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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Concept of Training

The concept of training predates history; it is

as old as man himself. The earliest man learnt to hunt and

grow crops for his survival. One of the earliest types of

training was on the job training (OJT), which is still in

wide use today

China began training of her workers through

conceptual case studies in the 5th century BC. Confucius

presented problems to his students and asked them to

contemplate possible solutions to those problems. The case

study is still widely in practice even today, mostly in

professional schools. It is an effective tool to encourage

learners to think philosophically about difficult and

problematic situations without having to go through

personal experiences.

As time went on, modern theories of psychology,

training, and staff development were applied to training

methods in order to keep staff skilled, knowledgeable, and

motivated.
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Definition: “Training is the process of teaching new

employees the basic skills they need, to perform their

jobs” (Gary Dessler).

Training is a learning experience which seeks a

relatively permanent change in the individual that will

improve his ability to perform his job well. Every

organization needs to have well trained, experienced and

adjusted employees to perform their duties efficiently.

Training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge,

attitudes, or behavior. It may mean changing what employees

know, how they work, their attitudes toward their work, or

their interaction with their coworkers or supervisor.

Training is more present day oriented and focuses on

individual’s existing jobs and enhancement of abilities to

perform well. Training should not focus on new employees

only, but old employees should also be put through

periodical training in order to keep their knowledge

updated.

Employees Development:

“Future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth

of employees” (David Stephen), for example if an employee

is promoted supervisor, his new job would require him to


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ensure his subordinates do their duties well. This would

require his grooming in advance. This is known as

employees’ development, and every organization must

plan/carry out employee’s development in order to keep it

functioning efficiently.

Purpose of Training and Development


Reasons for emphasizing training and development of

employees:

• Creating a pool of readily available and adequate

replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in

the organization.

• Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use

advances in technology because of a sufficiently

knowledgeable staff.

• Building a more efficient, effective and highly

motivated team, which enhances the company's

competitive position and improves employees morale.

• Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into

new programs.

It has been experienced that companies can benefit a lot

from training and developing of their workers. Some of the


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advantages which an organization may enjoy from a well

trained staff are as under:

• Increased productivity.

• Reduced employee turnover.

• Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains.

• Decreased need for supervision.

Training Methods

There are two broad types of training programs in vogue—on

job and off job training.

On the job Training (OJT): On job training means having a

person learn the job by actually doing it. Every employee

from the boss to the lowest level staff gets on the job

training, on joining a firm. In this way, they do not lose

time while they are learning. On the job training includes

orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships,

internships, assistantships, and coaching.

Off the job Training: In off the job training the workers

after recruitment are properly trained and then allowed to

perform their duties. This type of training includes

lectures, special study programs, films, discussions, case

studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instructions


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and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be

used by organizations, although for some it may be too

costly.

Orientations are for new employees. The first several days

on the job are crucial in the success of new employees.

This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of

all employees who quit do so in the first ten days.

Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:

• The company's history and mission.

• The key members in the organization.

• The key members in the department, and how the

department helps fulfill the mission of the company.

• Rules and regulations for employees.

No matter what method is used, it is important that

the newcomers fully come to know about their place of

employment. Cordial surroundings and cooperative coworkers

encourage the new comers to feel at home and take interest

in their job

Lectures present training material verbally and are aimed

to deliver a great deal of material to many people

simultaneously. It is more cost effective to lecture to a

group than to train people individually.


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Role Playing and Simulation is a training technique that

attempts to bring realistic decision making situations to

the trainees. Likely problems and possible solutions are

presented for discussion. The saying that there is no

better trainer than experience is exemplified with this

type of training. With the help of plays and simulations

trainees learn much quickly, which is very good from

training point of view. This method is cost effective and

is used in marketing and management training.

Job Rotation involves moving an employee through a series

of jobs so that he or she can get a good idea for the tasks

that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used

in training for supervisory positions. This is a good

strategy because an employee would not feel disturbed when

asked to do any other job.

Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different

tasks. This type of training usually involves several

related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to

practice in any particular trade within the organizational

setup and they take place over a long period of time in

which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior

skilled workers. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate

for jobs requiring production skills.


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Internships and Assistantships are usually a combination of

classroom and on the job training. They are often used to

train prospective managers or marketing personnel.

Programmed learning computer-aided instruction and

interactive video all have one thing in common; they allow

the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. They allow

material already learnt to be bypassed in favor of material

with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the

introductory period, the instructor need not be present,

and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows.

