Introduction to Software

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

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Materi : ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi

Computer software Package in Office Depot Puerto Vallara- Mexico

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Pengatahuan Dasar
Abstract view
user user
USER

...

USER

Application Software

System Software Computer Hardware

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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embedded intelligence.parallel computing Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . low-cost SW ± Era-4 (1986-2000-an) desk-top oriented. custom software ± Era-2 (1964-1974). DBMS.Pengetahuan Dasar Perangkat lunak / software : ‡ Instruksi dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman. disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer ‡ Evolusi [PRE98] ± Era-1 (1950-1965). Expert System. multiuser. product software ± Era-3 (1973-1988).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. orientasi batch. distribusi terbatas. distributed. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 4 . real-time. artificial Neural Network. Object Object technology.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. online application] Business Engineering & Scientific Embedded [jaringan komputer. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 5 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Komponen : ±machine-executable [dapat ieksekusi komputer secara langsung] ±non-machine-executable ‡ Lingkup Pengembangan : ± System Software [agar perangkat keras bekerja] ± Application software : Real-time [ game. peralatan rumah tangga dll] PC-oriented Artificial Inteligent Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 6 . FORTRAN.Intermediate level (ILL).Low level (LLL). Java . SPIM . dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: BASIC. assembler. tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya contoh: autocoder.High Level Language (HLL). tidak mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: machine language Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Bahasa .deskriptif [model] matematis . Pascal. C.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: ± Pendefinisian masalah ± Penyusunan algoritma & flowchart ± Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal ± Uji coba perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) ± Run program ± Dokumentasi ‡ Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode ± Aturan dan urutan langkah untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah ± langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi secara tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 7 .

leveltendesign. Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion. economics. business and financial forecasting etc. typically of interest to only computer scientist. is used heavily in social sciences.html] 1.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. [ memberikan jawaban dan metode terbaik pada pemrosesan] 2. Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 8 .Jenis algoritma [http://www.com/kb_terms/algorithm.Pengetahuan Dasar . [ berbasis pada asumsi model yang diakui kebenarannya] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 9 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± Runtut (sequential / linear) ± Alternatif (alternative/selection) ± Berulang (loop/repetition) ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± program flowchart [urutan langkah pada proses] ± system flowchart [urutan dan hubungan pada bagian2 sistem] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Program flowchart ± langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] ± hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 10 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

compiler [translate from HLL to LLL]. perlu translator: assembler [a low level language for programming computers]. analisis:  leksikal (~ aturan penulisan )  sintaks (~ tata bahasa )  semantik (arti) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 11 . interpreter [to execute source code directly] ± Proses translasi o assembly o kompilasi (compilation).Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Translasi Bahasa [proses representasi ke bahasa lain] ± Dasar low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia.

ubuntu. Unix-like OS.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis Perangkat lunak ± Operating system (OS) [BRA91] the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention. a popular linux distribution. [ set perangkat lunak komplek ntuk mengontrol kemampuan perangkat keras agar dapat digunakandengan mudah] ± Utilities : ‡ assembler ‡ compiler / interpreter ‡ I/O routines ‡ diagnostic routines ‡ JCL (command language) ‡ DBMS (database management system] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 12 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis OS . Mac OS.] ± Interactive / timesharing [alokasi waktu tiap proses] ± Multiprogramming ± Multiprocessing [multicomputer] ± Real time ± Network Operating System (NOS) ‡ Contoh OS CP/M. Unix. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 13 . DOS. Windows Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . OS/MFT. ~ paradigma proses ± Batch processing [execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction.

komputer selalu siap dipakai ± Pemakaian komputer efisien.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Karakteristik OS ± Preinstalled [ter install sebelumnya] ± Selalu terbuka ± Menjalankan program & mengelola data ‡ Tujuan OS : ± Eksekusi user programs ± Memiliki Kernel. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 14 . untuk beragam aplikasi ± Resource allocator ± Mengendalikan perangkat I/O Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Adobe FrameMaker. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 15 . Eudora Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . contoh: WS. Adobe InDesign. MS Words.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Adobe Acrobat ‡ Spreadsheet: lotus. uang dan memberikan informasi sesegera mungkin saat dibutuhkan] ± Jenis : ‡ word & text processing. QuarkXPress.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi Bisnis ± Dasar use computer to saves time hence saves money have instant information when ever you need it [ untuk menghemat waktu. emacs. excel ‡ Desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker. LaTex. and Corel VENTURA ‡ Internet Browser & e-mail: Netscape.

polusi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 16 .Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis ± Dasar mendukung ide creatif. pekerjaan repetitif. CAD/CAM « ‡ Data logging tools. ± Jenis ‡ Design toolspackage: Autocad. «. didukung banyak libraries & methods. pemakaian mudah. untuk : ± jaringan ± alat rumah tangga: microwave. akurat. CASE. untuk: cuaca. ± Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone ± Games Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Robotics & Artificial Intelligent tools ‡ Embedded system tools.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. mesin cuci.

Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 17 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Materi Pengenalan Internet : ‡ Kronologi ‡ Pakar Pelopor ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 18 .

html] ± 1957. RAND Paul Baran. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network.packet. satelit bumi buatan pertama. "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.cc/internet. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). ± Jul-61.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. USSR meluncurkan Sputnik. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 19 . RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal [http://www. setelah serangan nuklir. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .´ ± 1962. Leonard Kleinrock. First Paper on Packet Switching Theory.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .C. First Actual Network Experiment. Licklider & Welden Clark. ± Okt-65. Lawrence Roberts. ± 1964. MIT Lincoln Labs. Paul Baran. First Paper on Internet Concept by J. "OnLine Man Computer Communication". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 20 . Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. "On Distributed Communications Networks". IEEE Transactions on Systems.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32. [buku] ± Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Agu-62.R.

