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WATER AND SANITATION

Writer
Reginald Indon
Editors
Chay Florentino-Hofileña
Giselle Baretto-Lapitan
Project Management
Amihan Perez
Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA)
Technical and Editorial Team
Rene "Bong' Garrucho, LGSP
Mags Maglana, LGSP
Abdul Jim Hassan, LGSP
Rizal Barandino, LGSP
Myn Garcia, LGSP
Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation - International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF)
Art Direction, Cover Design & Layout
Jet Hermida
Photography
Gil Nartea
WATSAN
WATER AND SANITATION SERVICES FOR ALL
Water And Sanitation Services For All
Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government

Copyright @2003 Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)

All rights reserved

The Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program encourages the


use, translation, adaptation and copying of this material for non-commercial
use, with appropriate credit given to LGSP.

Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this book, the
publisher and/or contributor and/or editor can not accept any liability for any
consequence arising from the use thereof or from any information
contained herein.

ISBN 971-8597-03-4

Printed and bound in Manila, Philippines

Published by:

Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)


Unit 1507 Jollibee Plaza
Emerald Ave., 1600 Pasig City, Philippines
Tel. Nos. (632) 637-3511 to 13
www.lgsp.org.ph

Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs (ACSPPA)


ACSPPA, Fr. Arrupe Road, Social Development Complex
Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, 1108 Quezon City

This project was undertaken with the financial support of the Government of
Canada provided through the Canadian International Development Agency
(CIDA).
A JOINT PROJECT OF

Department of the Interior National Economic and Canadian International


and Local Government (DILG) Development Authority (NEDA) Development Agency

IMPLEMENTED BY

Agriteam Canada Federation of Canadian


www.agriteam.ca Municipalities (FCM)
www.fcm.ca
CONTENTS

FOREWORD i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iii
PREFACE v
ACRONYMS vii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ix
INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF THE WATER AND SANITATION SITUATION 7


Key Concepts 7
Advantages and Benefits of Adequate and Safe Watsan Services 9
Water and Sanitation Situation 9
International and National Targets 11
Existing Environment 12
Guiding Principles for LGUs 16

CHAPTER 2: LGU MANDATES IN WATSAN PROVISION 21


Water Supply Provision and Sanitation and Drainage Provisions 21
National Policy on Urban Sewerage and Sanitation of 1994 23
NEDA Board Resolution No. 5 (series of 1998) 25
NEDA Board Resolution No. 6 (series of 1996) 29

CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATION & POLICY ISSUES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES 33


Implementation and Policy Issues 33
Adequate Water and Sanitation for All: Guiding Principles 36

CHAPTER 4: GOOD PRACTICES IN WATSAN PROVISION 57


Community-Managed Approach Cases 58
Social Privatization Approach Case 70
Privatization Approach Case 75

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
CONTENTS

CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES AND TOOLS 79


Potential Sites for Study Tours 79
References 83

ENDNOTES 87
ANNEX: 89
Water Supply Technology Options 89
Sanitation Technology Options 93
Sustainability of Community-Based Rural Water Supply Organizations 107
Directory 113

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
FOREWORD

T
he Department of the Interior and Local Government is pleased to acknowledge the latest
publication of the Philippines Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP), Service
Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government; a series of books on eight (8)
service delivery areas, which include Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Local Economic
Development, Solid Waste Management, Watershed and Coastal Resource Management.

One of the biggest challenges in promoting responsive and efficient local governance is to be able to
meaningfully deliver quality public services to communities as mandated in the Local Government Code.
Faced with continued high incidence of poverty, it is imperative to strengthen the role of LGUs in service
delivery as they explore new approaches for improving their performance.

Strategies and mechanisms for effective service delivery must take into consideration issues of poverty
reduction, people’s participation, the promotion of gender equality, environmental sustainability and
economic and social equity for more long- term results. There is also a need to acquire knowledge, create
new structures, and undertake innovative programs that are more responsive to the needs of the
communities and develop linkages and partnerships within and between communities as part of an
integrated approach to providing relevant and sustainable services to their constituencies.

Service Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government offer local government units and
their partners easy-to-use, comprehensive resource material with which to take up this challenge. By
providing LGUs with practical technologies, tested models and replicable exemplary practices, Service
Delivery with Impact encourages LGUs to be innovative, proactive and creative in addressing the real
problems and issues in providing and enhancing services, taking into account increased community
participation and strategic private sector/civil society organizational partnerships. We hope that in using
these resource books, LGUs will be better equipped with new ideas, tools and inspiration to make a

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T I
FOREWORD

difference by expanding their knowledge and selection of replicable choices in delivering basic services
with increased impact.

The DILG, therefore, congratulates the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)
for this milestone in its continuing efforts to promote efficient, responsive, transparent and accountable
governance.

HON. JOSE D. LINA, JR.


Secretary
Department of the Interior and Local Government

II S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

T his publication is the result of the collaboration of the following individuals and institutions that
support the improvement of the delivery of water and sanitation services by local governments
to their constituents

The Local Government Support Program led by Alix Yule, Marion Maceda Villanueva and Rene “Bong”
Garrucho for providing the necessary direction and support

Rory Villaluna, Lyn Capistrano, Carmelo Gendrano and other staff of PCWS-ITNF for undertaking the
research and roundtable discussion and preparing the technical report which was the main reference
for this resource book; and for assisting in the review of the manuscript

Participants to the Roundtable Discussion on Water and Sanitation held last August 7, 2002 in Davao
City. Their expertise and animated exchange of opinions helped shape the technical report on which
this publication is based:

Mayor Gregorio Facula of Braulio Dujali; Florencio Leray, Arthur Moralde, Mel Villacin, and Alejandro C.
Sumiling of Quezon, Bukidnon; Rolando A. Balago of Misamis Oriental, Lorena Navallasca of Iloilo; Dr.
Jarvis Punsalan of Capiz; Delia Guinto of Carmona and Ellen Pascua of DILG

Sarah Coll-Black of CIDA; Lizette Cardenas of SWAPP; Ratan Budhathoki of NEWAH; Ruben P. Cajigas of
Leaf Foundation and Cherry B. Al-ag of OIDCI

LGSP Manager Victor A. Ozarraga and Program Officers Victor C. Alfaro, Aser Realubit, and Abduljim Hassan

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Rizal Barandino for providing feedback that helped ensure that the resource book offers information
that is practical and applicable to LGU needs and requirements

Reginald Indon for effective rendering of the technical reports

Chay Florentino Hofilena and Giselle Baretto-Lapitan for the excellent editorial work

Amihan Perez and the Ateneo Center for Social Policy and Public Affairs for their efficient coordination
and management of the project

Mags Z. Maglana for providing overall content supervision and coordinating with the technical writer

Myn Garcia for providing technical and creative direction and overall supervision of the design, layout
and production

Sef Carandang, Russell Fariñas, Gigi Barazon and the rest of the LGSP administrative staff for providing
support

IV S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
PREFACE

S
ervice Delivery with Impact: Resource Books for Local Government are the product of a series
of roundtable discussions, critical review of tested models and technologies, and case analyses
of replicable exemplary practices in the Philippines conducted by the Philippines-Canada Local
Government Support Program (LGSP) in eight (8) service sectors that local government units (LGUs) are
mandated to deliver. These include Shelter, Water and Sanitation, Health, Agriculture, Local Economic
Development, Solid Waste Management, Watershed and Coastal Resource Management.

The devolution of powers as mandated in the Local Government Code has been a core pillar of
decentralization in the Philippines. Yet despite opportunities for LGUs to make a meaningful difference
in the lives of the people by maximizing these devolved powers, issues related to poverty persist and
improvements in effective and efficient service delivery remain a challenge.

With LGSP’s work in support of over 200 LGUs for the past several years came the recognition of the need
to enhance capacities in service delivery, specifically to clarify the understanding and optimize the role
of local government units in providing improved services. This gap presented the motivation for LGSP
to develop these resource books for LGUs.

Not a “how to manual,” Service Delivery with Impact features strategies and a myriad of proven
approaches designed to offer innovative ways for local governments to increase their capacities to better
deliver quality services to their constituencies.

Each resource book focuses on highlighting the important areas of skills and knowledge that contribute
to improved services. Service Delivery with Impact provides practical insights on how LGUs can apply
guiding principles, tested and appropriate technology, and lessons learned from exemplary cases to their
organization and in partnership with their communities.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T V
PREFACE

This series of resource books hopes to serve as a helpful and comprehensive reference to inspire and
enable LGUs to significantly contribute to improving the quality of life of their constituency through
responsive and efficient governance.

Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP)

VI S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
ACRONYMS

ADB Asian Development Bank


AusAID Australian Agency for International Development
BWSA Barangay Waterworks and Sanitation Association
BWSI Bayan Water Services, Inc.
CARWASA Casay Rural Water and Sanitation Association
CDF Countryside Development Fund
DANIDA Danish International Development Agency
DFWSA Doña Flavia Water and Sanitation Association
DWSDC Darangan Water Service Development Cooperative
JBIC Japanese Bank for International Cooperation
KfW Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) The German Development Bank
LGSP Local Government Support Program
LGU Local Government Unit
LWUA Local Water Utilities Authority
MWSS Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System
NEDA National Economic and Development Authority
NGO Non-Government Organization
O&M Operation and Maintenance
ODA Overseas Development Assistance
PCWS-ITNF Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation – International Training Network Foundation
PSP Private Sector Participation
RWSA Rural Waterworks and Sanitation Association
SSF SZOPAD Social Fund
SZOPAD Special Zone of Peace and Development
UN United Nations
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USC-WRC University of San Carlos Water Resource Center
WATSAN Water and Sanitation
WB World Bank

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T VII
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

THE WATER AND SANITATION SITUATION

Access to safe water and sanitation is essential not only for human survival, but also to improve the lives
of people, particularly the poor. Safe water and sanitation are necessary building blocks in the
development of healthier and more productive communities.

Yet access to safe water and sanitation services continues to be a major concern among many Filipinos.
Philippine statistics, for instance, show that only 67 percent of the urban population and 87 percent of
the rural population has access to water, while only 69 percent of the population nationwide has
sanitation facilities. The problem is directly linked to issues and problems related to the policy,
institutional, technical, financial, socio-cultural, and economic environments.

MEETING THE CHALLENGE

The challenge posed to LGUs is to enhance and re-imagine their involvement in water and sanitation
service delivery. As will be shown in this Resource Book, LGU experiences in water and sanitation
projects—particularly those which have used the community-managed and socially privatized
institutional arrangements—show tremendous promise in terms of project success and sustainability.
Such LGU efforts eventually achieved capital development and water-sanitation service efficiency,
but also encouraged the growth of strong local democracy and institution building.

The experiences of community-managed systems (in Doña Flavia, Casay and New Bulatukan) and of a
socially-privatized system (in Darangan) reveal that these two institutional arrangements are fast
emerging as alternative and viable models of community-based water systems, compared to the
traditional models of government-controlled or private corporation-controlled water systems.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Community management and social privatization do not mean lesser government involvement. On the
contrary, government agencies and LGUs, in particular, will continue to play a vital role in providing a
favorable policy climate for greater community participation in WATSAN service delivery, and in
ensuring sustained institutional support for the organizations involved.

THE GUIDING PRINCIPLES

Certain guiding principles help enhance project implementation. In the experience of water and
sanitation advocates and practitioners and as articulated by the Philippine Center for Water and
Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF), these include (1) ensuring
sustainability of potable water supply and sanitation services, (2) effective implementation of water and
sanitation projects, (3) developing a culture of Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) ensuring the
formation of viable institutional arrangements.

In practice, these guiding principles involve using appropriate technologies, ensuring community
participation, and transparent and conscientious resource and project management during project
implementation. It likewise involves investing in social preparation, institution building, and capability-
building in order to guarantee project continuity and sustainability.

By adhering to these implementing guide principles, LGUs stand to benefit from enhanced community
access to safe, efficient, and affordable water and sanitation systems; lower project and O&M costs; and
expanded government-private sector-civil society collaboration.

X S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
INTRODUCTION

INFORMATION: A BASIC TOOL FOR LGUS

The Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program has put together this resource book in
response to the need to develop and disseminate knowledge on the importance of water and sanitation
and the issues and problems surrounding this sector. This resource book is a collection of ideas,
practical technologies, tested models, and good practices related to water and sanitation service
delivery that can be systematically disseminated and used by LGUs and their partners.

Although this resource book focuses on ways of improving water and sanitation service delivery, it likewise
tackles issues relating to poverty levels, gender promotion, people participation, and economic and social
equity and how these themes are connected to water and sanitation service delivery.

This resource book was developed in collaboration with the Philippine Center for Water and
Sanitation–International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF). The PCWS-ITNF is a non-government
organization concerned with public information, research, community organizing, advocacy, and
training for the awareness, appreciation, protection, and conservation of Philippine water resources. It
aims to heighten awareness among public and private institutions on development issues affecting water
and sanitation policy reforms and water resource management.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 1
INTRODUCTION

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THIS BOOK

The specific objective of the book is to provide local government officials and those helping LGUs develop
capacity in service delivery with:

1. An overview of the policy environment governing the water and sanitation sector;
2. Ideas on sustainable and cost-effective technologies, models, and practices related to water
and sanitation;
3. An understanding of the tremendous impact of water and sanitation projects on poverty
reduction and community development, and;
4. A vision of the evolving and critical role of local government units in providing water and
sanitation services.

A companion book published by the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support Program (LGSP),
titled “Resource Finder: Financial and Technical Assistance for LGUs,” provides additional information on
the different types of assistance that LGUs can access from government agencies, government financing
institutions, ODA, and civil society organizations. Water and sanitation is among the service areas covered
by the Resource Finder.

PARTS OF THE RESOURCE BOOK

Chapter 1: Overview of the Water and Sanitation Situation. This chapter discusses the situation of
the water and sanitation sector in the global and national arena. It introduces LGUs to the challenges
at hand, while highlighting key concepts, the importance of water and sanitation services, their
potential impacts on communities, and guiding principles for LGUs.

2 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2: LGU Mandates in WatSan Provision. This chapter contains the mandates for LGUs
concerning water and sanitation service delivery and the fundamental role of LGUs as catalysts for
development and social change.

Chapter 3: Implementation & Policy Issues and Guiding Principles. This section discusses the
different issues and recommendations related to water and sanitation projects. It provides LGUs a
general idea about the various factors and elements that hinder the development of water and
sanitation services. This section also presents the key elements needed to facilitate the success of
water and sanitation projects.

Chapter 4: Good Practices in WatSan Provision. This portion features the experience of five (5)
water and sanitation projects. The chapter explores two emerging approaches to water and sanitation
service delivery—community-managed water systems and the social privatization approach—and
looks into the nuances between these two systems. This chapter shows how these approaches engage
communities and promote direct access to water and sanitation. Apparently, these systems also nearly
match the financial and technological capacity level of LGUs. This chapter also explores a case involving
water service provision using the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) model as a variant of privatization.
These and the other potential sites identified in Chapter 5 can be visited by interested parties should
they want to directly verify and further learn from the cited experiences.

Chapter 5: References and Tools. This chapter presents other potential sites for possible study tours,
listing some of the models and approaches to water and sanitation service delivery (i.e., barangay water
and sanitation associations, water service development cooperatives, private sector participation
through concession arrangement, and Design-Build-Lease models, government-owned and controlled
water districts, among others). This chapter also identifies materials and tools that can be used by LGUs
and other users as reference.

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INTRODUCTION

The annex section of this resource book provides illustrated options for water supply and sanitation
technologies and discusses what works and what does not in terms of sustaining community rural water
supply organizations. A section also provides contact details pertaining to the different water districts
and private water firms operating in the country as well as NGOs and other organizations that provide
support to the water sector.

SUGGESTED USES OF THIS RESOURCE BOOK

LGUs are encouraged to review Chapters 1, 2, and 3 in order to adequately understand: (1) the basic
components related to water and sanitation service delivery, (2) the mandated roles of LGUs as
prescribed by existing legislation and government regulations, (3) the issues and problems surrounding
water and sanitation, and (4) the suggested guiding principles involved in implementing water and
sanitation projects. This information is handy when LGUs shape and deliberate on the emphasis of their
water and sanitation programs.

LGUs can also use this resource book to expand their list of choices (e.g., technology, financing options,
management style, institutional arrangement) on how they can provide, or improve, water and
sanitation services in their locality.

LGUs are urged to review Chapters 4 and 5 in order to gain insights or inspiration from the experiences
of other LGUs that have implemented their own water and sanitation projects. Further, these chapters
provide an appreciation of the emerging new role of LGUs vis-à-vis the growing popularity of community-
managed and socially privatized water and sanitation systems. This knowledge will help LGUs in
designing, allocating resources for, and implementing specific water and sanitation projects.

