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MARCH 1981 45

Electrical Contacts

PHILIP REICHNER

Abstract-The concept of wear-dependent contact phenomena is ality. Equation (1) applies either to static (breakaway) or

developed for sliding electrical contacts, where geometric constraints dynamic friction with only small differences in the coefficient.

on wear directly influence contact pressure distribution under the face

Similarly, the wear volume V is found to be proportional to

of a brush. In terms of general contact theory, this pressure dis-

tribution is related to the number of contacting asperities, the true the normal contact force and independent of apparent area,

area of each contact, or the frequency of asperity encounters. The and it increases linearly with the sliding distance S:

concept is proposed as a potential new tool to be used in the

formulation of a descriptive analytical model of the brush interface. V = KFS. (2)

Analytical relationships are developed for friction, wear, and

electrical contact resistance for composite and other multicomponent

brush configurations. This expression may be applied to abrasive wear as well as

adhesive wear, with appropriate values of the proportionality

INTRODUCTION constant K.

The electrical contact resistance is composed of a constric-

F OR THE SLIDING electrical contact, analytical models are

tools with which we improve our understanding of such

complex interface phenomena as friction, wear, and electrical

tion component due to the severe concentration of current as

it passesthrough some fraction of the real contact area, and in

serieswith this, a film component due to complete or extensive

resistance. Through the identification of important parameters

coverage>of the real contact area, either by a thin insulating

and their interactions, models p-oint to potential improvements layer of metallic oxide or by an adsorbed surface layer through

in materials, configuration, or operating environment. Effi-

which current may pass by means of the tunnel effect. Each

cient current transfer, high current capacity, long life, and

component of the contact resistance R may be expressed as

reduced electrical noise are the ultimate goals.

Central to interface modeling is the observation that con-

R = CF-k (3)

tact between two solid members occurs at a small number of

surface asperities which are the first to meet and are of ade-

where C and k are constants which differ for the two compo-

quate strength to support the contact force. The resulting

nents.

true load-bearing area of contact is, in general, a very small

The above relationships apply quite well for a given set of

fraction of the apparent interface, but it controls the impor-

materials and atmospheric environment as long as the operat-

tant phenonema. Analytical expressions for friction, wear, and

ing regime or descriptive mode of the sliding phenomena does

electrical resistance are developed in comprehensive texts by

not change (e.g., micro-adhesive wear versus severe abrasive

Bowden and Tabor [l] , Holm [2] , and Rabinowicz [3] . More

wear). The constants /J, K, and C (as well as the regimes) are

complex models which relate surface topography, real contact

generally temperature sensitive, but this parameter may often

area, and number of contact points to the resulting mechanical

be controlled by external cooling. The nature of asperity con-

and electrical characteristics are the subject of many technical

tact and the resulting load-bearing area are assumed to be

papers [4] -[8]. The essence of this analytical and empirical

similar in the static and sliding conditions, and this is supported

work is expressed in the most useful relationships which

to some extent by the similar values of static and dynamic

follow.

friction coefficients. Thus the static contact resistance rela-

The widely applicable Amontons-Coulomb law of friction

tionship (3) is assumed to apply on the average to sliding

shows the friction force f to be proportional to the normal

electrical contacts, and this is also supported by some experi- a

contact load F and independent of the apparent contact area:

mental investigation [9] , [lo] . Usually, in electrical machines, ’

f=P (1) a spring load is applied to the brush and, with modifications

where /J is the friction coefficient, the constant of proportion- due to holder constraint and inertial effects, this establishes

the contact force. The resulting interface characteristics are

then determined by (l)-(3). In some situations, however,

Manuscript received May 15, 1980; revised October 23, 1980. This

work was supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency of the geometric constraints on wear rate directly influence the

Department of Defense under Contract N-00014-79-C-01 10 and moni- contact force or more generally the contact pressure under

tored by the Office of Naval Research. This paper was presented at the the brush face or between any sliding members. This phenom-

26th Annual Holrn Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, IL,

September 29-October 1, 1980. enon has been considered for a few mechanical systems, such

The author is with the Westinghouse Research and Development as clutches, as discussed by Rabinowicz [ll] , [12]. The

Center, 1310 Beulah Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15235. approach will be extended here to show the special signifi-

46 IEEE TFUNSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS, HYBRIDS, AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, VOL. CHMT-4, NO. 1, MARCH 1981

cance for sliding contacts where the electrical resistance will Brush

be postulated for the functioning of lubricant constituents.