First Paper on Network Experiments. Lawrence Roberts. ± Des-68. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 21 . BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Fall AFIPS Conf. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. ± Agu-68. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". ARPA. ± Okt-67. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". Original ARPANET Design Paper. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. First Paper on Network Experiments. Original ARPANET Design Paper. Fall AFIPS Conf. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 22 . ARPA. ± Agu-68. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". ± Okt-67. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". ± Des-68. Lawrence Roberts. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET.

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). ± Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center ± Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed ± Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network ± Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission ± Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. ± Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network ± Mar-72, First basic Email Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. ± Jul-72, First Email Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts ± Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN ± May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe ± May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. ± Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) ± Nov-77, Complete Email Specification ( RFC 733) released by two Email pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. ± Nov-83.com. Jon Postel. Paul Mockapetris. ± 2001 .Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.net. ± 1989. where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf. and Danny Cohen. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 26 . .org. . .Kronologi ‡ Periode Lanjut ± Mar-78. . creating . .int. ± 1986.edu. Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail ± 1991. TCP Split into TCP and IP. and Craig Partridge to support the Email addressing space.mil. Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel. NSF Opens Internet to commercial use. & .gov.

1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . 1968 ‡ J. 1962 ± ARPA Computer Program. Licklider ± On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1964 ± Network Measurement Center at UCLA. 1961 ± Communication Nets. 1962 ± First ARPA IPTO Director. ARPANET measurement. paper. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 27 . book. paper.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Leonard Kleinrock ± Packet Switching Theory.C.R.

1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pakar Pelopor ‡ Lawrence Roberts ± First Actual Network Experiment. 1967 ± Request For Proposals released for ARPANET. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 28 . 1968 ± Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT]. 1969 ± Packet Satellite Technique. 1965 ± ARPA Communications Program. 1966 ± ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET. 1971 ± First Email Management Program. 1966 ± Original ARPANET Design Paper.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

‡ Jon Postel ± FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) ± Domain Name System. ‡ Robert Metcalfe ± First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC ‡ Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± First Internetworking Protocol.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Steve Crocker ± Request For Comments (RFC) #1. SNGMSG and READMAIL. TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol. the first output of the Network Working Group. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 29 . ‡ Ray Tomlinson ± First basic Email Programs.

high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) ‡ Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . komputer. sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources. dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] ± (terminal. server.about.com] ‡ LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN. ± Kategori [http://compnetworking. / System AN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 30 .

any network whose communications links cross metropolitan.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Network  LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area. or national boundaries ± LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system ± MAN > LAN < WAN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 31 . dan ATM. memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware.. extranet = WAN.e.  MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city  WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET. ± WAN (wide area network): ‡ LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas ‡ Internet = WAN. frame relay.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. regional. ‡ perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN.

komunikasi dan data transfer via internet].Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet ± Sistem informasi global yang: ‡ secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi. secara publik maupun private.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible. ‡ mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 32 . dan dapat diakses.

chat) ‡ konferensi online (Usenet News. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 33 . ftp). email discussion lists) ‡ akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web. pemerintah. komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dan lainnya.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet : ± Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Gopher) ‡ remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet. ± Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku. dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: ‡ komunikasi langsung (e-mail.

‡ Implementasi TCP/IP. ‡ Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Intranet : ± LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW. juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . atau ± Private Internet ‡ Private network enterprise. LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. HTTP. ‡ Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 34 . dan IP lainnya.

customers. partners. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . menerapkan firewall server management: ‡ user authentication ‡ encryption of messages ‡ menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. ± Perlu keamanan dan privasi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Extranet : ± Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers. ± Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 35 . vendors. & lainnya.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 36 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Operasional Extranet ± Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML ± Berbagi katalog produk ± Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis ± Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama ± Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain. misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi ± Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 37 . perolehan info relatif murah & banyak. pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio. dan hiburan [+audio.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Dampak [ftp://ftp.txt] ± Akses sangat mudah.edu/in-notes/rfc2150. scientist & engineer sangat penting.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. peranan artist. ± Integrasi informasi.isi. komunikasi. ± Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter. video. ± Agar info positif > negatif.

Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download ± Libraries.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Komunitas Global ± Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu ± Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs ± Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Ketersediaan ± Shareware. stores. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 38 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya.

di mana top level : ‡ com untuk perusahaan komersil ‡ edu untuk institusi pendidian ‡ gov untuk situs pemerintah ‡ net untuk infrastruktur jaringan ‡ org untuk organisasi non-komersil ‡ us untuk situs di USA ‡ id untuk situs di Indonesia ± Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 39 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar.

4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: 123.123. ‡ Jenis yang populer: ± http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] ± ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] ± telnet = telecommunication network protocol.123.ext".waralaba.com/lok-dir/filename. remote service ± smtp = simple mail transfer protocol ± nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .123] ± Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen ‡ misal: "http://www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 40 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username ± Komputer harus memiliki IP address.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer. dll. a computer + associated software. rec rekreasi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 41 . and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS¶s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . sci = sains. one-to-many ± Electronic mail ± Newsgroup. soc= sosial. typically providing electronic messaging services.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: ‡ Message-based Communications. ± Bulletin Board System (BBS). electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. archives of files.

etc. text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ‡ Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 42 . an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas. technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets). ± Multicasting. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . solve puzzles. WebChat). berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` ± Internet Relay Chat (IRC.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. to multiple sites simultaneously. ± MUD [Multi-User Dungeon].

Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 43 . doctors patients. New York. Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins. hear and speak with other CUSeeMe users across the world. and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill ± Audio Video Conferencing.students. demons. this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . USA and is freely available.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. artists .audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see.Real-Time Communications ± MUD. [teachers .

± Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler]. is kept. documents.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest. etc. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 44 . or photographs.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records. institutional records. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . as private papers. memorabilia. ± Internet¶s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites.com/ ‡ Lycos .yahoo.com/ ‡ DejaNews .com/ ‡ WebCrawler .com/ Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Contoh search engine ‡ Yahoo . with search capabilities http://www.com/ ‡ Google .digital.USENET (news groups) search engine http://www.dejanews.Index of WWW sites. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 45 .WWW and USENET search engine http://www.google.lycos.http://query.webcrawler. with search capabilities http://www.com/ ‡ Magellan .Index of WWW sites.http://www.mckinley. with search capabilities http://www.com/ ‡ AltaVista .altavista.

Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Penggunaan Internet ‡ World Wide Web ~ Web ± subset of the computers di Internet ± visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas. ± klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 46 . informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links. ± organisasi Web tidak hirarkis.

printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .. midi equip. and viewing files. downloading. memerlukan dukungan: ‡ Internet Service Providers ‡ HW + SW + modem ‡ Web browser ‡ SW anti virus ‡ Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers. video equip. CD-ROM player.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.. menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 47 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Cara Akses ± Akses Internet ~ receiving.

] ‡ Format file: public domain. vector. ‡ Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text ‡ Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 48 . Chat. standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Tahapan Pengembangan Situs ± Pembuatan & pendaftaran ± Kreasi isi ‡ Getting help [lewat: Forum. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . advicing). dll. trademark. dll. netiquette. suara & musik ‡ Publikasi ‡ Issues & Chalenges ± Security. privacy. video] ‡ Kreasi digital audio. BBS. cryptography. proprietary. viruses.

Dampak Sosial Teknologi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 49 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 50 .Materi ‡ Kilas Balik ‡ Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kini & Masa Depan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

± Computerization ~ ‡ to enter. precisely and reliably serta dapat menyimpan dan mengambil kembali banyak data dengan cepat sekali.com/dictionary/] ± Computer adalah mesin yang dapat diprogram untuk memanipulasi simbol. termasuk networking and telecommunication. control. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .hyperdictionary. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 51 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. or store (information) in a computer or system of computers ‡ a society where computers are ubiquitous. ± IT (Applied computer systems) .Kilas Balik ‡ Definisi [www. biasanya dalam konteks bisnis [that deals with all things electronic]. to carry out. process.HW dan SW . Komputer dapat mengerjakan prosesproses rumit dan berulang quickly. or conduct by means of a computer.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Sejarah Alat Hitung ± Alamiah ± Abacus ± Napier¶s Bones & Mistar hitung ± Pascaline ‡ Sejarah Komputer [elektronis] ± Babbage [Difference / analytical] engine ± ENIAC. EDSAC. EDVAC ± Neuman¶s concept / IAS ± UNIVAC Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 52 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 53 . berdasar komponen utama] ± Tabung ± Transistor ± IC [Conductor / semiconductor / superconductor] ± SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI / ULSI ‡ Klasifikasi Komputer ± Supercomputer ± Large scale / mainframe computer ± Minicomputer ± Microcomputer / PC / desktop / workstation ± Laptop / palmtop / PDA ± etc.Kilas Balik ‡ Generasi Komputer [elektronis. ««« Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Kemajuan Teknologi Lain ± Mesin uap ± Lampu listrik ± Telegraf & telepon ± Pesawat terbang ± Bom atom ± Laser ± Roket ± Satelit & pesawat ruang angkasa ± Bio / Nano / Material . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 54 .technology Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

NSFNet. INTERNET . jaringan komputer di kantor & jaringan ± 1980-an. sebagai ± Pencacah bilangan & General purpose system ± Utility & tool ± Komunikator ± Search Engine Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Proses & Komunikasi ± 1955. ARPANet.1st University machine ± 1960.WWW [era ubiquitous computing] ‡ Fungsi Komputer [sekarang].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1st e-mail & personal computing [time sharing] ± 1975. BITNET ± 1990-an. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 55 .1st College machine [programer awal] ± 1964. IBM 1620 . IBM 650 .

untrainable. the don¶t-wannabetrained] dapat membuat sebuah program.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untrained.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Sejauh mana pengaruh TI ? ± Pemakai mulai berpaling dari elit professionally responsible ke komunitas dengan berbagai kepentingan yang makin luas ± Very high level applications memungkinkan kemudahan bagi tiap orang [trained. ‡ Tingkatan dampak ? ± Penggantian aktifitas langsung dengan sedikit perubahan pada produktifitas ± Peningkatan berbagai aktifitas dengan perbaikan kecepatan dan efisiensi ± Perluasan ke berbagai aktifitas yang dahulu belum bisa dilakukan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 56 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 57 . on / off.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. biner ± Kaya dan miskin ± Sekolah favorit dan sekolah pinggiran ± Tua dan muda ± Laki-laki dan perempuan ± Orangtua dan anak ± Kota dan kampung ± Atasan dan bawahan ± Dosen dan non-dosen Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Membagi ala DIJITAL ? ± High / low. true / false.