4 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
Overview of the Water and
Sanitation Situation 1
❙ KEY CONCEPTS
Overview of the WaTSAN Situation

◗ WATER AND SANITATION


CHAPTER
1
Water supply refers to the supply of water for domestic, municipal,
industrial, and commercial uses1. Sanitation, meanwhile, involves proper
containment and processing of human waste and wastewater until these
Water supply n.
are safe enough for release into the environment. refers to the supply of
Water and sanitation are universally considered basic human needs, and
water for domestic,
form part of the broader water sector, which includes irrigation, municipal, industrial,
hydropower, drainage, and flood control.
and commercial uses.
◗ WATER SUPPLY SERVICE Sanitation n. involves
proper containment
Water supply can be categorized into three levels: Level I (point source),
Level II (communal faucet system or standpost), and Level III (waterworks and processing of
system or individual household connections). human waste and
Level I system refers to a protected well or a developed spring with an wastewater until these
outlet but without a distribution system. This is generally adaptable for rural are safe enough for
areas where the houses are thinly scattered. This system normally services
an average of 15 households. release into the
environment.

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1 WATER AND SANITATION

Level II system consists of a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, and communal faucets.
Usually, one faucet serves four to six households and is generally suited for rural and urban fringe
areas where houses are clustered densely.

Level III system is composed of a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, and household
taps. It is generally suited for densely populated urban areas.

◗ TYPES OF TOILET FACILITIES

Type I facilities require a small amount of water to wash excreta into the receiving space or pit (e.g.,
pour-flush toilets). A non-water carriage toilet facility does not require water to wash excreta into
the receiving space or pit (e.g., ventilated improved pit latrine, sanitary pit privy).

Type II facilities are water carriage type facilities, having a pour-flush or flush-type toilet facility
and a septic vault/tank as the disposal facility.

Type III facilities are water carriage facilities with pour-flush type toilet facilities connected to septic
tanks, sewerage system, or treatment plants

◗ LEVELS OF TOILET USE

Toilet use can be classified as communal, public, school, or household use. Two or more households
share communal toilets. Public toilet facilities are intended for public use, and are located in
markets, bus stations, etc. School toilet facilities are located in schools and are essentially for the
use of students. Individual households use household toilet facilities.

8 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
Overview of the Water and Sanitation Situation 1

❙ ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS


OF ADEQUATE AND SAFE WATSAN SERVICES
Safe water and sanitation are vital to human existence, and serve as fundamental economic
resources upon which survival and livelihood depend. Access to safe and affordable supply of
drinking water is universally recognized as a basic human need for the present generation and a
precondition for the development and care of the next.

Without adequate and appropriate water and sanitation facilities, diseases can easily spread
through water contamination. Thus, improved water and sanitation services can lead to significant
and tangible improvements in people’s well-being and way of life. Access to water supply and
sanitation services often results in lesser water-borne and water-washed diseases. People can be
more productive as more time can be spent at work and at school. The reduction in incidence of
diarrhea or other diseases caused by contaminated water, considerably improves health and
nutrition.

Furthermore, better health results in improved self-worth and status, especially among women.
An efficient and dependable water supply brings about higher levels of industry confidence in the
quality and supply of such a vital resource. Standards of urban infrastructure—including housing—
are likewise enhanced, while resources for leisure, recreation, and tourism are significantly
improved.

❙ WATER AND SANITATION SITUATION

Yet access to water and sanitation services continues to be a major concern not only among
Filipinos, but also worldwide, especially among the poorer sectors. This problem is directly linked
to issues and problems related to the policy, institutional, technical, financial, socio-cultural, and
economic environments.

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1 WATER AND SANITATION

According to statistics, an estimated 2.9 billion people lack access to adequate


sanitation services while 1.2 billion people in the world lack access to safe water.
In the Philippines, As a result, more than 3.3 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases.
only 67 % of the At any one time, 1.5 million people suffer from parasitic worm infections
caused by human excreta and solid wastes in the environment. Thousands of
urban population children under the age of four die every year due to diarrhea, the highest
number of cases said to be found in Africa.
and 87 % of the
In the Philippines, only 67 percent of the urban population and 87 percent of
rural population the rural population has access to water, while only 69 percent of the
population nationwide has sanitation facilities. In Metro Manila, about 900,000
has access to or 7.67% of the population have access to safe sanitation facilities.2 The
water, while only situation is attributed to many Filipinos not owning land and therefore being
unable to provide for their own toilets.
69 % of the
In addition, access to sanitation is especially lacking because of the following
population factors:

nationwide has € Lack of political will


€ Low prestige and recognition
sanitation € Ineffective promotion and low public awareness
facilities. € Poor policy at all levels
€ Poor institutional frameworks
€ Inadequate and poorly used resources
€ Neglect of consumer preferences
€ Inappropriate approaches

10 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
Overview of the Water and Sanitation Situation 1

❙ INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL TARGETS

Given the enormous challenge of providing and improving water and sanitation services, the UN
Millennium Goals seek to reduce by half the number of those without access to safe water supply
and sanitation by the year 2015. A worldwide movement called Vision 21 was also created to give
priority to hygiene and sanitation and in sharing the management of water resources. There is also
the WASH Campaign, a global alliance for making safe water, sanitation, and hygiene a reality for
all. WASH is a global effort of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, launched at
the International Conference on Freshwater in December 2001. The campaign aims to: (1) raise
consciousness about sanitation and hygiene, (2) gain the commitment of political, social, and opinion
leaders around the world and, (3) ultimately bring about the structural and behavioral changes that
will provide a permanent solution to this preventable international crisis.

The Philippine government, meanwhile, expects to increase water supply coverage to 93 percent
in rural areas, 90 percent in Metro Manila, and 87 percent in the other urban areas. For sanitation,
the target is to cover close to 76 percent of the country’s total population.

To achieve these targets, the national government has determined a course of action that is firmly
established in the Medium Term Development Plan for 1999-2004 Policies and Strategies. These
are to:

1. Create an independent authority that will formulate national policies on water resources
management, regulation, utilization, planning and conservation.
2. Pursue sustainable development and management of water resources.
3. Promote an integrated approach to link social and economic development with the protection
of natural resources and ecosystems.
4. Provide a favorable environment for LGUs, with assistance from the Department of the Interior
and Local Government, and private sector participation (PSP) in the provision of water supply
and sanitation services.

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1 WATER AND SANITATION

5. Pursue private sector participation in providing water supply and sanitation facilities, especially
in other urban areas.
6. Enhance information campaign and training in proper waste disposal and ecological and
environmental preservation with special emphasis on women’s participation.
7. Develop and provide incentives for contiguous water districts to amalgamate into single
business entities.
8. Harness the resources of the private sector in improving water services and sewerage facilities
in Metro Manila and other urban areas.
9. Adopt a holistic approach to water resources development.
10. Develop standards for regulation of service efficiency.
11. Pursue the enactment of an independent authority.
12. Encourage the development of sewerage and sanitation facilities.
13. Encourage the reuse and recycling of water and the harvesting and impounding of rainwater.
14. Pursue the preservation of the environment.
15. Continue the improvement of financial and technical evaluations of water districts to address
water services sustainability.
16. Support the creation of river basin authorities to effect integrated water resources management.
17. Pursue and strengthen the strict enforcement of water-related laws, rules and regulations, and
adopt stiff and proportionate penalties for violators.

❙ EXISTING ENVIRONMENT

◗ INSTITUTIONAL

The major government units responsible for regulating the water sector in the country are the
Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS), Local Water Utilities Administration
(LWUA), National Water Resources Board (NWRB), and local government units. These government
units monitor and regulate the water tariffs (i.e., water rates) charged by private sector water
districts and concessionaires.

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The MWSS has a regulatory office specifically mandated to ensure that the terms and conditions
under which private concessionaries operate are strictly followed. The LWUA oversees the water
districts. The NWRB issues the water permits and regulates non-water district water providers.

Other government units also responsible for economic regulation of water resources at the
national level are the following:

1. Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) for general administration and
institution-building support to local government units.
2. Presidential Task Force for Water Resources Development and Management - This agency,
under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), is the oversight body for
efficient water use and sourcing.
3. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) for pollution control.
4. Department of Health (DOH) for water quality regulation and setting standards on testing,
treatment, and surveillance
5. Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) for setting technical standards for
engineering surveys, design and operation, and maintenance.
6. Department of Budget and Management (DBM) for budget releases and allocation planning.
7. National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for overall planning and policy
coordination and formulation.
8. Department of Finance (DOF) for the management of financial resources.

For sanitation, the NEDA is involved in coordination and planning. The DOH is mainly concerned
with policy formulation and provides hygiene education and toilet bowls through specific projects.
At the local level, the Municipal/City Health Officers are the health promoters and also help
oversee water quality. Meanwhile, the DENR concerns itself with the protection of bodies of
water and the environment.

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Although there are various government agencies involved in the water and sanitation sector,
there is often a lack of coordination in planning and policy formulation. In turn, this has resulted
in the implementation of lopsided and incongruent development initiatives.

Until now, many areas in the country have no access to water. And in some areas where water and
sanitation services are available, the quality of service is far from satisfactory. The problem is
linked to revenue losses of service providers caused by the poor collection of water payments and
increasing cost of water leakages and pilferages. Revenue losses have limited the capacity of
service providers to finance service expansion and improvements.

Further compounding the problem is the lack of reliable data on the water and sanitation situation
in the country, which prevents development planners and decision-makers from formulating
appropriate solutions to the problems. In addition, the wide range of agencies in the sector
(resulting in duplication of functions and fragmented planning) often causes the slow and weak
enforcement of water and sanitation policies, laws, rules, and regulations.

In a nutshell, the water and sanitation sector is weighed down by a lack of leadership and
institutional efficiency.

◗ PLANNING AND POLICY

There exists enough legislation and government policies that govern the water and sanitation sector
but these are not being sufficiently implemented. These include, but are not limited to, the
following:

€ 1991 Local Government Code


€ Water Code and Sanitation Code of the Philippines
€ 1988-2000 Water Supply and Sanitation Sector
€ NEDA Board Resolution Number 4, 5, and 6 (series of 1994)

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€ Amended Build-Operate-Transfer Law (Republic Act 7718)


€ ICC Policy Papers and Medium-Term Development Plan 1999-2004.

(The LGU mandates are further taken up in Chapter 2 of this resource book.)

The task ahead is to translate these policies into concrete action and practices, especially at the local
and community levels. It is also important to develop policies and action plans that regard water
as a limited resource that must be conserved and managed efficiently. Because water supply is very
limited, all its competing uses (drinking, irrigation, industrial, and commercial) have their own
economic value. The challenge is to find a way to efficiently conserve and manage water, and to
strike a balance among the competing uses of water.

Chapter 4 of this resource book will show how some local government units have taken the
initiative to develop water and sanitation projects in their areas.

◗ FINANCING

Funding is a major factor affecting the water and sanitation sector, as will be shown in Chapter 4.
Traditionally, funding for water and sanitation projects have come from any or a combination of
the following sources:

€ National government subsidies


€ Internal cash generation of national government entities (LWUA)
€ Public and private financial institutions (government and commercial banks)
€ ODA grants and loans
€ Investments from international sources (ADB, JBIC, and WB)
€ Private sector investments
€ Proceeds from the Countryside Development Fund
€ Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) and internally generated revenues of local government units

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This is not to say that funding has always been available. In fact, fund scarcity is a major problem,
especially since the sector has to compete for financial market resources and has not always been
given the highest priority by the previous and current administrations.

In 1993 to 1998, for instance, only two percent of the national government infrastructure program
was allocated to water resources. This was further subdivided for irrigation, water supply, sewerage,
sanitation, flood control, drainage, and other infrastructure projects.

Financing can come from external or internal sources. External sources include loans (e.g., from the
LWUA), Countryside Development Funds of national legislators, grants, and national government
programs. Internal sources, meanwhile, include LGU resources, Internal Revenue Allotment and Social
Development Funds, LGU manpower, material stocks and equipment, and community resources.3

❙ GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR LGUS


LGU interventions for water and sanitation may involve the following: (1) construction of new systems,
(2) rehabilitation of existing systems, (3) upgrade or expansion, (4) multiple sources and systems
and (5) the “do-nothing” option.

It will be helpful to take note of the Dublin Principles when LGUs prepare their responses to local
water and sanitation challenges. Basically, the Dublin Principles states that water and sanitation
service provision should be comprehensive, that existing autonomous institutions should be
tapped as project partners, and that water resources should be treated as an economic resource.
(More of the Dublin Principles is discussed in Chapter 3.)

Informed by Philippine and global experiences in community-based water and sanitation service
provision, the Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation recommends four guiding principles for
LGUs:

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1. Ensure sustainability of potable water supply and sanitation


services. Ensuring sustainability means using appropriate technology, Guiding Principles
fostering community participation, and ensuring transparent and
conscientious resource and project management.
for LGUs

2. Effectively implement water and sanitation projects. Effective 1. Ensure sustainability of


implementation means applying these sustainability factors (i.e., potable water supply
appropriate technology, community participation, transparent and
conscientious management) during specific stages of the project cycle.
and sanitation services
2. Efficiently implement
3. Develop a culture of operation and maintenance. Often, too much water and sanitation
emphasis is given to the actual construction of a water and sanitation projects
facility. Yet very little attention is given to operation and maintenance—
an equally important factor to consider in ensuring the sustainability
3. Develop a culture of
of water and sanitation projects. This principle requires that the operation and
community-beneficiary is not only willing to accept responsibility for maintenance
operating and maintaining the water and sanitation facility, but also
4. Employ viable
capable of handling the task and challenge of running such a facility.
institutional
4. Employ viable institutional arrangements. There are different options arrangements
that an LGU can explore and take regarding institutional arrangements
for water and sanitation. However, this Resource Book particularly
highlights two options in water and sanitation systems provision: privatization and community-
managed models. This is because there seem to be a growing interest among LGUs in these
models, even if the latter has not been identified as a management model by the NEDA.

Although there can be many types of privatization, the most well known is the corporate
privatization model. The Magdalena case study illustrates this type of privatization model.

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There is another approach to privatization that seems to be a reaction to corporate privatization,


yet distinct from community-managed models—social privatization. Social privatization involves
running public services as an enterprise but with an orientation to plow profits back in pursuit of
social objectives. Darangan, featured in Chapter 4, is an example of this approach.

Community management has become the leading concept for implementing water supply
systems in rural areas in developing countries. The idea that communities themselves should
operate and maintain water supply systems came partly from an eroded belief in the idea that only
central governments can secure the service requirements of their populations, and partly from the
positive belief that communities possess the skills and motivation to meet their own essential needs.
The cases of Doña Flavia, Casay and New Bulatukan featured in Chapter 4, are examples of
community-managed systems.

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LGU MANDATES in watsan provision

❙ WATER SUPPLY PROVISION


AND SANITATION AND DRAINAGE PROVISIONS
CHAPTER
2
◗ LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE

Excerpts from the Local Government Code, R.A. 7160 – An Act Providing for Local Government
Code 1991 (Approved by President Corazon Aquino, October 10, 1991)

CHAPTER 2. General Powers and Attributes of Local Government Units

SEC. 17. Basic Services and Facilities.


(a) Local government units shall endeavor to be self-reliant and shall continue exercising the
powers and discharging the duties and functions currently vested upon them. They shall also
discharge the functions and responsibilities of national agencies and offices devolved to them
pursuant to this Code. Local government units shall likewise exercise such other powers and
discharge other functions and responsibilities as necessary, appropriate or incidental to efficient
and effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein.
(b) Such basic services and facilities include, but are not limited to, the following:

Barangay
(iii) Services and facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation, beautification, and solid
waste collection;
(v) Maintenance of… water supply systems;

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Municipality
(vi) Services and facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation;
(viii) Infrastructure facilities intended primarily to service the needs of the residents of the
municipality and which are funded out of municipal funds, including, but not limited to …
communal irrigation, small water impounding projects and other similar projects; artesian wells,
spring development, rainwater collectors, and water supply system;… drainage, and sewerage
and flood control;….

