Introduction to Software

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

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Materi : ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi

Computer software Package in Office Depot Puerto Vallara- Mexico

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Pengatahuan Dasar
Abstract view
user user
USER

...

USER

Application Software

System Software Computer Hardware

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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artificial Neural Network. disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer ‡ Evolusi [PRE98] ± Era-1 (1950-1965). distribusi terbatas. distributed. Object Object technology. embedded intelligence. custom software ± Era-2 (1964-1974). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 4 . low-cost SW ± Era-4 (1986-2000-an) desk-top oriented.Pengetahuan Dasar Perangkat lunak / software : ‡ Instruksi dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman. real-time. orientasi batch. Expert System.parallel computing Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . multiuser. product software ± Era-3 (1973-1988). DBMS.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 5 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. peralatan rumah tangga dll] PC-oriented Artificial Inteligent Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . online application] Business Engineering & Scientific Embedded [jaringan komputer.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Komponen : ±machine-executable [dapat ieksekusi komputer secara langsung] ±non-machine-executable ‡ Lingkup Pengembangan : ± System Software [agar perangkat keras bekerja] ± Application software : Real-time [ game.

tidak mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: machine language Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: BASIC.High Level Language (HLL).Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Bahasa . assembler. C.Intermediate level (ILL).deskriptif [model] matematis . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 6 . Pascal. Java .Low level (LLL).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. FORTRAN. SPIM . tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya contoh: autocoder.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: ± Pendefinisian masalah ± Penyusunan algoritma & flowchart ± Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal ± Uji coba perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) ± Run program ± Dokumentasi ‡ Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode ± Aturan dan urutan langkah untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah ± langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi secara tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 7 .

[ berbasis pada asumsi model yang diakui kebenarannya] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengetahuan Dasar . Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing.leveltendesign. is used heavily in social sciences.com/kb_terms/algorithm. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 8 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.html] 1. Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion. typically of interest to only computer scientist. economics. [ memberikan jawaban dan metode terbaik pada pemrosesan] 2.Jenis algoritma [http://www. business and financial forecasting etc.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 9 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± Runtut (sequential / linear) ± Alternatif (alternative/selection) ± Berulang (loop/repetition) ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± program flowchart [urutan langkah pada proses] ± system flowchart [urutan dan hubungan pada bagian2 sistem] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Program flowchart ± langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] ± hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 10 .

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Translasi Bahasa [proses representasi ke bahasa lain] ± Dasar low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin. interpreter [to execute source code directly] ± Proses translasi o assembly o kompilasi (compilation).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 11 . perlu translator: assembler [a low level language for programming computers]. analisis:  leksikal (~ aturan penulisan )  sintaks (~ tata bahasa )  semantik (arti) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . compiler [translate from HLL to LLL].

ubuntu. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 12 . a popular linux distribution.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Unix-like OS. [ set perangkat lunak komplek ntuk mengontrol kemampuan perangkat keras agar dapat digunakandengan mudah] ± Utilities : ‡ assembler ‡ compiler / interpreter ‡ I/O routines ‡ diagnostic routines ‡ JCL (command language) ‡ DBMS (database management system] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis Perangkat lunak ± Operating system (OS) [BRA91] the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention.

] ± Interactive / timesharing [alokasi waktu tiap proses] ± Multiprogramming ± Multiprocessing [multicomputer] ± Real time ± Network Operating System (NOS) ‡ Contoh OS CP/M. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 13 .Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis OS . Windows Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Mac OS. Unix. DOS. ~ paradigma proses ± Batch processing [execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction. OS/MFT.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 14 . untuk beragam aplikasi ± Resource allocator ± Mengendalikan perangkat I/O Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Karakteristik OS ± Preinstalled [ter install sebelumnya] ± Selalu terbuka ± Menjalankan program & mengelola data ‡ Tujuan OS : ± Eksekusi user programs ± Memiliki Kernel.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. komputer selalu siap dipakai ± Pemakaian komputer efisien.

Adobe InDesign. LaTex. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 15 . MS Words. uang dan memberikan informasi sesegera mungkin saat dibutuhkan] ± Jenis : ‡ word & text processing. Adobe Acrobat ‡ Spreadsheet: lotus. Adobe FrameMaker. emacs. Eudora Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and Corel VENTURA ‡ Internet Browser & e-mail: Netscape. contoh: WS. excel ‡ Desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker. QuarkXPress.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi Bisnis ± Dasar use computer to saves time hence saves money have instant information when ever you need it [ untuk menghemat waktu.

untuk: cuaca. CASE. pemakaian mudah. akurat. mesin cuci. pekerjaan repetitif. ± Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone ± Games Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis ± Dasar mendukung ide creatif.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. CAD/CAM « ‡ Data logging tools. «. untuk : ± jaringan ± alat rumah tangga: microwave. polusi. ‡ Robotics & Artificial Intelligent tools ‡ Embedded system tools. didukung banyak libraries & methods. ± Jenis ‡ Design toolspackage: Autocad. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 16 .

Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 17 .

Materi Pengenalan Internet : ‡ Kronologi ‡ Pakar Pelopor ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 18 .

"Information Flow in Large Communication Nets. RAND Paul Baran. ± Jul-61. First Paper on Packet Switching Theory.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal [http://www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 19 .´ ± 1962. satelit bumi buatan pertama. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.cc/internet. Leonard Kleinrock.packet. setelah serangan nuklir.html] ± 1957. USSR meluncurkan Sputnik. RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber.

