Introduction to Software

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi

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Materi : ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi

Computer software Package in Office Depot Puerto Vallara- Mexico

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Pengatahuan Dasar
Abstract view
user user
USER

...

USER

Application Software

System Software Computer Hardware

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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real-time. product software ± Era-3 (1973-1988). Object Object technology. disusun pemrogram untuk dikerjakan komputer ‡ Evolusi [PRE98] ± Era-1 (1950-1965). Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 4 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. orientasi batch. custom software ± Era-2 (1964-1974).parallel computing Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . DBMS.Pengetahuan Dasar Perangkat lunak / software : ‡ Instruksi dalam bahasa [formal] pemrograman. low-cost SW ± Era-4 (1986-2000-an) desk-top oriented. Expert System. multiuser. embedded intelligence. artificial Neural Network. distributed. distribusi terbatas.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Komponen : ±machine-executable [dapat ieksekusi komputer secara langsung] ±non-machine-executable ‡ Lingkup Pengembangan : ± System Software [agar perangkat keras bekerja] ± Application software : Real-time [ game.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 5 . online application] Business Engineering & Scientific Embedded [jaringan komputer. peralatan rumah tangga dll] PC-oriented Artificial Inteligent Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

FORTRAN.High Level Language (HLL). C. Java . SPIM .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dimengerti dan mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: BASIC.deskriptif [model] matematis . assembler.Intermediate level (ILL). tidak mudah pembuatan programnya contoh: machine language Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Low level (LLL). tidak terlalu sulit pemahaman dan pembuatan programnya contoh: autocoder. Pascal. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 6 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Bahasa .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 7 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Pemrograman (programming) ~ aktifitas runtut pemrogram: ± Pendefinisian masalah ± Penyusunan algoritma & flowchart ± Penulisan instruksi (coding) menggunakan sebuah bahasa formal ± Uji coba perbaikan kesalahan (debugging) ± Run program ± Dokumentasi ‡ Algoritma (algorithm) ~ pseudocode ± Aturan dan urutan langkah untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah ± langkah-langkah logis yang dideskripsi secara tekstual dengan pola baku untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

[ memberikan jawaban dan metode terbaik pada pemrosesan] 2. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 8 .html] 1.Pengetahuan Dasar . Definitive algorithms perform tasks that have a definite answer and a best method for processing. business and financial forecasting etc. [ berbasis pada asumsi model yang diakui kebenarannya] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . typically of interest to only computer scientist. economics.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.leveltendesign.Jenis algoritma [http://www.com/kb_terms/algorithm. is used heavily in social sciences. Subjective algorithm processes information based on an assumptive model where the "right" answer is a matter of opinion.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 9 .Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± Runtut (sequential / linear) ± Alternatif (alternative/selection) ± Berulang (loop/repetition) ‡ Struktur baku algoritma ± program flowchart [urutan langkah pada proses] ± system flowchart [urutan dan hubungan pada bagian2 sistem] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Program flowchart ± langkah-langkah logis untuk menyelesaikan suatu masalah dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] ± hasil konversi sebuah algoritma dengan menggunakan simbol baku [ANSI/IBM] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 10 .

compiler [translate from HLL to LLL]. high level languages (HLL) hanya dimengerti manusia.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 11 . perlu translator: assembler [a low level language for programming computers].Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Translasi Bahasa [proses representasi ke bahasa lain] ± Dasar low level language (LLL) hanya dimengerti mesin. analisis:  leksikal (~ aturan penulisan )  sintaks (~ tata bahasa )  semantik (arti) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . interpreter [to execute source code directly] ± Proses translasi o assembly o kompilasi (compilation).

a popular linux distribution. Unix-like OS.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis Perangkat lunak ± Operating system (OS) [BRA91] the extremely complex software suite that enables the untamed hardware power of the computer system to be used more easily without operator intervention.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 12 . ubuntu. [ set perangkat lunak komplek ntuk mengontrol kemampuan perangkat keras agar dapat digunakandengan mudah] ± Utilities : ‡ assembler ‡ compiler / interpreter ‡ I/O routines ‡ diagnostic routines ‡ JCL (command language) ‡ DBMS (database management system] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 13 .] ± Interactive / timesharing [alokasi waktu tiap proses] ± Multiprogramming ± Multiprocessing [multicomputer] ± Real time ± Network Operating System (NOS) ‡ Contoh OS CP/M. Unix.Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Jenis OS . Mac OS. Windows Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ~ paradigma proses ± Batch processing [execution of a series of programs ("jobs") on a computer without human interaction. DOS.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. OS/MFT.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 14 .Perangkat Lunak Sistem ‡ Karakteristik OS ± Preinstalled [ter install sebelumnya] ± Selalu terbuka ± Menjalankan program & mengelola data ‡ Tujuan OS : ± Eksekusi user programs ± Memiliki Kernel. komputer selalu siap dipakai ± Pemakaian komputer efisien. untuk beragam aplikasi ± Resource allocator ± Mengendalikan perangkat I/O Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

emacs. LaTex. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 15 . Adobe Acrobat ‡ Spreadsheet: lotus. QuarkXPress. Eudora Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . uang dan memberikan informasi sesegera mungkin saat dibutuhkan] ± Jenis : ‡ word & text processing. contoh: WS. Adobe InDesign.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi Bisnis ± Dasar use computer to saves time hence saves money have instant information when ever you need it [ untuk menghemat waktu.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. MS Words. and Corel VENTURA ‡ Internet Browser & e-mail: Netscape. excel ‡ Desk-top publishing (DTP): Adobe PageMaker. Adobe FrameMaker.

untuk : ± jaringan ± alat rumah tangga: microwave.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. pemakaian mudah. ± Multimedia & telecommunication: cellular phone ± Games Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . didukung banyak libraries & methods. untuk: cuaca. polusi. CASE.Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi ‡ Aplikasi saintifik dan teknis ± Dasar mendukung ide creatif. ‡ Robotics & Artificial Intelligent tools ‡ Embedded system tools. ± Jenis ‡ Design toolspackage: Autocad. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 16 . mesin cuci. CAD/CAM « ‡ Data logging tools. «. akurat. pekerjaan repetitif.

Introduction to Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 17 .