Province
(vii) Infrastructure facilities intended to service the needs of the residents of the province and which
are funded out of provincial funds including, but not limited to… inter-municipal waterworks,
and irrigation systems… drainage and sewerage, flood control,…

City
All the services and facilities of the municipality and province…

◗ LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE IRR

Excerpts from the Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991
(Approved by President Corazon Aquino, February 6, 1992)

Basic Services and Facilities

Art. 25. Responsibility for Delivery of Basic Services and Facilities. The LGUs shall, in addition to their
existing functions and responsibilities, provide basic services and facilities devolved to them
covering, but not limited to, the following:

Barangay
(c) Services and facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation, beautification, and solid waste
collection;

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(e) Maintenance of… water supply systems;…

Municipality
(f ) Provision of… services or facilities related to general hygiene and sanitation;
(g) Construction and maintenance of infrastructure facilities funded by the municipality to serve
the needs of the residents including, but not limited to:
(4) Communal irrigation, small water impounding projects and other similar projects;
(6) Artesian wells, spring development, rainwater collectors and water supply systems
(7) … sewerage and flood control;

Province
(g) Construction and maintenance of infrastructure facilities funded by the province to serve the
needs of the residents including, but not limited to:
(2) Inter-municipal waterworks… and irrigation systems… drainage and sewerage, flood control….

City
All services and facilities provided by the municipality and the province.

❙ NATIONAL POLICY ON
URBAN SEWERAGE AND SANITATION OF 1994
◗ NEDA BOARD RESOLUTION NO. 5, SERIES OF 1994

Approving the recommendations of the Infrastructure Committee (INFRACOM) on the National


Policy, Strategy and Action Plan for Urban Sewerage (Liquid Waste) and Sanitation

Be it resolved, as it is hereby resolved to approve as the same is hereby approved and confirmed
the following recommendations of the INFRACOM:

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A. NATIONAL POLICY

1. Provision of improved sewerage/sanitation services in urban areas shall be considered a high


priority.
2. On-site sanitation facilities for all urban households/establishments readily adaptable to further
sewerage systems shall be required.
3. All new subdivisions/housing developments shall provide simplified or conventional sewerage
system/sanitation facilities.
4. Conventional or low-cost sewerage for central business districts and for potentially high-
income residential areas where economically and financially viable shall be provided.
5. Treatment of industrial as well as collected city/municipality wastewaters to established
standards set forth by the DENR prior to disposal into the drainage system shall be acquired.
6. Provision of services shall be based on consumer demand and willingness to pay.

B. NATIONAL STRATEGY

1. A sanitation/sewerage program and a Central Sanitation/Sewerage Program Support Office (CPSO)


to coordinate sub-sector activities at the national level and to assist LGUs to plan and manage
sanitation/sewerage programs at the community level shall be established.
2. External sources of assistance shall be explored and provided as may be appropriate to enable
Municipal Development Fund (MDF) facility or other financing sources to extend loans to LGUs
for sanitation and sewerage projects.
3. LGUs shall primarily be the implementers of the sanitation/sewerage programs with the national
government providing assistance to develop their capacities in the following areas: community
participation, sub-sector planning, program management, regulation of development, selection
of technologies, financial management, constructions supervision, O & M, monitoring and
reporting.

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❙ NEDA BOARD RESOLUTION NO. 5, S. 1998

◗ DELINEATION OF AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES

RULE 3
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Article 5. Definition of Terms. For purposes of these Implementing Rules and Regulations, the
following terms shall be construed to mean as follows:

a. Levels of Service. Based on NEDA Board Resolution No. 12 (series of 1995), approving the
common definition of terms relative to water supply, sewerage and on-site sanitation, levels of
service are defined as follows:

Level I (point source) – a protected well or a developed spring with an outlet but without a
distribution system; generally adaptable for rural areas where the houses are thinly scattered.
A level I facility normally serves an average of 15 households.

Level II (communal faucet system or stand posts) – a system composed of a source, a reservoir,
a piped distribution network, and communal faucets. Usually, one faucet serves four to six
households. It is generally suited for rural and urban fringe areas where houses are clustered
densely to justify a simple piped system.

Level III (waterworks system or individual house connections) – a system with source, a reservoir,
a piped distribution network, and household taps. It is generally suited for densely populated
urban areas.
b. A financially viable water supply system refers to a system wherein its revenues can cover for
all costs related to capital and operation and maintenance, including providing for reasonable
reserves for future expansion. For those systems managed by water districts, a financially

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viable system is one that is able to generate revenues directly from user payments sufficient to
cover all costs. For LGU-managed systems, capital and operations maintenance costs shall be
covered through a combination of user fees, general municipal taxes and other incomes
available to the LGUs.

RULE 4
ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNIT

Article 6. General. The Local Government Code of 1991 mandates the decentralization and
devolution of authority to LGUs in providing for certain basic services, which include safe potable
water. At the local level, the LGUs are responsible for providing reliable water supply to their
constituents, whether these are in the form of levels I, II or III systems, depending on the expressed
demand by the community for these services. LGUs may both directly provide and finance these
services, or involve the private sector to participate in both provision and financing through
concession, management or service contracts.

Article 7. Financing and Cost Recovery. In financing water supply investments, the LGUs may tap their
Internal Revenue Allotment and/or locally generated revenues, or leverage these resources to borrow
from government and private financial institutions. The amount that an LGU can borrow, including
the required equity, is dependent on its current and expected revenue performance, as well as the
amount of user charges and equity contributions from the community shall be a local decision of
the LGUs concerned.

For any national government grant that may be provided for the development of level I systems,
the LGU and beneficiaries concerned shall be required to provide any remaining amount as equity
to the investment. No subsidies from the national government shall be provided for levels II and
III systems.

In providing for Level III service, the LGUs may opt to form a water district or an LGU company, provide
a franchise to a private party or participate in a joint venture with a private party. Except in areas

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with water districts, LGUs shall maintain overall responsibility for ensuring consumer satisfaction
through the exercise of institutional and/or contractual regulatory powers over local water utilities,
in collaboration with other national regulatory agencies, and by instituting a system of public
performance audit.

Cost recovery through user payments shall be encouraged for both capital and operation and
maintenance costs. However, at the minimum, user payments shall be required to cover the
operation and maintenance costs in all service levels. For LGU-owned, operated and/or guaranteed
systems, any shortfall in revenues required for loan repayment shall be financed by the LGU from
its Internal Revenue Allotment and/or locally-generated revenues, following a process of negotiation
between the LGU and the beneficiaries concerned on the level of user payments.

For systems managed by local water districts, full cost recovery, through user charges, is required
by LWUA.

In areas where there are existing local water districts, LGUs may finance rehabilitation works
and/or expansion of the existing water works system on the following conditions:

a. The local water district concerned is not in LWUA’s current program of assistance, that is, it is not
included in any loan of LWUA with a financing institution, and
b. Endorsement by the local water district concerned should have been secured.

In the event that the local water district is servicing a loan from LWUA, the local water district shall
seek clearance from LWUA prior to entering into an agreement with the LGU concerned on any
program of system expansion.

Article 8. Management of Systems. LGUs shall adopt commercial principles in the operation and
management of water utilities in order to provide cost-effective and reliable services to consumers,
whether management of the system is a direct responsibility of the LGU or is contracted out by the
LGU to the private sector. An LGU may also consider amalgamating or consolidating its system with

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that of its neighboring LGUs in order to benefit from economies of scale that could expand water
supply services to consumers at the lowest possible cost.

For the operation and management of Levels I and II systems, the LGUs shall initiate the formation
of Barangay and Rural Waterworks and Sanitation Associations (BWSAs/RWSAs), respectively,
through a participatory approach involving consultation with all stakeholders (Article 20) and assist
in their registration with the appropriate authorities (Article 21). Upon request, LGUs may accredit
duly registered RWSAs/BWSAs in order to enable them to avail of financial assistance from local
governments. LGUs shall have overall supervision of RWSAs and BWSAs.

Article 9. Project Planning and Development. Provinces and cities/municipalities shall be required
to prepare, and update on an annual basis, provincial and city/municipal sector plans that are
consistent with a national sector plan. These sector plans shall be integrated into the local
investment programs. Water supply projects shall be identified from the local investment program.
A financing program of foreign and nationally/locally-generated resources, including private
sector resources, shall support the local investment program.

Article 10. Approval and Award of Contracts. The LGUs shall be required to conduct public bidding,
in accordance with the provisions of Law, including Presidential Decree No. 1594, as amended,
Executive Order No. 164, Executive Order No. 302 and other applicable laws, and shall have the final
authority to approve and award contracts for water supply and sanitation projects within their
jurisdictions.

Article 11. Application for Water Rights. LGUs of the concerned water utility shall apply for water rights
from the National Water Resources Board prior to implementing a project that would require
extraction of water.

Article 12. Public Performance Audit. The LGUs shall establish a system of public performance
audit for public and private water utilities focusing on critical performance indicators. Upon

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request of the LGUs, DILG may provide technical assistance for the purpose, in coordination with
appropriate national government agencies.

❙ NEDA BOARD RESOLUTION NO. 6 (SERIES OF 1996)

APPROVING THE RECOMMENDATION OF THE INFRASTRUCTURE COMMITTEE (INFRACOM) ON


THE EXECUTING AGENCY ARRANGEMENT FOR THE DEVOLVED INFRASTRUCTURE ACTIVITIES /
FACILITIES

Matrix of Financing and Management Options

Option Description

LGU-Financed and Managed The LGU finances the investment from its income and other resources available
to it (e.g. IRA, locally-generated taxes, grants) or borrows from financial institution.
It then establishes a profit center within the LGU office with a separate cost
accounting system. Under this arrangement, the LGU directly manages the
operations of the commercial risk.

Service Contract The LGU finances the investment and directly operates and manages the system.
It enters into contract with a private party to undertake billing and collection and/or
repair and maintenance activities for a fee. The LGU maintains a profit center within
the LGU office and assumes the commercial risk.

Management Contract The LGU finances the investment and enters into contract with a private party to
manage the system. The private party collects the water tariffs set by the LGU,
operates and manages the system and in turn, is paid a management fee by the
LGU. The LGU maintains a profit center within the LGU office and assumes the
commercial risk.

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Option Description

Lease Contract The LGU finances the capital expenditures and leases the facility to the private sector.
The private sector assumes the commercial risks and the responsibility to operation
and maintenance. To recover its costs, the private party is allowed to collect user
fees as well as any other charges on behalf of the LGU.

Concession Contract The LGU enters into contract with a private party to undertake the investment. The
private party assumes the assets of the LGU and undertakes to expand the services
according to the terms and conditions of the contract. The private party is allowed
to operate the system and to collect user fees to recover its costs and earn a
reasonable return on its investment. After the contract expires, the system reverts
to the LGU or may be contracted out again by the LGU.

Creation of a Local The LGU may create a local water district. The local water district finances the
Water District investment from a loan from the Local Water Utilities and Administration (LWUA)
and operates and manages the system. The local water district is then supervised
by LWUA.

LGU Company The LGU may form a water company to handle the provision of the service. The
water company shall be duly registered with the Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC) and shall have share holdings which can be sold to the private
sector in the future. The LGU appoints the board members to be selected from the
private sector who would then manage the company along commercial principles.

Build-Operate-Transfer Under the BOT scheme, the private sector finances the investment or any of its
variants (per RA6970 as amended), operates it for a certain period of time after which
the asset is transferred to the LGU. The private party is allowed to collect user fees
to recover its costs and earn a reasonable rate of return on its investment. The LGU
and the BOT proponent negotiate on the risk sharing.

Joint Venture Agreement Under a joint venture agreement, the LGU and the private party share in the risks
of the project and operate the system through a shared management and
organizational structure.

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IMPLEMENTATION & POLICY ISSUES
And GUIDING PRINCIPLES 3
IMPLEMENTATION & POLICY ISSUES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES

This chapter looks into some of the major implementation and policy issues and problems
CHAPTER

surrounding water and sanitation, which, for purposes of this Resource Book, are being presented
in two categories: LWUA/water district level and LGU level. LGUs can respond to these issues and
3
problems by taking into account certain guiding principles, which will later be spelled out within
the Chapter. Chapter 4 further illustrates how these guiding principles are being applied at the field
level.

❙ IMPLEMENTATION AND POLICY ISSUES

◗ LWUA AND WATER DISTRICT LEVEL

Water districts are public water supply utilities outside Metro Manila that are responsible for
water supply and sewerage development and operation and management [Level III service] in urban
areas. A Water District is a local corporate entity governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the
local government, and managed by a General Manager appointed by the Water District Board. The
creation of a water district is based on a transfer of ownership of assets from the local government.
Water districts are established under the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA).

Funding is a major issue. Funds generated internally by the LWUA and water districts are often limited.
The lack of funds is one major reason why the LWUA provides loans to only a few viable water districts,
and why water districts find it extremely difficult to pay their loan obligations to the LWUA. The result
is a loss of financial viability for both the LWUA and water districts.

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The relatively low-cost loans provided by the LWUA have also discouraged water districts from trying
to access private sector resources (bank loans). The problem is further compounded by the fact that
the LWUA no longer receives any budget from the national budget. This means less money
allocated for operation, maintenance, and upgrading of existing water systems.

Because the LWUA and the water districts lack the necessary capital to finance systems upgrading
and expansion, they are unable to meet their coverage targets. There are three experiences of water
districts featured in this resource book: Davao Water District, Manila Water and Maynilad. The
first is semi-public, while the last two involve the private sector through the consignment
arrangement. LGUs wishing to know more about water districts can find more information in
Chapter 5.

◗ LGU LEVEL

There are five major LGU issues related to providing water supply and sanitation services:

Institutional

Because water and sanitation are not the only problems confronting communities, water and
sanitation projects must compete for LGU scarce resources. Likewise, communities compete with
each other for water resources. Yet at the same time, different water uses (potable, irrigation, and
industrial) compete with each other. To make matters worse, inadequate attention given to
sanitation issues imperils the health and environmental benefits of an improved water supply.

Since water and sanitation projects are normally viewed as high-profile development projects,
unscrupulous politicians can use them as a political tool. Thus, it is important to regard water and
sanitation projects as more than an infrastructure problem and repackage them as social enterprises.

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Technical

In many instances, water and sanitation systems are designed with little rational basis mostly
because there is a real lack of knowledge about various low-cost technology options. As a result,
inappropriate technology is often applied, which can mean higher project costs. The rising cost of
project inputs, graft and corruption, improper operation and maintenance of the system, and the
need or tendency to obtain water from more distant sources also contribute immensely to the rising
cost of water supply service.

Thus, poverty stricken communities and areas (specifically in areas without surface or ground water),
should give serious thought to using rainwater and technologies to reduce their investment on water
systems. Likewise, there is a need to develop project designs and options for water and sanitation
projects in coastal areas.

Financial

LGU financing for large-scale water systems is very limited (e.g., there are strict limitations on LGU
borrowing) as sanitation and sewerage projects are simply not a priority. In addition, capacity building
is not regarded as an important investment cost. Instead, there is a preference for short-term, mostly
heavily subsidized projects that yield also short-term returns.

Exacerbating the problem is the public’s indifference to rising water costs primarily because water
is regarded as a free resource. Because rate increases are often viewed with suspicion and associated
with graft, some social preparation may be necessary to change this mindset.

Although water must be affordable, there are expensive water systems that charge very high
water tariffs. Such water systems ultimately tend to discriminate against those who cannot afford
the cost of water. As shown in the case of the Magdalena Water System Project in Laguna, the need

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to recoup investment and generate profit ultimately failed to provide the community with
affordable water (Chapter 4).

Environmental

Water sources are quickly being depleted due to environmental degradation. In many areas,
saltwater and pollutants have seeped into groundwater sources, resulting in poorer water quality.
Meanwhile, unabated population growth and inadequate provision for wastewater management
contribute to increasing waste and wastewater problems. These problems eventually lead to
water source and environmental degradation.

Socio-cultural

Increasing population puts an enormous demand on water resources. What makes this worse is
that only a minority has good access to water. Likewise, there is a growing mentality among
people that water closet toilets, washing machines, and the like are the ideal—thus negating the
option of using more appropriate, alternative, and less costly technologies.

❙ ADEQUATE WATER AND


SANITATION FOR ALL: GUIDING PRINCIPLES
The assessment of the water sector in the Philippines is based on the Dublin Principles4 that should
serve as overall guides in the delivery of water and sanitation for all. The first principle states that
management of water and sanitation should be comprehensive and is within the framework of a
national water strategy that reflects social, economic, and environmental objectives. Formulation
of this strategy should be participatory in manner, and should be based on an accurate assessment
of the water resources of the area. Furthermore, strategies should take into account the impact
of infrastructure projects and programs across the different sectors.