First Paper on Internet Concept by J.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Agu-62. "On Distributed Communications Networks". "OnLine Man Computer Communication". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 20 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32. Licklider & Welden Clark. First Actual Network Experiment.C. MIT Lincoln Labs.R. [buku] ± Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice. Paul Baran. Lawrence Roberts. Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. ± Okt-65. IEEE Transactions on Systems. ± 1964.

ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Lawrence Roberts. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. ± Agu-68. ± Okt-67. First Paper on Network Experiments. Original ARPANET Design Paper. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. Fall AFIPS Conf. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 21 . ± Des-68.

± Agu-68. ± Okt-67. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Fall AFIPS Conf. Original ARPANET Design Paper.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Lawrence Roberts. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ACM Gatlinberg Conf. ARPA. First Paper on Network Experiments.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 22 . Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. ± Des-68. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ".

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). ± Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center ± Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed ± Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network ± Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission ± Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. ± Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network ± Mar-72, First basic Email Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. ± Jul-72, First Email Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts ± Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN ± May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe ± May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. ± Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) ± Nov-77, Complete Email Specification ( RFC 733) released by two Email pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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± 2001 .Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 26 . NSF Opens Internet to commercial use.org. . where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± 1986.net. and Craig Partridge to support the Email addressing space. First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. Jon Postel.mil. ± Nov-83. Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel. creating . . Paul Mockapetris. . and Danny Cohen. & .Kronologi ‡ Periode Lanjut ± Mar-78. TCP Split into TCP and IP. ± 1989.com. .int. Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail ± 1991.gov.edu.

1964 ± Network Measurement Center at UCLA. paper.C. 1962 ± ARPA Computer Program. Licklider ± On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 27 . 1961 ± Communication Nets. 1968 ‡ J.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Leonard Kleinrock ± Packet Switching Theory. paper. 1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ARPANET measurement.R. book.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1962 ± First ARPA IPTO Director.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 28 . 1966 ± Original ARPANET Design Paper. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT]. 1965 ± ARPA Communications Program. 1966 ± ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET. 1967 ± Request For Proposals released for ARPANET. 1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . 1971 ± First Email Management Program. 1969 ± Packet Satellite Technique. 1968 ± Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Lawrence Roberts ± First Actual Network Experiment.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Pakar Pelopor ‡ Steve Crocker ± Request For Comments (RFC) #1. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 29 . TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. SNGMSG and READMAIL. ‡ Jon Postel ± FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) ± Domain Name System. ‡ Ray Tomlinson ± First basic Email Programs. the first output of the Network Working Group. ‡ Robert Metcalfe ± First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC ‡ Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± First Internetworking Protocol. Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol.

com] ‡ LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN. / System AN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 30 . sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources. ± Kategori [http://compnetworking.about. high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) ‡ Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] ± (terminal. komputer. server.

any network whose communications links cross metropolitan..e. frame relay. ‡ perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. ± WAN (wide area network): ‡ LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas ‡ Internet = WAN. regional. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Network  LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area. memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. extranet = WAN. or national boundaries ± LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system ± MAN > LAN < WAN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 31 . Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET. dan ATM.  MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city  WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i.

secara publik maupun private. dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible. dan dapat diakses. komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 32 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet ± Sistem informasi global yang: ‡ secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri. dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: ‡ komunikasi langsung (e-mail. ± Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku. chat) ‡ konferensi online (Usenet News.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet : ± Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ftp). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 33 . email discussion lists) ‡ akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web. Gopher) ‡ remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet. dan lainnya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pemerintah.

LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. ‡ Implementasi TCP/IP.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 34 . dan IP lainnya. ‡ Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security. ‡ Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi. HTTP.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Intranet : ± LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW. atau ± Private Internet ‡ Private network enterprise. juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Extranet : ± Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Perlu keamanan dan privasi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 35 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. partners. customers. ± Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan. menerapkan firewall server management: ‡ user authentication ‡ encryption of messages ‡ menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. & lainnya. vendors.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Operasional Extranet ± Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML ± Berbagi katalog produk ± Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis ± Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama ± Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 36 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi ± Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

± Integrasi informasi. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .edu/in-notes/rfc2150. video. perolehan info relatif murah & banyak.isi. ± Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter. ± Agar info positif > negatif. scientist & engineer sangat penting. multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. dan hiburan [+audio. pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.txt] ± Akses sangat mudah.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Dampak [ftp://ftp. komunikasi. peranan artist. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 37 .

Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Komunitas Global ± Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu ± Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs ± Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. stores. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 38 . and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download ± Libraries. ‡ Ketersediaan ± Shareware. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

di mana top level : ‡ com untuk perusahaan komersil ‡ edu untuk institusi pendidian ‡ gov untuk situs pemerintah ‡ net untuk infrastruktur jaringan ‡ org untuk organisasi non-komersil ‡ us untuk situs di USA ‡ id untuk situs di Indonesia ± Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 39 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 40 . remote service ± smtp = simple mail transfer protocol ± nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .com/lok-dir/filename.ext". 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: 123. ‡ Jenis yang populer: ± http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] ± ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] ± telnet = telecommunication network protocol.123] ± Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen ‡ misal: "http://www.123.waralaba.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username ± Komputer harus memiliki IP address.123.

and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS¶s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. a computer + associated software. dll. ± Bulletin Board System (BBS). soc= sosial. misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer. typically providing electronic messaging services. sci = sains. electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: ‡ Message-based Communications. rec rekreasi. archives of files. one-to-many ± Electronic mail ± Newsgroup. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 41 .

etc. ± Multicasting. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 42 . an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ‡ Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants. to multiple sites simultaneously. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± MUD [Multi-User Dungeon]. technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets). solve puzzles. WebChat). berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` ± Internet Relay Chat (IRC.

audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see. New York. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 43 .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill ± Audio Video Conferencing. demons. USA and is freely available. doctors patients.Real-Time Communications ± MUD.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum .students. Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. hear and speak with other CUSeeMe users across the world. this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca. [teachers . artists .