PRESSURE-WEAR THEORY T-

‘2

Nonuniform Velocity

Homopolar electrical machines with high excitation fields

commonly employ conical slip rings with their surfaces tangent

r ‘1

to the magnetic field lines [13], [14] . This minimizes the L

’ induced axial voltage in the ring and the circulating current

that results at the sliding interface. It is readily seen that

points along the axial width of the brush face have different

sliding velocities and thus have different travel distances which

are proportional to the radius at each point. Thus the manner

in which (2) is to be applied is not immediately clear.

The linear wear rate W at any point within a sliding inter-

face may be determined by writing (2) for an elemental area

Fig. 1. Rotor with brushes at different radial locations.

dA and finding the rate of change with respect to time

1dA = K(pdA)S

dlfdt = KpdSjdt

W=Kpv (4)

where I is the wear depth, p is the contact pressure, and u is

the sliding speed at that point.

To illustrate the effect that may result from geometric

constraint, consider two identical brushes applied to the face

of a rotating disk at different radial positions rr and rZ as

shown in Fig. 1. If the brushes are small in cross section, (4)

may be written for each brush. Noting that

v=ro (5)

Fig. 2. Radial variation of brush contact pressure.

WI = KpIrlo (6)

the brush must follow an inverse linear relationship with radius;

W, = Kp2r2w. (7)

as illustrated in Fig. 2.

In terms of contact theory, this means that either the

If the force on each brush is adjusted to produce the same

number of contacting asperities, the true area of each contact,

linear wear rate, then (6) and (7) may be equated, and elimina-

or the frequency of asperity encounters must be greater at the

tion of common terms yields

inner (lower radius) region of the brush where the sliding

velocity is lower. In either case, this would be expected to

Plrl =P2r2. (8)

produce a lower value of time-averaged electrical contact

resistance at the inner region, and a higher current density

That is, for equal wear rate, the contact pressures must be

would be predicted in this area.

inversely proportional to the radius at which the brush is

The electrical resistance of the two brushes in Fig. 1 may be

located. compared by writing (3) for each and combining these with

If these two brushes were by some means rigidly joined and

(8). For equal area, force may be substituted for pressure in

the assembly held to prevent tilting, they would be forced to

(8) and the ratio of resistances for equal wear rate becomes

wear equally, and the steady-state contact pressure would

follow the relationship (8). This situation is shown in Fig. 2, R 114 = @1/r2)k. (10)

where now a single brush covers a significant radial span, and

the brush holder prevents tilting. In this case (4) and (5) may The innermost brush will have the higher contact force and,

be combined and solved for the contact pressure: therefore, the lower resistance.

If they are electrically joined and body resistance is negligi-

P = U+‘/K~XllO (9) ble, the parallel resistance of the two brush components

Y

Dressure at anv point

I I I

under the face of R =R,R,I(RI +R2) (11)

REiCHNER: PRESSURE-WEAR THEORY FOR SLIDING ELECTRICAL CONTACTS 47

contact forces are found from (8) (for equal area) and the fact

that their sum is equal to the applied force

F, = F/(1 + rz/rl). (13)

If (3) and (11)-(13) are combined, the parallel resistance is

found to be

CFk

R= ~. (14)

(1 +r,/r,)-k + (1 +r2/r,)-k

reduces to unity, and the resistance is the same as that for a

single contact. For other conventional values of k, between Fig. 3. Effect of rotor eccentricity.

l/3 and unity, the resistance will be less. It is important to

note that if r1 = r2 (both brush segments at the same radius),

(14) reduces to

R =C,Vk/21-k (15)

which is consistent with static contact theory for division into

two components which equally share the load [ 1.51.