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The second principle deals with the institutions at the national


and regional levels that manage water resources. These
institutions should plan, issue and monitor water permits, collect
Dublin Principles
and analyze data, and regulate water services, with respect to
pricing and quality of service. These institutional efforts should 1. Comprehensive
emphasize decentralization, stakeholder participation, and management of water and
gender considerations.
sanitation falls within the
The third principle, named the economic and social principle, framework of national water
states that water should be treated as an economic good.
Subsidies should be transparent and justified; cost recovery
strategy
policies should be clear; economic instruments should be used 2. National and regional
to provide incentives for performance by providers and efficiency
institutions that manage
by users; and, special efforts should be made to meet the needs
of the poor. water resources shall
emphasize decentralization,
There are four guiding principles for LGUs and other groups that
are interested in pursuing water supply and sanitation projects. participation and gender
These guiding principles help LGUs to identify the general 3. Water should be treated as
activities that are necessary to ensure the success of their water
and sanitation projects. These principles were culled from many an economic good
experiences in providing water and sanitation to communities
across the globe.

As articulated by the Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation-International Training Network
Foundation (PCWS-ITNF), these guiding principle are: (1) ensure sustainability of potable water supply
and sanitation services, (2) ensure effective implementation of water and sanitation projects, (3)
develop a culture of operation and maintenance, and (4) employ viable institutional arrangements.

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◗ ENSURING SUSTAINABILITY OF
POTABLE WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION SERVICES

From experience and study over the years, the PCWS-ITNF has found that the common elements
of project sustainability are: (a) using appropriate technology; (b) fostering community participation;
(c) and ensuring transparent and conscientious resource management.

Appropriate technology

For any given community situation, there is usually a wide choice of technology options for water
supply provision:

€ Water source – ground like springs and wells, surface water (check gates and dam reservoirs),
rainwater
€ Water treatment – disinfection (use of chlorinators, ultraviolet, and slow sand filter); use of settler
tanks and filter areas to remove turbidity; removal of dissolved and unwanted substances
(desalination, charcoal filtration, flocculation)
€ Water transmission – motorized or manual pumps, public taps (community faucets), household
connections
€ Service level – taps at source (level 1), public tap stands (level 2), and individual household
connections (level 3).
€ Type of intervention – do nothing at all; build, expand, or rehabilitate a system; have various
sources, systems and technologies serve a community.

For sanitation, one has the various wet and dry on-site technologies (human waste is contained,
treated, and released into the environment at the site of its generation), and offsite technologies
(human waste is conveyed to a central treatment facility).5

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For the two-thirds of Filipinos who live in rural and semi-rural areas, the on-
site sanitation options available to them seem to be affordable enough. Parameters for
However, for the rest who live in urban areas and whose wastewater can
only be treated off-site, a per capita construction cost of P4,000 to P7,000
Evaluating WatSan
will translate into unacceptable sewage treatment charges of P200 to Technologies
P350 per household, per month, if present West-originated technologies
are adopted. Treatment options that are less expensive should thus be a. What savings are
developed. made in the
community’s water-
The most appropriate technology is the one that delivers the most benefits
at the least cost. Thus, one important way of determining the most
fetching efforts?
appropriate combination is through the cost-benefit ratio. b. How much household
labor is saved?
Costs are easy to estimate: depreciation, interest on investment, and
c. What are the benefits
operating costs. The environmental impact of the project also has to be
taken into account: the disturbance caused by construction of the system; on health?
the value of the water extracted from the ecosystem; and the cost of d. What livelihood is
mitigating the increased wastewater that is generated. The type of created in the use of a
technology to be used is also determined by the capacity of the source.
particular technology?
Benefits need to be more thoroughly examined. Each technology option
has to be investigated using the following parameters: (a) what savings are
made in the community’s water-fetching efforts? (b) how much household labor is saved? (c)
what are the benefits on health? and (d) what livelihood is created in the use of a particular
technology?

Aside from using cost-benefit analysis to ascertain which appropriate technology to use, it is also
important to establish who will receive these benefits in the community. Ideally, everybody should
equally benefit. If this is not possible, the poor, the women, the very young, and very old should
benefit the most since they are most disadvantaged.

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The technology must also be knowledge and human resources intensive rather than capital
intensive; local, rather than imported resource intensive; and operated and maintained by local
residents. Hence, the strategy is to maximize the use of local resources and assets.

Hence, it essential for key stakeholders (which include the local government, the community,
and technical people) to acquire the necessary technological aptitude, proficiencies, and confidence
needed for the construction, operation, and maintenance of water and sanitation systems. This can
be done through training, research and study, and hands-on exposure.

The proper selection and design of technology can save 30 percent or more of project construction
and running costs.

Community participation

If a project is to be sustainable, it is important to get the community involved from the very start.
The community must express a need for such a project and they must be informed of the available
technology options and their implications at the project planning stage. They should be allowed
to make an informed choice from these options so that they will “own” the project. It is equally
important for the community to acquire the skills in the operation and maintenance of the system,
not just through training, but also from their direct involvement in the project.

A community has numerous local resources that they can reasonably volunteer for use in the project,
such as time, manpower, materials, finances, management structures, right-of-way acquisition,
supervision and monitoring, the security of project personnel, materials and equipment. The use
of these local resources not only reduces the cost of the project for the LGU, but also indicates: (a)
the importance placed by the community on the project, and (b) the willingness of the community
to sustain the project.

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To facilitate community participation, the political structures (mayor, vice-


mayor, barangay captains, and councils) and political (LGOO and MPDC)
and technical officers of LGUs need to acquire the necessary skills for
Graft and inefficiency
effectively engaging the community in a rational manner. These skills do not only waste
include developing LGU communication skills and instilling a development
government resources,
orientation among LGU workers.
they also perpetuate a
Technical officers should be able to explain and convey technical ideas and
culture of corruption
plans in a way that the community can understand. Enhanced LGU
capacity for community organizing can strengthen people’s involvement and distrust of
in water and sanitation projects. People’s involvement is important because government. People
community participation can save project costs by 30 percent.
will not sustain
The participation of women and other marginalized groups in the projects and systems
community should be ensured. Both men and women from poor
communities must be mobilized to take part in the community that are tainted by
management system. This provides them opportunities to meaningfully graft
participate in the betterment of their lives.

Organizing for sanitation, meanwhile, is more difficult than organizing for water supply. In a
community in Indonesia, it took two decades to improve sanitation coverage from 17 percent to
85 percent.

Yet one cannot go around sanitation issues. Aside from linking hygiene, water supply, and the
environment with sanitation, a possible strategy would be to make sanitation more attractive by
linking it to resource recovery.

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Transparent and conscientious resource and project management

Graft and inefficiency do not only waste government resources, they also perpetuate a culture of
corruption and distrust of government. People will not sustain projects and systems that are
tainted by graft.

There is no other way of fostering good governance than for the LGU to lead by example. LGUs can
facilitate transparency by:

1. Ensuring accountable and transparent records and the free flow of information.
2. Putting in place financial and procurement management.
3. Being informed about current and reasonable prices of project inputs obtained through fair and
thorough canvassing; when and where possible, involving the community in the canvassing and
procuring of materials.
4. Ensuring community participation and the community’s ability to understand the project and
discern values.
5. Timely and thorough monitoring (especially on financial and procurement matters)
6. Maintaining check-and-balance systems.
7. Adopting transformational political leadership, that is, emphasizing on meeting the general
community’s interests over individual needs.

Transparent and conscientious resource and project management can reduce project costs and
increase sustainability by 30 percent or more.

The matrix on the next page offers a framework on how LGUs can address specific water and
sanitation issues and concerns through appropriate technology, community participation, and
transparent and conscientious resource and project management.

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HOW SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS CAN ADDRESS WATER SANITATION ISSUES AND CONCERNS

Issue/ Concern Sustainability Factor


Appropriate Technology Community Participation Transparent and
Conscientious Resource and
Project Management

Depleting water sources € Watershed € Community-based


management watershed
€ Multiple water sources management
€ Water conservation € Water conservation
technologies education

Deteriorating water € Watershed € Education and use of


quality management proper waste disposal
€ Multiple water sources methods
and water conservation
technologies
€ Water treatment
technologies

Increasing waste and € Waste and wastewater Same as above


wastewater problems disposal technologies

Increasing population € Designs to account for


long term population
increase
€ Multiple water source
technologies

Rising material Less materialist Consumer education Less materialist attitudes


expectations among technologies
people

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Issue/ Concern Sustainability Factor


Appropriate Technology Community Participation Transparent & Conscientious
Resource & Project Management

Some have very good Thorough analysis of social € Community-based, pro-


access to water, others equity in sharing benefits poor consensus on who
have less and costs will have priority in water
service
€ Cost-sharing

Gaps in the knowledge Continued upgrading of Information and skills Proficiency of people who
and practice of knowledge and capability dissemination in the will implement projects
appropriate for the practice of community using these technologies
technologies appropriate technologies

Rising investment costs Selection of technologies € Community counterparts € Avoidance of graft and
of water supply service with the greatest cost- € Financial recovery inefficiency in projects
benefit ratio measures € Good financial and
procurement
management

Unacceptability to the Appraisal by the community € Consumer education Complete transparency


public of the rising cost of technologies € Appraisal by the during, and efficiency of,
of this basic social community of rational project implementation
service basis of prices,
technologies and water
tariff (or community-
based formulated and
approved water rates

Water supply and Selection of most € Community counterpart € Avoidance of graft and
sanitation competing appropriate technologies € Financial recovery inefficiency in project
for resources with other using cost-benefit measures measures € Good financial and
governmental and prioritizing this over procurement
responsibilities other government management
expenditures

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Issue/ Concern Sustainability Factor


Appropriate Technology Community Participation Transparent & Conscientious
Resource & Project Management

Competing uses of water € Comparative cost- Community consensus on


benefit analyses resource-sharing
€ Provision for payment by
users for environmental
impact

Inadequate attention Promotion of appropriate Promotion of sanitation


given to sanitation sanitation solutions awareness and facilitating
access of households to
building their sanitation
systems and changing
hygiene behavior

Inadequate operation € Low-cost, appropriate Emergence of Responsible, responsive,


and maintenance of operation and representative, democratic efficient, transparent and
water supply and management solutions and responsible community- graft-free administration of
sanitation systems based operation and system by operation and
€ Training management organization management organization.

◗ EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER AND SANITATION PROJECTS

In order for project implementation to be effective, each of the key sustainability factors (i.e.,
appropriate technology, community participation, conscientious and transparent management)
must be applied at each stage of the project. The following is a simple run-down of what should
be accomplished per project stage.

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Planning and technology selection stage


Guiding Principles € Preparation of several plan options, each examining social equity, economic
and environmental costs and benefits
for LGUs € Community is apprised of the plan options with the highest cost-benefit
1. Ensure ratios; their consequences; their roles and responsibilities (e.g., counterparts
during construction and sustainable and rational tariff structure) so that
sustainability of they can make an informed choice of the most optimal plan
potable water € Plan should include provisions for transparent and accountable management
supply and
sanitation services Community organizing stage
€ Community accepts their roles and responsibilities in the project
2. Efficiently € A representative and responsible body (to be involved in project
implement water implementation and to assume responsibility for the operation and
and sanitation maintenance of the system) is elected and trained
€ The body is involved in monitoring project implementation
projects
3. Develop a culture of Construction stage
operation and € Use of appropriate construction technologies
maintenance € The community provides counterparts (e.g., materials, manpower,
equipment, right-of-way, safeguarding of project assets, management, and
4. Employ viable
monitoring)
institutional € Transparent and conscientious construction management, especially in
arrangements procurement and financial matters

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Operation and maintenance stage


€ Use of appropriate operation and maintenance technologies
€ Body accepts responsibility for operation and maintenance and is trained for such, along with
financial and administrative management skills
€ Democratic management and safeguards to make sure that transparent and conscientious
system management is institutionalized

◗ DEVELOPING A CULTURE OF OPERATION


AND MAINTENANCE OF WATER AND SANITATION SYSTEMS

Operation and maintenance planning should start at the design stage of a project rather than be
an afterthought. Too often, much of the water sector is construction-oriented rather than operations
and maintenance-oriented. A lot of money can be spent all at once during construction, while
operation and maintenance is a continuing, yet involved and low-budget, activity.

The community should be willing to accept the responsibilities for operation and maintenance: to
pay the sustainable and rational water tariffs and to select a democratic and responsible community-
based operation and maintenance organization. It is important for this organization to be willing
to acquire the necessary technical, financial, and administrative skills. Outside resources for
operation and maintenance should likewise be identified (replacement parts, equipment, services,
information and knowledge).

With conscientious attention given to operation and maintenance, water and sanitation systems
can serve the communities for their full service life of up to 50 years and even expand to meet future
community needs. (Proper turn-over of projects from the funding agency or LGU to the community-
beneficiary should help ensure that water associations are held responsible for the operations and
maintenance of projects.)

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◗ EMPLOYING VIABLE INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

LGUs can explore the various institutional, financial and management arrangements for water and
sanitation as prescribed by NEDA Resolution No. 6 (series of 1996) featured in Chapter 2 of this
Resource Book. These viable institutional options include LGU-financed and managed, private sector
participation or privatization (e.g., service contract, management contract, lease contract, concession
contract, Build-Operation-Transfer, and joint venture agreement), and creation of a Local Water District
and/or LGU Company.

The Resource Book particularly highlights two options in water and sanitation systems provision:
privatization and community-managed models. LGUs seem to be very interested in these models,
even if the NEDA has not identified the latter as a management model for water and sanitation
projects.

Privatization refers to the provision of publicly funded services and activities in the areas of social
services, welfare, and employment by non-governmental entities.6 Although there can be many
types of privatization, the most well known is the corporate privatization model. The Magdalena
case study is an example of corporate privatization.

Community-managed Water Systems

Community management has become the leading concept for implementing water supply
systems in rural areas in developing countries. It was seen as an answer to the large-scale
breakdown of water supply systems and the failure of governments to either provide clean water
or devise a system where other agencies would supply it reliably and consistently. The idea that
communities should operate and maintain water supply systems themselves came partly from a
growing skepticism in the idea that only central governments can secure the needs of their
populations, and partly from the conviction that communities have the skills and motivation to meet
their own essential needs.7

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Community-managed water supply systems work well when people are involved, when their
needs are clearly established, when the capacity building is built into the process, and the local
management structures are emphasized. Other enhancing factors include: prior and informed
consultation, clarity of ownership and responsibilities, indigenous leadership, and personal and
collective responsibilities in carrying out the work ahead. However, experience from the field
reveals that there are some considerations in implementing community-based water systems.

The following are the major characteristics of a community-managed water project:

€ Participation in decision-making between the support groups (NGOs, LGUs) and primary
stakeholders (user groups) is crucial. This should take place in a continual process of shared
decision-making at all stages of the project cycle. Participation helps the community
develop its sense of responsibility and control over the local operation, maintenance, and
management of the water or sanitation system. However, participation should not be limited
to labor and money contributions.
€ Community members are able to make informed choices in terms of choice and location of
water/sanitation system, technology and level of service, operation, maintenance and
management.
€ Capacity building is an output, especially the development of skills in management,
planning, analysis, decision-making, and problem solving.
€ Provision for the transfer of responsibility is built in from the beginning of the project, clearly
recognizing that this is a process, not an event. Officers should not hold the same positions
for a very long time.
€ Paid jobs in service operation and management are created wherever possible. Reliance on
volunteer labor is reduced or eliminated.
€ Technology is kept very simple to maintain and repair, where possible, with a reliable supply
of spare parts and technical assistance available locally.

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Approximate Cost/Level of Effort for Implementing a Community-managed Water Project

Establishing a community-managed project need not be too expensive. Investments in capacity


building are a necessary ingredient to increase the sustainability of a water and sanitation project.
While cost for community organizing (CO) work and skills training may vary, the following needs
to be considered when replicating a similar approach in other areas:

1. The hiring of a full time CO worker who will initially receive training and guidance on how to
organize the men and women of a barangay into a viable user's group that will be involved in
the decision-making processes of a water and sanitation project.
2. Adequate budget for barangay level trainings and follow-up capability-building activities.
3. Continuous supervision and monitoring that focus on sustainability indicators both at the
community level (users' group level) and support group level (LGU or federation).
4. Adequate time to allow the community association to develop and consolidate. The time frame
for this kind of project varies. For instance, the time frame of six months to one year helped
significantly to sustain the momentum of one community association in managing its water
systems.
5. Support for other activities such as networking and linkage building. The continuous flow of
visitors to the demonstration project plus the assistance required from the other barangays kept
the community association active and alert. These kinds of support from other communities
served as a challenge to the community association to run its affairs well.

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The indicators of successful community-managed water and sanitation services are:

€ Effectively sustained functioning system/service with effective financing and management.


€ Effective use that is safe and environmentally sound.
€ Demand-responsive service.
€ Division of burdens and benefits.