Materi Pengenalan Internet : ‡ Kronologi ‡ Pakar Pelopor ‡ Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Penggunaan Internet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 18 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

satelit bumi buatan pertama. Leonard Kleinrock.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).´ ± 1962.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal [http://www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 19 . "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.html] ± 1957. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber.cc/internet. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network. USSR meluncurkan Sputnik. setelah serangan nuklir.packet. ± Jul-61. First Paper on Packet Switching Theory. RAND Paul Baran.

First Actual Network Experiment. ± 1964. ± Okt-65. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32. First Paper on Internet Concept by J. "OnLine Man Computer Communication". Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 20 . Lawrence Roberts.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. MIT Lincoln Labs. "On Distributed Communications Networks". Paul Baran. IEEE Transactions on Systems. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Licklider & Welden Clark.R.C. Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. [buku] ± Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Agu-62.

ARPA. ± Des-68. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers".Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. ± Okt-67. Original ARPANET Design Paper. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 21 . First Paper on Network Experiments. " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". Fall AFIPS Conf. ± Agu-68. ACM Gatlinberg Conf. Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Lawrence Roberts. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

ACM Gatlinberg Conf.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Original ARPANET Design Paper. ± Agu-68. Fall AFIPS Conf.Kronologi ‡ Periode Awal ± Okt-66. BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP¶s) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Request For Proposals released for ARPANET by Lawrence Roberts. ± Des-68. ± Okt-67. Lawrence Roberts. Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 22 . The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. ARPA. "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers". " Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication ". First Paper on Network Experiments.

Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Apr-69, Request For Comments (RFC) #1, "Host Software" Released, written by Steve Crocker, covering Host-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group (NWG). ± Sep-69, First Node of ARPANET Installed at UCLA Network Measurement Center ± Oct-69, Second Node of ARPANET Installed at SRI, first ARPANET messages passed ± Nov-69, Third Node of the ARPANET Installed at UCSB making the first redundant network ± Des-69, Fourth Node of the ARPANET Installed at the University of Utah

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Jul-70, First Packet Radio -ALOHANET operational at U. Hawaii under Norm Abramson using the ALOHA concept of random packet transmission ± Dec-70, Network Control Protocol (NCP), the first host-tohost protocol, completed by Steve Crocker and NWG. ± Sep-71, First Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) in ARPANET; terminals to directly dial into the network ± Mar-72, First basic Email Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL written by Ray Tomlinson at BBN. ± Jul-72, First Email Management Program, RD written by Larry Roberts ± Jul-72, FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354), Jon Postel

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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Kronologi
‡ Periode Lanjut ± Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN ± May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe ± May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. ± Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) ± Nov-77, Complete Email Specification ( RFC 733) released by two Email pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.
Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

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± 1986.int. creating . & . ± Nov-83.com. Paul Mockapetris. .edu.Kronologi ‡ Periode Lanjut ± Mar-78. TCP Split into TCP and IP. .net.mil. NSF Opens Internet to commercial use.org. . Jon Postel. .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and Danny Cohen. and Craig Partridge to support the Email addressing space. Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 26 . where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf. ± 1989.gov. . Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail ± 1991.Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± 2001 . First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch.

C.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1964 ± Network Measurement Center at UCLA.R. 1962 ± First ARPA IPTO Director. ARPANET measurement.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Leonard Kleinrock ± Packet Switching Theory. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 27 . paper. book. 1968 ‡ J. 1962 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . paper. 1961 ± Communication Nets. Licklider ± On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept). 1962 ± ARPA Computer Program.

1971 ± First Email Management Program. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 28 .Pakar Pelopor ‡ Lawrence Roberts ± First Actual Network Experiment. 1972 Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 1966 ± Original ARPANET Design Paper. 1969 ± Packet Satellite Technique. 1965 ± ARPA Communications Program. 1967 ± Request For Proposals released for ARPANET. Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT]. 1966 ± ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET. 1968 ± Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO.

SNGMSG and READMAIL. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 29 . TCP outlined in a paper Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakup Host-to-Host protocol. ‡ Ray Tomlinson ± First basic Email Programs.Pakar Pelopor ‡ Steve Crocker ± Request For Comments (RFC) #1. the first output of the Network Working Group.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ‡ Robert Metcalfe ± First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC ‡ Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf ± First Internetworking Protocol. ‡ Jon Postel ± FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) ± Domain Name System.

about.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Kategori [http://compnetworking.com] ‡ LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN. dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Computer Network [Jaringan Komputer] ± (terminal. server. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 30 . komputer. high-performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) ‡ Internet / Intranet / Extranet Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . / System AN. sistem-lain) yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources.

regional. or national boundaries ± LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server di satu lokasi [kantor/gedung] yang membangun interoffice system ± MAN > LAN < WAN. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 31 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. ± WAN (wide area network): ‡ LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas ‡ Internet = WAN.  MAN : large computer networks usually spanning a city  WAN : computer network that covers a broad area (i. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Network  LAN : computer network covering a small geographic area. Teknologi pengembangan WAN: SONET. frame relay.e.. memakai dedicated / highperformance hardware. dan ATM.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. extranet = WAN.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet ± Sistem informasi global yang: ‡ secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet Protocol/IP [IP:standar pengontrol koneksi. dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible. ‡ mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. secara publik maupun private. komunikasi dan data transfer via internet]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . dan dapat diakses. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 32 .

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Internet : ± Jaringan komputer di mana situs-situs akademik. pemerintah. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 33 . dan lainnya. komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system / DNS dan adres IP sendiri. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Gopher) ‡ remote login [login jarak jauh] dan file transfer (telnet. ± Berbasis sekumpulan protocol baku. ftp). chat) ‡ konferensi online (Usenet News.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. email discussion lists) ‡ akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web. dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: ‡ komunikasi langsung (e-mail.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 34 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. HTTP. atau ± Private Internet ‡ Private network enterprise. ‡ Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi. ‡ Implementasi TCP/IP. dan IP lainnya. juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. ‡ Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Intranet : ± LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW. LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway.

customers. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . vendors.Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Extranet : ± Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers. ± Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. menerapkan firewall server management: ‡ user authentication ‡ encryption of messages ‡ menggunakan virtual private networks (VPN) yang memanfaatkan jaringan komunikasi publik. & lainnya. partners. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 35 . ± Perlu keamanan dan privasi.