Rotor Eccentricity

Equations (10) and (14) are based on a steady-state model

in which the force on each brush selection does not change

with time. IIowever, in practical applications’ there will be

rotor eccentricities which result in localized contact due to a

modification of the brush face contour [16] . The resulting

Fig. 4. Time variation of brush contact force.

contour will be such that, for a full revolution, the linear wear

rate will be equal for all points on the brush face, but the

contact pressure will not be constant with time at’ a given differ from that of (14). Since this assembly has a single con-

point. Fig. 3 shows the rigidly joined version of the two Fig. 1 tact at all times, and a constant force, the resistance will be

brushes, applied to the face of a disk which is not perpendicu- simply

lar to the axis of rotation. For clarity, the two brush segments R = CF-k. (17)

will be assumed to have a small and uniform contact region.

The basic difference between these two models, of uniform

If the brush assembly is adequately constrained, then dur-

contact (14) and eccentric contact shift (17), is the increased

ing each revolution, first one brush face and then the other

number of asperity contacts associated with increased con-

will contact the rotor. Only at two angular positions will

formity of the brush interface to the rotor surface. Bedding or

both brushes simultaneously contact the rotor. The brush

run-m of new brushes is the process of increasing the interface

that is in contact will carry the full value of the applied load,.

conformity through the action of wear. As a result, the number

and in order to satisfy the requirement for equal wear, the

of asperity contacts increases to a limiting uniformly distrib-

time integral of (4) for each brush must be equated. Elimina-

uted population density which is determined by the steady-

tion of common terms, and use of force in place of pressure

state surface roughness of’ the sliding members and influenced

because of equal area; yields

by surface films and debris. Rotor eccentricity, however,

inhibits this process and creates an interface surface which

rltl =r2t2 (16)

behaves more as a static contact with fewer asperity encounters.

where t is the time during each revolution that a brush is in The empirical observation of the constants C and k of (3),

contact. This is illustrated in Fig. 4, and indicates that the which depend on the number of asperity contacts, will there-

lower sliding speed at the inner brush is now compensated by fore depend upon eccentricity as well as run-in.

an increase in contact time rather than an increase in force.

Since, in general, the resistance (3) is not linearly related to Multimaterial Brushes

force, even though the time-averaged value of force is the same A similar phenomenon may be demonstrated if, instead of a

for the ideal and for the eccentric rotor conditions, the effec- varying sliding speed, we have two or more materials with

tive parallel contact resistance for the brush assembly will different wear constants, sliding at the same speed but con-

48 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS, HYBRIDS, AND MANUFACKJRING TECHNOLOGY, VOL. CHMT-4, NO. 1, MARCH 1981

strained to have the same linear wear rate. For example, Fig. 5

shows a brush that consists of two different materials which / Material 2

are bonded together and run on parallel tracks at the periphery

of a rotating disk. Equation (4) may be written for each

material component as

w, =K,p,u (1%

W, = K2p2v. (19)

Since these wear rates are equal, the pressure must be greater

for the material with the lower wear constant, and component

pressures follow the relationship.

PI = (KdKd~2. (20)

The force balance on the brush may,be written in terms of p,

the averageloading pressure

PA = PlAl + P2A2.

Fig. 5. Contact pressure variation for bonded two-material brush.

If this equation is divided by the total contact area A and Y is

defined as the area fraction, then the force balance becomes

When there are no void regions in the nominal contact area

(21) (Yr + Y2 = I), we may write (28) as

P=PlYl +pzy2.

L = L2 + Yl(Ll -L,),. (29)

Equations (20) and (2 1) may be combined to give the average

pressure under each component The friction force and the electrical contact characteristics are

also influenced by this unequal sharing of contact load. For

P

Pl = (22) example, if one material component has relatively low wear

YI + WI /K2 Y2 and a low friction coefficient, it will carry more of the load

and the overall friction coefficient will be lower than other-

P

P2 = (23) wise expected. The friction force under each component is

Y2 + (WdY,

The combined wear rate (Wl = W2) is found by substitution fl =PlPIAl

of (22) into (18), or (23) into (19): fi = ~l2~2A2.