The Doña Flavia, Casay and New Bulatukan associations exemplify a community-managed institutional
arrangement. In these cases, integrating and investing in social infrastructure development and
capability building in water-sanitation projects facilitate the growth of viable local organizations that
could eventually take over the responsibility of managing, operating, and maintaining the water
delivery system. Also clear in both cases is the involvement of LGUs in the development of local
organizations and in the provision of continuing local support to these organizations. This
harmonious relationship between the LGUs and the local organizations has facilitated the growth
of viable and sustainable water and sanitation systems that provide affordable and efficient water
and sanitation services.

Social Privatization
Social privatization
Social privatization is another approach to privatization that seems to
involves running public
have emerged particularly as a reaction to corporate privation, yet is
distinct from community-managed models. Social privatization involves services as an
running public services as an enterprise but with an orientation to
plow profits back in pursuit of social objectives. Advocates of social
enterprise but with an
privatization are concerned that large and, in some instances, orientation to plow
transnational corporations have taken over water and sanitation service
provision in many countries with increasingly negative repercussions to
profits back in pursuit
poor segments of the population. The discourse on social privatization, of social objectives
however, continues to evolve.

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As will be shown in Chapter 4, the experience of Darangan exemplifies a socially privatized


institutional arrangement. The Darangan case shows communities being directly responsible for
the ownership, management, operation, and maintenance of their water and sanitation systems.
This experience has resulted in the development of viable water and sanitation systems, as well as
in the growth of strong social organizations.

The process of social privatization has the potential to contribute to poverty reduction and can lead
to entrepreneurship and strong local democracy. Social privatization features:

€ Participatory decision-making
€ Community consultation
€ Access to relevant information
€ Socially sensitive tariff structure ensuring that the poor can afford their basic water requirement
€ Legal identity
€ Ownership of the water supply system and the process of acquiring the system and its actual
management
€ Institutional autonomy and protection from political interference
€ Venue for livelihood opportunities and the practice of local democracy
€ Investment in long-term community building relationships
€ Partnership with NGOs and civil society groups
€ Continuing education
€ Deliberate efforts to enable the poor to benefit from the water service

In social privatization, it is the community that shoulders the cost of owning, managing, operating,
and maintaining water and sanitation systems, including the cost of building the community's sense
of ownership over the process. The water users themselves own the service. Thus, social privatization
also presents a new dimension to resource ownership-from the traditional centralized, huge
water utility ownership to the several user-owned utility system.

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Social privatization maintains its self-help character and mechanisms for community consultation
and participation. It does not encourage the concentration of power and wealth in the hands of
a few. As a result, it promotes a more equitable distribution of resources.

Social privatization benefits the poor. The social privatization process makes communities more
confident about their own abilities and they are able to overcome their apathy toward government
programs. The learning opportunities can contribute to community empowerment and the
creation of a healthy environment.

Community Management versus Social Privatization

Social privatization and community management of water and sanitation systems have many
elements and characteristics in common. In some instances it has been said that social privatization
is an advanced form of community-managed systems. Both systems present the merits and
advantages of several user-owned systems in contrast to a centralized, huge water utility, which
is susceptible to political interference and even terrorism.

However, community-managed and social privatization systems significantly differ on the source
of the investment involved in setting up the system. Community-managed systems can be
funded from LGUs, from civil society organizations, and from bilateral or multilateral donors. It has
been observed that since the investment did not come from the community, the motivation to
generate income that would sustain and expand operations is consequently not as strong.

On the other hand, social privatization involves systems that are installed using financial resources
partly or wholly raised by the community. Because community resources are at stake, the
entrepreneurial spirit is usually more pronounced. Hence, the group (usually a cooperative or an
association) strives to operate the water system efficiently and effectively to generate profit that
can be used for social ends.

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PROVISION 4
T
GOOD PRACTICES IN WATSAN PROVISION CHAPTER

his section of the resource book highlights the experiences of five different water and
sanitation projects. The first three case studies (Doña Flavia, Casay, and New Bulatukan)
illustrate the community-managed water supply system; the next case study (Darangan
4
Water Service Development Cooperative) demonstrates the social privatization approach, and the
last case study (Magdalena) shows an example of the privatization approach.

The following are some of the key lessons and exemplary practices featured in the five case
studies.

€ Social privatization is an alternative to privatization or the corporate control over water.


€ There is a need to increase the autonomy and accountability of service providers.
€ Incentives, regulation, and awareness for sustainable water use must be developed.
€ The use of shared water resources and developing cooperation must be managed.
€ Water information, consultation and partnerships need to be enhanced.
€ Preparing and adapting a water policy and action program involves investing in capacity
building, monitoring and learning.

Not all the cases featured in this section are good practices that will work in any situation. Rather,
they show different ways of responding to institutional, financial, technical, and socio-cultural issues
that local government units have to deal with when trying to deliver water and sanitation services.

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DOÑA FLAVIA WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION ASSOCIATION (DFWSA)

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Contact Information

Coordinator Barangay Doña Flavia, considered the commercial center of the municipality
MPDC Office of San Luis, is the most populated barangay. Yet, access to safe water in the
Doña Flavia, Municipality of
San Luis, Agusan del Sur community was very limited due to that fact that only eight shallow wells
provided for the area’s potable water needs. The challenge was to expand the
DFWSA Chairman
Doña Flavia, Municipality of
community’s access to safe water by introducing a water and sanitation
San Luis, Agusan del Sur system that was creative, gender sensitive, highly participatory, and with a
Tel: 085-8300078 high potential for sustainability and replication.
or 0919-5400360

A budget of P500,000 was allocated for the water supply infrastructure. The
municipal government contracted a private construction firm to develop and install the
water system. As construction of the water system progressed, capacity building activities
were also conducted. Capacity building was a major component of the project, which was
intended for the community involved as well as the local government. The empowerment of
disadvantaged groups in the communities, particularly the women, was particularly emphasized.
A total of 2,687 people or 429 households were expected to benefit from the project.

Since it began operation in 1998, the Doña Flavia project has been replicated in eight other
barangays in San Luis where water supply and sanitation associations were also established.
Through the support of the provincial government, these associations later formed
themselves into a federation, which served as a forum for community members to dialogue
directly with the government and with private entities on issues and problems related to
water and sanitation.

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Today, the Doña Flavia project is considered a successful initiative in building partnerships among the
local government unit (both at the municipality and provincial levels), the community, civil society
organizations, donors, and to a certain extent, even the private sector.

HIGHLIGHTS

Key features

The DFWSA was ultimately responsible for the following:

€ Efficient functioning of the water system (spare parts, special skills and equipment)
€ Optimal utilization of the system
€ Further training in accounting and systems management
€ Expansion of system when capacity is needed
€ Rehabilitation, when required
€ Water quality surveillance
€ Resource mobilization

The Doña Flavia experience highlights the importance of capacity building in a water and sanitation
project. It features the many activities that go into the capacity building process, and how these
activities eventually precipitate the formation of larger grassroots organizations and networks.

The DFWSA experience likewise highlights the need to build the capacities of communities as well as
the capacities of LGUs. This is deemed necessary because LGUs are not limited to providing logistical
support for community-managed projects; LGUs also function as social partners of the community. It
is this government-community relationship that spells success and sustainability.

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Role of the LGU

The LGUs concerned took the initiative by not only supporting the DFWSA project, but also advocating
the replication of the project in other areas of the province. The provincial government of Agusan del
Sur, through its Provincial Water and Sanitation Center (PWSC), played a key role in promoting expanded
LGU and community-based water and sanitation projects within the province.

In 1999, two documents were prepared by the PWSC. These documents now form part of the framework
on how water and sanitation projects are to be implemented in the Agusan del Sur province and
municipalities. These documents are also being considered in other water sanitation projects of the
national government.

Required Capacities

Training and continuous learning are vital to enhancing the capacities of the community and the LGU.
In the case of Doña Flavia, three-day training and seminar-workshops were conducted by the PCWS-ITNF.
These included:

€ Orientation training and action planning workshop for community organizers, which focused in
identifying community issues and needs that will be incorporated into action plans.
€ Trainor’s training seminar-workshop for WATSAN project implementors, which covered topics such
as basic skills on WATSAN O&M and strategies for technology transfer.
€ Community training on organizational management, operation and maintenance, sanitation and
hygiene promotion, which focused on the technical aspects of managing the water facilities,
computing for water tariffs covering operation and maintenance funds, and an orientation on
sanitation and hygiene promotion activities.

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The training covered the technical and administrative aspects of running a water supply system. The
training also included the social aspects involved in forming, expanding, and sustaining organizations
that will continue to look after the water system for generations to come.

IMPLEMENTING GUIDELINES FOR PROJECT REPLICATION

Surfacing of issues/problems. Develop and initiate systems that help identify potential and existing
problems, and how these should be handled. In particular, there is a need to focus on risks, root causes
of problems, and issues concerning gender and poverty during the establishment and operations of the
system. Other areas to look into are: (a) user contributions during implementation, (b) user voice and
choice in planning and designing the water supply system, (c) satisfaction of user demand, (d) ratio of
user-perceived costs/benefits for men/women and rich/poor, (e) division of burdens and benefits.

Process documentation. Continuously document the processes involved (e.g., capacity building,
administrative and implementation procedures). The lessons learned from field experiences will be very
useful to the water sector. This kind of documentation will help clarify issues, concerns, and approaches
in the field of community-managed water and sanitation programs.

Provision of needed technical inputs on issues/problems identified. Technical inputs are needed
for issues and problems in the following areas: the design, construction, and O&M of the water supply
system, community organizing, and training.

Some social preparation is needed to make the community willing to manage and operate the water
system, and pay regular tariffs for operation and maintenance. Social preparation involves providing the
people with easy to understand information. It also means evaluating—with the community—which
of the technical options will benefit the greatest number of people at the least cost.

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Creation of a support group/office. Utilize local resource persons trained on the job. Identifying possible
solutions provides clues in linking solutions to resources.

Community initiatives for water supply and sanitation projects should be supported by government
and non-government organizations. The support from others makes people more confident in their
own abilities and overcomes the apathy felt towards government programs. Access to adequate water
supply and sanitation is essential to a life of dignity and humane existence.

Identification of next “action steps”. Continuing education, learning opportunities, and work planning
are required when implementing a similar project. On the other hand, capacity building requires
separate investments in resources, time, and personnel. Time scales for construction work and capacity
building are different. Meanwhile, the staff/implementors should prepare an exit plan so that responsibility
for program continuity is passed on to capable community leaders. Other stakeholders such as the LGUs,
NGOs, etc. should also be clear about the phase out plans.

Provisions for sustainability. The implementation of the Doña Flavia project had sustainability in mind
right at the very start. Sustainability of projects may be measured in terms of seven main factors or
components as follows:

€ Participation
€ Leadership
€ Capability building
€ Equity and access
€ Revenue generation and cost recovery
€ Use of local resources
€ Environmental stewardship

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CHAMPIONS/ADVOCATES/PROMOTERS

Provincial and municipal LGU officers, the Municipal Planning and Development Office, the Provincial
Water and Sanitation Center, the PCWS-ITNF, the Philippines-Canada Local Government Support
Program, and the DFWSSA.

RESULTS

Benefits include: (a) creative display of local governance initiative, (b) formation of viable community
organization with strong democratic values, and (c) enhanced and sustained water services for 429
households in Doña Flavia.

Other results included:

1. The Doña Flavia model was replicated in eight other barangays in San Luis where level 2 water
projects were being developed. The municipal administration chose to prioritize the provision of basic
water services and has tried to replicate the community management model for new water projects.
2. The officers and key actors in the Doña Flavia association are now being tapped as “big brothers/sisters,”
recognized for providing a good model for a water supply project. They are now assisting the LGUs
in setting up community management systems for water supply projects in other barangays.
3. Formation of a municipal federation of barangay waterworks and sanitation associations (BWSA).

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CASAY RURAL WATER AND SANITATION ASSOCIATION, INC.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Contact Information

Casay Rural Water The Casay Rural Water and Sanitation Association, Inc. (CARWASA)8 operates in
and Sanitation
Association, Inc.
Barangay Casay in Dalaguete, Cebu. It began in 1983 as a waterworks project of
Barangay Casay, the provincial government of Cebu and USAID. In 1984, the operation of the water
Dalaguete, Cebu supply project was transferred to CARWASA. However, the transfer of operations
to the water association had been ambiguous. The association was not prepared
to handle the administrative, managerial, and technical aspects of running the water
system. As a result, there had been no real income from 1984 to 1992.

The problem was resolved when non-government organizations like the University of San
Carlos Water Resource Center and Plan International worked with Casay residents to
strengthen their water association and to acquire the skills in repairing, operating, and
maintaining their water supply system. The Provincial Planning and Development Office
of the Dalaguete LGU and the Dalaguete Water District helped by providing logistical
support (e.g., installation of water meters).

Today, CARWASA manages its own water system and is in the process of getting a water
right from the National Water Resources Board. Its monthly collection ranges from P50,000
to P60,000.

The CARWASA water supply system is a 210-foot deep well with a submersible pump, a
cylindrical type reservoir with a capacity of 18,000 gallons, and gravity flow distribution.
The system sits on land that was purchased by CARWASA through its own funds generated
mostly from water tariffs. Through a P50,000 grant from Plan International, CARWASA is

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also currently engaged in a watershed program, which yields a P10,000 monthly income for the
association. Although the system was designed to serve 400 households, the system currently serves
a load close to 540 households. As a result, water shortage is now being experienced.

HIGHLIGHTS

Key Features
Funds for the waterworks came from the USAID, half of which was a grant and the other half a loan
counterpart of the provincial government. When the waterworks became operational in 1984, CARWASA
started paying monthly amortizations of P1,226 to the provincial government of Cebu. For 20 years,
starting in 1984, CARWASA is required to pay the P422,700 loan with an interest rate of four percent per
annum. However, providing funds for water projects and transferring ownership and management of
such projects to the community proved to be insufficient. It was also important to prepare local
management structures and technical personnel who will effectively operate the project. This was
where training for institution- and capacity-building was vital.

Role of LGUs
The provincial government of Cebu initiated the water project. It provided the funds for the construction
of the water facility and later, also funded the expansion and improvement of the system.

FACTORS

Required Capacities
CARWASA needed to continually undergo skills training in repairing, operating, and maintaining their
water supply system, especially after its water service expansion project in 1992. Continued local
government support was also necessary, especially in terms of logistical support. In 1992, the provincial
government was instrumental in improving and expanding the water services of CARWASA.

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Delivery
The provincial government of Cebu and USAID provided the funds to construct the water facility. Upon
completion, the management and operation of the water facility was transferred to CARWASA. Afterward,
the University of San Carlos Water Resource Center and PLAN International provided skills development
and institutional strengthening.

CHAMPIONS/ADVOCATES/PROMOTERS

The provincial government through its Provincial Planning and Development Office, CARWASA, the
University of San Carlos Water Resource Center, the Cebu Federation of Waterworks Association, Inc., and
Plan International.

RESULTS

€ The project provided good quality water to a total of 539 household connections and several
communal faucets in strategic locations.
€ The monthly collection ranged from P50,000 to P60,000 and income was about P10,000 a month.
€ CARWASA had diversified its initiatives. It soon expects to earn income from the mango trees
watershed project.

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Community-Managed Approach Cases


NEW BULATUKAN SPRING DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Contact Information

New Bulatukan is a community of over 1,350 indigenous peoples and Christian New Bulatukan
settlers in Makilala, North Cotabato province. In 1998, the community applied for Spring
Development
a special grant for the construction of their own water supply system. This move Association
was a response to the community’s problem of accessing safe drinking water. The Barangay New
new water system was envisioned to reduce the time spent in fetching drinking Bulatukan, Makilala,
North Cotabato
water and to facilitate the protection of uphill spring sources and creeks.

In 1999, the SZOPAD Social Fund9 provided for the project cost of P985,632. Although a
private contractor was tasked with the actual construction of the water system facility, the
residents of New Bulatukan provided some of the labor, food, lodging, and other needed
requirements as construction work progressed.

Upon completion of the water system, the community, which by then had formed itself
into the New Bulatukan Spring Development Association, took over the management,
operation, and maintenance of the water system facility. The new water system currently
provides water to 140 households in New Bulatukan.

The communal water supply system in New Bulatukan consists of a spring box, about 1,300
meters of 63-millimeter transmission pipe, two suspended crossings, distribution pipe, a
ground level reservoir and ten communal tap stands.

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HIGHLIGHTS

Features and Components


The experience highlights the potential of government-community partnership and involvement in
expanding and improving water service delivery to specific communities.

Yet the New Bulatukan experience also shows that communal water systems work if given the proper
support: (a) institution- and capacity-building as an integral component of the project,
(b) developing local management structures, (c) ensuring the use of appropriate water system technology,
among others.