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . is kept.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. as private papers. memorabilia. ± Internet¶s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing. institutional records. ± Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler]. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records. etc. documents. or photographs. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 44 .

with search capabilities http://www.yahoo. with search capabilities http://www.webcrawler.altavista.Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites.com/ ‡ Google .USENET (news groups) search engine http://www. with search capabilities http://www.dejanews. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 45 .com/ ‡ DejaNews .WWW and USENET search engine http://www.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Contoh search engine ‡ Yahoo .lycos.com/ ‡ Lycos .Index of WWW sites.digital.Index of WWW sites.http://query.mckinley.google.com/ ‡ WebCrawler .http://www.com/ ‡ AltaVista .com/ ‡ Magellan .com/ Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

± klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links.Penggunaan Internet ‡ World Wide Web ~ Web ± subset of the computers di Internet ± visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 46 . Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages). ± organisasi Web tidak hirarkis.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Penggunaan Internet ‡ Cara Akses ± Akses Internet ~ receiving. midi equip.. video equip.. printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . downloading. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 47 . CD-ROM player. and viewing files. memerlukan dukungan: ‡ Internet Service Providers ‡ HW + SW + modem ‡ Web browser ‡ SW anti virus ‡ Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers. menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 48 . standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright. proprietary. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . privacy. cryptography. viruses. advicing).Penggunaan Internet ‡ Tahapan Pengembangan Situs ± Pembuatan & pendaftaran ± Kreasi isi ‡ Getting help [lewat: Forum. BBS. suara & musik ‡ Publikasi ‡ Issues & Chalenges ± Security. Chat. dll.] ‡ Format file: public domain. dll. ‡ Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text ‡ Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap. trademark.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. video] ‡ Kreasi digital audio. netiquette. vector.

Dampak Sosial Teknologi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 49 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Materi ‡ Kilas Balik ‡ Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kini & Masa Depan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 50 .

to carry out. or conduct by means of a computer.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/] ± Computer adalah mesin yang dapat diprogram untuk memanipulasi simbol.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 51 . ± IT (Applied computer systems) . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . process.HW dan SW . precisely and reliably serta dapat menyimpan dan mengambil kembali banyak data dengan cepat sekali. or store (information) in a computer or system of computers ‡ a society where computers are ubiquitous. control. biasanya dalam konteks bisnis [that deals with all things electronic]. Komputer dapat mengerjakan prosesproses rumit dan berulang quickly. ± Computerization ~ ‡ to enter. termasuk networking and telecommunication.Kilas Balik ‡ Definisi [www.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 52 . EDSAC. EDVAC ± Neuman¶s concept / IAS ± UNIVAC Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Sejarah Alat Hitung ± Alamiah ± Abacus ± Napier¶s Bones & Mistar hitung ± Pascaline ‡ Sejarah Komputer [elektronis] ± Babbage [Difference / analytical] engine ± ENIAC.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 53 . ««« Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . berdasar komponen utama] ± Tabung ± Transistor ± IC [Conductor / semiconductor / superconductor] ± SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI / ULSI ‡ Klasifikasi Komputer ± Supercomputer ± Large scale / mainframe computer ± Minicomputer ± Microcomputer / PC / desktop / workstation ± Laptop / palmtop / PDA ± etc.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Generasi Komputer [elektronis.

Kilas Balik ‡ Kemajuan Teknologi Lain ± Mesin uap ± Lampu listrik ± Telegraf & telepon ± Pesawat terbang ± Bom atom ± Laser ± Roket ± Satelit & pesawat ruang angkasa ± Bio / Nano / Material .technology Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 54 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 55 . IBM 1620 . BITNET ± 1990-an. 1st e-mail & personal computing [time sharing] ± 1975. NSFNet.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ARPANet. INTERNET . IBM 650 . sebagai ± Pencacah bilangan & General purpose system ± Utility & tool ± Komunikator ± Search Engine Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .WWW [era ubiquitous computing] ‡ Fungsi Komputer [sekarang].Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Proses & Komunikasi ± 1955.1st College machine [programer awal] ± 1964. jaringan komputer di kantor & jaringan ± 1980-an.1st University machine ± 1960.

the don¶t-wannabetrained] dapat membuat sebuah program. untrainable. ‡ Tingkatan dampak ? ± Penggantian aktifitas langsung dengan sedikit perubahan pada produktifitas ± Peningkatan berbagai aktifitas dengan perbaikan kecepatan dan efisiensi ± Perluasan ke berbagai aktifitas yang dahulu belum bisa dilakukan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Sejauh mana pengaruh TI ? ± Pemakai mulai berpaling dari elit professionally responsible ke komunitas dengan berbagai kepentingan yang makin luas ± Very high level applications memungkinkan kemudahan bagi tiap orang [trained. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 56 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untrained.

Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Membagi ala DIJITAL ? ± High / low. biner ± Kaya dan miskin ± Sekolah favorit dan sekolah pinggiran ± Tua dan muda ± Laki-laki dan perempuan ± Orangtua dan anak ± Kota dan kampung ± Atasan dan bawahan ± Dosen dan non-dosen Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . true / false. on / off.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 57 .

Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kehidupan manusia bertambah baik / buruk? ‡ Manusia sangat tergantung pada komputer ? ‡ Akibat kemajuan teknologi [selain TI]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 58 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. manusia sangat tergantung pada: ± Mobil ? ± Minyak bumi ? ± Listrik ? ± Telefon ? ± TV ? ± Pesawat ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

online course. « ± Mobil [pribadi] ‡ Pendidikan ± Pelajaran + praktik TI tingkat PT/SMU/SMP/SD ± e-learning. «. TV. e-education ± Freeware.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Kehidupan ± Alat rumah-tangga: microwave. ± Alat komunikasi: telepon. shareware.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 59 . ± Alat hiburan: radio.. «. opensource Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 60 .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Bisnis & Industri ± e-commerce ± e-banking ± expert system [AI] ± CAD/CAM/CAX ««« ± Robotic ‡ Instansi/organisasi ± Komputerisasi / otomasi kantor ± Tingkat kepegawaian ± Teleworking ± Efisiensi sumberdaya Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

regulation. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 61 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Sains & Teknologi (R & D) ± Lingkungan PT ± Lingkungan industri ± High Tech [Nano./bio. bioinformatik ‡ Masalah ± Community change [indirect interactions] ± Cultural & National Sovereignty ± Workplace & economic impacts [organization & skills] ± Information impacts [equity of access. pricing. e-freedoms] ± Legality & security [computer crime] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . consumer rights./material. privacy.tech].

.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and control practices & make suggestions for improvement [not only organization's finance function.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Pendekatan Solusi ± Risk Analysis ‡ Quantitative ± probability of an event occurring ± likely loss should it occur ‡ Qualitative (estimated potential loss) ± threats [fire. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 62 . reporting.] / vulnerabilities / controls ± Risk Management ‡ proactive / reactive / non-reactive [measures] ± Control & Audit ‡ evaluate & monitor company's risk management.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . . but all the operations & systems. frauds.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Negatif ? ± Pengangguran. akibat otomatisasi ± Kriminal ‡ virus ‡ pembobolan ‡ pembajakan SW ‡ pencurian perangkat ± Privacy ‡ cracking / hacking ? ‡ pencurian informasi ‡ duplikasi & manipulasi informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 63 .

Manajemen Data dan Informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 64 .

HW. ± Dua jenis ‡ File management system (FMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat hanya mengakses data/informasi 1 tabel atau 1 file. dan pemakaiannya mudah dan murah [personal]. pemeliharaan. pemeliharaan.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Data Management System (DMS) ± Kombinasi SW. dan pemakaiannya tidak mudah dan tidak murah [instansi/organisasi]. Cara pembuatan. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Database Management System (DBMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat dapat mengakses banyak tabel / file. dan informasi yang didesain agar semudah mungkin cara penyimpanan dan pengambilannya kembali untuk pemanfaatannya. Cara pembuatan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 65 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

update. DB2. & administer sebuah basisdata relasional. "Insert". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 66 . ± Structured Query Language (baca "S-Q-L" atau "sequel") ~ bahasa baku/standard ["Select". "Update". ± Object-oriented DataBase Management System ~ DBMS yang menunjang pemodelan dan kresi data sebagai objects. "Create". "Delete".Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Relational DataBase Management System adalah sebuah program untuk create. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . menentukan class dari objek dan inheritance dari class serta metoda-metoda untuk menangani objek-objek tersebut. Contoh: Oracle. and "Drop´ ] untuk RDBMS. SQL Server.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Open DataBase Connectivity ~ API baku yang dikembangkan berdasar pada spesifikasi SQL Access Group. misal jdbc://www. untuk koneksi ke basisdata SQL menghasilkan database independent applications.com:400/databasefile.memungkinkan sebuah pr oram di satu komputer minta informasi pada program lain di komputer lainnya [dalam jaringan]. ± Java DataBase Connectivity ~ antarmuka agar dapat akses ke banyak basisdata lintas WWW dengan mudah. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . tanpa perlu memahami bahasa yang dipakai atau cara memintanya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Common Object Request Broker Architecture .swaps. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 67 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Bila terkait dengan hak paten dan legalitas lainnya. saat administrator meng-update & validasi. untuk menjaga privacy of human subjects.larangan akses & proses data ‡ Temporer. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 68 . ± Data Retention and Storage ‡ Umumnya sebuah instansi/perusahaan dapat menentukan minimal 3 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. untuk menjaga intellectual property. Banyak instansi besar menentukan < 5 tahun. ‡ Temporer.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Prinsip Manajemen Data ± Access Restrictions . sebagai jaminan pada rekanan/sponsor. ‡ Permanen. ‡ Temporer. perlu minta pendapat ahli hukum sebelun data dihancurkan. ‡ Banyak ahli merekomendasikan 5 tahun sesaat mulai operasional.

physically removable : tape cartridge / reel. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 69 . hard / floppy disk. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengarsipan (Filing) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Byte / karakter = å bits = 8 bit [ASCII] String = rangkaian alfanumerik Field / data item = å bytes terbatas Record = å fields yang saling terkait File = å records sejenis Database = å files terintegrasi Directory = area media tempat penyimpan files Volume = satuan identifiable data storage.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

operasional ± Transaction .file hasil pilahan dari master siap diproses ± History . file sekuensial di mana akses record memakai tabel indeks.Pengarsipan ‡ Kategori Akses <==> organisasi ± Serial. terlengkap. diproses hanya bila perlu Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .file yang ³dipensiun´. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 70 . penyimpanan acak di mana akses record memakai pointer ‡ Jenis File ± Master . ± Random/direct. penyimpanan runtut dengan urutan kunci ± Index Sequential.file untuk meng-update master ± Backup .kakek ± Scratch .file duplikat master --> cucu-anak. penyimpanan seadanya tanpa melihat urutan ± Sequential.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.file terbaru.

