Gopher) ‡ remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 33 . ± Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet : ± Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . email discussion lists) ‡ akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . atau ± Private Internet ‡ Private network enterprise. ‡ Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 34 . ‡ Implementasi TCP/IP. dan IP lainnya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Intranet : ± LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW. HTTP. ‡ Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security. LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 35 . ± Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan. customers. vendors. menerapkan firewall server management: ‡ user authentication ‡ encryption of messages ‡ menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . partners.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Extranet : ± Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers. ± Perlu keamanan dan privasi. & lainnya.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 36 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Operasional Extranet ± Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML ± Berbagi katalog produk ± Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis ± Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama ± Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain. misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi ± Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

video. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 37 . ± Integrasi informasi. komunikasi.txt] ± Akses sangat mudah.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Dampak [ftp://ftp. scientist & engineer sangat penting.edu/in-notes/rfc2150. ± Agar info positif > negatif. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . peranan artist.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran.isi. perolehan info relatif murah & banyak. ± Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter. pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio. dan hiburan [+audio.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 38 . stores.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Komunitas Global ± Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu ± Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs ± Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download ± Libraries. and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya. ‡ Ketersediaan ± Shareware.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 39 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar. di mana top level : ‡ com untuk perusahaan komersil ‡ edu untuk institusi pendidian ‡ gov untuk situs pemerintah ‡ net untuk infrastruktur jaringan ‡ org untuk organisasi non-komersil ‡ us untuk situs di USA ‡ id untuk situs di Indonesia ± Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

123. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 40 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username ± Komputer harus memiliki IP address. ‡ Jenis yang populer: ± http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] ± ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] ± telnet = telecommunication network protocol.123] ± Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen ‡ misal: "http://www.123.com/lok-dir/filename. 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: 123.waralaba. remote service ± smtp = simple mail transfer protocol ± nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .ext".: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

one-to-many ± Electronic mail ± Newsgroup.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: ‡ Message-based Communications. typically providing electronic messaging services. soc= sosial.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 41 . ± Bulletin Board System (BBS). and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS¶s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . a computer + associated software. misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer. rec rekreasi. sci = sains. electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community. archives of files. dll.

Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ‡ Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 42 . text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. to multiple sites simultaneously. ± Multicasting. solve puzzles. ± MUD [Multi-User Dungeon]. WebChat). an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas. etc. technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets). Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` ± Internet Relay Chat (IRC.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. [teachers . Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 43 .audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see.Real-Time Communications ± MUD. artists . this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca.students. New York. hear and speak with other CUSeeMe users across the world. demons. USA and is freely available. doctors patients.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill ± Audio Video Conferencing.

are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest. documents. etc. institutional records. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . or photographs. ± Internet¶s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing. ± Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 44 . is kept.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records. memorabilia. as private papers.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

http://query.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.WWW and USENET search engine http://www.yahoo. with search capabilities http://www.com/ Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .http://www.mckinley. with search capabilities http://www.dejanews.google.Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites.Index of WWW sites.USENET (news groups) search engine http://www.com/ ‡ Magellan .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Contoh search engine ‡ Yahoo .digital.com/ ‡ DejaNews .webcrawler.com/ ‡ Google .com/ ‡ AltaVista . with search capabilities http://www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 45 .com/ ‡ Lycos .lycos.altavista.com/ ‡ WebCrawler .Index of WWW sites.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 46 . informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links. ± organisasi Web tidak hirarkis. Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ World Wide Web ~ Web ± subset of the computers di Internet ± visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas.

CD-ROM player.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Cara Akses ± Akses Internet ~ receiving. and viewing files. memerlukan dukungan: ‡ Internet Service Providers ‡ HW + SW + modem ‡ Web browser ‡ SW anti virus ‡ Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers. video equip.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 47 .. menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet. midi equip. downloading..

dll. privacy. advicing). Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . trademark. cryptography.] ‡ Format file: public domain. proprietary. vector. viruses.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Tahapan Pengembangan Situs ± Pembuatan & pendaftaran ± Kreasi isi ‡ Getting help [lewat: Forum. Chat. suara & musik ‡ Publikasi ‡ Issues & Chalenges ± Security. dll. netiquette. video] ‡ Kreasi digital audio. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 48 . ‡ Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text ‡ Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright. BBS.

Dampak Sosial Teknologi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 49 .