FACTORS

Required Capacities
A year after the installation of the water system, the water association underwent extensive training under
the guidance of the PCWS-ITNF. After the training, the association formally registered with the SEC to
gain legal identity. Once it was able to do so, the association planned to apply for a water permit from
the National Water Resources Board (NWRB). The move will allow the water association to have exclusive
rights over the use of the spring source.

Part of the responsibilities of the New Bulatukan Spring Development Association is overseeing the
operation and maintenance of the communal water system. Specific people are assigned as caretakers.
Funding for operation and maintenance are sourced from the monthly dues of the members and fund-
raising activities such as raffles, organization dues, and fines. Basic plumbing tools are available in the
community, which were purchased using association funds.

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Required Resources
The SZOPAD Social Fund provided much of the logistical and financial requirements to complete the
projects. However, the community contributed their time, labor, food, lodging and other needed
requirements as the construction work progressed—estimated to equal five percent of the total project
cost.

CHAMPIONS/ADVOCATES/PROMOTERS

The SZOPAD Social Fund, local government officials, PCWS-ITNF, and New Bulatukan Spring Development
Association.

RESULTS

The New Bulatukan experience shows how the community can acquire and manage its own water supply
service and how this can benefit the poor. Other communities can learn that things work well when people
are involved, when their needs are clearly established, when the capacity building is built into the process,
and the local management structures are emphasized.

The new water system is also helping people improve their livelihood options. This motivates the
community to properly manage its communal water system.

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CASE STUDY
Social 1 Community-Managed
Privatization Approach Cases
Approach Case
DARANGAN WATER SERVICE DEVELOPMENT COOPERATIVE (DWSDC)

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Contact Information

DWSDC Manager The DWSDC is the first water cooperative in the country. It has since been
83 National Road, Darangan recognized for its work, receiving the most outstanding service cooperative
Darangan, Binangonan,
Rizal Province award in 1996. It is recognized by the government and by the cooperative
Tel: 652-1588 community as one of the more innovative and dynamic cooperatives in the
country. Its services are competitive; it is a self-help organization whose
funding comes from member shares, fees, savings, and patronage; it has diversified its
services to its members; and has benefited not only its members, but its community and
other water cooperatives as well.

In 1968, members of the Darangan barangay council identified water as a primary concern
of the community. In an effort to raise awareness of water supply among Darangan
residents, a series of community consultations were conducted by the barangay council,
which later precipitated the formation of the cooperative.

Through a P75,000 grant from the provincial government, the DWSDC was able to purchase
and install a submersible pump and motor for its water supply project. In 1970, the first
public faucet in Darangan was opened to the public. Water meters and household
connections were later installed in 1971 with the help of the Presidential Arm on Community
Development. In 1992, the increase in the population of Darangan prompted the
cooperative to put up an additional pumping station and a water tank.

Today, the DWSDC has diversified—offering social security benefits and other services such
as microfinancing to the poor. As such, it has continued to attract new recruits, most of whom

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are women and the poor. Over the past years, the number of women members has increased because
DWSDC provides women better opportunities to learn and increase their income. A foreseeable trend
is the increase in membership from among the poorest of the poor in Darangan. The cooperative
encourages them to join by offering easy, affordable, installment terms of payment, plus opportunities
to earn income. This move benefits the poor since they can become owners and consumers of an
efficient water service that allows them to participate in decision-making.

The huge concessionaire, Manila Water, expressed its intention to extend its services to Binangonan town.
DWSDC is confident that it can compete with Manila Water for these reasons: DWSDC provides good quality
ground water even during El Niño; it promptly restores water service interruptions; and, it currently serves
more than 70 percent of Darangan’s population, majority of whom are members of the cooperative.

DWSDC even plans to further expand its services. There are two other water systems in Darangan, which
DWSDC would like to merge with. There is also a plan to put up a new pumping station in a higher
elevation area to replace the existing pump when it eventually breaks down. Other plans include
continuous capital formation, replacement of old pipelines, and the implementation of new credit
and livelihood project for women and children.

HIGHLIGHTS

Key Features:

€ Community participation in all phases of the project cycle


€ Continued national and local government logistical support
€ Cooperativized ownership of the water service, which enhances system operation and maintenance
efficiency. DWSDC fund sources come mainly from the members’ share capital, membership fees,
savings and patronage.

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€ Increased women’s participation/involvement that supports poverty alleviation efforts


€ Competitive pricing strategy that is linked to its membership recruitment drive. DWSDC members
pay substantially lesser user rates than non-members, which is an incentive for non-members to
eventually join the cooperative. DWSDC consumers likewise enjoy a lower tariff compared with
residents of nearby Morong town, which is served by the Morong Water District.

Delivery
Although the water system was partly funded in the past through small grants from the government,
the water system is a completely cooperative enterprise. The cooperative was involved in the construction
of the water facility, its operation and maintenance, and its eventual expansion and improvement.

To become a member of DWSDC, one has to be a resident of Darangan. Would-be members of DWSDC
have to pay a membership fee of P100 and a share capital of P5,000 which is payable in equal
installments for two years. Pre-membership seminar is a requirement, followed by a seminar on
ownership. For the pre-membership seminar, the aspirant pays P50. Aside from getting a P10 discount
from the regular water rate for the first 10 cubic meters and P1 less for every additional cubic meter
thereafter, DWSDC members enjoy low interest loans, long-term repayment schemes, access to a
mutual benefit fund, emergency loans, patronage refund, social services, and a typically uninterrupted
water service at lower rates compared to non-members. DWSDC also provides banking services where
the savings deposit of members earns from four to eight per cent interest. All water service applicants
pay for the cost of service installation and the water meter unit. Billing is on a monthly cycle and collection
is undertaken regularly on a house-to-house basis.

Standards
The quality and affordability of the water service provided by the DWSDC meets the required standards.
Today, DWSDC has become the main water provider of Darangan, serving more than 1,100 households.

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Role of LGUs
Local government units (barangay, municipal and province) took an active part in institution and
capacity building. The success of DWSDC has even motivated the Binangonan municipal government
to issue an ordinance encouraging the setting up of barangay-level water systems and the transfer of
the management of their operations to a local cooperative. As a result, 15 water cooperatives have
emerged in Binangonan.

FACTORS

Required Capacities
Among the responsibilities of DWSDC members is participating in the planning and annual general
assemblies. They are consulted about major decisions relating to the water cooperative.

Meanwhile, a committee headed by a board director is in charge of operation and maintenance of the
water system. Two deep wells, each with a submersible 10-horsepower pump and a motor, provide water
service to about 70 percent of the Darangan population. Darangan has two water reservoirs—one with
a capacity of 15,000 gallons and the other, 10,000 gallons. The quality of the water is good and potable.
The two pumping stations of DWSDC work for a total of 20 hours a day.

DWSDC owns the necessary equipment and repair tools. The pump and motor are usually replaced after
five years of use. As a result, service interruptions caused by repair and maintenance have never lasted
more than a day.

BENEFITS

The social privatization model in water service delivery ensures the following: (a) water rates/tariff
remain affordable to the majority; (b) viable community institutions and networks that are willing and

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responsible for managing the water facility continue to grow; (c) the expansion of water services
includes even poor households, and; (d) use of local resources and skills is optimized.

Moreover, since DWSDC diversified into a credit and a consumer cooperative, it has enabled non-
members who are the poorest of the poor in Darangan to generate income and livelihood. The idea was
to give non-members opportunities to engage in income generating activities, and thus allow them to
join the cooperative and have access to water services by paying the share capital and other obligations
in affordable installment rates.

Furthermore, DWSDC has since taken a very active role in the community in advocating the protection
of the environment, especially the Darangan River. It is protesting the operations of a piggery uphill that
has been known to cause respiratory ailments in children and pollution in the river. DWSDC also helps
the barangay council in its campaign against drug abuse.

The success of DWSDC motivated the local government of Binangonan to issue a municipal ordinance
encouraging barangay level water systems to set up and transfer the management of their operations
to a local cooperative. As a result, 15 water cooperatives have emerged in Binangonan. The younger
cooperatives are learning from DWSDC and are able to get technical assistance when required. The
cooperative system has also allowed bigger cooperatives to provide financial assistance to the smaller
ones, through the network of the different cooperative federations.

A congressman represents DWSDC and other cooperatives in the House of Representatives through the
party list COOP-NATCCO (National Confederation of Cooperatives). DWSDC, NATCCO, and the Cooperative
Development Authority, are endorsing the creation of the Philippine Cooperative for Water and
Sanitation, a tertiary-level organization of water cooperatives nationwide.

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Privatization Approach Case


MAGDALENA WATER SYSTEM PROJECT

BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Contact Information

Magdalena, a fifth class municipality in Laguna Province, is the first local Municipal Engineer
government participant of the World Bank-financed Local Government Units Municipality of Magdalena,
Laguna
Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Project. This project promotes public- Tel: 049-2552013, 049-
private partnerships in the delivery of water and sanitation services. 2551011

Development Bank of the


The Department of Interior and Local Government, the conduit of the World Philippines
Bank, invited the Magdalena local government to avail of a P24-million loan Makati City, Metro Manila
Tel: 02-8189511, 02-8128088
package. This money was used for the construction of the new water and local 2356
sanitation system facility. Bayan Water Services, Inc. (BWSI), a subsidiary of Fax: 02-8151517, 02-8188037
Benpres, won the bidding for the 15-year lease contract to operate the water
and sanitation system.

The transfer of the operations to BWSI, however, caught a snag. The supposed transfer was scheduled
for 31 October 2001. But a week prior to the turnover, a political decision was made for the old
Magdalena-managed water system to remain operational, so as not to disenfranchise 40 households
that were going to be affected by the turnover.

As a result, two water systems simultaneously functioned in Magdalena: the old water system and the
new deep well water system. The old system provided cheap water at P8 for the first 15 cubic meters
and P4.50 for every cubic meter thereafter. The new water system, which uses two pumps to convey water
from a 130-foot deep well, charged a flat rate of P20.54 per cubic meter. This arrangement went
against the provision of the lease agreement between Magdalena and BWSI. The condition set by
BWSI was that prior to the turnover, the old Magdalena water system was to be cut off. Only when the

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4 WATER AND SANITATION

MAGDALENA Privatization Approach

turnover was effected would BWSI begin paying its P405,000 monthly rent to Magdalena, plus a fixed
amount of P8,000 for contract administration. Another agreement was forged to close the old water system
in the week of 15 February 2002 as demanded by BWSI for the scheduled turn over by the end of that
month. Regulation is contained in the lease agreement between BWSI and Magdalena LGU.

Privatization and the dynamics of local Philippine politics will eventually be felt by the consumers. A
foreseeable problem can happen when loan repayment targets are not met, which means consumers
are bound to shoulder future increases in the water tariff. The biggest threat, however, is that the LGU
may not be able to pay its loan to the World Bank. When that happens, the LGU may have to resort to
mortgaging. The current interest rate of the WB loan is 14 percent.

KEY FEATURES

The project is part of the World Bank-financed Local Government Units Urban Water Supply and
Sanitation Project, which essentially promotes public-private partnership.

A private firm, Rodman Construction and Development Corporation (RCDC), was awarded the contract
for constructing the water and sanitation facility. The firm constructed the new water supply system from
September 1999 to June 1, 2001. The actual construction cost was pegged at P24 million. The Magdalena
LGU provided a counterpart of P2.4M. BWSI was later awarded the 15-year lease contract to operate the
water and sanitation system.

For the first three years of operation, the Magdalena LGU is required to pay only the loan interest, after
which it will begin to pay for the principal. However, as of February 2000, the Municipal Engineer’s Office
released its findings that the tariff paid by consumers was enough to pay only for the O&M of the water
system but not for the World Bank loan repayment. As a result, an increase in water tariff in the near future
was to be expected.

76 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
REFERENCES AND TOOLS
5
❙ POTENTIAL SITES FOR STUDY TOURS
REFERENCES AND TOOLS CHAPTER
5
MANILA WATER COMPANY, INC.

Management Model
Private sector participation under concession arrangement, the
territory business management approach. Contact Information
Special Projects Manager,
Corporate
Brief Description Communications
In August 1997, Manila Water took over the privatized water
system for the East concession of the Metropolitan Waterworks and Administration Bldg.
Sewerage System (MWSS). It is a consortium composed of the 489 Katipunan Road,
Ayala Corporation, United Utilities, Bechtel Corporation, Mitsubishi Balara, Diliman, Quezon City
Trunk line: 02-4368000
Corporation, and BPI Capital Corporation. Everyday, Manila Water
local: 3311 and 3378
delivers 1,600 million liters of potable water to over 4.7 million Fax: 02-9205288
residents and thousands of industries and businesses. Through
its Tubig Para sa Barangay projects, depressed communities may
get properly connected water service at affordable rates. With this, Manila Water has minimized leaks,
illegal connections, and the incidence of water contamination.

Highlights of the Model


€ Example of water service delivery in urban areas (including urban poor)
€ Shows potential of private sector involvement in water service delivery
€ Alternative management option

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1 WATER AND SANITATION
5

MAYNILAD WATER SERVICES, INC.

Management Model
Private sector participation under concession arrangement
Contact Information
Manager, Business
Brief Description
Development Department
Maynilad Water Services is the private concessionaire that won the Central Business Area
right to take over the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage
System (MWSS) operations in the West Zone of Metro Manila 176 A. Villegas St.
starting August 1997. Ermita, Manila
Tel: 02-527-2275
Fax: 02-528-0654
Maynilad Water Services started a Bayan Tubig program in 1999 to
Cell: 0917-9300385
provide squatter communities with cheap, potable, and continuous
supply of water. Each household gets a water meter and access to Business Area Manager,
water after paying a minimum fee. Applicants may pay on an Central Business Area
installment basis over a period of six months to a year. Through this Tel: 02-5281455
program, the customer base expanded and the problem of illegal Fax: 02-5281460
connections was addressed.

Highlights of the Model


€ Example of water service delivery in urban areas (including urban poor)
€ Shows potential of private sector involvement in water service delivery
€ Alternative management option

80 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
references and tools 5

DAVAO CITY WATER DISTRICT

Location
Davao City
Contact Information
Chairman
Management Model
Davao City Water District
Government-Owned and Controlled Corporation (GOCC), semi- Bajada, Davao City 8000
public Tel: 082-2219400 – 12
Fax: 082- 2264885
Brief Description
The Davao City Water District is the biggest water district in the
Philippines as far as service area is concerned. At the moment, the water district serves around 130,000
connections.

Founded in 1973, the Davao City Water District also provides technical assistance (such as water
testing, design, pipe laying) to rural areas and small towns within the Davao province.

Highlights of the Model


€ Showcase for LGUs that decide to set up (or take over) a water district
€ Delivers the second best potable water quality in the world
€ Opportunities to visit water laboratories and pump stations
€ Shows how water districts can give technical assistance to LGUs

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1 WATER AND SANITATION
5

METRO CEBU WATER DISTRICT

Location
Cebu City
Contact Information
General Manager
Management Model
M. C. Briones cor. P Burgos
Government-Owned and Controlled Corporation (GOCC), semi- Street , Cebu City 6000
public Tel: 032-2548434 to 39,
2560413 to 15
Project Description Fax: 032-2545391
Founded in 1974, the Metro Cebu Water District has grown into the
Information officer
country’s second-largest water district. At present, it uses 100
Tel: 032-2560424
ground well and one surface water resource to supply the water
needs of over 80,000 connections located in four cities and four
municipalities in Metro Cebu.

In 1990, the Metro Cebu Water District entered into a big project that involved the collection and
treatment of river water so that it could be used for drinking. This project was intended to address the
water scarcity problems in the area following the 1997 El Niño drought. Besides water service delivery,
the water district is very active in raising community awareness on water conservation and environment
protection.

Highlights of the Model


€ The water district established family parks that combine leisure with water conservation (tree
planting, nurseries) and ground water refilling activities
€ The water district produces promotion and awareness material (fact sheets, posters and stickers) on
water use and conservation
€ The water district and LGUs closely cooperate on water resources management

82 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
references and tools 5

❙ References

Above Ground - A Training Manual on Water Supply and Sanitation. Manila, Philippines: Philippine
Center for Water and Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF).
(This manual serves as a training course and a facilitator’s guide in conducting a training
program for present and potential leaders of existing and about-to-be-formed BWSAs. It was
published with the support fund from United Nation Children’s Fund. )

Capistrano, L. (editor). Water & Sanitation FORUM Newsmagazine. Manila, Philippines: Philippine
Center for Water and Sanitation-International Training Network (PCWS-ITN)

Community Organizing Process Guidebook. Manila, Philippines: Philippine Center for Water and
Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF), November 2001.
(This Guidebook is an enhancement of previous community organizing handbooks also
developed by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG). It was published for
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Projects - Phase V (RWSSP-V) in November 2001 by the
Philippine Center for Water & Sanitation-The International Training Network Foundation.)