Pengarsipan ‡ Karakteristik File ± Volatility ~ frekuensi updating tinggi >< static. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 71 . ± Size ~ volume / kapasitas ± Activity ~ hit rate = jml % volume file yang diproses persatuan waktu ± Expansion ~ growth = tingkat pertumbuhan maksimum kapasitas sebuah file yang direncanakan. ‡ Updating ± Add ± Change ± Delete ± Modify Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 72 .5 / 0. 1600 ‡ gap [record / block]: 0.Pengarsipan ‡ Media Penyimpan ± Kertas ± Tape ‡ organisasi sekuensial ‡ kerapatan (density): 800. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .75 inch ± Disk ‡ organisasi indeks / acak ‡ kerapatan ‡ gap ‡ sector & track.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 73 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.PDT (Pengolahan Data Tradisional) ‡ Siklus Hidup ± Identifikasi masalah & objektif [studi kelayakan] ± Determinasi kebutuhan informasi & Analisis sistem lama ± Desain sistem baru ± Pemrograman & dokumentasi SW ± Uji coba & penyempurnaan ± Penerapan & evaluasi ± Operasional ‡ Sumberdaya Manusia ± Manajemen ± Analis ± Pemrogram ± Administrator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

PDT ‡ Prosedur Umum ± ± ± ± ± Rencanakan kebutuhan data Rancang format data masukan dan keluaran Rencanakan cara pengumpulan & klasifikasi data Definisikan & rancang organisasi file [-file] Bagaimana cara entri data ? ‡ Verifikasi ‡ Validasi ± Rencanakan cara penyimpanan & pengamanannya ± Bagaimana cara pengambilan kembali. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 74 . proses data dan pembuatan keluaran.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. distribusi hasil ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Distribution Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Architecture. 3 stages : Intiation. Contagion. Control ± Information Technology Era.PDT ‡ Kelemahan ± Uncontrolled redundancy: aplikasi Û file sendiri ± Inconsistent data: 1 file di bbrp lokasi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 75 . 3 stages : Integration. sebagian di-update ± Inflexibility: desain tidak terpadu => respons lambat / nihil ± Limited data sharing Û Uncontrolled redundancy ± Poor standards => operasional tidak efektif ± Low programmer productivity Û Poor standards ± Excessive program maintenance ‡ Pendekatan Richard Nolan ± Data Processing Era.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Basisdata ‡ Database ~ S files terintegrasi ‡ Data Format ± Representasi: karakter. menghasilkan ad hoc queries & reports. files ? ± Bagaimana cara menampilkan informasi di monitor dan di kertas ? ± Bagaimana cara penyimpanan internal ? ‡ Data warehouse ± Kumpulan terpadu data perusahaan. records. service providers & researchers yang berhak untuk: dianalisis. numerik. administrators. dapat diakses oleh business managers.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 76 . dan cara pemeliharaan data subsets. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . campuran? ± Ukuran fields.

dan bagaimana setiap item database akan saling terkait. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 77 . ± Akan menunjukkan semua informasi yang harus ada dalam basisdata. yang memungkinkan prediksi hasilhasil pada masa datang. ‡ Data Model ± Hasil proses desain basisdata yang dapat dipakai untuk mengidentifkasi dan mengorganisasi data logically & physically. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . bagaimana cara penggunaannya.Basisdata ‡ Data Mining ± Aktifitas ekstraksi informasi yang tujuannya untuk menemukan faktafakta tersembunyi dalam basisdata.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Basisdata
‡ Tingkat Model Data ± External (user views) Conceptual ± Internal [DBMS dependent] Physical ‡ Jenis Basisdata, piramid ± Operasional transaction processing ± Manajerial management information system ± Stratejik decision support system ‡ Asosiasi data ± One-to-one : NIM Nama-mhs ± One-to-many : NIM Cek-medis ± Many-to-many : S NIM S Mt-kul

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

78

Basisdata
‡ Logical Model ± Hierarchy ± Network ± Relational ± Object-oriented ‡ Terminologi ± Attribute ~ kolom tabel ± Entity ~ konsep/objek data terdefinisi ± Table ~ file ± Tupple ~ baris tabel ~ record

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

79

MIS (Management Information System)
‡ Definisi ± Segala sumberdaya & prosedur yang dibutuhkan untuk mengumpulkan, proses, dan distribusi informasi yang akan digunakan untuk ambil keputusan. ± Sistem user-machine terpadu yang menghasilkan informasi untuk menunjang operasi, manajemen, analisis, dan fungsi-fungsi pengambilan keputusan dalam organisasi. ‡ Sifat dari needed information ± Accuracy ± Timeliness ± Completeness ± Conciseness

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

80

. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 81 . behavioral (Economics. planning. management sc. sociology) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Basisdata ‡ Perspektif ± Bisnis: IS Û organization. psychology. decision making. control. OR).. management.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. technology ± Kontemporer: IS Û technical (computer sc.MIS ‡ Istilah ± MIS ~ IS ~ IPS ~ CBIS ‡ Menggunakan ± Komputer [HW & SW] ± Prosedur-prosedur manual ± Model-model untuk: analysis.

personnel. ± Berbasis fungsi organisasi: (strategic planning. production. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . top-man). information proc. finance& accounting.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.MIS ‡ Struktur ± Berbasis aktifitas manajemen: strategic. operational control. ‡ Sintesis ± Conceptual structure ~ organizational MIS ± Physical structure ~ integrated processing & common modules. management control. transaction processing) versus (sales & marketing. operational. tactical. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 82 .. logistics.