Pengetahuan Dasar ‡ Operasional Extranet ± Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML ± Berbagi katalog produk ± Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis ± Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama ± Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain. misal online banking yang dikelola sabuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi ± Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 36 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 37 .isi. scientist & engineer sangat penting.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah terpengaruh bila tanpa filter. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . video. ± Integrasi informasi. komunikasi. peranan artist. ± Agar info positif > negatif.txt] ± Akses sangat mudah. pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio. perolehan info relatif murah & banyak. multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran. dan hiburan [+audio.edu/in-notes/rfc2150.Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Dampak [ftp://ftp.

Internet & Masyarakat ‡ Komunitas Global ± Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu ± Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs ± Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah dilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi /organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat. stores. ‡ Ketersediaan ± Shareware. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 38 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Freely Copyable software programs yang dapat di-download ± Libraries. and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 39 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Domain ~ kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. di mana top level : ‡ com untuk perusahaan komersil ‡ edu untuk institusi pendidian ‡ gov untuk situs pemerintah ‡ net untuk infrastruktur jaringan ‡ org untuk organisasi non-komersil ‡ us untuk situs di USA ‡ id untuk situs di Indonesia ± Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub domain Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

‡ Jenis yang populer: ± http = hypertext transfer protocol [the set of rules that control the way data is sent and received over the Internet] ± ftp = file transfer protocol [a set of rules for sending files from one computer to another on the Internet ] ± telnet = telecommunication network protocol.waralaba.123] ± Informasi memiliki URL~ alamat dokumen ‡ misal: "http://www.123.com/lok-dir/filename.ext".Penggunaan Internet ‡ Pengadresan ± Tiap pemakai memiliki DNS dan username ± Komputer harus memiliki IP address. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 40 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. 4 grup bilangan dipisah oleh titik [misal: 123. remote service ± smtp = simple mail transfer protocol ± nttp = network news transfer protocol Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .123.

typically providing electronic messaging services. electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ~ tempat bertemu publik secara elektronik untuk diskusi terbuka: ‡ Message-based Communications. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 41 . and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS¶s operator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . a computer + associated software. misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara hirarkis [comp =komputer.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. one-to-many ± Electronic mail ± Newsgroup. archives of files. rec rekreasi. ± Bulletin Board System (BBS). dll. soc= sosial. sci = sains.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan] ` ± Internet Relay Chat (IRC.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum ‡ Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay yang terjadi seminim mungkin. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 42 . text-based mechanism communication with multiple participants. WebChat). solve puzzles. to multiple sites simultaneously. an interactive game environment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas. ± Multicasting. ± MUD [Multi-User Dungeon]. etc.

Real-Time Communications ± MUD. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 43 .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Forum . and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill ± Audio Video Conferencing.students.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins. doctors patients. USA and is freely available. [teachers .audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see. artists . New York. hear and speak with other CUSeeMe users across the world. demons. this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

± Searching memakai search engine [a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler]. institutional records. is kept.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records. ± Internet¶s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . etc. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest. or photographs. as private papers. memorabilia. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 44 . documents.

com/ ‡ Google .com/ ‡ Lycos .webcrawler.Penggunaan Internet ‡ Fasilitas ± Contoh search engine ‡ Yahoo .digital. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 45 .Index of WWW sites.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.lycos.http://query.Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites.Index of WWW sites. with search capabilities http://www.altavista.com/ ‡ AltaVista .com/ Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .USENET (news groups) search engine http://www.com/ ‡ WebCrawler .mckinley.yahoo.com/ ‡ DejaNews . with search capabilities http://www.WWW and USENET search engine http://www.com/ ‡ Magellan .google.dejanews. with search capabilities http://www.http://www.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 46 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± organisasi Web tidak hirarkis. Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages).Penggunaan Internet ‡ World Wide Web ~ Web ± subset of the computers di Internet ± visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas. informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links.

downloading. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 47 . video equip. menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet... CD-ROM player. printer Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Cara Akses ± Akses Internet ~ receiving. and viewing files.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. midi equip. memerlukan dukungan: ‡ Internet Service Providers ‡ HW + SW + modem ‡ Web browser ‡ SW anti virus ‡ Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers.

proprietary.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. dll. dll. suara & musik ‡ Publikasi ‡ Issues & Chalenges ± Security. netiquette. Chat. vector. trademark. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 48 . standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright. viruses. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Penggunaan Internet ‡ Tahapan Pengembangan Situs ± Pembuatan & pendaftaran ± Kreasi isi ‡ Getting help [lewat: Forum. privacy. advicing). cryptography.] ‡ Format file: public domain. video] ‡ Kreasi digital audio. ‡ Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text ‡ Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap. BBS.

Dampak Sosial Teknologi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 49 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 50 .Materi ‡ Kilas Balik ‡ Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kini & Masa Depan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Komputer dapat mengerjakan prosesproses rumit dan berulang quickly.Kilas Balik ‡ Definisi [www. termasuk networking and telecommunication.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. or store (information) in a computer or system of computers ‡ a society where computers are ubiquitous. control.HW dan SW .com/dictionary/] ± Computer adalah mesin yang dapat diprogram untuk memanipulasi simbol. precisely and reliably serta dapat menyimpan dan mengambil kembali banyak data dengan cepat sekali. or conduct by means of a computer. to carry out. process. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 51 .hyperdictionary. ± Computerization ~ ‡ to enter. ± IT (Applied computer systems) . biasanya dalam konteks bisnis [that deals with all things electronic].

EDVAC ± Neuman¶s concept / IAS ± UNIVAC Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Kilas Balik ‡ Sejarah Alat Hitung ± Alamiah ± Abacus ± Napier¶s Bones & Mistar hitung ± Pascaline ‡ Sejarah Komputer [elektronis] ± Babbage [Difference / analytical] engine ± ENIAC.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 52 . EDSAC.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 53 . ««« Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . berdasar komponen utama] ± Tabung ± Transistor ± IC [Conductor / semiconductor / superconductor] ± SSI / MSI / LSI / VLSI / ULSI ‡ Klasifikasi Komputer ± Supercomputer ± Large scale / mainframe computer ± Minicomputer ± Microcomputer / PC / desktop / workstation ± Laptop / palmtop / PDA ± etc.Kilas Balik ‡ Generasi Komputer [elektronis.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Kilas Balik ‡ Kemajuan Teknologi Lain ± Mesin uap ± Lampu listrik ± Telegraf & telepon ± Pesawat terbang ± Bom atom ± Laser ± Roket ± Satelit & pesawat ruang angkasa ± Bio / Nano / Material .technology Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 54 .