Esrey SA, Gough J. et al. Ecological Sanitation. SIDA, Stockholm, Sweden, 1998.

Guide and Manual on Training for Trainers. Water and Sanitation Training Programme, Printed for the
Fourth Country Programme for Children (CPCIV) in cooperation with the United Nations
Children’s Fund, December 1998.

Haden, A. “Gender Checklist for Planning Sanitation Programmes.” Sanitation Promotion Kit. M.
Simpson-Hebert and S. Wood, editors. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Water Supply and
Sanitation Collaborative Council (WS’SCQ), 1997.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 83
1 WATER AND SANITATION
5

Magtibay, B., compiler. Policies and Guidelines on Water Supply Systems. Manila, Philippines: Biosphere
Environment and Health Systems, 1998.

Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation. Policies and
Guidelines on Wastewater Disposal Systems. Manila, Philippines: Philippine Center for Water
and Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF), 1999.

Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-
ITNF) and Special Zone of Peace and Development Social Fund. Gabay Barangay. Pangangasiwa
ng Spring Water System. Manila, Philippines: Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation-
International Training Network Foundation (PCWS-ITNF) and Special Zone of Peace and
Development Social Fund, 2001.

The Code of Ethics on Hygiene, Sanitation and Water Supply Services (2000).
(This Code Ethics was developed in 1997 by the Working Group on Community Management
and Partnerships with Civil Society set up by the WSSCC. It underwent further revisions in 1999
in a broad consultation involving 300 people from Asia, Africa and Latin America during the
Vision 2] process. The Code was finalized in August 2000. WSSCC, Geneva, Switzerland).

The Ecological Sanitation Alternative. Proceedings of the First Orientation Workshop, Gardenville Hotel,
Butuan City, Agusan del Norte, Philippines, January 31-February 4, 2000. Manila, Philippines:
Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation-International Training Network Foundation
(PCWS-ITNF), 2000.

Training Guide - Simplified Accounting Systems and Procedures for BWSA. Water and Sanitation
Training Programme, Printed for the fourth Country Programme for Children (CPCIV) in
cooperation with the United Nations Children’s Fund, December 1995.

84 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
references and tools 5

Training Guide and Manual on Community Organizing and Organizational Development. Water and
Sanitation Training Programme, Printed for the Fourth Country Programme for Children
(CPCIV) in cooperation with the United Nations Children’s Fund, December 1995.

S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T 85
ENDNOTES

1 NEDA Board Resolution No. 12, series of 1995.

2 Information on the performance of the water supply and sanitation sector obtained from the National
Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) indicate that the database from the government is not accurate.

3 LGSP has a companion material, the Resource Finder, which provides information on institutions and
programs from government agencies, government financing institutions, ODA sources both bilateral
and multilateral, and civil society organizations that could be accessed by LGUs in support of water and
sanitation initiatives.

4 Citation URL: http://www.icap.org/pdf/dp_english.pdf

5 More discussion on this in Annex B of this resource book.

6 Privatization of Public Social Services: A Background Paper, Author(s): Demetra Smith Nightingale, Nancy
M. Pindus, Published: October 15, 1997 Citation URL: http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=407023

7 Community Water Supply Management: International Water and Sanitation Centre Citation URL:
http://www.irc.nl/manage/whatisit/definitions.html

8 CARWASA is a member of the Cebu Federation of Waterworks Associations, Inc. (CEFEWA), which is under
the guidance of the University of San Carlos Water Resource Center (USC-WRC). Some CEFEWA members
started with funding support from the provincial government and then from PLAN International. Most
CEFEWA members, however, have been funded initially by PLAN International with counterpart support
from the local government.

9 In 1997 President Fidel Ramos signed Executive Order No. 445, which provided for the implementation of
the SZOPAD Social Fund (SSF) to finance small-scale social and economic infrastructure projects in
disadvantaged communities affected by the conflict between the government and the Moro National
Liberation Front (MNLF).

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Water Supply Technology Options ANNEXES

❙ Water Supply Technology Options

A convenient supply of safe water and the sanitary disposal of human wastes are essential,
although not the only ingredients of a healthy, productive life.

Unfortunately, it is the poor who suffer the most from the absence of safe water and sanitation,
because they lack not only the means to provide for such facilities but also the information on how
to minimize the ill effects of the unsanitary conditions in which they live. As a result, the debilitating
effects of unsanitary living conditions lower the productive potential of the very people who can
least afford it.

A summary of the technology, institutional, and financing options are presented below for
appropriate application by the LGUs for their Water Supply and Sanitation plans and programs.

◗ TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS

Source Options
a. Groundwater
- springs
- wells
b. Surface water
- check gates
- dam reservoirs
c. Rainwater

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WATER AND SANITATION

Transmission Options

hand pump wells (Level 2) household connections (Level 3)

Treatment Options
a. Use of settler and filter to remove turbidity
€ A 12 cu. m settling tank which has a capacity of 8 liters/sec. costs P17,000.00 and can serve
8,000 people.
€ A 1 sq. m. filter area which is good for 1 liter/sec has a direct cost of P 2,000.00 and can serve
1,000 people.
b. Disinfection - use of chlorinators, ultraviolet (UV), slow sand filter
c. Removal of dissolved, unwanted substances:
- desalination (reverse osmosis, evapo-condensation)
- charcoal and similar filters (if water has a different color)

Modes of Intervention
€ New system construction
€ Rehabilitation of existing water system
€ Upgrade or expansion
€ Multiple sources and systems
€ "Do-nothing" option

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ANNEXES

Selecting the most appropriate technologies


€ Economical
€ Environment friendly
€ Culturally acceptable and socially equitable
€ A water system must be accessible even to residents from far flung areas
€ Can provide for reasonable future needs
€ When designing a water system, consider future demands by anticipating the maximum
increase in the number of population in a given area
€ Should be locally sustainable
€ Materials/parts must be locally available
€ Physically feasible
€ Delivers within standard requirements

The Benefit/Cost Approach - "The most appropriate technology is the one that delivers the most benefits
at the least cost."

Costs
€ Interest on investment
€ Depreciation
€ Opportunity costs
€ Environmental costs

Benefits
€ Savings in water-fetching labor
€ Savings in water-using household labor
€ Savings in cost of lost manpower avoided due to illness and cost of medicines
€ Livelihood generated by construction and operation and maintenance of water system, and
increased in economic activities caused by more water availability
€ Environmental benefits

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WATER AND SANITATION

Financing Options

External Loans vs IRA


LWUA loan
CDF
Grants
National government programs

Internal LGU resources


IRA and SDF component
LGU manpower
Material stocks
Equipment
Community resources

Sustainability factors
"A water system should be forever." The following are key factors in assuring water system
sustainability:

€ Knowledge and use of appropriate technologies


€ Appropriate technologies save on the average 30% of project cost.
€ Community participation
- The community helps in data gathering and technology selection.
- The community is appraised of the implications of each technology option and the role they
play.
- The community acquires skills (not just in training, but from direct involvement) in the
operation and maintenance.
€ Conscientious and transparent project implementation
- financial and procurement management must be in place
- there must be accountable and transparent records
- transactional (traditional) vs transformational political leadership; choice must be made
whether to emphasize meeting individual needs or the general community's interest.

92 S E R V I C E D E L I V E R Y W I T H I M P A C T: R E S O U R C E B O O K s F O R L O C A L G O V E R N M E N T
Sanitation Technology Options ANNEXES

❙ Sanitation Technology Options

◗ PURPOSE OF SANITATION

To contain and process human wastes until they or their end products are safe enough for release
into the environment.

A toilet should be able to


a. Control odor and prevent the ingress or egress of disease vectors; and
b. Prevent the release of feces and wastewater into the environment before it is safe to do so.

Feces and wastewater


€ May contain pathogens such as harmful bacteria, amoeba, viruses, other protists and worms;
€ May be breeding sites for disease vectors such as flies and mosquitoes;
€ May be sources of suspended solids and BOD that contribute to turbidity and oxygen depletion
in natural bodies of water; and
€ May contain substances such as nutrients and drugs that in certain forms can harm the
environment or cause health problems when indiscriminately released).

Sanitation facilities should


€ Be affordable to build and maintain;
€ Provide privacy to users;
€ Provide convenience;
€ Confer status to them; and
€ In some cases, allow safe recovery of the resources such as soil ameliorants, animal feed, and
energy contained in the waste.

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WATER AND SANITATION

Sanitation facilities should also be culturally acceptable to users


€ Defecating position
€ Type of anal cleansing material used
€ Practices and taboos on using and handling wastes
€ Light and ventilation
€ Location of the facility relative to the house and its orientation must be considered

Sanitation options are either onsite or offsite (whether or not the end-products are released to the
environment at the site of generation or conveyed to a central facility for further processing), and
wet or dry (whether or not water is necessary for operation).

◗ ON-SITE SANITATION

Unsanitary Options
1. Open defecation but restricted to a community-designated area
2. Unimproved pit (Antipolo)
3. Overhang over a watercourse, pigpen or fishpond

Sanitary Options

Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)

Description of operation
Feces drops into pit through hole in latrine. Feces decompose in latrine. A new pit has to be dug
when the one in use is full (although some pits are offset from the latrine slab and is more
accessible for emptying). The pit may be unlined in stable formations; otherwise it is lined with hollow
blocks, mortar or brick although the floor is bare and holes are usually built into the pit lining wall
to allow excess water to leach out. Some designs have twin or two-compartment pits so that the
moveable latrine hole can be shifted to one when the other is full.

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ANNEXES

Odor control is effected through placing a lid on the latrine and


inducing an air flow from the superstructure through the latrine hole
to the pit, then out into the outside air through a screened vent
emptying above the toilet. The superstructure is often designed to
scoop air from the wind also for this purpose.

Fly control is effected through keeping the superstructure dark


inside so that any flies in the pit see only the light from the top of
the vent. They fly up the vent but the screen traps them until they
die of exhaustion trying to crash through the screen.

Maintenance
Keeping the floor clean, the vent pipe free of cobwebs, and emptying
the previously used compartment when the present one is full. The contents may be buried in the
soil, preferably near a tree.

Advantages
Does not require water.

Disadvantages
€ Not optimally suitable for the use of water (water and urine keeps the feces wet and odorous);
€ Odor and flies not always avoidable;
€ Difficulty or expense of emptying full pit or necessity for digging a new one when the former
is full.

Construction cost
PhP 5,000 or more including superstructure, (extrapolated contractor’s price) but about 50% less
if user donates labor.

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Wet Pit with Pour-Flush Bowl

Description of operation
After use, feces and water in the bowl are flushed with 1 (for
toilets where the pit is directly under the bowl) to 8 (usually
when the pit is offset from the bowl) liters of water. The
flushing pours into the pit. Water drains out through the bare
bottom of the pit and the holes built into its walls. The pit may
be unlined in stable formations although it is always covered.
Some designs have twin pits and a wye box so that the flushing
is moveable latrine hole can be shifted to one when the other
is full. Odor and fly control is effected with the water-sealed
bowl.

Maintenance
Same as that of the VIP, except that the air vent, if any, does not
need clearing of cobwebs.

Advantages
€ Good odor control
€ Acceptable in many cultures
€ Costs can be lowered if several nearby households share one pit
€ Offset construction can solve the problem of endangering the foundations of nearby structures
during excavation.

Disadvantages
€ Needs the indicated amounts of flushing water;
€ Water leaching from the pit will contaminate the ground and any water table and wells within
8-160m from it (although in most cases, a well is safe if it is 25m from the pit);

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ANNEXES

€ Difficulty or expense of emptying a full pit or necessity for digging a new one when the former
is full (research is underway in some countries for appropriate low-cost de-sludging methods).

Construction cost
PhP 5,000 or more including superstructure, (extrapolated contractor’s price) but about 50% less
if user donates labor; less if adjacent households share a common pit.

Composting Toilets

Description of Operation
There are many designs. A typical one has twin built-on-
the-ground vaults that are alternately used. Feces fills
up one vault (the volume is usually good for at least a year
of use) after which, the bowl is moved over the other
while the contents of the first vault ages. By the time the
second vault is full, the contents of the first are emptied
and used as compost.

Water is usually not used. Instead, ashes and other organic


matter are poured over the fresh feces after every use to
discourage odor and fly breeding. Urine is usually collected
and stored in a pail -- or any appropriate container -- separately from feces as it is free of pathogens
and ready for use as liquid fertilizer.

Maintenance
Same as that of the VIP, except that the vaults are emptied more frequently as they fill up faster
because of the use of ashes and bulking agents.

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WATER AND SANITATION

Advantages
€ Production of humus if properly operated;
€ Production of liquid fertilizer;
€ Little chance of feces pile leaching and contaminating the ground and groundwater.

Disadvantages
€ Requires users to be well-trained in using and maintaining the facility and have the environmental
values that will make the extra protocols and precautions of using it worthwhile;
€ Culturally difficult to accept with some mainstream and ethnic groups.

Construction Cost

PhP 2,500 or more including superstructure (ferro-cement toilet built by PCWS in extrapolated
contractor’s price) but about 50% less if user donates labor.

Pour-flush Toilet with Septic Tank with On-site Disposal

Conventional Septic Tank


A septic tank may be necessary if the ground is too
hard for a pit to be dug economically or if infiltration
rates of the wastewater into the ground is too low
such that some clarification is needed before it is
leached into the ground.

Septic tanks are sometimes divided into several


compartments for more efficient settling of solids.
Some designs are capacious to allow enough
detention time so that water is much cleaner when
it is released into the environment.

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ANNEXES

Description of Operation
The wastewater enters and is detained in the septic tank where it undergoes some settling and
decomposition of solids. The clearer effluent flows into a soakpit (similar to a wet pit but sometimes
filled with rocks for wall stability) or infiltration trench (where it leaches into the ground), an
evapo-transpiration mound (where some of the water is transpired by the mound vegetation or
evaporates), or subsurface filters before it enters pipe draining into a watercourse.

Maintenance
Periodic de-sludging of the septic tank, and less frequently cleaning or allowing soakpits, trenches
and subsurface filters to rest.

Advantages
Same as wet pit but a cleaner effluent is produced.

Disadvantages
€ Needs the indicated amounts of flushing water;
€ Although to a lesser extent, water leaching from the tank will contaminate the ground and any
water table and wells within 8-160m from it (although in most cases, a well is safe if it is 25m
from the pit;
€ Difficulty or expense of de-sludging (research is underway in some countries for appropriate
low-cost de-sludging methods).

Construction cost
PhP 5,000 or more, including superstructure (PLAN figures) to PhP30,000 (DPWH figures) but less
if user donates labor.

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WATER AND SANITATION

Bio-gas Toilets

Bio-gas toilets are toilets with septic tanks


configured to have a gas collector and displaced
water chamber; and other accessories to produce,
store and provide bio-gas for various uses.

Description of operation
Same as in a septic tank, but bio-gas is collected
in a domed collector and there is a reservoir for
displacement water. The human waste from three
families is usually enough to cook one family’s
meals. In some designs, there are provisions for adding animal and biodegradable solid waste to
increase gas production. In this respect this technology has potential as a solid waste management
solution.

Maintenance
Same as septic tanks, but is more delicate in that drugs, cleansing chemicals and most metals kill
off the methane-producing bacteria.

Advantages
Same as wet pit but biogas and a cleaner effluent is produced.

Disadvantages
Same as septic tanks; more frequent de-sludging if other materials are fed into the tank to produce
more biogas; culturally difficult to accept with some mainstream and ethnic groups.

Construction cost
PhP 5,000 or more including superstructure (PCWS figures from prototype facilities) but less if user
donates labor; less if adjacent households share common tank.

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◗ OFF-SITE SANITATION

When the consequences of contaminating local water tables and courses are too costly, or the
ground’s natural infiltration rates are too low, or the housing density is so high as to make common
rather than household-level treatment of wastes economically attractive (usually in a plant situated
off the community), then off-site sanitation becomes an option (or a last recourse).

Cartage
Feces and sometimes wastewater is deposited in a chamber pot or receptacle and is collected
regularly by vehicles. This system is used in some areas in Japan, and many communities in China,
where the waste is used as fertilizer and fish feed.

Sewerage (to treatment facility)


This means a network of pipes and sometimes
pumps that convey water to a common sewage
treatment plant. In some such technologies, the
wastewater may be collected direct from pipes
from the bathroom, sink and toilet without
benefit of a septic tank for primary treatment.

Conventional Sewerage
This is found in many cities in the Western
countries. Huge (enough for maintenance people to walk in) sewers are built deep underground
(to allow basement and subway drainage). In the past even the flows of rivers were diverted to
periodically flush out these sewers.