KIPV (24) The apparent friction coefficent will be

w=

Y, + (K,/K,P’,

fi +f2

K,bv c1=

w= F

(25)

Y2 + (K,/K,P’l .

= 111plAl

The numerator in (24) or (25) is seen to be the wear rate of ~lA1 +~2A2

the individual material acting alone at the nominal pressure p.

The ratio of the wear constants may be expressed as the ratio ~12~2-42

+

of these wear rates at the nominal pressure PIA, +~2A2

K,/Kz = Wr >,/W’z k?. (26)

Pl

Therefore, substitution of (26) into either (24) or (25) yields

’ = 1 + (K,/K,W’z/Y,)

1

w= (27) + 112

YllWl), + Y2IW2)p (30)

1 + (WK, )O’,/Y,)

then (27) becomes where (Ya/Yr ) = (A2/A1). If the wear constant ratio is unity,

(30) reduces to an area-weighted average of the friction coeffi-

L = Yl(Ll), + Y2@2),. (28) cients.

REICHNER: PRESSUREWEAR THEORY FOR SLIDING ELECtRICAL CONTACTS 49

that described for friction. A high resistance, low wear-rate

material will increase the parallel contact resistance because it t, = A,K2t2/A2K1. (39)

carries a greater share of the contact force, in addition to the

expected area-weighting. The contact resistance during each of these period will be

It is again necessary to note the difference between uniform

ideal contact and eccentric rotor contact. In uniform sliding R, =CIF-kl

contact, each unit of area would be identical and, therefore,

would have the same number of asperity contacts. With a total R, = C2F-k2

number of identical asperities n, (3) may be written for an

as illustrated in Fig. 6.

individual asperity

In an experiment with a constant current supplied to the

brush, the resistance would be determined on the basis of

(nR) a (F/n)- k.

averagemeasured voltage (with negligible body resistance)

Since n is proportional to the total areaA, the overall resistance

R may be found in terms of the contact pressure ii =E/I

(31)

-k Rl R2

OaP (32) +

= 1 + t2/t, 1 + t&2 *

where u = AR is the distributed contact resistance.

For the brush assembly of Fig. 5, we may write Substitution of (39) yields

R, =Clp,-kl/Al (33) R= Rl R2

+ (40)

R2 = C,p,- k2/A2. 1 + (42KllA1Kd 1 + W2/4K,)’

(34)

With substitution of (22) into (33), and (23) into (34), these If a constant voltage is supplied, and the current is measured,

component resistances become we find in a similar manner

CR,>p 1 1

R, = (35) l/E= +

Y,[Yl + WI/K,KI-~~ R,(l +A,K,/A,K,) R2U +AIK~/A,KI) *

R2 = (36)

Y2[Y2 + UWWYII-~~ Composite Brush Material

The nature of the sliding electrical contact is complex and

where (RI),, is defined as the contact resistance that would

not well understood even for monolithic materials. Metal-

exist if the brush were composed completely of the first

graphite mixture brush materials further obscure the phenome-

material, and (R2& is similarly defined for the second material.

non and hamper attempts to formulate an accurate analytical

The parallel resistance of these two components (neglecting

model. Measurements of brush performance are known to be

body resistance) would be

dependent upon the proportions of the material components

R = R,R,/(R, +R,). as well as particle size of the specific materials and the manufac-

(37)

turing processesemployed [ 171. However, consideration of the

The contact zone will be localized on an eccentric rotor wear-induced pressure distribution may lead to new concepts

[ 161, but it is not likely that the two components of the brush for prediction of mechanical and electrical performance and,

assembly (Fig. 5) will contact with complete independence. potentially, to the design of improved brush materials.