manusia sangat tergantung pada: ± Mobil ? ± Minyak bumi ? ± Listrik ? ± Telefon ? ± TV ? ± Pesawat ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kehidupan manusia bertambah baik / buruk? ‡ Manusia sangat tergantung pada komputer ? ‡ Akibat kemajuan teknologi [selain TI].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 58 .

e-education ± Freeware. «. «. shareware.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Kehidupan ± Alat rumah-tangga: microwave. online course. ± Alat komunikasi: telepon.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Alat hiburan: radio. TV. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 59 .. opensource Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . « ± Mobil [pribadi] ‡ Pendidikan ± Pelajaran + praktik TI tingkat PT/SMU/SMP/SD ± e-learning.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Bisnis & Industri ± e-commerce ± e-banking ± expert system [AI] ± CAD/CAM/CAX ««« ± Robotic ‡ Instansi/organisasi ± Komputerisasi / otomasi kantor ± Tingkat kepegawaian ± Teleworking ± Efisiensi sumberdaya Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 60 .

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Sains & Teknologi (R & D) ± Lingkungan PT ± Lingkungan industri ± High Tech [Nano. privacy. bioinformatik ‡ Masalah ± Community change [indirect interactions] ± Cultural & National Sovereignty ± Workplace & economic impacts [organization & skills] ± Information impacts [equity of access. pricing. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 61 . e-freedoms] ± Legality & security [computer crime] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi ./material.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :./bio. regulation. consumer rights.tech].

.. reporting. but all the operations & systems. and control practices & make suggestions for improvement [not only organization's finance function.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Pendekatan Solusi ± Risk Analysis ‡ Quantitative ± probability of an event occurring ± likely loss should it occur ‡ Qualitative (estimated potential loss) ± threats [fire.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .] / vulnerabilities / controls ± Risk Management ‡ proactive / reactive / non-reactive [measures] ± Control & Audit ‡ evaluate & monitor company's risk management. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 62 . frauds.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 63 .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Negatif ? ± Pengangguran. akibat otomatisasi ± Kriminal ‡ virus ‡ pembobolan ‡ pembajakan SW ‡ pencurian perangkat ± Privacy ‡ cracking / hacking ? ‡ pencurian informasi ‡ duplikasi & manipulasi informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Manajemen Data dan Informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 64 .

HW. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 65 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Cara pembuatan. ± Dua jenis ‡ File management system (FMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat hanya mengakses data/informasi 1 tabel atau 1 file. dan informasi yang didesain agar semudah mungkin cara penyimpanan dan pengambilannya kembali untuk pemanfaatannya. Cara pembuatan.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Data Management System (DMS) ± Kombinasi SW. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pemeliharaan. dan pemakaiannya mudah dan murah [personal]. dan pemakaiannya tidak mudah dan tidak murah [instansi/organisasi]. ‡ Database Management System (DBMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat dapat mengakses banyak tabel / file. pemeliharaan.

and "Drop´ ] untuk RDBMS. Contoh: Oracle. ± Structured Query Language (baca "S-Q-L" atau "sequel") ~ bahasa baku/standard ["Select". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 66 . menentukan class dari objek dan inheritance dari class serta metoda-metoda untuk menangani objek-objek tersebut. & administer sebuah basisdata relasional. DB2. "Insert". "Delete". ± Object-oriented DataBase Management System ~ DBMS yang menunjang pemodelan dan kresi data sebagai objects. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Relational DataBase Management System adalah sebuah program untuk create. "Create". update. SQL Server. "Update".

com:400/databasefile.swaps. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . tanpa perlu memahami bahasa yang dipakai atau cara memintanya. misal jdbc://www. ± Common Object Request Broker Architecture . untuk koneksi ke basisdata SQL menghasilkan database independent applications.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Open DataBase Connectivity ~ API baku yang dikembangkan berdasar pada spesifikasi SQL Access Group. ± Java DataBase Connectivity ~ antarmuka agar dapat akses ke banyak basisdata lintas WWW dengan mudah. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 67 .memungkinkan sebuah pr oram di satu komputer minta informasi pada program lain di komputer lainnya [dalam jaringan].

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.larangan akses & proses data ‡ Temporer. untuk menjaga privacy of human subjects. untuk menjaga intellectual property. sebagai jaminan pada rekanan/sponsor. ‡ Bila terkait dengan hak paten dan legalitas lainnya.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Prinsip Manajemen Data ± Access Restrictions . ‡ Banyak ahli merekomendasikan 5 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. Banyak instansi besar menentukan < 5 tahun. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 68 . ± Data Retention and Storage ‡ Umumnya sebuah instansi/perusahaan dapat menentukan minimal 3 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. ‡ Permanen. saat administrator meng-update & validasi. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . perlu minta pendapat ahli hukum sebelun data dihancurkan. ‡ Temporer. ‡ Temporer.

physically removable : tape cartridge / reel. hard / floppy disk.Pengarsipan (Filing) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Byte / karakter = å bits = 8 bit [ASCII] String = rangkaian alfanumerik Field / data item = å bytes terbatas Record = å fields yang saling terkait File = å records sejenis Database = å files terintegrasi Directory = area media tempat penyimpan files Volume = satuan identifiable data storage.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 69 .

terlengkap.Pengarsipan ‡ Kategori Akses <==> organisasi ± Serial. diproses hanya bila perlu Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . penyimpanan seadanya tanpa melihat urutan ± Sequential. file sekuensial di mana akses record memakai tabel indeks. ± Random/direct. operasional ± Transaction .file duplikat master --> cucu-anak. penyimpanan runtut dengan urutan kunci ± Index Sequential.file hasil pilahan dari master siap diproses ± History .kakek ± Scratch .file terbaru.file yang ³dipensiun´.file untuk meng-update master ± Backup . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 70 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. penyimpanan acak di mana akses record memakai pointer ‡ Jenis File ± Master .