Laboratory Training is conducted for groups by skilled

trainers. It is usually conducted at a neutral site and is

used by upper and middle management trainees to develop a

spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with

management and peers.


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Is There A Difference Between Training &

Development?

If we want to maximize training and development results by

linking them to performance management we need to

understand the difference between training activites and

development activities. That's because it's important that

we choose the right mechanism for addressing any needs we

have.

Training usually refers to some kind of organized (and

finite it time) event -- a seminar, workshop that has a

specific beginning data and end date. It's often a group

activity, but the word training is also used to refer to

specific instruction done one on one.

Employee development, however, is a much bigger, inclusive

"thing". For example, if a manager pairs up a relatively

new employee with a more experienced employee to help the

new employee learns about the job, that's really employee

development. If a manager coaches and employee in an

ongoing way, that's employee development. Or, employees

may rotate job responsibilities to learn about the jobs of

their colleagues and gain experience so they might


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eventually have more promotion opportunities. That's

employee development.

In other words employee development is a broader term that

includes training as one, and only one of its methods for

encouraging employee learning.

The important point here is that different activities are

better for the achievement of different results. For

example, if the desire is provide an employee with a

better understanding of how the department works, job

rotation might work very well. If the goal is to improve

the employee's ability to use a computer based accounting

package direct training would be more appropriate than,

let's say, job rotation.

Operational Definition

The study variables can be operationally defined as

follows.

Employees’ performance

It is strategic investment, by an organization, in the

training of its members. Employee motivation is a joint,

ongoing effort on the part of an employee and the

organization for which he or she works to upgrade the


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employee’s knowledge, skills and abilities. Employees

Motivation requires a balance between an individual’s

career needs and goals and the organization’s need to get

work done. Coaching employees to help them determine what

they need for to motivate them to perform well like

training and development programs.

Training and development programs

Training refers to the methods used to give new or present

employees the skills they need to perform their jobs.

Training is used to focus mostly on teaching technical

skills. Whereas managerial employees’ development is any

attempt to improve employees’ performance by imparting

knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills. The

ultimate aim is of course, to enhance the future

performance of the organization itself. Employees are the

assets of an organization and every organization makes

progress and achieves its goals effectively due to the

motivation and dedication of its employees. How we can

achieve the motivation and dedication of employees, is

possible through providing them a specific training so that

they can be refreshed from time to time and they set to

work with motivational manner.


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Purpose of Research

Although the bottom line for most training and

development programs is an improvement in overall

organizational performance, organizations often devote

little attention to evaluate training effectiveness. The

aim of this research paper is to measure the impact of

training and development program on the performance of

general employees of different organizations located in

Islamabad.

It is also designed to evaluate effectiveness of

training of managerial staff of different organizations

from qualitative data gathered through interviews,

questionnaire and observations. Based on these findings

this study will also provide suggestions for improvement in

training programs and will be a help for professionals to

improve their performance to a great extent.

It is very essential for enterprises like Five

Star Hotels, Banks, Telecom companies and schools that the

training opportunities provided to the employees should be

focused on providing such training which enables the

professionals to put in their best efforts. For instance,

if we make a cobbler learn the computer he will have to


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work harder, but the desired outcome will not be as if that

training was provided to a professional who is already

dealing or having any kind of interaction with computers.

We know that at enterprises like Five Star Hotels training

programs are well organized but still the short comings in

training should be eliminated. This will for sure help the

employees enhance their professional and academic skills

Rest of the study is organized as follows:

Chapter 2 consists of literature review in which a detailed

analysis of previous literature is conducted. Chapter 3

consist of data and methodology, it shows from where and

how data is collected and the type of methodology used for

processing that data. Chapter 4 consists of results and

analysis. Chapter 5 consists of conclusion on the basis of

the analysis done in chapter 4 and recommendations to

overcome the background problems.


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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The origin of HRD can be traced back to apprenticeship

training programs in the eighteenth century. During that

time small shops operated by skilled artisans produced

virtually all household goods, such and furniture, clothing

and shoes etc. To meet growing demand for their products

the owners had to employ additional non skilled workers,

whom the shopkeepers themselves had to train. For little or

no wages these trainees or apprentices learned the craft

working for years in the shops until they became proficient

in their trade. The apprenticeship training was not limited

to the skilled workers only but it also covered the

training of physicians, educators and attorneys. Even as

late as 1920s a person apprenticing in a law office could

practice law after passing a state supervised exam

(Mintzberg, 1971).