Sekuriti dan Etika Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 83 .

state.html] ‡ Taksonomi pokok. integrity & confidentiality informasi yang dikelola.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak diubah oleh unauthorized persons kecuali oleh authorized users.us/ld/pubs/compsecurity/ glossary. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 84 .penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak dapat diakses oleh unauthorized persons.albion.html] ± Confidentiality . [www.Sekuriti ‡ Apakah Computer Security ? ± Prosedur-prosedur technological & managerial yang diterapkan pada sistem komputer untuk menjaga availability.tsl.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.tx.penjaminan bahwa users adalah persons they claim to be (yang berhak). CIA: [www. ± Authentication .com/security/intro-4. ± Integrity . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .penjaminan bahwa sebuah sistem operational & functional tiap saat [redundancy].penjaminan bahwa individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them. who maintains it. ± Nonrepudiation . who has used it. ± Privacy .penjaminan bahwa pengirim messages tidak dapat menyangkal fakta. how it is used. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 85 .Sekuriti ‡ Taksonomi lain ± Access control . ± Availability .penjaminan bahwa users hanya akses ke resources and services yang telah ditentukan & qualified users tidak ditolak akses ke services that legitimately expect to receive. loss of availability disebut "denial-of-service´.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and what purpose it is used for.

security briefings. monitoring. proteksi network servers & transmissions. monitoring processes. ± System security . ± Operational/procedural security .mencakup segala hal mulai dari managerial policy decisions sampai dengan reporting hierarchies. assignment of privilege. dan deteksi intrusi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.penjaringan pegawai: background screening. ± Personnel security . firewalls.pengawasan akses & otentikasi users. pengendalian akses dari untrusted networks.proteksi perangkat jari. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .pengendalian comings and goings of people and materials. maintaining file and filesystem integrity. & telekomunikasi. training. backups. proteksi terhadap elements & natural disasters. and auditing. ± Network security -. memerangi penyadapan. and handling departures.Domain ± Physical security . log-keeping. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 86 .

promulgated disebar-luaskan] by computer security researcher Dan Farmer:] "The Security of a Computer System Degrades in Direct Proportion to the Amount of Use the System Receives.com] ± R-1: Security through obscurity [samar] doesn¶t work.[X-Files: "There's always someone watching. [It's best if the vendors announced along with fixes].´] ± R-2: Full disclosure of bugs & holes benefits security.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 87 .albion.´ ± R-4: Do it before someone does it wrong for you.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www. [Computer security can never be implemented in a vacuum. ± R-3: [Farmer's Law.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

± R-9: Think like the enemy [akibat R-8]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . or "white hats" and "black hats. ± R-8: The Good & Evil blend into gray [There are "good guys³ and "bad guys" out there. [Don't underestimate the value of deterrence / rintangan.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 88 .com] ± R-5: The fear of getting cought is the beginning of wisdom. ± R-10: Trust is a relative concept [´Trust no one" is the strongest policy].´ ].albion. ± R-7: There are no turnkey security solutions [There's no checklist that will account for all vulnerabilities.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.].] ± R-6: There¶s always someone out there smarter. or better eqquiped than you [Be careful about the assumptions you make concerning the threats your systems face. more knowledgeable.].

gosip. anggota milis keluar lupa dihapus. ± Rumour & accidental misinformation.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Negligent defamation. sebaran fitnah krn ceroboh. info dari situs diakui hasil sendiri. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 89 . ± Inadequate care with data. pengomentari dengan hal-hal yang sifatnya rahasia. ± Trawling / Spidering. me-reply email dengan tambahan info sensitif/rahasia.edu.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Accidental [www. ± Persistence. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .anu. ± Minor plagiarism.au/people/RogerClarke/II/Netethiquettecases] ± Information overload. karena kiriman data /email yang banyak/besar & tidak relevan.

pemalsuan identitas gender di milis. sebaran fitnah. ± Obscenity.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. berita hasutan melalui bulletin board. ngintip isi email-email banyak orang. pengiriman banyak email ke suatu mailbox. ± Incitement. penyebaran fitnah. kirim email berbahasa kasar/kotor (foul /abusive). progam / email untuk pengacauan trafik. ± Impersonation. ± Surveillance. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 90 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . penyediaan material yang asusila di situs. ± Mail-bombing. ± Flaming.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Socially Aggressive ± Intentional misinformation. ± Harassment. ± Intentional defamation.

pemakaian transaksi jaringan tanpa modal. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis dengan banyak jawaban sehingga mailbox overflow. ± Security breach. ± Secondary use of data.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Economically Aggressive ± Spamming. & soliciting.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 91 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pembobolan keamanan sistem. promotion. ± Advertising. penjiplakan karya tulis dari situs. ngirim program perusak melalui jar. dll. ± Viruses & worms. merugikan terkirim. ± Abuse of intellectual property rights. ± Hacking. pengambilan bahan dari situs tanpa menyebut sumber. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis tapi intruder. penyebaran program SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks). ± Serious plagiarism.