Materi ‡ Kilas Balik ‡ Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kini & Masa Depan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 50 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

process. biasanya dalam konteks bisnis [that deals with all things electronic]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 51 .Kilas Balik ‡ Definisi [www. ± Computerization ~ ‡ to enter.hyperdictionary. or conduct by means of a computer. or store (information) in a computer or system of computers ‡ a society where computers are ubiquitous.com/dictionary/] ± Computer adalah mesin yang dapat diprogram untuk memanipulasi simbol. Komputer dapat mengerjakan prosesproses rumit dan berulang quickly. ± IT (Applied computer systems) . termasuk networking and telecommunication.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. to carry out.HW dan SW . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . precisely and reliably serta dapat menyimpan dan mengambil kembali banyak data dengan cepat sekali. control.

EDSAC. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 52 .Kilas Balik ‡ Sejarah Alat Hitung ± Alamiah ± Abacus ± Napier¶s Bones & Mistar hitung ± Pascaline ‡ Sejarah Komputer [elektronis] ± Babbage [Difference / analytical] engine ± ENIAC.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. EDVAC ± Neuman¶s concept / IAS ± UNIVAC Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Kilas Balik ‡ Generasi Komputer [elektronis. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 53 . ««« Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. berdasar komponen utama] ± Tabung ± Transistor ± IC [Conductor / semiconductor / superconductor] ± SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI / ULSI ‡ Klasifikasi Komputer ± Supercomputer ± Large scale / mainframe computer ± Minicomputer ± Microcomputer / PC / desktop / workstation ± Laptop / palmtop / PDA ± etc.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 54 .Kilas Balik ‡ Kemajuan Teknologi Lain ± Mesin uap ± Lampu listrik ± Telegraf & telepon ± Pesawat terbang ± Bom atom ± Laser ± Roket ± Satelit & pesawat ruang angkasa ± Bio / Nano / Material .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.technology Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

INTERNET . IBM 1620 . NSFNet.WWW [era ubiquitous computing] ‡ Fungsi Komputer [sekarang]. ARPANet. IBM 650 .1st College machine [programer awal] ± 1964.1st University machine ± 1960. sebagai ± Pencacah bilangan & General purpose system ± Utility & tool ± Komunikator ± Search Engine Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . BITNET ± 1990-an. jaringan komputer di kantor & jaringan ± 1980-an. 1st e-mail & personal computing [time sharing] ± 1975. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 55 .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Proses & Komunikasi ± 1955.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untrainable. the don¶t-wannabetrained] dapat membuat sebuah program. untrained. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 56 .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Sejauh mana pengaruh TI ? ± Pemakai mulai berpaling dari elit professionally responsible ke komunitas dengan berbagai kepentingan yang makin luas ± Very high level applications memungkinkan kemudahan bagi tiap orang [trained. ‡ Tingkatan dampak ? ± Penggantian aktifitas langsung dengan sedikit perubahan pada produktifitas ± Peningkatan berbagai aktifitas dengan perbaikan kecepatan dan efisiensi ± Perluasan ke berbagai aktifitas yang dahulu belum bisa dilakukan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. true / false. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 57 . biner ± Kaya dan miskin ± Sekolah favorit dan sekolah pinggiran ± Tua dan muda ± Laki-laki dan perempuan ± Orangtua dan anak ± Kota dan kampung ± Atasan dan bawahan ± Dosen dan non-dosen Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Membagi ala DIJITAL ? ± High / low. on / off.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 58 .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kehidupan manusia bertambah baik / buruk? ‡ Manusia sangat tergantung pada komputer ? ‡ Akibat kemajuan teknologi [selain TI].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. manusia sangat tergantung pada: ± Mobil ? ± Minyak bumi ? ± Listrik ? ± Telefon ? ± TV ? ± Pesawat ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

± Alat komunikasi: telepon.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 59 . ± Alat hiburan: radio.. TV. opensource Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . «. e-education ± Freeware. « ± Mobil [pribadi] ‡ Pendidikan ± Pelajaran + praktik TI tingkat PT/SMU/SMP/SD ± e-learning. shareware.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Kehidupan ± Alat rumah-tangga: microwave. online course. «.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Bisnis & Industri ± e-commerce ± e-banking ± expert system [AI] ± CAD/CAM/CAX ««« ± Robotic ‡ Instansi/organisasi ± Komputerisasi / otomasi kantor ± Tingkat kepegawaian ± Teleworking ± Efisiensi sumberdaya Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 60 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Sains & Teknologi (R & D) ± Lingkungan PT ± Lingkungan industri ± High Tech [Nano. privacy.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. e-freedoms] ± Legality & security [computer crime] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 61 . bioinformatik ‡ Masalah ± Community change [indirect interactions] ± Cultural & National Sovereignty ± Workplace & economic impacts [organization & skills] ± Information impacts [equity of access.tech]./material. regulation. consumer rights./bio. pricing.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. but all the operations & systems.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .] / vulnerabilities / controls ± Risk Management ‡ proactive / reactive / non-reactive [measures] ± Control & Audit ‡ evaluate & monitor company's risk management.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Pendekatan Solusi ± Risk Analysis ‡ Quantitative ± probability of an event occurring ± likely loss should it occur ‡ Qualitative (estimated potential loss) ± threats [fire. . and control practices & make suggestions for improvement [not only organization's finance function. reporting. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 62 .. frauds.