Employees training allow organizations to achieve

management objectives, resolve issues and align cultures to

their mission and values. Employee training and development

initiatives can transform organizations. Specialized skill

training to the employees not only increases safety and


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productivity but it also leads to higher job satisfaction

which highly improves performance of the organization.

Training and development leads to:

• Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees.

• Increased employee motivation.

• Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in

financial gain.

• Increased innovation in strategies and products.

• Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and

methods.

• Reduced employee turnover.

• Enhanced company image which increase demand for its

products.

This is only a partial listing of the many benefits that

result from training. Training that is appropriate to the

needs of an organization can add great value.

So, why would an organization not welcome and seek out the

value-added benefits resulting from training? Training is

not always the answer to performance problems. Brandt

Sakakeeny, training industry analyst for Solomon Smith


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Barney believes that training can be a great investment and

training can be a waste of money (Rosner, 1999).

Training is indeed a waste of money when the desired

behavior does not occur. Gupta acknowledges that not all

performance problems can be addressed by training. In many

cases, non-training interventions are necessary (Gupta

1999).

Many organizations are including employee education

(training and development) as an important and effective

part of their organizational strategy. It has been

estimated that education and training programs accounted

for as much as 26 percent of the increase in US production

capacity between 1929 and 1982. In 1995 Alan greens,

Chairman of the US federal reserve board, stated that,

“many firms have concluded that it makes more sense to

invest in worker training than to build up wage scales in a

zero sum competition for the existing limited pool of well

qualified workers. A 2000 survey of human resource managers

in large organizations ranked training and development as

the most important functional area these managers had to

deal with. This was followed in descending order by

recruitment and selection, productivity and quality,


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succession planning, employees’ job satisfaction,

globalization and diversity (Allan Greenspan, 1955).

Careful selection of workers willing/eager to learn new

things is a prerequisite of all T&D efforts. Training and

education opens the door, but one must enter by oneself.

You can’t instill a desire in another person to learn or to

strive to do better. What you can do is provide the

opportunities. If employees are willing they will

themselves come up and learn. Why don’t you have a chit-

chat with each one and see what they really want to do in

their lives (Maxey, 2002).

Flatter older employees a bit regarding the amount of

knowledge and know-how they’ve acquired throughout the

years in the company and ask for their help in training the

newer, younger employees. Focus on the positive points,

acknowledge employees qualities and qualifications and give

them the understanding that you need their help and know-

how to run the operation effectively (Trevor, Gerhart &

Boudreau 1997).

In hotel industry, because of tight time schedule and tough

duties, employees’ turnover is high. Developers say a

strong training program, incentives and opportunities for


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internal growth are powerful tools that foster an

environment that will attract and retain talented

employees. Introduce such training programs which encourage

new hires to perform well and succeed. Despite the highly

competitive nature of timeshare, a company can be

successful in maintaining a solid work force with proper

training and motivation. The author says that his

philosophy in terms of attracting employees is having

positive results and people from outside are coming in

flocks. Organizations that give special training to their

employees and there are ample opportunities for promotions

and good monetary benefits which encourage the employees to

exert themselves and take initiatives to rise to the

challenges which gives guaranteed returns to the company. A

wide selection of leadership, seminars, management training

and technical courses are available to employees. It is a

crucial investment and it is essential to the company

(Banson, 2003).

It’s essential to devote resources for ongoing training,

development of leadership skills and creating opportunities

for advancement for candidates within an organization. We

are developing future managers from within our labor force.

It is our goal to be the employer of choice. (Milanese,


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2003)They approach salespeople with an attitude that lets

them know training will take an hour of their time to

compensate them with skills and information. Salespeople

want to know exactly what they can learn in a short time.

The employees want transfer of knowledge in shortest

possible time to derive benefits from it. (Dragon and

Chuang, 2001)In Microsoft; the approach that I took wasn’t

to create a training group to ensure that we train these

people to be successful. I purposely don’t use the word

training, preferring to use the word readiness to quantify

is better, because driving readiness is about being ready

to sell in the enterprise…… It’s about; giving salespeople

clarity within their roles, giving them the tools to be

successful, and ensuring that they can do the jobs set out

of them (Schuler, 2001).