‡ Updating ± Add ± Change ± Delete ± Modify Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 71 . ± Size ~ volume / kapasitas ± Activity ~ hit rate = jml % volume file yang diproses persatuan waktu ± Expansion ~ growth = tingkat pertumbuhan maksimum kapasitas sebuah file yang direncanakan.Pengarsipan ‡ Karakteristik File ± Volatility ~ frekuensi updating tinggi >< static.

Pengarsipan ‡ Media Penyimpan ± Kertas ± Tape ‡ organisasi sekuensial ‡ kerapatan (density): 800. 1600 ‡ gap [record / block]: 0. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 72 .5 / 0. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .75 inch ± Disk ‡ organisasi indeks / acak ‡ kerapatan ‡ gap ‡ sector & track.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

PDT (Pengolahan Data Tradisional) ‡ Siklus Hidup ± Identifikasi masalah & objektif [studi kelayakan] ± Determinasi kebutuhan informasi & Analisis sistem lama ± Desain sistem baru ± Pemrograman & dokumentasi SW ± Uji coba & penyempurnaan ± Penerapan & evaluasi ± Operasional ‡ Sumberdaya Manusia ± Manajemen ± Analis ± Pemrogram ± Administrator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 73 .

distribusi hasil ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . proses data dan pembuatan keluaran. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 74 .PDT ‡ Prosedur Umum ± ± ± ± ± Rencanakan kebutuhan data Rancang format data masukan dan keluaran Rencanakan cara pengumpulan & klasifikasi data Definisikan & rancang organisasi file [-file] Bagaimana cara entri data ? ‡ Verifikasi ‡ Validasi ± Rencanakan cara penyimpanan & pengamanannya ± Bagaimana cara pengambilan kembali.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

3 stages : Integration. 3 stages : Intiation.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Contagion. Distribution Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Control ± Information Technology Era.Architecture. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 75 .PDT ‡ Kelemahan ± Uncontrolled redundancy: aplikasi Û file sendiri ± Inconsistent data: 1 file di bbrp lokasi. sebagian di-update ± Inflexibility: desain tidak terpadu => respons lambat / nihil ± Limited data sharing Û Uncontrolled redundancy ± Poor standards => operasional tidak efektif ± Low programmer productivity Û Poor standards ± Excessive program maintenance ‡ Pendekatan Richard Nolan ± Data Processing Era.

dan cara pemeliharaan data subsets.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 76 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . campuran? ± Ukuran fields. administrators. dapat diakses oleh business managers. menghasilkan ad hoc queries & reports.Basisdata ‡ Database ~ S files terintegrasi ‡ Data Format ± Representasi: karakter. records. service providers & researchers yang berhak untuk: dianalisis. numerik. files ? ± Bagaimana cara menampilkan informasi di monitor dan di kertas ? ± Bagaimana cara penyimpanan internal ? ‡ Data warehouse ± Kumpulan terpadu data perusahaan.

± Akan menunjukkan semua informasi yang harus ada dalam basisdata. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 77 . ‡ Data Model ± Hasil proses desain basisdata yang dapat dipakai untuk mengidentifkasi dan mengorganisasi data logically & physically. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . bagaimana cara penggunaannya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. yang memungkinkan prediksi hasilhasil pada masa datang. dan bagaimana setiap item database akan saling terkait.Basisdata ‡ Data Mining ± Aktifitas ekstraksi informasi yang tujuannya untuk menemukan faktafakta tersembunyi dalam basisdata.

Basisdata
‡ Tingkat Model Data ± External (user views) Conceptual ± Internal [DBMS dependent] Physical ‡ Jenis Basisdata, piramid ± Operasional transaction processing ± Manajerial management information system ± Stratejik decision support system ‡ Asosiasi data ± One-to-one : NIM Nama-mhs ± One-to-many : NIM Cek-medis ± Many-to-many : S NIM S Mt-kul

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

78

Basisdata
‡ Logical Model ± Hierarchy ± Network ± Relational ± Object-oriented ‡ Terminologi ± Attribute ~ kolom tabel ± Entity ~ konsep/objek data terdefinisi ± Table ~ file ± Tupple ~ baris tabel ~ record

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

79

MIS (Management Information System)
‡ Definisi ± Segala sumberdaya & prosedur yang dibutuhkan untuk mengumpulkan, proses, dan distribusi informasi yang akan digunakan untuk ambil keputusan. ± Sistem user-machine terpadu yang menghasilkan informasi untuk menunjang operasi, manajemen, analisis, dan fungsi-fungsi pengambilan keputusan dalam organisasi. ‡ Sifat dari needed information ± Accuracy ± Timeliness ± Completeness ± Conciseness

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

80

management. technology ± Kontemporer: IS Û technical (computer sc.MIS ‡ Istilah ± MIS ~ IS ~ IPS ~ CBIS ‡ Menggunakan ± Komputer [HW & SW] ± Prosedur-prosedur manual ± Model-model untuk: analysis. decision making. psychology.. sociology) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi ..: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. behavioral (Economics. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 81 . management sc. control. OR). ± Basisdata ‡ Perspektif ± Bisnis: IS Û organization. planning.

personnel. ± Berbasis fungsi organisasi: (strategic planning. tactical. operational control. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . top-man). management control. logistics. operational. transaction processing) versus (sales & marketing. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 82 . production.MIS ‡ Struktur ± Berbasis aktifitas manajemen: strategic. ‡ Sintesis ± Conceptual structure ~ organizational MIS ± Physical structure ~ integrated processing & common modules.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. information proc. finance& accounting..