akibat otomatisasi ± Kriminal ‡ virus ‡ pembobolan ‡ pembajakan SW ‡ pencurian perangkat ± Privacy ‡ cracking / hacking ? ‡ pencurian informasi ‡ duplikasi & manipulasi informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 63 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Negatif ? ± Pengangguran.

Manajemen Data dan Informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 64 .

HW. ± Dua jenis ‡ File management system (FMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat hanya mengakses data/informasi 1 tabel atau 1 file. dan pemakaiannya mudah dan murah [personal].Pengertian Dasar ‡ Data Management System (DMS) ± Kombinasi SW. ‡ Database Management System (DBMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat dapat mengakses banyak tabel / file. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Cara pembuatan. pemeliharaan. Cara pembuatan. pemeliharaan. dan informasi yang didesain agar semudah mungkin cara penyimpanan dan pengambilannya kembali untuk pemanfaatannya. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 65 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan pemakaiannya tidak mudah dan tidak murah [instansi/organisasi].

± Object-oriented DataBase Management System ~ DBMS yang menunjang pemodelan dan kresi data sebagai objects. "Update". "Create". "Delete".: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. & administer sebuah basisdata relasional. and "Drop´ ] untuk RDBMS.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Relational DataBase Management System adalah sebuah program untuk create. SQL Server. update. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Contoh: Oracle. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 66 . ± Structured Query Language (baca "S-Q-L" atau "sequel") ~ bahasa baku/standard ["Select". "Insert". menentukan class dari objek dan inheritance dari class serta metoda-metoda untuk menangani objek-objek tersebut. DB2.

misal jdbc://www. ± Java DataBase Connectivity ~ antarmuka agar dapat akses ke banyak basisdata lintas WWW dengan mudah. ± Common Object Request Broker Architecture .memungkinkan sebuah pr oram di satu komputer minta informasi pada program lain di komputer lainnya [dalam jaringan].Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Open DataBase Connectivity ~ API baku yang dikembangkan berdasar pada spesifikasi SQL Access Group.swaps. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 67 .com:400/databasefile. tanpa perlu memahami bahasa yang dipakai atau cara memintanya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untuk koneksi ke basisdata SQL menghasilkan database independent applications.

untuk menjaga intellectual property. saat administrator meng-update & validasi. untuk menjaga privacy of human subjects.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Temporer. ‡ Banyak ahli merekomendasikan 5 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. ‡ Permanen.larangan akses & proses data ‡ Temporer. perlu minta pendapat ahli hukum sebelun data dihancurkan. ‡ Bila terkait dengan hak paten dan legalitas lainnya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Data Retention and Storage ‡ Umumnya sebuah instansi/perusahaan dapat menentukan minimal 3 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. Banyak instansi besar menentukan < 5 tahun.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Prinsip Manajemen Data ± Access Restrictions . ‡ Temporer. sebagai jaminan pada rekanan/sponsor. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 68 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengarsipan (Filing) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Byte / karakter = å bits = 8 bit [ASCII] String = rangkaian alfanumerik Field / data item = å bytes terbatas Record = å fields yang saling terkait File = å records sejenis Database = å files terintegrasi Directory = area media tempat penyimpan files Volume = satuan identifiable data storage. physically removable : tape cartridge / reel. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 69 . hard / floppy disk.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.file untuk meng-update master ± Backup . ± Random/direct. terlengkap.file yang ³dipensiun´.kakek ± Scratch .Pengarsipan ‡ Kategori Akses <==> organisasi ± Serial. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 70 .file duplikat master --> cucu-anak. penyimpanan acak di mana akses record memakai pointer ‡ Jenis File ± Master . penyimpanan seadanya tanpa melihat urutan ± Sequential. file sekuensial di mana akses record memakai tabel indeks.file terbaru. penyimpanan runtut dengan urutan kunci ± Index Sequential.file hasil pilahan dari master siap diproses ± History . operasional ± Transaction . diproses hanya bila perlu Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