Buchananm (2008) in this paper reviews studies published

between 1964 and May 1968 on laboratory training in human

relations and its use in attempts to enhance the

effectiveness of organizations. After some of the

difficulties in conducting such research in this area are

considered, findings are examined as they relate to five

issues in the design and the application of laboratory

training. These findings are also compared with findings


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from a similar review reported by the author four years

ago. Studies of the influence of trainees’ characteristics

on the training effectiveness have focused on the level of

ability necessary to learn program content. Motivational

and environmental influences of training effectiveness have

received little attention. This analysis integrates

important motivational and situational factors from

organizational behavior theory and research into a model

which describes how trainees’ attributes and attitudes may

influence the effectiveness of training (Noe, 1986).

In Chart’s (2000) Exploratory Benchmark Survey, 70% of

respondents said training had a positive impact on their

company’s ability to improve occupancy and overall

profitability. Comparing the performance of their companies

with that of 1999, 75% confirmed that training increased

profits and occupancy rates. In a survey, majority of

respondents asserted that training also enhances guest and

customers satisfaction. 56% of companies increased their

training budgets last year or planned to increase it this

year a finding that is not surprising given the connection

between training and retention. Employees are of the

opinion that training in career development is important

for their professional success. They realize that well-


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trained employees are happier with their jobs and more

likely to stay (Berta, 2001).

Manu (2004) conducted a study on training and development

of firms in Ghana. The purpose of the study was to describe

selected successful models of training and development as

they may apply to firms. Second, to describe selected

methods of needs assessment for training and development

programs for employers and employees. Third, to identify

selected managerial techniques that contributes to lost

productivity and morale. Fourth, to selectively assess what

business skills are most essential for career success.

Fifth, the results of this study suggest recommendations

for developing a comprehensive plan (model) for the

creation of effective employee training and development

program in Ghana. This study was conducted by engaging in

comprehensive review and critique of the existing

literature on training and development models (Manu, 2004).

Most banks see education and training as a key part of

their employment equity initiatives, their performance

enhancement and performance recovery initiatives, and their

strategic human resources provision.


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There are following five key priority areas: Using the

workplace skills plans

• Information technology-related skills development.

• Management and leadership skills development

• Customer interface-related skills development

• Specialist financial skill development

• Back-office processes and support skills development.

The process of the transfer of training has a great impact

on job productivity, effectiveness and satisfaction.

Studies focusing specifically on the role of managers in

the process have, however, been limited in number. The

general aim of this study is to determine the impact of

managers' reinforcement on participants' job attitude,

productivity, effectiveness and satisfaction in the process

of the transfer of knowledge, skill and attitude to be

acquired through a training programmed into the workplace.

The study involves a group of sales representatives

participating in the Basic Sales Training Program for Sales

Representatives and their supervisors in the Coca-Cola

Bottlers of Turkey. Using experimental and control groups,

the study are based on Kirkpatrick's four–stage evaluation

model. The findings obtained are discussed and evaluated


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with respect to the roles of managers in the transfer of

training (Gumuseli & Ergin, 2002).

The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize

the importance of human capital within organizations, as

well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that

capital. In the economy where uncertainty is the only

certainty, knowledge is becoming a reliable source of

sustained competitive advantage. Knowledge is becoming

basic capital and the trigger of development. Previously

built on foundations of possessing specific resources and

low costs, present day competition is based on knowledge

possessing and efficient knowledge management. Modern

organizations therefore use their resources (money, time,

energy, information, etc.) for permanent training and

advancement of their employees. Organizations which are

constantly creating new knowledge, extending it through the

entire organization and implementing it quickly inside the

new technologies, develop good products and excellent

services. These activities determine the company as a

learning organization with constant innovation being its

sole business. These are organizations which realize that

learning and new knowledge are becoming the key of success,

and that education is crucial for abundance. (Vemic, 2007)


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Ojo and Olaniyan (2008) examined the impact of training and

development programs on the performance of home economics

teachers in Nigeria. The findings of the study revealed

that training and development has a positive impact on the

performance of home economic teachers. We have followed the

methodology of Ojo et al and made it as our base thesis. We

will apply this methodology to different organizations like

banks, five star hotels and telecom companies operating in

Pakistani market.

On the basis of literature review done above we intend to

test the following hypotheses

• There is a positive impact of Training and

development programs on the performance of senior

employees.

• There is a positive impact of Training and

development programs on the performance of junior

employees.

• There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of married employees.


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• There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of unmarried employees.

• There is a positive impact of Training and

development programs on the performance of female

employees.