thereby avoiding paying tax in which the buyer and/or seller operate. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 92 . ] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . removes the sender's identification. such that the messages can be decrypted provided that several of them collaborate. and offers merchants a service whereby net-facilitated sales are legally made in that location. contoh: Someone establishes a web-server in a tax haven. but registers various parts of the encryption key with various different people and organisations. contoh: A sender encrypts their messages.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Avoidance ± Circumvention [menghindari.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and forwards it to the intended recipient. ] ± Compound cases [Someone brings the story to the attention of the 'victim'. ] ± Anonymisation [A so-called 'anonymous remailer' receives email addressed to a third party.] ± Obscuration [penyamaran.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and/or their related functions. removal of. interference with.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Computer Crime ? [www.hyperdictionary. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 93 . mereka yang berwatak arogan [bangga diri ?] (proud of ) dengan apa yang mereka dilakukan dan publish their achievement. use of. person which hacking for profit. manipulation of computer systems.com] ± Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer. access to. to data or programs. ‡ Pelaku ? ± Hacker. ± Any criminal activity involving the copy of. ± Cracker.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

± Politik (hactivism). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 94 .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa motif penyusup/pembobol ? ± Kesombongan / ego [ingin menguji kemampuan yang lain] / mpo. ± Iri / ingin merugikan perusahaan. ‡ Konsekuensi perusahaan ± Kredibilitas turun ± Kemajuan terhambat ± Menyesatkan pelanggan ± Kehilangan peluang bisnis Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 95 . access & modification to private data. ± Holes in public commercial & domain software (sendmail. ± CGI PHF (packet handling function) dapat dipakai untuk extract password file.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks yang sering ? [www.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. misalnya dengan TCP Grab atau Passfinder. flexlm. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Viruses. ftpd. «) ± Hostile [musuh ?] Java Applets. ± Invasion of privacy.leccorder.com] ± Password sniffing.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Penyerangan melalui email/internet. PC.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks ³favorit´ ? ± Theft of data and resources. mencuri private files. ± Malfeasance [penyalah-gunaan jabatan] by Computer. dll. ± Pencurian fisik [Laptops. ‡ Jenis pencurian data ? ± Menyusup ke sebuah komputer. ± Seseorang memakai computer account yang lain.]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 96 . ± Denial-of-service attacks. ± Malicious codes and viruses.

] terganggu / mati. «« ± ± Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ DoS attack ± Caranya ? ‡ Mengunci komputer / website sehingga tidak berfungsi. ‡ Keeping you from doing any work. e-mail bombs. . getting any online orders. Contoh ? ‡ Web sit-ins [protes. eLearning. demo].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. receiving any mail. bahkan mungkin sampai crash. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 97 . Akibatnya ? ‡ Pekerjaan terhambat ‡ Menghalangi komunikasi melalui e-mail ‡ e-activity [eCommerce..

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. despite its widespread. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 98 . potentially negative impact. ‡ Apa yang mungkin jadi penyebabnya ? ± Memakai /membeli SW bajakan. ± Pelanggan memberi unlisted telephone number di swalayan. ± Pegawai secara rahasia membangun DB sebagai usaha sampingan. ± Pemrogram sebuah Univ. ± Seseorang memakai account number & password orang lain untuk melihat isi sebuah DB.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Malfeasance by Computer ? [= "gray" areas of computer abuse] ± Computer-related behavior stretches the bounds of legality and may be viewed as only technically wrong. membuat program jadwal kuliah lalu pindah ke universitas lain dengan membawa kopi program untuk dipakai di tempat baru.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 99 . agar tiap pemilik komputer selalu memproteksinya dari tiap attacks mendatang.com/cvirus. bila ada Malicious Program baru [dan mungkin lebih ganas] maka hukum perlu diperbaru.htm ] ± Program ganas/jahat penyebab kerugian (harm) ekstensif. ‡ Untuk apa tahu Malicious Program ? ± Bila tahu kerusakan terjadi. ± Agar penegak hukum mengganjar pembuat Malicious Program seberat mungkin. ± Hukum yang ada hanya bereaksi pada kerusakan yang terakhir.Malicious Program ‡ Apa Malicious Program ? [www. tiap insiden harus dihadapi konsekwensi legal [penerapan hukum bagi pembuat program.rbs2. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

needing another program to survive.princeton. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 100 . [www. It is a parasite program.cogsci. ‡ Program that is designed to hide in the background and replicate itself from one computer to another by attaching itself to existing programs or parts of the operating system. ± Hoax ~ something intended to deceive [bohong].Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Virus ~ ‡ Program that can reproduce by changing other programs to include a copy of itself. deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.edu/cgi-bin/webwn] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

files. . tetapi melakukan sesuatu yang tak terduga. ‡ Pencurian passwords. ‡ Biasanya dikirimkan di dalam sebuah game Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Sabotage. credit card numbers. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 101 .dsb. ± Trojan Horse ~ Program yang menyamar (masquerade) sebagai sesuatu yang useful or amusing. ‡ Penyebaran DoS attacks or worms/viruses. especially by insiders (time bombs).Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Worm ~ Program yang menyebarkan diri sendiri dari sistem ke sistem sepanjang jaringan..

worm dalam bahasa REXX dibuat mahasiswa di Jerman Desember 1987 di jaringan IBM mainframe di Eropa. Robert Slade.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Brain virus. Pakistan. adres. virus yang menginfeksi file COMMAND. 1987. virus untuk MS DOS dibuat 1986 berisi [unencrypted text] nama. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 102 .COM pada disket DOS di Lehigh Univ. Nov. ahli virus yakin virus dibuat sebagai bentuk iklan BCS. & nomor telefon Brain Computer Services (BCS) swalayan di Lahore. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . sambil mencari 2 files pada user's account to collect e-mail addresses kemudian secara otomatis sent itself ke adres-adres tersebut. Worm memunculkan suatu citra pohon conifer di monitor. Virus menginfeksi boot sector disket 5¼ . ± Christma Worm. ± Lehigh Virus.