NSFNet. BITNET ± 1990-an.1st University machine ± 1960. IBM 650 . jaringan komputer di kantor & jaringan ± 1980-an.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Proses & Komunikasi ± 1955. INTERNET . 1st e-mail & personal computing [time sharing] ± 1975.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ARPANet. sebagai ± Pencacah bilangan & General purpose system ± Utility & tool ± Komunikator ± Search Engine Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .1st College machine [programer awal] ± 1964.WWW [era ubiquitous computing] ‡ Fungsi Komputer [sekarang]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 55 . IBM 1620 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 56 . ‡ Tingkatan dampak ? ± Penggantian aktifitas langsung dengan sedikit perubahan pada produktifitas ± Peningkatan berbagai aktifitas dengan perbaikan kecepatan dan efisiensi ± Perluasan ke berbagai aktifitas yang dahulu belum bisa dilakukan Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . untrained.Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Sejauh mana pengaruh TI ? ± Pemakai mulai berpaling dari elit professionally responsible ke komunitas dengan berbagai kepentingan yang makin luas ± Very high level applications memungkinkan kemudahan bagi tiap orang [trained. the don¶t-wannabetrained] dapat membuat sebuah program. untrainable.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Membagi ala DIJITAL ? ± High / low. biner ± Kaya dan miskin ± Sekolah favorit dan sekolah pinggiran ± Tua dan muda ± Laki-laki dan perempuan ± Orangtua dan anak ± Kota dan kampung ± Atasan dan bawahan ± Dosen dan non-dosen Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 57 . on / off. true / false.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 58 .Dampak Komputerisasi ‡ Kehidupan manusia bertambah baik / buruk? ‡ Manusia sangat tergantung pada komputer ? ‡ Akibat kemajuan teknologi [selain TI].: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. manusia sangat tergantung pada: ± Mobil ? ± Minyak bumi ? ± Listrik ? ± Telefon ? ± TV ? ± Pesawat ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

« ± Mobil [pribadi] ‡ Pendidikan ± Pelajaran + praktik TI tingkat PT/SMU/SMP/SD ± e-learning. e-education ± Freeware. «. opensource Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 59 . ± Alat hiburan: radio..Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Kehidupan ± Alat rumah-tangga: microwave. online course. TV.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. «. ± Alat komunikasi: telepon. shareware.

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 60 .Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Bisnis & Industri ± e-commerce ± e-banking ± expert system [AI] ± CAD/CAM/CAX ««« ± Robotic ‡ Instansi/organisasi ± Komputerisasi / otomasi kantor ± Tingkat kepegawaian ± Teleworking ± Efisiensi sumberdaya Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

bioinformatik ‡ Masalah ± Community change [indirect interactions] ± Cultural & National Sovereignty ± Workplace & economic impacts [organization & skills] ± Information impacts [equity of access./material. e-freedoms] ± Legality & security [computer crime] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . privacy. pricing. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 61 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. regulation./bio. consumer rights.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Sains & Teknologi (R & D) ± Lingkungan PT ± Lingkungan industri ± High Tech [Nano.tech].

.] / vulnerabilities / controls ± Risk Management ‡ proactive / reactive / non-reactive [measures] ± Control & Audit ‡ evaluate & monitor company's risk management. frauds.Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Pendekatan Solusi ± Risk Analysis ‡ Quantitative ± probability of an event occurring ± likely loss should it occur ‡ Qualitative (estimated potential loss) ± threats [fire.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and control practices & make suggestions for improvement [not only organization's finance function. .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 62 . reporting. but all the operations & systems.

Kini & Masa Depan ‡ Negatif ? ± Pengangguran.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 63 . akibat otomatisasi ± Kriminal ‡ virus ‡ pembobolan ‡ pembajakan SW ‡ pencurian perangkat ± Privacy ‡ cracking / hacking ? ‡ pencurian informasi ‡ duplikasi & manipulasi informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Manajemen Data dan Informasi Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 64 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Data Management System (DMS) ± Kombinasi SW. dan informasi yang didesain agar semudah mungkin cara penyimpanan dan pengambilannya kembali untuk pemanfaatannya. ‡ Database Management System (DBMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat dapat mengakses banyak tabel / file. dan pemakaiannya mudah dan murah [personal]. Cara pembuatan. HW. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Cara pembuatan. dan pemakaiannya tidak mudah dan tidak murah [instansi/organisasi]. pemeliharaan. pemeliharaan. ± Dua jenis ‡ File management system (FMS) ~ sebuah DMS yang setiap saat hanya mengakses data/informasi 1 tabel atau 1 file. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 65 .

update. and "Drop´ ] untuk RDBMS. "Update". Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . DB2. SQL Server. menentukan class dari objek dan inheritance dari class serta metoda-metoda untuk menangani objek-objek tersebut. "Delete". "Insert". Contoh: Oracle. ± Object-oriented DataBase Management System ~ DBMS yang menunjang pemodelan dan kresi data sebagai objects.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Relational DataBase Management System adalah sebuah program untuk create. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 66 . "Create". & administer sebuah basisdata relasional. ± Structured Query Language (baca "S-Q-L" atau "sequel") ~ bahasa baku/standard ["Select".: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

± Java DataBase Connectivity ~ antarmuka agar dapat akses ke banyak basisdata lintas WWW dengan mudah.swaps.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Tools untuk DMS ± Open DataBase Connectivity ~ API baku yang dikembangkan berdasar pada spesifikasi SQL Access Group. ± Common Object Request Broker Architecture . tanpa perlu memahami bahasa yang dipakai atau cara memintanya. untuk koneksi ke basisdata SQL menghasilkan database independent applications.com:400/databasefile.memungkinkan sebuah pr oram di satu komputer minta informasi pada program lain di komputer lainnya [dalam jaringan]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 67 .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. misal jdbc://www. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