‡ Updating ± Add ± Change ± Delete ± Modify Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Size ~ volume / kapasitas ± Activity ~ hit rate = jml % volume file yang diproses persatuan waktu ± Expansion ~ growth = tingkat pertumbuhan maksimum kapasitas sebuah file yang direncanakan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 71 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengarsipan ‡ Karakteristik File ± Volatility ~ frekuensi updating tinggi >< static.

75 inch ± Disk ‡ organisasi indeks / acak ‡ kerapatan ‡ gap ‡ sector & track.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 72 .5 / 0.Pengarsipan ‡ Media Penyimpan ± Kertas ± Tape ‡ organisasi sekuensial ‡ kerapatan (density): 800. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . 1600 ‡ gap [record / block]: 0.

PDT (Pengolahan Data Tradisional) ‡ Siklus Hidup ± Identifikasi masalah & objektif [studi kelayakan] ± Determinasi kebutuhan informasi & Analisis sistem lama ± Desain sistem baru ± Pemrograman & dokumentasi SW ± Uji coba & penyempurnaan ± Penerapan & evaluasi ± Operasional ‡ Sumberdaya Manusia ± Manajemen ± Analis ± Pemrogram ± Administrator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 73 .

proses data dan pembuatan keluaran. distribusi hasil ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .PDT ‡ Prosedur Umum ± ± ± ± ± Rencanakan kebutuhan data Rancang format data masukan dan keluaran Rencanakan cara pengumpulan & klasifikasi data Definisikan & rancang organisasi file [-file] Bagaimana cara entri data ? ‡ Verifikasi ‡ Validasi ± Rencanakan cara penyimpanan & pengamanannya ± Bagaimana cara pengambilan kembali. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 74 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

PDT ‡ Kelemahan ± Uncontrolled redundancy: aplikasi Û file sendiri ± Inconsistent data: 1 file di bbrp lokasi. sebagian di-update ± Inflexibility: desain tidak terpadu => respons lambat / nihil ± Limited data sharing Û Uncontrolled redundancy ± Poor standards => operasional tidak efektif ± Low programmer productivity Û Poor standards ± Excessive program maintenance ‡ Pendekatan Richard Nolan ± Data Processing Era.Architecture.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 3 stages : Integration. Distribution Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Contagion. Control ± Information Technology Era. 3 stages : Intiation. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 75 .

Basisdata ‡ Database ~ S files terintegrasi ‡ Data Format ± Representasi: karakter. service providers & researchers yang berhak untuk: dianalisis.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan cara pemeliharaan data subsets. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 76 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dapat diakses oleh business managers. numerik. menghasilkan ad hoc queries & reports. campuran? ± Ukuran fields. records. files ? ± Bagaimana cara menampilkan informasi di monitor dan di kertas ? ± Bagaimana cara penyimpanan internal ? ‡ Data warehouse ± Kumpulan terpadu data perusahaan. administrators.

bagaimana cara penggunaannya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . yang memungkinkan prediksi hasilhasil pada masa datang.Basisdata ‡ Data Mining ± Aktifitas ekstraksi informasi yang tujuannya untuk menemukan faktafakta tersembunyi dalam basisdata. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 77 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Data Model ± Hasil proses desain basisdata yang dapat dipakai untuk mengidentifkasi dan mengorganisasi data logically & physically. dan bagaimana setiap item database akan saling terkait. ± Akan menunjukkan semua informasi yang harus ada dalam basisdata.

Basisdata
‡ Tingkat Model Data ± External (user views) Conceptual ± Internal [DBMS dependent] Physical ‡ Jenis Basisdata, piramid ± Operasional transaction processing ± Manajerial management information system ± Stratejik decision support system ‡ Asosiasi data ± One-to-one : NIM Nama-mhs ± One-to-many : NIM Cek-medis ± Many-to-many : S NIM S Mt-kul

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

78

Basisdata
‡ Logical Model ± Hierarchy ± Network ± Relational ± Object-oriented ‡ Terminologi ± Attribute ~ kolom tabel ± Entity ~ konsep/objek data terdefinisi ± Table ~ file ± Tupple ~ baris tabel ~ record