• There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of male employees.


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CHAPTER 3

DATA AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The major objective of this research is to know the

impact of training and development programs in different

age groups, designations and gender. First of all we

identified the objective behind this research. The study is

based upon the primary data. Then we collected data with

the help of questionnaire to identify issues relevant to

the research. After that it would be recommended how

training and development programs affect the performance of

employees at work place. The main objective is to answer

this important question whether the performance of the

employees’ increases or decreases after training and

development programs in an organization. The researcher

will distribute 70 questionnaires in different

organizations of Islamabad to know the response of

employees towards different T&D programs. Questionnaire

will be consisted of 14 questions (Appendix A).

Research instrument

Data was also collected using secondary sources like

internet and some books. Whereas mainly, primary data

source i-e, questionnaire was used to collect data from

existing employees of selected organizations. Questionnaire


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consisting of 7+7 questions is distributed (questionnaire

is given in appendices). 7 questions are related to the

training and development programs that are carried out in

different organizations; the remaining 7 questions are to

investigate the effect of that training and development on

the performance of the employees. Some data has been

collected through interviews with the existing employees.

Interview of a relationship manager will be taken to verify

the results.

Population

The population of the study consists of existing employees,

senior managers of different banks, 5 star hotels,telecom

companies and schools in Islamabad. Thus the respondents of

the study have been drawn from the population of banks,

companies and schools in Islamabad. Total number of 70

questionnaires was distributed in these organizations.

Sample design

Respondents of the Study were the existing bank employees

of different banks of Islamabad e.g. Bank Alfalah Limited,

City Bank, National bank of Pakistan, Marriot hotel,P.C

Zong telecom, Bahria college, IMCG F-10/2.


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Sample size

As population size is 70, It is estimated that there would

be approximately 70 respondents in the selected

organizations.

Measuring level of Employee’s Performance

Instrument/ Questionnaire used to determine employee

performance after undergoing a T&D program consist of five

responses on Linkert scale.

1= strongly agree

2= agree

3= neither agreed nor disagree/ Neutral

4= disagree

5= strongly disagree

Negative questions were translated into positive questions

so that the concept flows in the same direction.

Type of study

The study is of descriptive nature and it is carried out to

find the reasons how and in which way T&D programs affect

the performance of an organization employee.

Test used in the study

In this research t-test for equality of means is used as a

statistical hypothesis test.A t-test is any statistical

hypothesis test in which the test statistic has a student’s


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T distribution if the null-hypothesis is true. It is

applied when the population is assumed to be normally

distributed but the sample sizes are small enough that the

statistic on which inference is based is not normally

distributed because it relies on an uncertain estimate of

standard deviation rather than on a precisely known value.

Regression Analysis

It is a statistical technique used to find relationships

between variables for the purpose of predicting future

values. In other words it predicts the behavior of a

dependent variable by analyzing one or more independent

variables.

Independent variables in this study are training and

development programs and dependent variable is performance

of employees.

Correlation Analysis

It is a statistical analysis used to determine the extent

to which changes in value of an attribute are associated

with changes in other attributes. The correlation

coefficient r is a measure of the linear relationship

between two attributes or columns of data. The correlation


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coefficient is also known as the Pearson product-moment

correlation coefficient. The value of r can range from -1

to +1 and is independent of the units of measurement. A

value of r near 0 indicates little correlation between

attributes; a value near +1 or -1 indicates a high level of

correlation.

When two attributes have a positive correlation

coefficient, an increase in the value of one attribute

indicates a likely increase in the value of the second

attribute. A correlation coefficient of less than 0

indicates a negative correlation. That is, when one

attribute shows an increase in value, the other attribute

tends to show a decrease.

Data analytical techniques used

We applied the test of mean equality on the basis of

grouping under age, marital status and gender.

Hypotheses

Hoa: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of senior employees.

Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of senior employees.


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Hob: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of junior employees.

Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of junior employees.

Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of married employees.

Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of married employees.

Hod: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of unmarried employees.

Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of unmarried employees.

Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of female employees.

He: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of female employees.

Hof: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of male employees.

Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of male employees.


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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

The test of mean equality was applied on the basis of

grouping under the headings of gender, age and marital

status to test the hypotheses.

Age based results

Age group was divided into two categories; in senior group,

employees who are above 30 years of age whereas in junior

group, age below 30 years was taken.

Above 30 results

In this group we will test the following hypotheses:

H0a: There is no impact of Training and development programs

on the performance of senior employees.