‡ Bila terkait dengan hak paten dan legalitas lainnya.Pengertian Dasar ‡ Prinsip Manajemen Data ± Access Restrictions . ‡ Banyak ahli merekomendasikan 5 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Banyak instansi besar menentukan < 5 tahun. ‡ Temporer. perlu minta pendapat ahli hukum sebelun data dihancurkan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 68 . saat administrator meng-update & validasi.larangan akses & proses data ‡ Temporer. ‡ Permanen. ‡ Temporer. ± Data Retention and Storage ‡ Umumnya sebuah instansi/perusahaan dapat menentukan minimal 3 tahun sesaat mulai operasional. sebagai jaminan pada rekanan/sponsor.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. untuk menjaga intellectual property. untuk menjaga privacy of human subjects.

hard / floppy disk.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 69 .Pengarsipan (Filing) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Byte / karakter = å bits = 8 bit [ASCII] String = rangkaian alfanumerik Field / data item = å bytes terbatas Record = å fields yang saling terkait File = å records sejenis Database = å files terintegrasi Directory = area media tempat penyimpan files Volume = satuan identifiable data storage. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . physically removable : tape cartridge / reel.

file sekuensial di mana akses record memakai tabel indeks. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 70 .kakek ± Scratch .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Random/direct.file terbaru. terlengkap. penyimpanan acak di mana akses record memakai pointer ‡ Jenis File ± Master . penyimpanan seadanya tanpa melihat urutan ± Sequential.file untuk meng-update master ± Backup . penyimpanan runtut dengan urutan kunci ± Index Sequential.file yang ³dipensiun´. diproses hanya bila perlu Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Pengarsipan ‡ Kategori Akses <==> organisasi ± Serial. operasional ± Transaction .file duplikat master --> cucu-anak.file hasil pilahan dari master siap diproses ± History .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengarsipan ‡ Karakteristik File ± Volatility ~ frekuensi updating tinggi >< static. ± Size ~ volume / kapasitas ± Activity ~ hit rate = jml % volume file yang diproses persatuan waktu ± Expansion ~ growth = tingkat pertumbuhan maksimum kapasitas sebuah file yang direncanakan. ‡ Updating ± Add ± Change ± Delete ± Modify Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 71 .

Pengarsipan ‡ Media Penyimpan ± Kertas ± Tape ‡ organisasi sekuensial ‡ kerapatan (density): 800.75 inch ± Disk ‡ organisasi indeks / acak ‡ kerapatan ‡ gap ‡ sector & track. 1600 ‡ gap [record / block]: 0.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 72 .5 / 0.

PDT (Pengolahan Data Tradisional) ‡ Siklus Hidup ± Identifikasi masalah & objektif [studi kelayakan] ± Determinasi kebutuhan informasi & Analisis sistem lama ± Desain sistem baru ± Pemrograman & dokumentasi SW ± Uji coba & penyempurnaan ± Penerapan & evaluasi ± Operasional ‡ Sumberdaya Manusia ± Manajemen ± Analis ± Pemrogram ± Administrator Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 73 .

PDT ‡ Prosedur Umum ± ± ± ± ± Rencanakan kebutuhan data Rancang format data masukan dan keluaran Rencanakan cara pengumpulan & klasifikasi data Definisikan & rancang organisasi file [-file] Bagaimana cara entri data ? ‡ Verifikasi ‡ Validasi ± Rencanakan cara penyimpanan & pengamanannya ± Bagaimana cara pengambilan kembali.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. proses data dan pembuatan keluaran. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 74 . distribusi hasil ? Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

3 stages : Intiation. sebagian di-update ± Inflexibility: desain tidak terpadu => respons lambat / nihil ± Limited data sharing Û Uncontrolled redundancy ± Poor standards => operasional tidak efektif ± Low programmer productivity Û Poor standards ± Excessive program maintenance ‡ Pendekatan Richard Nolan ± Data Processing Era. Distribution Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Contagion.Architecture. Control ± Information Technology Era.PDT ‡ Kelemahan ± Uncontrolled redundancy: aplikasi Û file sendiri ± Inconsistent data: 1 file di bbrp lokasi. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 75 . 3 stages : Integration.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

service providers & researchers yang berhak untuk: dianalisis. records. dan cara pemeliharaan data subsets. numerik. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . files ? ± Bagaimana cara menampilkan informasi di monitor dan di kertas ? ± Bagaimana cara penyimpanan internal ? ‡ Data warehouse ± Kumpulan terpadu data perusahaan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 76 . menghasilkan ad hoc queries & reports. administrators.Basisdata ‡ Database ~ S files terintegrasi ‡ Data Format ± Representasi: karakter. dapat diakses oleh business managers.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. campuran? ± Ukuran fields.

yang memungkinkan prediksi hasilhasil pada masa datang. dan bagaimana setiap item database akan saling terkait. bagaimana cara penggunaannya. ± Akan menunjukkan semua informasi yang harus ada dalam basisdata. ‡ Data Model ± Hasil proses desain basisdata yang dapat dipakai untuk mengidentifkasi dan mengorganisasi data logically & physically.Basisdata ‡ Data Mining ± Aktifitas ekstraksi informasi yang tujuannya untuk menemukan faktafakta tersembunyi dalam basisdata. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 77 .

Basisdata
‡ Tingkat Model Data ± External (user views) Conceptual ± Internal [DBMS dependent] Physical ‡ Jenis Basisdata, piramid ± Operasional transaction processing ± Manajerial management information system ± Stratejik decision support system ‡ Asosiasi data ± One-to-one : NIM Nama-mhs ± One-to-many : NIM Cek-medis ± Many-to-many : S NIM S Mt-kul

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

78

Basisdata
‡ Logical Model ± Hierarchy ± Network ± Relational ± Object-oriented ‡ Terminologi ± Attribute ~ kolom tabel ± Entity ~ konsep/objek data terdefinisi ± Table ~ file ± Tupple ~ baris tabel ~ record

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

79

MIS (Management Information System)
‡ Definisi ± Segala sumberdaya & prosedur yang dibutuhkan untuk mengumpulkan, proses, dan distribusi informasi yang akan digunakan untuk ambil keputusan. ± Sistem user-machine terpadu yang menghasilkan informasi untuk menunjang operasi, manajemen, analisis, dan fungsi-fungsi pengambilan keputusan dalam organisasi. ‡ Sifat dari needed information ± Accuracy ± Timeliness ± Completeness ± Conciseness

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003

80

planning. ± Basisdata ‡ Perspektif ± Bisnis: IS Û organization. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 81 .MIS ‡ Istilah ± MIS ~ IS ~ IPS ~ CBIS ‡ Menggunakan ± Komputer [HW & SW] ± Prosedur-prosedur manual ± Model-model untuk: analysis. OR). control. sociology) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . psychology. behavioral (Economics. management. decision making.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. management sc. technology ± Kontemporer: IS Û technical (computer sc...