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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MIS (Management Information System)
‡ Definisi ± Segala sumberdaya & prosedur yang dibutuhkan untuk mengumpulkan, proses, dan distribusi informasi yang akan digunakan untuk ambil keputusan. ± Sistem user-machine terpadu yang menghasilkan informasi untuk menunjang operasi, manajemen, analisis, dan fungsi-fungsi pengambilan keputusan dalam organisasi. ‡ Sifat dari needed information ± Accuracy ± Timeliness ± Completeness ± Conciseness

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

80

management. control.. planning.. ± Basisdata ‡ Perspektif ± Bisnis: IS Û organization. OR). management sc. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 81 . sociology) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . behavioral (Economics. psychology.MIS ‡ Istilah ± MIS ~ IS ~ IPS ~ CBIS ‡ Menggunakan ± Komputer [HW & SW] ± Prosedur-prosedur manual ± Model-model untuk: analysis.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. decision making. technology ± Kontemporer: IS Û technical (computer sc.

finance& accounting. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. information proc.MIS ‡ Struktur ± Berbasis aktifitas manajemen: strategic. operational control. personnel. production.. logistics. operational. management control. tactical. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 82 . ± Berbasis fungsi organisasi: (strategic planning. ‡ Sintesis ± Conceptual structure ~ organizational MIS ± Physical structure ~ integrated processing & common modules. top-man). transaction processing) versus (sales & marketing.

Sekuriti dan Etika Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 83 .

penjaminan bahwa users adalah persons they claim to be (yang berhak).html] ‡ Taksonomi pokok. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . [www.tx. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 84 . ± Authentication .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.us/ld/pubs/compsecurity/ glossary.com/security/intro-4.html] ± Confidentiality .penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak dapat diakses oleh unauthorized persons.Sekuriti ‡ Apakah Computer Security ? ± Prosedur-prosedur technological & managerial yang diterapkan pada sistem komputer untuk menjaga availability.tsl. integrity & confidentiality informasi yang dikelola.state. CIA: [www.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak diubah oleh unauthorized persons kecuali oleh authorized users. ± Integrity .albion.

how it is used. who has used it. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 85 .penjaminan bahwa pengirim messages tidak dapat menyangkal fakta. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Availability .penjaminan bahwa sebuah sistem operational & functional tiap saat [redundancy]. ± Nonrepudiation . who maintains it. ± Privacy .penjaminan bahwa users hanya akses ke resources and services yang telah ditentukan & qualified users tidak ditolak akses ke services that legitimately expect to receive.penjaminan bahwa individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them.Sekuriti ‡ Taksonomi lain ± Access control . loss of availability disebut "denial-of-service´. and what purpose it is used for.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 86 . assignment of privilege.Domain ± Physical security .proteksi perangkat jari. proteksi terhadap elements & natural disasters.mencakup segala hal mulai dari managerial policy decisions sampai dengan reporting hierarchies. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and handling departures. & telekomunikasi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. maintaining file and filesystem integrity. and auditing. memerangi penyadapan. log-keeping. training. security briefings.pengawasan akses & otentikasi users. backups. ± System security . proteksi network servers & transmissions. ± Personnel security . firewalls. monitoring. ± Network security -. monitoring processes. pengendalian akses dari untrusted networks. dan deteksi intrusi.penjaringan pegawai: background screening.pengendalian comings and goings of people and materials. ± Operational/procedural security .

[Computer security can never be implemented in a vacuum.´] ± R-2: Full disclosure of bugs & holes benefits security. promulgated disebar-luaskan] by computer security researcher Dan Farmer:] "The Security of a Computer System Degrades in Direct Proportion to the Amount of Use the System Receives.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.´ ± R-4: Do it before someone does it wrong for you.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 87 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± R-3: [Farmer's Law. [It's best if the vendors announced along with fixes].albion.com] ± R-1: Security through obscurity [samar] doesn¶t work.[X-Files: "There's always someone watching.