Sekuriti dan Etika Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 83 .

CIA: [www. integrity & confidentiality informasi yang dikelola.html] ‡ Taksonomi pokok.html] ± Confidentiality . ± Integrity .albion. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 84 .us/ld/pubs/compsecurity/ glossary.tsl.tx.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak diubah oleh unauthorized persons kecuali oleh authorized users.com/security/intro-4.penjaminan bahwa users adalah persons they claim to be (yang berhak).state.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak dapat diakses oleh unauthorized persons. [www.Sekuriti ‡ Apakah Computer Security ? ± Prosedur-prosedur technological & managerial yang diterapkan pada sistem komputer untuk menjaga availability.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Authentication .

± Nonrepudiation .penjaminan bahwa users hanya akses ke resources and services yang telah ditentukan & qualified users tidak ditolak akses ke services that legitimately expect to receive.penjaminan bahwa individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Privacy . loss of availability disebut "denial-of-service´. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 85 . how it is used.Sekuriti ‡ Taksonomi lain ± Access control .penjaminan bahwa sebuah sistem operational & functional tiap saat [redundancy]. and what purpose it is used for.penjaminan bahwa pengirim messages tidak dapat menyangkal fakta. who maintains it. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . who has used it. ± Availability .

proteksi terhadap elements & natural disasters.mencakup segala hal mulai dari managerial policy decisions sampai dengan reporting hierarchies. assignment of privilege. backups. ± System security . security briefings. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . monitoring.proteksi perangkat jari. firewalls. proteksi network servers & transmissions. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 86 . training. and handling departures. & telekomunikasi.pengendalian comings and goings of people and materials. monitoring processes. maintaining file and filesystem integrity.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Network security -.Domain ± Physical security . log-keeping. ± Personnel security .penjaringan pegawai: background screening. and auditing. pengendalian akses dari untrusted networks.pengawasan akses & otentikasi users. dan deteksi intrusi. ± Operational/procedural security . memerangi penyadapan.

] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . [It's best if the vendors announced along with fixes].com] ± R-1: Security through obscurity [samar] doesn¶t work. [Computer security can never be implemented in a vacuum.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.[X-Files: "There's always someone watching.´] ± R-2: Full disclosure of bugs & holes benefits security.albion. promulgated disebar-luaskan] by computer security researcher Dan Farmer:] "The Security of a Computer System Degrades in Direct Proportion to the Amount of Use the System Receives. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 87 .´ ± R-4: Do it before someone does it wrong for you. ± R-3: [Farmer's Law.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . [Don't underestimate the value of deterrence / rintangan.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www. ± R-10: Trust is a relative concept [´Trust no one" is the strongest policy]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 88 .albion. more knowledgeable.].´ ].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] ± R-6: There¶s always someone out there smarter. ± R-8: The Good & Evil blend into gray [There are "good guys³ and "bad guys" out there. ± R-7: There are no turnkey security solutions [There's no checklist that will account for all vulnerabilities. or "white hats" and "black hats.]. or better eqquiped than you [Be careful about the assumptions you make concerning the threats your systems face. ± R-9: Think like the enemy [akibat R-8].com] ± R-5: The fear of getting cought is the beginning of wisdom.

sebaran fitnah krn ceroboh.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Inadequate care with data. gosip. pengomentari dengan hal-hal yang sifatnya rahasia. karena kiriman data /email yang banyak/besar & tidak relevan. ± Persistence. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 89 .au/people/RogerClarke/II/Netethiquettecases] ± Information overload.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Accidental [www.edu. ± Negligent defamation. ± Rumour & accidental misinformation. ± Trawling / Spidering. ± Minor plagiarism. me-reply email dengan tambahan info sensitif/rahasia.anu. anggota milis keluar lupa dihapus. info dari situs diakui hasil sendiri.

± Intentional defamation. kirim email berbahasa kasar/kotor (foul /abusive). pengiriman banyak email ke suatu mailbox.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Socially Aggressive ± Intentional misinformation. ± Flaming. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 90 . berita hasutan melalui bulletin board. ± Impersonation. ± Mail-bombing.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. penyebaran fitnah. sebaran fitnah. progam / email untuk pengacauan trafik. pemalsuan identitas gender di milis. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . penyediaan material yang asusila di situs. ± Harassment. ± Incitement. ngintip isi email-email banyak orang. ± Obscenity. ± Surveillance.

sebaran iklan ke banyak milis dengan banyak jawaban sehingga mailbox overflow. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis tapi intruder. penyebaran program SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks). Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Security breach. ± Abuse of intellectual property rights.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Economically Aggressive ± Spamming. ± Viruses & worms. pemakaian transaksi jaringan tanpa modal. merugikan terkirim. ± Serious plagiarism. ± Advertising. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 91 . ± Secondary use of data. ± Hacking. penjiplakan karya tulis dari situs. pengambilan bahan dari situs tanpa menyebut sumber. pembobolan keamanan sistem. ngirim program perusak melalui jar.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. & soliciting. dll. promotion.

] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . contoh: A sender encrypts their messages. ] ± Anonymisation [A so-called 'anonymous remailer' receives email addressed to a third party. such that the messages can be decrypted provided that several of them collaborate. and forwards it to the intended recipient.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. contoh: Someone establishes a web-server in a tax haven.] ± Obscuration [penyamaran.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Avoidance ± Circumvention [menghindari. and offers merchants a service whereby net-facilitated sales are legally made in that location. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 92 . thereby avoiding paying tax in which the buyer and/or seller operate. but registers various parts of the encryption key with various different people and organisations. removes the sender's identification. ] ± Compound cases [Someone brings the story to the attention of the 'victim'.

mereka yang berwatak arogan [bangga diri ?] (proud of ) dengan apa yang mereka dilakukan dan publish their achievement. and/or their related functions. removal of.com] ± Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer. use of.hyperdictionary. ± Any criminal activity involving the copy of. manipulation of computer systems. ± Cracker.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Computer Crime ? [www. interference with. access to.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Pelaku ? ± Hacker. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 93 . person which hacking for profit. to data or programs.

± Iri / ingin merugikan perusahaan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Konsekuensi perusahaan ± Kredibilitas turun ± Kemajuan terhambat ± Menyesatkan pelanggan ± Kehilangan peluang bisnis Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa motif penyusup/pembobol ? ± Kesombongan / ego [ingin menguji kemampuan yang lain] / mpo. ± Politik (hactivism). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 94 .

± Viruses.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks yang sering ? [www. ± Holes in public commercial & domain software (sendmail. flexlm.com] ± Password sniffing. ftpd. misalnya dengan TCP Grab atau Passfinder.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. «) ± Hostile [musuh ?] Java Applets. ± Invasion of privacy. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± CGI PHF (packet handling function) dapat dipakai untuk extract password file.leccorder. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 95 . access & modification to private data.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Denial-of-service attacks. ± Pencurian fisik [Laptops. mencuri private files. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 96 . dll. ± Malicious codes and viruses. ± Seseorang memakai computer account yang lain.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks ³favorit´ ? ± Theft of data and resources.]. ± Malfeasance [penyalah-gunaan jabatan] by Computer. ‡ Jenis pencurian data ? ± Menyusup ke sebuah komputer. ± Penyerangan melalui email/internet. PC.

e-mail bombs. eLearning.] terganggu / mati. ‡ Keeping you from doing any work. «« ± ± Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ DoS attack ± Caranya ? ‡ Mengunci komputer / website sehingga tidak berfungsi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 97 . . getting any online orders.. receiving any mail.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Contoh ? ‡ Web sit-ins [protes. Akibatnya ? ‡ Pekerjaan terhambat ‡ Menghalangi komunikasi melalui e-mail ‡ e-activity [eCommerce. bahkan mungkin sampai crash. demo].

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . despite its widespread. ‡ Apa yang mungkin jadi penyebabnya ? ± Memakai /membeli SW bajakan.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Malfeasance by Computer ? [= "gray" areas of computer abuse] ± Computer-related behavior stretches the bounds of legality and may be viewed as only technically wrong. membuat program jadwal kuliah lalu pindah ke universitas lain dengan membawa kopi program untuk dipakai di tempat baru. ± Seseorang memakai account number & password orang lain untuk melihat isi sebuah DB. potentially negative impact. ± Pemrogram sebuah Univ. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 98 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Pegawai secara rahasia membangun DB sebagai usaha sampingan. ± Pelanggan memberi unlisted telephone number di swalayan.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Agar penegak hukum mengganjar pembuat Malicious Program seberat mungkin. bila ada Malicious Program baru [dan mungkin lebih ganas] maka hukum perlu diperbaru.Malicious Program ‡ Apa Malicious Program ? [www. ‡ Untuk apa tahu Malicious Program ? ± Bila tahu kerusakan terjadi.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. tiap insiden harus dihadapi konsekwensi legal [penerapan hukum bagi pembuat program.com/cvirus. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 99 .rbs2. ± Hukum yang ada hanya bereaksi pada kerusakan yang terakhir.htm ] ± Program ganas/jahat penyebab kerugian (harm) ekstensif. agar tiap pemilik komputer selalu memproteksinya dari tiap attacks mendatang.

[www.Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Virus ~ ‡ Program that can reproduce by changing other programs to include a copy of itself.princeton. ± Hoax ~ something intended to deceive [bohong]. deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage.edu/cgi-bin/webwn] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . needing another program to survive.cogsci. It is a parasite program. ‡ Program that is designed to hide in the background and replicate itself from one computer to another by attaching itself to existing programs or parts of the operating system.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 100 .

files. ‡ Sabotage. tetapi melakukan sesuatu yang tak terduga.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Pencurian passwords.Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Worm ~ Program yang menyebarkan diri sendiri dari sistem ke sistem sepanjang jaringan. credit card numbers. especially by insiders (time bombs). ± Trojan Horse ~ Program yang menyamar (masquerade) sebagai sesuatu yang useful or amusing. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 101 . ‡ Biasanya dikirimkan di dalam sebuah game Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Penyebaran DoS attacks or worms/viruses.dsb. ..