MIS ‡ Struktur ± Berbasis aktifitas manajemen: strategic. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 82 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .. production.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. personnel. management control. top-man). information proc. transaction processing) versus (sales & marketing. ± Berbasis fungsi organisasi: (strategic planning. ‡ Sintesis ± Conceptual structure ~ organizational MIS ± Physical structure ~ integrated processing & common modules. operational. operational control. logistics. finance& accounting. tactical.

Sekuriti dan Etika Pengantar Teknologi Informasi 83 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .com/security/intro-4.penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak diubah oleh unauthorized persons kecuali oleh authorized users. ± Integrity .penjaminan bahwa informasi tidak dapat diakses oleh unauthorized persons.tsl. integrity & confidentiality informasi yang dikelola.penjaminan bahwa users adalah persons they claim to be (yang berhak). ± Authentication .html] ‡ Taksonomi pokok.tx.html] ± Confidentiality . [www.us/ld/pubs/compsecurity/ glossary. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 84 . CIA: [www.Sekuriti ‡ Apakah Computer Security ? ± Prosedur-prosedur technological & managerial yang diterapkan pada sistem komputer untuk menjaga availability.albion.state.

and what purpose it is used for. how it is used.penjaminan bahwa sebuah sistem operational & functional tiap saat [redundancy]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .penjaminan bahwa individuals maintain the right to control what information is collected about them. who maintains it. ± Privacy . ± Availability . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 85 . who has used it.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.penjaminan bahwa users hanya akses ke resources and services yang telah ditentukan & qualified users tidak ditolak akses ke services that legitimately expect to receive.Sekuriti ‡ Taksonomi lain ± Access control . loss of availability disebut "denial-of-service´. ± Nonrepudiation .penjaminan bahwa pengirim messages tidak dapat menyangkal fakta.

& telekomunikasi. maintaining file and filesystem integrity. security briefings. assignment of privilege. ± Network security -. ± System security . proteksi network servers & transmissions. and handling departures. dan deteksi intrusi. memerangi penyadapan. ± Operational/procedural security . proteksi terhadap elements & natural disasters. and auditing. log-keeping. backups. ± Personnel security . monitoring processes. firewalls.penjaringan pegawai: background screening.mencakup segala hal mulai dari managerial policy decisions sampai dengan reporting hierarchies.proteksi perangkat jari.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 86 . training.pengawasan akses & otentikasi users. pengendalian akses dari untrusted networks.Domain ± Physical security . monitoring.pengendalian comings and goings of people and materials. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.[X-Files: "There's always someone watching.albion. [It's best if the vendors announced along with fixes].´] ± R-2: Full disclosure of bugs & holes benefits security.´ ± R-4: Do it before someone does it wrong for you. [Computer security can never be implemented in a vacuum.com] ± R-1: Security through obscurity [samar] doesn¶t work. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 87 . ± R-3: [Farmer's Law. promulgated disebar-luaskan] by computer security researcher Dan Farmer:] "The Security of a Computer System Degrades in Direct Proportion to the Amount of Use the System Receives.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 88 . ± R-7: There are no turnkey security solutions [There's no checklist that will account for all vulnerabilities. or "white hats" and "black hats.]. ± R-9: Think like the enemy [akibat R-8].´ ]. [Don't underestimate the value of deterrence / rintangan. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . or better eqquiped than you [Be careful about the assumptions you make concerning the threats your systems face.com] ± R-5: The fear of getting cought is the beginning of wisdom. more knowledgeable.Sekuriti ‡ General Security Rules [www.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.albion. ± R-10: Trust is a relative concept [´Trust no one" is the strongest policy].] ± R-6: There¶s always someone out there smarter. ± R-8: The Good & Evil blend into gray [There are "good guys³ and "bad guys" out there.].

Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Accidental [www. sebaran fitnah krn ceroboh. ± Minor plagiarism.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.edu. info dari situs diakui hasil sendiri. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Rumour & accidental misinformation. ± Trawling / Spidering.au/people/RogerClarke/II/Netethiquettecases] ± Information overload. karena kiriman data /email yang banyak/besar & tidak relevan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 89 . ± Negligent defamation. gosip. pengomentari dengan hal-hal yang sifatnya rahasia. me-reply email dengan tambahan info sensitif/rahasia.anu. ± Persistence. anggota milis keluar lupa dihapus. ± Inadequate care with data.

Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . berita hasutan melalui bulletin board.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. penyebaran fitnah. kirim email berbahasa kasar/kotor (foul /abusive). ± Flaming.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Socially Aggressive ± Intentional misinformation. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 90 . ± Incitement. ± Harassment. ± Intentional defamation. ± Impersonation. pengiriman banyak email ke suatu mailbox. ± Surveillance. ± Mail-bombing. progam / email untuk pengacauan trafik. pemalsuan identitas gender di milis. sebaran fitnah. penyediaan material yang asusila di situs. ngintip isi email-email banyak orang. ± Obscenity.

penjiplakan karya tulis dari situs. pemakaian transaksi jaringan tanpa modal. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . pembobolan keamanan sistem. merugikan terkirim. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis dengan banyak jawaban sehingga mailbox overflow.Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Economically Aggressive ± Spamming. ± Security breach. ± Abuse of intellectual property rights. ± Serious plagiarism. ± Hacking. pengambilan bahan dari situs tanpa menyebut sumber. ± Advertising. ± Viruses & worms. promotion.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Secondary use of data. penyebaran program SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks). dll. sebaran iklan ke banyak milis tapi intruder. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 91 . & soliciting. ngirim program perusak melalui jar.