[Don't underestimate the value of deterrence / rintangan. ± R-8: The Good & Evil blend into gray [There are "good guys³ and "bad guys" out there.] ± R-6: There¶s always someone out there smarter.albion.´ ].Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.com] ± R-5: The fear of getting cought is the beginning of wisdom. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .].]. ± R-9: Think like the enemy [akibat R-8]. more knowledgeable. ± R-10: Trust is a relative concept [´Trust no one" is the strongest policy]. or better eqquiped than you [Be careful about the assumptions you make concerning the threats your systems face.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. or "white hats" and "black hats. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 88 . ± R-7: There are no turnkey security solutions [There's no checklist that will account for all vulnerabilities.

sebaran fitnah krn ceroboh. ± Minor plagiarism. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Accidental [www.au/people/RogerClarke/II/Netethiquettecases] ± Information overload. karena kiriman data /email yang banyak/besar & tidak relevan. pengomentari dengan hal-hal yang sifatnya rahasia. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 89 . info dari situs diakui hasil sendiri.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Rumour & accidental misinformation. ± Persistence. me-reply email dengan tambahan info sensitif/rahasia. ± Trawling / Spidering. ± Inadequate care with data. anggota milis keluar lupa dihapus.edu.anu. gosip. ± Negligent defamation.

penyediaan material yang asusila di situs. ± Mail-bombing. ± Impersonation. kirim email berbahasa kasar/kotor (foul /abusive). penyebaran fitnah.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Socially Aggressive ± Intentional misinformation. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 90 . ngintip isi email-email banyak orang.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Intentional defamation. progam / email untuk pengacauan trafik. ± Harassment. berita hasutan melalui bulletin board. ± Incitement. ± Flaming. pemalsuan identitas gender di milis. sebaran fitnah. ± Surveillance. ± Obscenity. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pengiriman banyak email ke suatu mailbox.

pemakaian transaksi jaringan tanpa modal. ± Abuse of intellectual property rights. promotion. ± Security breach. ± Viruses & worms. ± Serious plagiarism. penyebaran program SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks). ± Advertising. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis dengan banyak jawaban sehingga mailbox overflow. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis tapi intruder. merugikan terkirim. dll. ± Secondary use of data. pengambilan bahan dari situs tanpa menyebut sumber. & soliciting. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 91 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Hacking. penjiplakan karya tulis dari situs. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Economically Aggressive ± Spamming. ngirim program perusak melalui jar. pembobolan keamanan sistem.

but registers various parts of the encryption key with various different people and organisations. and offers merchants a service whereby net-facilitated sales are legally made in that location.] ± Obscuration [penyamaran. such that the messages can be decrypted provided that several of them collaborate. contoh: Someone establishes a web-server in a tax haven. removes the sender's identification.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. thereby avoiding paying tax in which the buyer and/or seller operate. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 92 . contoh: A sender encrypts their messages. ] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ] ± Anonymisation [A so-called 'anonymous remailer' receives email addressed to a third party.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Avoidance ± Circumvention [menghindari. ] ± Compound cases [Someone brings the story to the attention of the 'victim'. and forwards it to the intended recipient.

‡ Pelaku ? ± Hacker. mereka yang berwatak arogan [bangga diri ?] (proud of ) dengan apa yang mereka dilakukan dan publish their achievement. to data or programs.hyperdictionary. interference with.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Computer Crime ? [www. ± Cracker. person which hacking for profit.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Any criminal activity involving the copy of. removal of. access to. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 93 . manipulation of computer systems. use of. and/or their related functions.com] ± Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Konsekuensi perusahaan ± Kredibilitas turun ± Kemajuan terhambat ± Menyesatkan pelanggan ± Kehilangan peluang bisnis Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa motif penyusup/pembobol ? ± Kesombongan / ego [ingin menguji kemampuan yang lain] / mpo. ± Iri / ingin merugikan perusahaan. ± Politik (hactivism). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 94 .

flexlm. «) ± Hostile [musuh ?] Java Applets. access & modification to private data.leccorder.com] ± Password sniffing. ± Holes in public commercial & domain software (sendmail. ± CGI PHF (packet handling function) dapat dipakai untuk extract password file. misalnya dengan TCP Grab atau Passfinder.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks yang sering ? [www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 95 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ftpd. ± Viruses. ± Invasion of privacy.

dll. PC. ± Penyerangan melalui email/internet. mencuri private files. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Malfeasance [penyalah-gunaan jabatan] by Computer. ± Pencurian fisik [Laptops. ‡ Jenis pencurian data ? ± Menyusup ke sebuah komputer.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks ³favorit´ ? ± Theft of data and resources. ± Malicious codes and viruses. ± Denial-of-service attacks. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 96 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Seseorang memakai computer account yang lain.].

demo].Computer Crimes ‡ DoS attack ± Caranya ? ‡ Mengunci komputer / website sehingga tidak berfungsi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 97 . bahkan mungkin sampai crash. Akibatnya ? ‡ Pekerjaan terhambat ‡ Menghalangi komunikasi melalui e-mail ‡ e-activity [eCommerce. . Contoh ? ‡ Web sit-ins [protes. e-mail bombs. getting any online orders. «« ± ± Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :..] terganggu / mati. ‡ Keeping you from doing any work. eLearning. receiving any mail.