ahli virus yakin virus dibuat sebagai bentuk iklan BCS.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Brain virus. Nov. adres. ± Lehigh Virus. virus untuk MS DOS dibuat 1986 berisi [unencrypted text] nama.COM pada disket DOS di Lehigh Univ. ± Christma Worm.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. sambil mencari 2 files pada user's account to collect e-mail addresses kemudian secara otomatis sent itself ke adres-adres tersebut. 1987. Pakistan. Robert Slade. Virus menginfeksi boot sector disket 5¼ . worm dalam bahasa REXX dibuat mahasiswa di Jerman Desember 1987 di jaringan IBM mainframe di Eropa. Worm memunculkan suatu citra pohon conifer di monitor. & nomor telefon Brain Computer Services (BCS) swalayan di Lahore. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 102 . virus yang menginfeksi file COMMAND. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Doe. berupa 3 shareware programs: ‡ Obnoxious Tetris [game] ‡ Ten Tile Puzzle [game] ‡ Tetriscycle [Trojan Horse berisi encrypted copy dari MBDF. Europe. ?] di Cornell Univ. Australia. 2 November 1988 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Komputer yang terinfeksi MBDF Virus ada di seluruh wilayah USA. and Canada. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . worm yang secara efectif shut down Internet untuk beberapa hari. created and released virus MBDF. first-year CS graduate student Cornell Univ.. ± MBDF Virus. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 103 . Japan. 1992 . attacks Apple Mac. Pilgrim.4 undergraduate students [Blumenthal.Robert Tappan Morris..Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Morris Worm.

2000 menyerang ³ 1/2 perusahaan di USA dan ³ 105 mail servers di Eropa.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Pathogen Virus. Senate & Britain's House of Commons were shut down. April 1994 di-release di UK oleh Christopher Pile [³Black Baron´.[Internal e-mail systems at U.S.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. di mana korban dapat download a copy of the file. released on 26 March 1999 di-design to infect macros in wordprocessing documents used by the Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000 programs. pemrogram] yang uploading infected file ke computer bulletin board.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pertama ditemukan di Hong Kong 4 . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 104 .5 . ± ILOVEYOU worm. ± Melissa virus.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 105 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. "a person with oldfashioned values´. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Etika .hyperdictionary. ± Etiquette [etiket] ~ rules governing socially acceptable behavior. mencakup segala aturan.com] ± Ethic [etika] ~ the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. ± Netiquette ~ ‡ Internet/network etiquette. .. "the Puritan ethic". ‡ A comprehensive guide to all aspects of electronic [do's and don'ts of online] communication.Netiket ‡ Apa etiket = etika ? [pcwebopaedia.Etiket . including Telnet and FTP.com]/www. cara diskusi. panduan etiket untuk posting pesan-pesan layanan online [newsgoups]. format sederhana.

Netiket ‡ Prinsip umum etika [www. Violations of authorial integrity. may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community. manner and terms of publication and distribution. and right to determine the form.Etiket . ± Because electronic information is so volatile and easily reproduced.ccis. unauthorized access. right to privacy. including plagiarism. respect for the work and personal expression of others is especially critical in computer environments. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . invasion of privacy. It applies to works of all authors and publishers in all media.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Etika .edu/Departments/TechnologyServices] ± Respect for intellectual labor and creativity to academic discourse and enterprise. It encompasses respect for the right to acknowledgment. and trade secrets and copyright violations. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 106 .

Etiket . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. discriminating. ± Jaringan komputer & telekomunikasi untuk free exchange of ideas and information.Etika . ± Users must not use systems of any kind to send material that is obscene. as well as enabling employees to work more efficiently and productively. jadi enhancing teaching & research. illegal.Netiket ‡ Bagaimana cara Ethical and Responsible Use of Computers ? ± Ingat bahwa semua fasilitas & perangkat komputasi adalah for purposes of work [business. or intended to defame or harass others. instruction. ± Taati semua aturan dan prosedur yang berlau. & research]. or to interfere with their work on the computer. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 107 .

± Abusers of computing privileges will be subject to disciplinary action.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and to help insure publishers.Etiket . authors and developers of return on their investments. ± Software license agreements serve to increase compliance with copyright and patent laws.Etika . ? ± Everyone who use the computers have the right to security of their computer programs and data..Netiket ‡ Bagaimana «. ± Security systems for computers exist to ensure that only authorized users have access to computer resources. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 108 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . check all your mail subjects before responding. if forwarding / re-posting don¶t change the wording. etc.html] ± Komunikasi 1 .Etiket . never send chain letters via electronic mail. respect the copyright.Etika .dfcc. write out no more than 70 characters.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855. . and no more than 12 lines..: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.1 ‡ Email [ownership. Netiquette Guidelines [www. make things easy for the recipient. not send heated messages / "flames´. always say goodbye or some other farewell. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 109 . mail on the Internet is not secure.]. remember that talk is an interruption to the other person.edu/cs/rfc1855. leave some margin. etc.] ‡ Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer [use mixed case and proper punctuation.

Assume that individuals speak for themselves. Messages and articles should be brief and to the point.Etika . etc.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Komunikasi 1 . etc.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house communication.Etiket . it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have sent them. Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Consider that a l arge audience will see your posts. Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions will do. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 110 . ‡ Mailing list [Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate address. Save the subscription messages for any lists you join.N ‡ General [Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything. ].

send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.Etika .for discussions which center around NetNews itself.long-winded never-ending discussions. check the Distribution" section of the header. ‡ rec .social issues. ‡ comp . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 111 . read all of a discussion in progress before posting replies. etc.the alternate hierarchy Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . [posting/cossposting.recreational activities. ‡ news .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest. ‡ talk .science related discussions. ‡ biz .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.] ± Kelompok NetNews ‡ sci .Etiket .business related postings. ‡ soc . and ‡ alt .computer related discussions.

com. information services also use conventions such as www. that any information you submit to a system is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 112 . do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-todate and/or accurate.Etika .xyz.Etiket . ‡ Gopher ‡ Wais ‡ World Wide Web (WWW) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . start problem solving by checking locally. Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication technology is in use.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers].Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Information services [services belong to someone else.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 113 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 114 .Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.