] ± Anonymisation [A so-called 'anonymous remailer' receives email addressed to a third party. ] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Net Dysfunctionality ‡ Avoidance ± Circumvention [menghindari. removes the sender's identification. such that the messages can be decrypted provided that several of them collaborate.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ] ± Compound cases [Someone brings the story to the attention of the 'victim'. contoh: A sender encrypts their messages. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 92 . thereby avoiding paying tax in which the buyer and/or seller operate. but registers various parts of the encryption key with various different people and organisations. and offers merchants a service whereby net-facilitated sales are legally made in that location.] ± Obscuration [penyamaran. and forwards it to the intended recipient. contoh: Someone establishes a web-server in a tax haven.

manipulation of computer systems. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 93 . removal of. use of.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Computer Crime ? [www. interference with. and/or their related functions.com] ± Breaking the criminal law by use of a computer. mereka yang berwatak arogan [bangga diri ?] (proud of ) dengan apa yang mereka dilakukan dan publish their achievement. access to. person which hacking for profit.hyperdictionary. ± Any criminal activity involving the copy of. ‡ Pelaku ? ± Hacker.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Cracker. to data or programs.

‡ Konsekuensi perusahaan ± Kredibilitas turun ± Kemajuan terhambat ± Menyesatkan pelanggan ± Kehilangan peluang bisnis Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Iri / ingin merugikan perusahaan. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 94 .Computer Crimes ‡ Apa motif penyusup/pembobol ? ± Kesombongan / ego [ingin menguji kemampuan yang lain] / mpo. ± Politik (hactivism).: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

access & modification to private data. ± Holes in public commercial & domain software (sendmail.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. «) ± Hostile [musuh ?] Java Applets. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks yang sering ? [www. misalnya dengan TCP Grab atau Passfinder.leccorder. ftpd. ± Viruses. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 95 .com] ± Password sniffing. flexlm. ± CGI PHF (packet handling function) dapat dipakai untuk extract password file. ± Invasion of privacy.

mencuri private files. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 96 . ‡ Jenis pencurian data ? ± Menyusup ke sebuah komputer. ± Malicious codes and viruses. ± Seseorang memakai computer account yang lain. dll. ± Denial-of-service attacks.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.]. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ± Penyerangan melalui email/internet. ± Malfeasance [penyalah-gunaan jabatan] by Computer. PC.Computer Crimes ‡ Attacks ³favorit´ ? ± Theft of data and resources. ± Pencurian fisik [Laptops.

Contoh ? ‡ Web sit-ins [protes. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 97 . Akibatnya ? ‡ Pekerjaan terhambat ‡ Menghalangi komunikasi melalui e-mail ‡ e-activity [eCommerce..: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. «« ± ± Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . bahkan mungkin sampai crash. eLearning.Computer Crimes ‡ DoS attack ± Caranya ? ‡ Mengunci komputer / website sehingga tidak berfungsi. demo]. ‡ Keeping you from doing any work. getting any online orders. e-mail bombs. .] terganggu / mati. receiving any mail.

± Seseorang memakai account number & password orang lain untuk melihat isi sebuah DB. ± Pemrogram sebuah Univ. ± Pegawai secara rahasia membangun DB sebagai usaha sampingan. despite its widespread. potentially negative impact.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 98 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Apa yang mungkin jadi penyebabnya ? ± Memakai /membeli SW bajakan.Computer Crimes ‡ Apa Malfeasance by Computer ? [= "gray" areas of computer abuse] ± Computer-related behavior stretches the bounds of legality and may be viewed as only technically wrong. membuat program jadwal kuliah lalu pindah ke universitas lain dengan membawa kopi program untuk dipakai di tempat baru. ± Pelanggan memberi unlisted telephone number di swalayan.

± Hukum yang ada hanya bereaksi pada kerusakan yang terakhir.com/cvirus. agar tiap pemilik komputer selalu memproteksinya dari tiap attacks mendatang.rbs2. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 99 . ± Agar penegak hukum mengganjar pembuat Malicious Program seberat mungkin. bila ada Malicious Program baru [dan mungkin lebih ganas] maka hukum perlu diperbaru. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.htm ] ± Program ganas/jahat penyebab kerugian (harm) ekstensif. tiap insiden harus dihadapi konsekwensi legal [penerapan hukum bagi pembuat program.Malicious Program ‡ Apa Malicious Program ? [www. ‡ Untuk apa tahu Malicious Program ? ± Bila tahu kerusakan terjadi.

Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Virus ~ ‡ Program that can reproduce by changing other programs to include a copy of itself. It is a parasite program. ± Hoax ~ something intended to deceive [bohong].edu/cgi-bin/webwn] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 100 . [www. deliberate trickery intended to gain an advantage. ‡ Program that is designed to hide in the background and replicate itself from one computer to another by attaching itself to existing programs or parts of the operating system.cogsci. needing another program to survive.princeton.

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 101 . ‡ Biasanya dikirimkan di dalam sebuah game Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . ‡ Sabotage.. .dsb. credit card numbers. especially by insiders (time bombs). files. ± Trojan Horse ~ Program yang menyamar (masquerade) sebagai sesuatu yang useful or amusing. ‡ Penyebaran DoS attacks or worms/viruses. ‡ Pencurian passwords. tetapi melakukan sesuatu yang tak terduga.Malicious Program ‡ Apakah ini juga malicious program ? ± Worm ~ Program yang menyebarkan diri sendiri dari sistem ke sistem sepanjang jaringan.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Brain virus. virus yang menginfeksi file COMMAND. worm dalam bahasa REXX dibuat mahasiswa di Jerman Desember 1987 di jaringan IBM mainframe di Eropa. & nomor telefon Brain Computer Services (BCS) swalayan di Lahore. Pakistan. Robert Slade. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 102 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Virus menginfeksi boot sector disket 5¼ . ± Christma Worm. ahli virus yakin virus dibuat sebagai bentuk iklan BCS. Nov. sambil mencari 2 files pada user's account to collect e-mail addresses kemudian secara otomatis sent itself ke adres-adres tersebut. Worm memunculkan suatu citra pohon conifer di monitor. adres.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. virus untuk MS DOS dibuat 1986 berisi [unencrypted text] nama.COM pada disket DOS di Lehigh Univ. ± Lehigh Virus. 1987.