Ha: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of senior employees.


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Table 4.1.1
Regression
Coefficients(a)

Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.
Std.
B Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.383 .505 2.739 .011
TD .679 .129 .705 5.259 .000
a Dependent Variable: Performance

Table 4.1.1 shows that H0a is rejected. It means that the

training and development programs have a positive impact on

the performance of the employees who are above the age of

30 years. So our results justify the theoretical

background. The value of beta i.e. 0.705 shows a high level

of significance. In simple words it means that there is a

considerable positive impact of training and development

programs on the performance of senior employees.

Table 4.1.2
Correlations
Performance TD
Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .705(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 30 30
TD Pearson Correlation .705(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 30 30
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.1.2 shows that both the variables are positively

correlated, which means that an increase in training and


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development programs will result in a proportionate

increase in the performance of senior employees.

Following hypotheses are formulated for employees who are

below the age of 30 years.

Below 30 results

In this group we will test the following hypotheses:

Hob: There is no impact of Training and development programs

on the performance of junior employees.

Hb: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of junior employees.

Table 4.1.3
Regression
Coefficients(a)

Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.
Std.
B Error Beta
1 (Constant) 3.241 .362 8.940 .000
TD .236 .092 .384 2.566 .014
a Dependent Variable: Performance

Table 4.1.3 shows that H0b is rejected. It means that the

training and development programs have a positive impact on

the performance of employees who are below the age of 30

years. The value of beta i.e. 0.384 shows a high level of

significance but surprisingly it is lower than that of

senior employees.
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Table 4.1.4
Correlations

Performance TD
Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .384(*)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .014
N 40 40
TD Pearson Correlation .384(*) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .014 .
N 40 40
Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.1.4 shows that both the variables are positively

correlated, which means that an increase in the training

and development programs will result in a proportionate

increase in the performance of senior employees.

Marital status based results

This group was divided into two categories which are

married and unmarried employees. The test of mean equality

was applied to test the following hypotheses.

Married results

The following hypotheses are formulated in this group of

employees:
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Hoc: There is no impact of Training and development programs

on the performance of married employees.

Hc: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of married employees.

Table 4.2.1
Regression

Coefficients (a)

Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.
Std.
B Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.848 .398 7.150 .000
TD .320 .102 .463 3.138 .003
a Dependent Variable: Performance

Table 4.2.1 shows that H0c is rejected. It means that the

training and development programs have a positive impact on

the performance of the employees who are married. The value

of beta i.e. 0.463 shows a moderate level of significance.

In simple words it means that there is a relatively smaller

impact of training and development programs on the

performance of married employees.

Table 4.2.2
Correlations
Performance TD
Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .463(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .003
N 38 38
TD Pearson Correlation .463(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .003 .
N 38 38
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
36

Table 4.2.2 shows that both the variables are positively

correlated, which means that a change in one variable will

be accounted by an appropriate change in other variable,

which means that an increase in T&D programs will enhance

the performance of married employees.

Single results

The following hypotheses are tested by applying the test of

mean equality for group of unmarried employees:

Hod: There is no impact of Training and development programs

on the performance of unmarried employees.

Hd: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of unmarried employees.

Table 4.2.3
Regression

Coefficients(a)

Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.
Std.
B Error Beta
1 (Constant) 1.838 .514 3.576 .001
TD .582 .130 .632 4.467 .000
a Dependent Variable: Performance
37

Table 4.2.3 shows that H0 is rejected. It means that the

training and development programs have a positive impact on

the performance of the unmarried employees. The value of

beta i.e. 0.632 shows a very high level of significance. In

simple words it means that there is a greater impact of

training and development programs on the performance of

unmarried employees.

Table 4.2.4
Correlations
Performance TD
Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .632(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000
N 32 32
TD Pearson Correlation .632(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .
N 32 32
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.2.4 shows that both the variables are positively

correlated, which means that an increase in the training

and development programs will result in an increase in the

performance of unmarried employees.


38

Gender based results

Gender base group was divided into two groups which are

male and female employees.

Female results
Hypotheses formulated in this group are stated as under:

Hoe: There is no impact of Training and development programs

on the performance of female employees.

He: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of female employees.