However, this situation may be analyzed as a limiting case. If The sliding interface of a sintered metal-graphite brush is

the time integral of wear rate (4) is the same for both compo- illustrated in Fig. 7. Since linear wear rate (rate of reduction in

nents, with equal sliding velocities, the requirement is that brush length) must be the same for each component in the

interface, the area fraction of each must be constant on the

average. Also, since the component area multiplied by the

K,p, t, = Kzpztz (38) brush length will be the volume, the averagearea fraction will

be equal to the volume fraction. At any point in time, some of

where t is the time during a revolution that each material com- the metal particles may be smeared under the adjacent graphite

ponent is in contact. In this limiting case, the full load is particles, and some of the graphite lamella may intervene

assumed to be carried by the component in contact, so that between a metal particle and the slip ring. However, since the

the relative magnitudes of contact pressure will be inversely worn volume of each component is fured by the material com-

proportional to their ratio of areas. With this consideration, position, the area fraction at the interface on the averagewill

50 IEEETRAN~CTlONSONCOMPONENTS,HYBRIDS,ANDMANUFACTURlNGTECHNOL~Y,VOLCHMT~,~O. l,h.WRCH 1981

TABLE I

CUlGRAPHlTE COMPONENTFORCESHARING

75 0.378 0.030 0.078 1.56

and the averagegraphite contact pressure increases from 1.2 to

4 times the nominal value. For this illustration, the influence

of varying slip ring film composition has been neglected. It is

interesting to note, however, that the calculated range of metal

Fig. 8. Eccentric rotor effect on two-component brush contact re-

sistance. contact force is similar to that demonstrated in tests of copper

fiber brushes with high current and low contact resistance [20] .

Graphite Particles r Metal Particles Since the graphite carries most of the interface force, even

at very hi& metal content, the friction coefficient will remain

similar to that of the graphite. If the friction coefficient for

graphite is taken as 0.10 and that for copper as 0.33, then for

the wide range of metal cqntent, 17-79 percent, the effective

coefficient calculated from (30) is 0.102 to Oil 37. These analyti-

cal predictions appear reasonable but could be markedly

P!J Pg gltered if the slip ring film were found to play an important

role, or if the temperature at the interface were not controlled.

Fig. 7. Interface pressure distribution for metal-graphite brush.

CONCLUSION

not be affected by this spreading. As in the case of monolithic 1) In a sliding electrical contact, either nonuniform velocity,

materials, the wear rate for each component will depend upon nonuniform material wear coefficient, or geometrically im-

the transfer film which forms on the slip ring surface [18 3 , posed nonuniform wear (such as that for a pivoted brush) will

[ 191. Due to polishing of the substrate and transfer of material produce a nonuniform contact pressure. The higher pressure

from the brush, this film develops during the initial phase regions of ‘the interface have lower electrical resistance and,

when the wear rate is generally greater than long-term values. therefore, carry an increased current density.

The pressure under the individual particles will differ as 2) The concept of wear-induced contact pressure presents a

indicated by (20) and will be greater for the low wear constant new alternative for the modeling of sintered metal-graphite

graphite than for the metal, as indicated in Fig. 7. The linear brushes. Rather than providing a lubricant to the slip ring

wear rate of the composite would be defined by (27), the surface, the graphite may be considered to control the contact

brush life by (28) or (29), and the apparent friction coeffi- force which is applied to the metal particles. An upper li& of

cient by (30). If the particle size is sufficiently small, rotor acceptable metal particle size may be determined by the need

eccentricity will not be great enough to prevent simultaneous for an adequate graphite area to carry the contact force when

contact of a large number of particles. Therefore, (35)-(37) practical rotor eccentricities cause a localization of @rush

may be used to define the electrjcal resistance. The difficulty contact.

lies in the selection of proper component wear constants for 3) Much further analytical and expemental investigation is

the film which is dependent upon both brush components. required to define the composition arid structure of slip ring

Table I shows the predicted sharing of mechanical load surface ftis, and their influence upon the interface phenomena.

between the metal and graphite components of three coppey- It is important to differentiate transferred brtish material that

graphite brush compositions. The fraction of force carried by is functionally inactive,. merely filling voids in the slip ring

the metal is determined by multiplication of (22) by the com- surface, and film material that supports mechanical load,

ponent area (A Y, ) produces frictional resistance to sliding or provides electrical

conduction pathways.