4 undergraduate students [Blumenthal. worm yang secara efectif shut down Internet untuk beberapa hari.. 1992 . ± MBDF Virus. Europe. 2 November 1988 . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 103 . ± Komputer yang terinfeksi MBDF Virus ada di seluruh wilayah USA. Doe. Japan. created and released virus MBDF. berupa 3 shareware programs: ‡ Obnoxious Tetris [game] ‡ Ten Tile Puzzle [game] ‡ Tetriscycle [Trojan Horse berisi encrypted copy dari MBDF. Pilgrim. first-year CS graduate student Cornell Univ. and Canada.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Morris Worm. ?] di Cornell Univ. Australia.. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. attacks Apple Mac.Robert Tappan Morris.

pemrogram] yang uploading infected file ke computer bulletin board. ± Melissa virus.Malicious Program ‡ Beberapa jenis Malicious Program ± Pathogen Virus.[Internal e-mail systems at U. ± ILOVEYOU worm.2000 menyerang ³ 1/2 perusahaan di USA dan ³ 105 mail servers di Eropa. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 104 .] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .5 . di mana korban dapat download a copy of the file.S. released on 26 March 1999 di-design to infect macros in wordprocessing documents used by the Microsoft Word 97 and Word 2000 programs.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Senate & Britain's House of Commons were shut down. April 1994 di-release di UK oleh Christopher Pile [³Black Baron´. pertama ditemukan di Hong Kong 4 .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. ± Etiquette [etiket] ~ rules governing socially acceptable behavior. ‡ A comprehensive guide to all aspects of electronic [do's and don'ts of online] communication. mencakup segala aturan.com] ± Ethic [etika] ~ the principles of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group.com]/www.Netiket ‡ Apa etiket = etika ? [pcwebopaedia. "the Puritan ethic". Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . . panduan etiket untuk posting pesan-pesan layanan online [newsgoups].. including Telnet and FTP.Etika . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 105 . "a person with oldfashioned values´. cara diskusi.hyperdictionary. format sederhana.Etiket . ± Netiquette ~ ‡ Internet/network etiquette.

It encompasses respect for the right to acknowledgment.edu/Departments/TechnologyServices] ± Respect for intellectual labor and creativity to academic discourse and enterprise. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . It applies to works of all authors and publishers in all media. and trade secrets and copyright violations.ccis.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. and right to determine the form. right to privacy. may be grounds for sanctions against members of the academic community. Violations of authorial integrity. including plagiarism. unauthorized access. manner and terms of publication and distribution. ± Because electronic information is so volatile and easily reproduced. invasion of privacy.Netiket ‡ Prinsip umum etika [www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 106 . respect for the work and personal expression of others is especially critical in computer environments.Etika .Etiket .

Etika . or to interfere with their work on the computer. ± Users must not use systems of any kind to send material that is obscene. jadi enhancing teaching & research. & research]. ± Taati semua aturan dan prosedur yang berlau. as well as enabling employees to work more efficiently and productively. illegal. instruction.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Netiket ‡ Bagaimana cara Ethical and Responsible Use of Computers ? ± Ingat bahwa semua fasilitas & perangkat komputasi adalah for purposes of work [business.Etiket . ± Jaringan komputer & telekomunikasi untuk free exchange of ideas and information. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . discriminating. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 107 . or intended to defame or harass others.

Etika .. ± Abusers of computing privileges will be subject to disciplinary action.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. authors and developers of return on their investments. ? ± Everyone who use the computers have the right to security of their computer programs and data.Etiket .Netiket ‡ Bagaimana «. and to help insure publishers. ± Security systems for computers exist to ensure that only authorized users have access to computer resources. ± Software license agreements serve to increase compliance with copyright and patent laws. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 108 . Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .

and no more than 12 lines. not send heated messages / "flames´. .Netiket ‡ RFC 1855.html] ± Komunikasi 1 . etc.dfcc. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 109 ..1 ‡ Email [ownership. if forwarding / re-posting don¶t change the wording.Etika . remember that talk is an interruption to the other person. Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . write out no more than 70 characters. Netiquette Guidelines [www. leave some margin. mail on the Internet is not secure.Etiket . always say goodbye or some other farewell.: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. make things easy for the recipient.]. never send chain letters via electronic mail.] ‡ Talk is a set of protocols which allow two people to have an interactive dialogue via computer [use mixed case and proper punctuation.edu/cs/rfc1855. respect the copyright. etc. check all your mail subjects before responding.

Etika .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :. Don't send large files to mailing lists when Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) or pointers to ftp-able versions will do. ‡ Mailing list [Send subscribe and unsubscribe messages to the appropriate address. auto-reply feature of many mailers is useful for in-house communication.] Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Assume that individuals speak for themselves. Messages and articles should be brief and to the point.N ‡ General [Read both mailing lists and newsgroups for one to two months before you post anything. etc. it's not possible to retrieve messages once you have sent them. Do not blame the system administrator for the behavior of the system users. etc. Save the subscription messages for any lists you join. ]. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 110 .Etiket . Consider that a l arge audience will see your posts.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Komunikasi 1 .

check the Distribution" section of the header. ‡ soc .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.computer related discussions.Etika .science related discussions.long-winded never-ending discussions. ‡ comp .for discussions which center around NetNews itself.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± NetNews is a globally distributed system which allows people to communicate on topics of specific interest. ‡ rec . ‡ biz . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 111 . ‡ talk . etc. and ‡ alt .business related postings.Etiket .recreational activities. ‡ news .social issues.the alternate hierarchy Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . read all of a discussion in progress before posting replies.] ± Kelompok NetNews ‡ sci . [posting/cossposting. send mail when an answer to a question is for one person only.

that any information you submit to a system is being transmitted over the Internet "in the clear".Etiket . information services also use conventions such as www. Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 112 . start problem solving by checking locally. do NOT assume that ANY information you find is up-todate and/or accurate.com. Remember that unless you are sure that security and authentication technology is in use.Netiket ‡ RFC 1855 ± Information services [services belong to someone else. with no protection from "sniffers" or forgers].xyz. ‡ Gopher ‡ Wais ‡ World Wide Web (WWW) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs) ‡ Multi-User Dimensions which are Object Oriented (MOOs) Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Etika .

: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.Pengantar Teknologi Informasi . Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 113 .

Ref: IF-ITB/Santika WP/2003 114 .Pengantar Teknologi Informasi .: Fasilkom ± UDINUS :.

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