Table 4.3.1
Regression
Coefficients(a)

Standardize
d
Unstandardized Coefficient
Model Coefficients s t Sig.
Std.
B Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.588 .464 5.580 .000
TD .391 .113 .515 3.449 .002
a Dependent Variable: Performance

Table 4.3.1 shows that H0e is not rejected. It means that

the training and development programs have a positive

impact on the performance of the female employees. The

value of beta i.e. 0.515 shows a high level of

significance. In simple words it means that the training


39

and development programs will enhance the performance of

female employees considerably.

Table 4.3.2
Correlations
Performance TD
Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .515(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .002
N 35 35
TD Pearson Correlation .515(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .002 .
N 35 35
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.3.2 shows that both the variables are positively

correlated, which means that an increase in the training

and development programs will result in an increase in the

performance of female employees.

Males results
Following are the hypotheses formed to figure out the

impact of T&D programs on the performance of male employees

in different organizations.

Hof: There is no impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of male employees.

Hf: There is a positive impact of Training and development

programs on the performance of male employees.


40

Table 4.3.3
Regression
Coefficients (a)

Unstandardized Standardized
Model Coefficients Coefficients t Sig.
Std.
B Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.386 .472 5.051 .000
TD .440 .126 .520 3.498 .001
a Dependent Variable: Performance

Table 4.3.3 shows that H0f is not rejected. It means that

the training and development programs do have a positive

impact on the performance of the male employees. The value

of beta i.e. 0.520 shows a high level of significance. In

simple words it means that the training and development

programs considerably increase the performance of male

employees.

Table 4.3.4
Correlations
Performance TD
Performance Pearson Correlation 1 .520(**)
Sig. (2-tailed) . .001
N 35 35
TD Pearson Correlation .520(**) 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .001 .
N 35 35
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
41

Table 4.3.4 shows that both the variables are positively


correlated, which means that the greater the training and
development programs provided to male employees, greater
will be their performance.
42

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

1. According to our gender based results training and

development programs have a positive impact on the

performance of both the male and female employees. But

the value of beta shows that it has a greater impact

on the performance of male employee’s group. This can

be due to the reason that mostly female employees bear

additional responsibilities from their families.

2. According to our age based results training and

development programs affect the performance of senior

as well as junior employees positively. But the value

of beta shows a huge difference in the results of

senior and junior employees. It shows that the

productivity of senior employees is almost twice as

compared to juniors after the same opportunities of

training and development offered. The possible reason

for this can be that the senior employees have more

experience and knowledge about their job and the

internal and external environment.


43

3. Results based on marital status again show that the

training and development has a positive impact on the

performance of both married and unmarried employees.

By looking at the values of beta for both the groups

it is evident that the impact of training and

development on the performance of unmarried employees

is relatively greater. The reason for greater impact

in case of unmarried employees can be that they are

more ambitious and energetic and after getting married

some additional responsibilities rest on one’s

shoulders which directly or indirectly affect their

attitude, behavior and performance.

The finding of the study shows that training and

development boost the moral of employees upgrade skills,

improve their performance and gives them the opportunity to

get lucrative jobs and excel in their jobs also. The

finding shows that the training aimed at providing the

trainee the opportunity of changing their behaviors and

contributes to their effectiveness and upgrading their

skills.
44

Training and development might not necessarily lead to job

satisfaction of employees but it leads to increase

productivity, improves the quality of work, improves

skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the

use of tools and machine, reduce waste accident, turnover,

lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs etc. thus,

training and development has a positive impact on the

performance of employees of different organizations.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Employees should be encouraged to go for in-service

training. This will brighten up their ideas and will

enable them to know more about the recent

developments in their subject areas.

2. Different organizations should always determine the

training need that would be most suitable for the

achievement of organizational goals.

3. There should be frequent job rotation so that banks and

other organizations get aware of the skills and interests of

the employees and cater the training and development programs

accordingly.

4. There should not be a communication gap between junior

and inexperienced employees and their immediate bosses, so that


45

they can communicate with each other and managers can get

proper feedback from all employees to carry out the training

and development activities.

5. Companies should pay handsome salary to all employees so

that junior and newly appointed employees get motivated and

more dedicated to their work. This will help in increasing the

impact of training and development programs on the performance

of junior employees.

6. Different organizations should provide equal advancement

opportunities to male and female employees, experienced and

inexperienced employees and junior and senior employees

7. Organizations should help out female employees to have a

balance between their responsibilities on the job and off the

job so as to bring their performance equal to male employees.


46

References

Banson George, 2003, Occupational stress: A case study of

the New Zeland reserve bank”.