F,,,/F= 1111+ @&&#‘,/Y,)1 (42)

REFERENCES

where the subscripts m and g refer to the metal and graphite, [I] F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor. The Friction and Lubrication of

Se/ids. London: Oxford Univ. Press. Part I: 1954; Part II: 1964.

respectively. Wear coefficients, based upon operation in a 12) R. Holm and E. Holm. Electric Contacts. Theory and Application,

humidified carbon dioxide atmosphere, were estimated to be 4th ed. New York: Springer. 1967.

3 x 10-l’ m2/N for graphite [17] and 6 X lo-l6 m2/N for [3] E. Rabinowicz, Friction and Wear of Materials. New York:

Wiley. 1965.

copper [20] , It is seen that as the volume fractjon of copper [4] J. A. Greenwood, “Constriction resistance and the real area of

increases from sevenfeen to seventy-nine percent, the force contact,” Brit. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 17. pp. 1621-1632, 1966.

REICHNER: PRESSURE-WEAR THEORY FOR SLIDING ELECIRICAL CONTACTS 51

flat surfaces,” Proc. Royal Sot. London, series A, pp. 300-319, P. W. Kendall, I. R. McNab, and G. A. Wilkin, “Recent de-

1966. velopments in current collection,” Phys. Technol., pp. 117-126,

161 J. A. Greenwood and J. H. Tripp, “The elastic contact of rough May 1975.

spheres,” J. Appl. Mech., pp. 153-159, Mar. 1967. P. Reichner and 0. S. Taylor, “Shunts for high current density

171 J. F. Archard, “Single contacts and multiple encounters,” J. Appl. brushes,” IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, Manuf. Technol.,

Phys., vol. 32, pp. 1420-1425, Aug. 1961. vol. CHMT-2, pp. 89-94, Mar. 1979.

PI G. Yoshimoto and T. Tsukizoe, “On the mechanism of wear P. Reichner, “Brush contact on eccentric slip rings,” to be

between metal surfaces,” Wear, vol. I, pp. 472-490, 1957-1958. published, Proc. IEEE Power Engineering Sot. Summer Meeting,

[91 A. E. Emanuel, H. C. Doepkin, Jr., and P. C. Bolin, “Design and July 1980.

test of a sliding plug-in conductor connector for compressed gas- I. R. McNab and J. L. Johnson, “High current brushes, part III:

insulated cables,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-95. Performance evaluation for sintered silver-graphite grades,” IEEE

Mar./Apr. 1976. Trans. Components, Hybrids. Manuf. Technol., vol. CHMT-2, pp.

F. P. Bowden and D. Tabor, “The area of contact between 84-89, Mar. 1979.

stationary and between moving surfaces,” Proc. Royal Sot. J. Schreurs, J. L. Johnson, and I. R. McNab, “High current

London, series A, pp. 391-413, 1939. brushes, part VI: Evaluation of slipring surface films,” in Proc.

E. Rabinowicz. “Discussion of ‘Equations for the wear and contact 25th Anniv. Mtg., Helm Conf. Electrical Contacts. 1979, pp. 145-

pressure of electromagnetic clutch rotors’,” ASME Trans. J. 151.

Lubrication Technol., p. 2 I I, Jan. 197 I J. Schreurs, J. L. Johnson, and I. R. McNab, “Characterization of

E. F. Finkin, “Equations for the wear and contact pressure of thick films formed on slip rings during high current density

electromagnetic clutch rotors,” ASME Trans., series F., vol. 92, operation,” in Proc. 26th Helm Conf. Electrical Contacts, 1980,

pp. 248-251, Apr. 1970. pp. 59-65. .

R. A. Marshall, P. Reichner, and R. M. Slepian, “Current P. Reichner. “Metallic brushes for extreme high current appli-

collection systems for pulse power homopolar machines,” in Proc. cations,” in Proc. 25th Ann&. Mtg., Helm Conf. Electrical

7th Symp. Engineering Problems of Fusion Research. vol. I, 1977, Contacts, 1979, pp. 191-197.

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