± Pemrogram sebuah Univ. ± Pegawai secara rahasia membangun DB sebagai usaha sampingan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 98 . ± Pelanggan memberi unlisted telephone number di swalayan. potentially negative impact. despite its widespread. ± Seseorang memakai account number & password orang lain untuk melihat isi sebuah DB.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Malfeasance by Computer ? [= "gray" areas of computer abuse] ± Computer-related behavior stretches the bounds of legality and may be viewed as only technically wrong. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. membuat program jadwal kuliah lalu pindah ke universitas lain dengan membawa kopi program untuk dipakai di tempat baru. ‡ Apa yang mungkin jadi penyebabnya ? ± Memakai /membeli SW bajakan.

rbs2.com/cvirus. agar tiap pemilik komputer selalu memproteksinya dari tiap attacks mendatang. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Untuk apa tahu Malicious Program ? ± Bila tahu kerusakan terjadi. ± Agar penegak hukum mengganjar pembuat Malicious Program seberat mungkin. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 99 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. bila ada Malicious Program baru [dan mungkin lebih ganas] maka hukum perlu diperbaru.htm ] ± Program ganas/jahat penyebab kerugian (harm) ekstensif. tiap insiden harus dihadapi konsekwensi legal [penerapan hukum bagi pembuat program. ± Hukum yang ada hanya bereaksi pada kerusakan yang terakhir.Malicious Program ‡ Apa Malicious Program ? [www.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 100 .Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Virus ~ ‡ Program that can reproduce by changing other programs to include a copy of itself. needing another program to survive. deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage.edu/cgi-bin/webwn] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Hoax ~ something intended to deceive [bohong].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. It is a parasite program. [www.princeton.cogsci. ‡ Program that is designed to hide in the background and replicate itself from one computer to another by attaching itself to existing programs or parts of the operating system.

± Trojan Horse ~ Program yang menyamar (masquerade) sebagai sesuatu yang useful or amusing. ‡ Sabotage. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 101 . ‡ Penyebaran DoS attacks or worms/viruses.Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Worm ~ Program yang menyebarkan diri sendiri dari sistem ke sistem sepanjang jaringan. ‡ Pencurian passwords. credit card numbers.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. tetapi melakukan sesuatu yang tak terduga. especially by insiders (time bombs)..dsb. files. ‡ Biasanya dikirimkan di dalam sebuah game Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . .

& nomor telefon Brain Computer Services (BCS) swalayan di Lahore. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 102 . ahli virus yakin virus dibuat sebagai bentuk iklan BCS.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Brain virus. ± Christma Worm. virus yang menginfeksi file COMMAND. Nov. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .COM pada disket DOS di Lehigh Univ. worm dalam bahasa REXX dibuat mahasiswa di Jerman Desember 1987 di jaringan IBM mainframe di Eropa. Virus menginfeksi boot sector disket 5¼ . sambil mencari 2 files pada user's account to collect e-mail addresses kemudian secara otomatis sent itself ke adres-adres tersebut. ± Lehigh Virus. adres. Pakistan. Robert Slade.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1987. Worm memunculkan suatu citra pohon conifer di monitor. virus untuk MS DOS dibuat 1986 berisi [unencrypted text] nama.

worm yang secara efectif shut down Internet untuk beberapa hari. Japan. created and released virus MBDF. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 103 .Robert Tappan Morris. 1992 . berupa 3 shareware programs: ‡ Obnoxious Tetris [game] ‡ Ten Tile Puzzle [game] ‡ Tetriscycle [Trojan Horse berisi encrypted copy dari MBDF. Europe.. attacks Apple Mac.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Morris Worm.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Doe.. and Canada. 2 November 1988 . first-year CS graduate student Cornell Univ.4 undergraduate students [Blumenthal. ± Komputer yang terinfeksi MBDF Virus ada di seluruh wilayah USA. Australia. ?] di Cornell Univ. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± MBDF Virus. Pilgrim.