Berta Dina, 2001, “Dual perceptions of HRD, Issues for

Policy: SME’s, Other Constituencies, and the Contested

Definitions” of Human Resource Development, 5(75), pp.604-

624

Buchanan Paul C., 2008, “Laboratory Training and

organization development” journal of administrative science

quarterly, 14(3), pp.466-480.

Buchanan Paul C., 2008, “Laboratory Training and

Organization Development” Journal of Administrative Science

Quarterly, 14(3), pp.466-480

Dragon Hsien-Che, Chuang Tsai-Hua (2004): “The impact of

leadership styles on job stress and turnover intention- Taiwan

Insurance Industry as an example” Tatung University, Chung-

Shan. N. Rd, Taiwan City, Taiwan ROC.


47

Greenspan Allan, 1955, “The relationship between training

and organizational commitment”,

(www.employeeretentionguide.com

Gumuseli A. I., Ergin Banu, 2002, “The manager’s role in

enhancing the Transfer of training” A Turkish Case Study,

Internationqal Journal of Training and Development, Vol.6,

pp.80-97

Gupta Pankaj, 2007, “A comparative study of integrated HR

development system” of public and private sector

organization.

Manu J. S, 2004, “Training and Development techniques for

improving Organization performance” for Ghanaian firms.

Milanese Alfonso, 2003, “A cross sectional country analysis

of different case studies”

Mintzberg Henry, 1997, “Impact of stress on employee

performance in different organization”


48

Neo R. A., 1986, “Trainees’ Attributes and Attitudes:

Neglected Influences on Training Effectiveness” the academy

of Management Review, 11(4), pp.736-749

Ojo L.B. and Olaniyan D.A., 2008, “training and

development, impact on the performance of home economic

teachers and school improvement” in District II of school

division Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of social

sciences,5(5),pp 484-488.

Rosner J. L., 1999, “Managing the impact of employee

development on performance, the role of process

conformance” Haward Business School, Boston Massachusetts,

Volume 19.

Schuler Alexander, 2001, “A structural model of workload,

jod attitudes, stress and turnover intentions” Kansas State

University.

Trevor C.O., Gerhart Barry, boudreau J.W., 1997, “Training

programs and Job Performance: Curvilinearity and the

moderating influences of Salary growth and promotions”.


49

Vemic Jelena, 2007, “Employee training and development and

the learning organization” Economics and Organization,

4(2), pp.209-216.
50

APPENDIX A

Questionnaire for Impact of Training and Development on

Employees Performance

Respondent profile:

1. Gender

[1] Male
[2] Female

2. Marital status

[1] Married
[2] Single

3. Age: Years

4. Designation : __________________

5. Total number of years that you have been employed by

Current Place? Years

6. Total working experience? Years


51

Objectives:

o To ensure that the effective training is provided to

the employees.

o To know that needs of employees with respect to

enhancing the knowledge and skill.

o To asses the training standards which are provided to

the employees.

o To know about the support to training and

development.

o To improve the training standards as per the

employees requirements.

o To analyze that whether the organization is providing

incentives to trained employees or not.

“Your right clicks are appreciated and your little bit

cooperation will help me to reach on the best solution”

Keys:

Strongly Disagree Indifference Agree Strongly


Disagree Agree
1 2 3 4 5
52

1. Employees are motivated towards training programs.

1 2 3 4 5

2. Training programs are job oriented.

1 2 3 4 5

3. Organizational culture facilitates the Training and

Development programs.

1 2 3 4 5

4. Trained employees are more efficient and effective as

compare to untrained.

1 2 3 4 5

5. Training is provided in accordance to the international

standards.

1 2 3 4 5

6. Working condition support the Training programs.

1 2 3 4 5

7. Trained employees get more incentives.

1 2 3 4 5

8. Leadership and decision making training is provided to

the employees.

1 2 3 4 5
53

9. Do you require further training for the motivation

towards the improvement of the performance to help you to

increase overall productivity of the organization?

1 2 3 4 5

10. Training and Development program will give me better

idea of the career path, which I want to Pursue.

1 2 3 4 5

11. Training programs help you to stay up-to-date with new

process or procedures related to your job.

1 2 3 4 5

12. Trained employees understand the problems and get the

solution quickly?

1 2 3 4 5

13. T&D plans and policies respond quickly and effectively to

changing business needs.

1 2 3 4 5
54

14. Trained employees make less number of mistakes as

compared to the untrained.

1 2 3 4 5