created and released virus MBDF..Robert Tappan Morris. berupa 3 shareware programs: ‡ Obnoxious Tetris [game] ‡ Ten Tile Puzzle [game] ‡ Tetriscycle [Trojan Horse berisi encrypted copy dari MBDF.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Morris Worm. first-year CS graduate student Cornell Univ. and Canada. ?] di Cornell Univ.4 undergraduate students [Blumenthal. 2 November 1988 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. attacks Apple Mac.. worm yang secara efectif shut down Internet untuk beberapa hari. Japan. Europe. Pilgrim. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Komputer yang terinfeksi MBDF Virus ada di seluruh wilayah USA. Doe. Australia. 1992 . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 103 . ± MBDF Virus.

S. Senate & Britain's House of Commons were shut down. pemrogram] yang uploading infected file ke computer bulletin board. April 1994 di-release di UK oleh Christopher Pile [³Black Baron´. di mana korban dapat download a copy of the file.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 104 . pertama ditemukan di Hong Kong 4 .Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Pathogen Virus. ± ILOVEYOU worm. ± Melissa virus.5 . released on 26 March 1999 di-design to infect macros in wordprocessing documents used by the Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000 programs.[Internal e-mail systems at U.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .2000 menyerang ³ 1/2 perusahaan di USA dan ³ 105 mail servers di Eropa.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Etika . . ± Netiquette ~ ‡ Internet/network etiquette.com]/www. mencakup segala aturan.hyperdictionary.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Etiquette [etiket] ~ rules governing socially acceptable behavior.com] ± Ethic [etika] ~ the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. ‡ A comprehensive guide to all aspects of electronic [do's and don'ts of online] communication. including Telnet and FTP. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 105 .Etiket . panduan etiket untuk posting pesan-pesan layanan online [newsgoups]. "the Puritan ethic". cara diskusi.Netiket ‡ Apa etiket = etika ? [pcwebopaedia. format sederhana.. "a person with oldfashioned values´.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 106 . respect for the work and personal expression of others is especially critical in computer environments.ccis.Etiket .Etika .edu/Departments/TechnologyServices] ± Respect for intellectual labor and creativity to academic discourse and enterprise. unauthorized access. It applies to works of all authors and publishers in all media. right to privacy. including plagiarism. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and trade secrets and copyright violations.Netiket ‡ Prinsip umum etika [www. Violations of authorial integrity. It encompasses respect for the right to acknowledgment. invasion of privacy. and right to determine the form. manner and terms of publication and distribution. may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community. ± Because electronic information is so volatile and easily reproduced.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

instruction.Etika . illegal.Netiket ‡ Bagaimana cara Ethical and Responsible Use of Computers ? ± Ingat bahwa semua fasilitas & perangkat komputasi adalah for purposes of work [business. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 107 . as well as enabling employees to work more efficiently and productively. & research]. or to interfere with their work on the computer. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Users must not use systems of any kind to send material that is obscene.Etiket . discriminating. jadi enhancing teaching & research. ± Taati semua aturan dan prosedur yang berlau. or intended to defame or harass others.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Jaringan komputer & telekomunikasi untuk free exchange of ideas and information.

Netiket ‡ Bagaimana «. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . authors and developers of return on their investments.Etiket . and to help insure publishers. ? ± Everyone who use the computers have the right to security of their computer programs and data.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Etika .. ± Software license agreements serve to increase compliance with copyright and patent laws. ± Security systems for computers exist to ensure that only authorized users have access to computer resources. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 108 . ± Abusers of computing privileges will be subject to disciplinary action.

if forwarding / re-posting don¶t change the wording.Etiket . not send heated messages / "flames´.] ‡ Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer [use mixed case and proper punctuation.edu/cs/rfc1855.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. mail on the Internet is not secure. etc. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 109 . respect the copyright. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and no more than 12 lines. check all your mail subjects before responding.html] ± Komunikasi 1 . make things easy for the recipient.]. Netiquette Guidelines [www. always say goodbye or some other farewell.. etc. leave some margin.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855.Etika . .1 ‡ Email [ownership.dfcc. remember that talk is an interruption to the other person. write out no more than 70 characters. never send chain letters via electronic mail.

Etiket . etc. Consider that a l arge audience will see your posts. Messages and articles should be brief and to the point. Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users. it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have sent them.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 110 .Etika . ]. ‡ Mailing list [Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate address. Save the subscription messages for any lists you join. etc.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Komunikasi 1 . Assume that individuals speak for themselves. Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions will do. auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house communication.N ‡ General [Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything.

read all of a discussion in progress before posting replies. ‡ rec .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.business related postings.recreational activities. ‡ talk .science related discussions.] ± Kelompok NetNews ‡ sci .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest.social issues.Etika .Etiket . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 111 .long-winded never-ending discussions. send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.the alternate hierarchy Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ soc . ‡ biz . ‡ news . [posting/cossposting. and ‡ alt .computer related discussions. etc.for discussions which center around NetNews itself. check the Distribution" section of the header. ‡ comp .

that any information you submit to a system is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear".Etika . do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-todate and/or accurate.xyz.com. with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers].Etiket . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 112 . ‡ Gopher ‡ Wais ‡ World Wide Web (WWW) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication technology is in use.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. information services also use conventions such as www. start problem solving by checking locally.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Information services [services belong to someone else.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 113 .

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 114 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

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