5 .S.[Internal e-mail systems at U. pertama ditemukan di Hong Kong 4 . ± Melissa virus.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Pathogen Virus. Senate & Britain's House of Commons were shut down.2000 menyerang ³ 1/2 perusahaan di USA dan ³ 105 mail servers di Eropa. ± ILOVEYOU worm. released on 26 March 1999 di-design to infect macros in wordprocessing documents used by the Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000 programs.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. pemrogram] yang uploading infected file ke computer bulletin board. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 104 . di mana korban dapat download a copy of the file. April 1994 di-release di UK oleh Christopher Pile [³Black Baron´.

mencakup segala aturan.Etika . "a person with oldfashioned values´.hyperdictionary.com] ± Ethic [etika] ~ the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. ± Netiquette ~ ‡ Internet/network etiquette. panduan etiket untuk posting pesan-pesan layanan online [newsgoups]. ‡ A comprehensive guide to all aspects of electronic [do's and don'ts of online] communication.com]/www. .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. format sederhana. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 105 .. "the Puritan ethic". cara diskusi.Etiket . ± Etiquette [etiket] ~ rules governing socially acceptable behavior. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . including Telnet and FTP.Netiket ‡ Apa etiket = etika ? [pcwebopaedia.

manner and terms of publication and distribution.Etiket . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . It applies to works of all authors and publishers in all media. respect for the work and personal expression of others is especially critical in computer environments. including plagiarism. invasion of privacy.edu/Departments/TechnologyServices] ± Respect for intellectual labor and creativity to academic discourse and enterprise. and right to determine the form.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. right to privacy. ± Because electronic information is so volatile and easily reproduced. may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community.Etika . Violations of authorial integrity. unauthorized access. It encompasses respect for the right to acknowledgment.ccis. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 106 .Netiket ‡ Prinsip umum etika [www. and trade secrets and copyright violations.

discriminating.Netiket ‡ Bagaimana cara Ethical and Responsible Use of Computers ? ± Ingat bahwa semua fasilitas & perangkat komputasi adalah for purposes of work [business. ± Taati semua aturan dan prosedur yang berlau. jadi enhancing teaching & research.Etiket . or intended to defame or harass others. & research]. or to interfere with their work on the computer. illegal. instruction. ± Users must not use systems of any kind to send material that is obscene.Etika . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 107 . as well as enabling employees to work more efficiently and productively. ± Jaringan komputer & telekomunikasi untuk free exchange of ideas and information.

± Software license agreements serve to increase compliance with copyright and patent laws. ± Abusers of computing privileges will be subject to disciplinary action.Etika . ? ± Everyone who use the computers have the right to security of their computer programs and data. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 108 . ± Security systems for computers exist to ensure that only authorized users have access to computer resources. authors and developers of return on their investments. and to help insure publishers.Netiket ‡ Bagaimana «..Etiket .

edu/cs/rfc1855.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855. Netiquette Guidelines [www. never send chain letters via electronic mail.] ‡ Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer [use mixed case and proper punctuation.html] ± Komunikasi 1 . write out no more than 70 characters.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :..]. .Etika . make things easy for the recipient.1 ‡ Email [ownership. leave some margin. remember that talk is an interruption to the other person. and no more than 12 lines. not send heated messages / "flames´.Etiket . etc. always say goodbye or some other farewell. etc. mail on the Internet is not secure. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .dfcc. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 109 . check all your mail subjects before responding. if forwarding / re-posting don¶t change the wording. respect the copyright.

N ‡ General [Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything. etc.Etiket .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Etika . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 110 . Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users. ‡ Mailing list [Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate address. Save the subscription messages for any lists you join. etc. it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have sent them. Consider that a l arge audience will see your posts. auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house communication. Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions will do. Messages and articles should be brief and to the point.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ].Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Komunikasi 1 . Assume that individuals speak for themselves.

long-winded never-ending discussions. send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.Etika .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest. check the Distribution" section of the header. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 111 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ comp . [posting/cossposting. ‡ talk . ‡ news .science related discussions.social issues.recreational activities. ‡ biz . ‡ rec . ‡ soc .business related postings.Etiket .for discussions which center around NetNews itself. etc. read all of a discussion in progress before posting replies.the alternate hierarchy Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .] ± Kelompok NetNews ‡ sci . and ‡ alt .computer related discussions.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 112 .Etiket . information services also use conventions such as www. that any information you submit to a system is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear".Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Information services [services belong to someone else. do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-todate and/or accurate.xyz. with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers]. Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication technology is in use.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.com. start problem solving by checking locally. ‡ Gopher ‡ Wais ‡ World Wide Web (WWW) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Etika .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 113 .Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 114 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

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