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Shallow sewerage
Recent reworking of the hydraulics of solids-laden channel flow have proven that much smaller sewer
pipes buried more shallowly on carefully controlled slopes and with appropriate accessories such
as clean-outs can do the job as well, resulting in this alternative design.

Advantages
€ Savings of as much as 95% over conventional sewerage can be realized with this technology.
€ Some studies have also indicated that shallow sewerage with offsite treatment is competitive
over on-site sanitation at population densities of 200 persons per hectare or higher.

Disadvantage
A disadvantage is the necessity of the community using at least 50lcpd of water (and feeding it into
the pipes) to ensure that the waste solids are borne along with this flow and do not cause clogging.

Septic tanks connected to small-bore sewerage


In this technology, household septic tanks or wet pits are
connected to the pipes that form the collection network.
The effluent of these tanks is free from the large solids
present in raw household sewage and permit smaller pipes
and less controlled pipe slopes to be used. The amount of
water the community uses also has little effect on system
efficiency.

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Community-scale Sewage Treatment Processes

Conventional Plant
This technology consists of the following sequential processes:
1. Primary treatment -- trash, grit and partial solids removal through screening and sedimentation
2. Secondary treatment -- BOD reduction through aerobic treatment
3. Tertiary treatment -- e.g., gravel filter

Advantage
An advantage of this technology is that BOD reduction can be very high.

Disadvantages
€ Although prevalent in the West, the disadvantage of this technology is that it requires a lot of
money to build. (A conventionally-constructed, foreign-funded STP facility in Baguio for about
90,000 people cost about PhP 400M to erect.)
€ Requires heavy equipment, advanced skills and a lot of energy to operate;
€ Unacceptable in terms of pathogen destruction (only in the order of 99%).

Stabilization Ponds
These are a series of ponds (the first functioning as a solids settling and anaerobic decomposition
pond, the next as facultative ponds and the last as maturation ponds) that treat sewage through
sedimentation, biological action and detention. In some facilities, fish and aquatic plants enhance
these actions and provide a method for resource recovery.

Although simple and effective (stabilization ponds can remove 99.99 to 99.999% of pathogens, BOD
and suspended solids), it is a land- intensive technology and can also be expensive. A plan to treat
the waste of 80,000 people in downtown Dumaguete City requires a budget of PhP 360 million.

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Anaerobic Filters
Anaerobic filters are filters submerged in water. This is not a stand-alone sewage treatment plant
process but can be combined with other processes. Although poor in terms of BOD and pathogen
removal, it is simple and requires less energy and space than aerobic facilities.

Treating Sludge
Sludge is composed of the remains of organic matter, the bacteria living in them, and inorganic
matter. All sewage treatment plants produce sludge. In on-site sanitation, sludge is often buried
in the soil (this may be spread later as soil conditioner) or taken away for further treatment in a central
facility. In sewage and treatment plants, which produces huge quantities of sludge, sludge can either
be aged before spreading on agricultural land, or dewatered before either:

€ Deposited in a landfill; or
€ Composted before being used as a soil conditioner.

In the latter, the principle is to use the heat of the composting to kill all pathogens. One method
of high-rate composting is to pile the dewatered sludge in wind-rows over perforated air-pipes.
The sludge is mixed with dessicating substrate such as woodchips and covered with old compost.

Air is then blown for a few weeks through the sludge using the perforated pipes. This supplies the
pile with enough oxygen to sustain the composting process.

◗ KEY SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS IN SANITATION PROGRAMS

Use of Appropriate Technologies

This not only means evaluating sanitation options by the criteria enumerated in the first part of this
chapter but developing more affordable technologies, especially for off-site sewage treatment.

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For the 2/3 of Filipinos who live in rural and semi-rural areas, the on-site sanitation options
available to them seem to be affordable enough. However, for the rest who live in urban areas and
whose wastewater can only be treated off-site, a per capita construction cost of PhP 4,000 to 7,000
will translate into unacceptable sewage treatment charges alone of PhP 200 to 350 per household
per month, if present West-originated technologies are adopted. We should therefore start
developing our own treatment options that are less expensive.

Community Participation

Organizing for sanitation is more difficult than organizing for water supply. In a community in
Indonesia, it took two decades to up sanitation coverage from 17% to 85%.

Yet one cannot go around it. Aside from linking hygiene, water supply, and the environment with
sanitation, a possible strategy would be to make sanitation more attractive by linking resource
recovery with it.

Transparent and Conscientious Implementation

No program will succeed if corruption permeates the implementing agency. If the implementing
agency is corrupt, the technologies it will select will only be appropriate to maximizing graft and
it will never bother to bring in the community to its shady dealings by letting them participate
meaningfully in the program.

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Sustainability of Community-Based Rural
Water Supply Organizations ANNEXES

❙ Sustainability of Community-Based
Rural Water Supply Organizations
◗ WHAT WORKS:

National Policies/ Strategies

a. The use of community-based organizations has been proven effective as a vehicle for:
€ Instilling the value of self-governance and self-reliance among the rural populace; from
mere recipients of government projects to active community participation and
management, and
€ Sustained operation and maintenance of the water facilities. There are a lot of case
studies of RWSAs (Rural Water Supply Associations) and to some extent of BWSAs
(Barangay Water Supply Associations) which have demonstrated that with proper
institutional development, these associations are capable of sustaining the system
operation thereby reducing the load on government resources and instilling the value
of self governance among the populace.

b. Full recovery schemes (capital + O&M) are possible for Level III and partial recovery schemes (O&M)
for Levels I and II. Level III RWSAs, especially in Bulacan and Batangas provinces, have
demonstrated not only their capacity to sustain their operations from collections but also to repay
loans incurred for the purpose. Some Levels I and II projects are still operational and managed
by the associations demonstrating successful partial recovery. The rural populace is capable and
does pay for WATSAN services.

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c. Different service levels are needed. Level I represents the basic service level that government
must provide its citizenry especially in the far flung areas. Level III service, being the ultimate
service level, are necessary for urban and peri-urban areas and in areas where the populace is
willing and able to support it. However, not all communities can afford a Level III system. In some
areas, the provision of Level II facilities provides a temporary solution until the community,
following the principle of self-governance, is able to muster enough initiative and resources to
convert it to a Level III. In all cases, local associations are therefore necessary to institutionalize
“ownership” and marshal resources.

Sustainability of Community-Based Organizations

Proper Technical Design/Construction of Facilities


In all RWS projects, the number one criterion for sustainability is still proper design and construction
of the facilities. Without any facility to operate and maintain, there is no basis for the existence of
the water supply community organizations.

Equal Emphasis to Institution Building at the Local Level


Available data and experience tell us that local institutions formed with equal emphasis have survived
longer than those institutions that emphasized only the infrastructure component of institution
building. The process of inculcating “ownership” takes time but must be stressed even before the
physical structures are set up.

Effectiveness of BWSA/RWSA Leadership


This factor stands out whenever a successful association is studied. A leader’s effectiveness
becomes critical especially in the enforcement of tariff collections, marshalling resources, and
information dissemination campaigns.

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Enforcement of Adequate And Monthly Tariff Collections


The need for Associations to charge and collect tariffs is obviously important, not only to cover operation
and maintenance requirements but also to create a reserve fund for replacements and expansion.

Adequate O&M Skills and Tools


Many foreign assisted projects have concluded that the failure of local associations stems from three
items: the lack of funds, skills, and tools.

Adequate and Continuous Institutional Development


BWSAs and RWSAs are basically new organizational concepts in every community where it is
introduced. And like new concepts, its sustainability is dependent on the nurturing given to it. By
more experienced and matured organizations during its initial stages of operation. Even large water
districts such as Davao and Tarlac took time to develop into the successful utilities they are now.

Harmonious Relationship with the LGU


Various RWS association experience in Bulacan and CVWSSP indicate a direct relationship between
support of the LGU and sustainability. Reasons for the direct relationship are (a) LGU resources that
can be accessed by the association, (b) facilitation of the required permits necessary and (c) the use
of LGU official’s influence to convince association members to do certain activities, which can bring
about sustainability.

Compensation of Operating Staff


Examples in foreign-assisted projects tend to show that certain compensation given to the
associations’ operational staff improves the level of O&M for the following reasons:

€ Being paid implies responsibility;


€ Compensation serves as remuneration for time spent away from main livelihood activities;
€ Compensation paves the way to future awareness of the need to professionalize services; and
€ Payment implies the right to choose qualified personnel to do the task.

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User Groups Rather than Barangay-Wide


This finding has relevance if a barangay has several point sources (Level 1). Project experiences
indicate that individual facility user groups function better than a barangay-wide BWSA. The user
groups have their own caretakers and they see little relevance in participating actively in BWSA affairs.

Multi-Purpose Water Association


Requiring a BWSA with a single point source to have regular tariff collections and meet regularly
may seem too much for most members. Thus more than half of the BWSAs collect tariffs and meet
only when needed. When the BWSA becomes inactive and O&M is passed on to a user group (market
vendors, church groups, etc.), these user groups are able to sustain O&M because of their regular
meeting and collection of dues. The water system merely becomes an additional agenda for
them.

Upgrading of Service Level


All field implementers of RWS projects agree that when a service level is upgraded to a higher level,
the existing association will, in most probability, rise to the challenges faced by new procedures,
rules, and technology. Upgrading a service level, therefore, assures better sustainability not only
of the facilities but the institution as well.

◗ WHAT DOES NOT WORK:

National Policies/ Strategies

Multi-Agency Responsibility for Project Implementation


Although the intention of coordination is noble, the practice of having several agencies responsible
for the project implies that no single agency is actually responsible.

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Use of Ad Hoc Groups for Project Implementation


Any ad hoc group—not attached to any agency and having a finite term of office—lacks real
authority or the resources to pursue a project effectively. It can even benefit from project
experiences since it is soon disbanded after a project is completed.

Single Corporation Responsibility for RWS


A public corporation is evaluated not on the same basis as line agencies. Aside from project
accomplishments, a corporation has to contend itself with various parameters such as return on
investment, internal cash generation, and securing of subsidies for RWS. A line agency that does
not have any of the above financial criteria would therefore be in a better position to implement
RWS projects.

Inconsistent Cost-Recovery Schemes


The national policy of not subsidizing Level II/III schemes is not consistently followed since there
are politicians, and even ESA- supported projects, which provide grant funding for these services.
Allowing inconsistencies can only convey either of these two ideas: (1) wait for grant funding for
our projects, or (2) even if you don’t collect for O&M, don’t worry; government will bail you out.
Inconsistencies tend to promote the culture of mendicancy.

New BWSAs for Simple Level I Facilities


The hasty formation of BWSAs to maintain a simple source, i.e., a hand pump, may not be to the
best interest of the project. It would be more effective to use existing user groups within the
barangay to maintain Level I facilities.

Reference:
De Vera, Antonio R. “Sustainability of Community-Based Rural Water Supply Organizations.” A Final Report
prepared by for the WPEP Project, November 2000.

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DIRECTORY ANNEXES

❙ WATER DISTRICTS

ABUYOG WATER DISTRICT ALAMADA WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
155 Real St., Bito, Abuyog, Leyte 6510 Kitacubong, Alamada, North Cotabato 9413
Tel. No/s.: (053) 322-9061 / 334-2061
ALAMINOS WATER DISTRICT
AGONCILLO WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Del Pilar St., Alaminos, Laguna 4001
Poblacion, Agoncillo, Batangas 4211 Tel. No/s.: (049) 562-9803
Tel. No/s.: (043) 198-4371 to 75 Loc. 2151
Gen. Manager: Engr. Benigno M. Alilio ALAMINOS WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
AGOO WATER DISTRICT Poblacion, Alaminos, Pangasinan 2404
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (075) 552-7180
Sta. Barbara, Agoo, La Union 2504 Fax No.: (075) 552-7180
Tel. No/s.: 337
ALCALA WATER DISTRICT
AJUY WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Rizal St., Poblacion West, Alcala, Pangasina
Real St., Ajuy, lloilo 5012 Tel. No/s.: (075) 593-3038
Tel. No/s.: (033) 392-0451 / 0465

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ANGELES CITY WATER DISTRICT BACOLOD WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
2335 A. Mabini St., Angeles City 2009 Bacolod, Lanao del Norte 9205
Tel. No/s: (045) 323-4209/888-7222
Fax: (045) 888-7222 BACOLOD CITY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
ASINGAN WATER DISTRICT Cor Galo-San Juan Sts., Bacolod City 6100
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (034) 433-2141/25251/23242
Mayor’s Blvd., Asingan, Pangasinan 2439 Fax No.: (034) 433-2141
Tel. No/s.: (075) 611-1220
BACUAG WATER DISTRICT
ATIMONAN WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Del Rosario St., Bacuag, Surigao del Norte 8408
195 Osmeña St., Atimonan, Quezon 4331 Tel. No/s.: (086) 826-5355 (by appointment)
Tel. No/s.: (042) 316-5280 Fax No.: (086) 826-8388

BADOC WATER DISTRICT


B The General Manager
Badoc, llocos Norte 2904
BAAO WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager BAGAC WATER DISTRICT
2/F Public Market Bldg., San Nicolas, Baao, The General Manager
Camarines Sur 4432 Bagac, Bataan 2107
Tel. No/s.: (054) 266-3161 / 3124
BAGANGA WATER DISTRICT
BACACAY WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Baganga, Davao Oriental 8204
Magsaysay Avenue, Bacacay, Albay 4509
ANNEXES

BAGO CITY WATER DISTRICT BALAOAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Social Justice Complex, Salas Dr, Bago City, G/F, Old Emergency Hospital,
Tel. No/s.: (034) 461-0365 / 732-8177 Balaoan, La Union 2517

BAGUIO WATER DISTRICT BALATAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
BWD Compound, Utility Rd., Baguio City 2600 Duran, Balatan, Camarines Sur 4436
Tel. No/s.: (074) 442-3456 / 444-4228
Fax No.: (074) 442-3456 / 5364 BALAYAN WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
BAIS CITY WATER DISTRICT F. Unson St., Balayan, Batangas 4213
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (043) 407-0374 / 211-4239
City Hall Compound, Bais City,
Negros Oriental 6206 BAROTAC VIEJO WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (035) 402-8263 The General Manager
Tupas St., Barotac Viejo, IIoiIo 5011
BALAGTAS WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager BASEY WATER DISTRICT
Poblacion Wawa, Balagtas, Bulacan 3016 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (044) 693-1062 KKK Bldg., Mercado Dist.,
Basey, Western Samar 6720
BALANGA WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (053) 321-0021
The General Manager
St. Joseph St., Pobbacion, Balanga, 2100 Bataan BATAC WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (047) 237-3491 / 237-3868 The General Manager
Marders Bldg., #17 Tabug,
Batac, 2906 llocos Norte
Tel. No/s.: (077) 792-3026

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BATANGAS CITY WATER DISTRICT BINALBAGAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Km. 04, Brgy. Alangilan, Don Pedro Yulo St., Binalbagan,
Batangas City 4200 Negros Occidental 6105
Tel. No/s.: (043) 723-7709 / 4200 / 6537 Tel. No/s.: (034) 388-8428
Fax No.: (043) 723-1811 Fax No.: (034) 388-8211

BATO WATER DISTRICT BINALONAN WATER DISRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
33 Del Rosario St., Bato, Catanduanes 4801 Binalonan, Pangasinan 2436
Tel. No/s.: (075) 562-2281
BAYAMBANG WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager BINMALEY WATER DISTRICT
Bayambang, Pangasinan 2423 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (075) 592-2197 Poblacion, Binmaley, Pangasinan 2417
Tel. No/s.: (075) 540-0054 / 543-2791
BAYAWAN WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (075) 540-0054
The General Manager
Human Settlement Bldg., Natl Hi-way, BISLIG WATER DISTRICT
Bayawan, Negros Oriental 6221 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (035) 531-0055 John Bosco Ave., Mangagoy,
Fax No.: (035) 531-0055 Bislig, Surigao del Sur 8311
Tel. No/s.: (086) 628-2092 / (MTI) 853-2032
BAYBAY WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (086) 853-2032
The General Manager
E. Jacinto cor M. L. Quezon Sts., BOCAUE WATER DISTR1CT
Baybay, Leyte 6521 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (053) 335-2010 No. 14 Gov. F. Halili Ave. Ext. Biñang II,
Fax No.: (053) 563-9478 Bocaue, Bulacan 3018

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ANNEXES

BONGAO WATER DISTRICT CABANATUAN CITY WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Tubig-Boh, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi 7500 229 CVR Brgy. Dicarma, Cabanatuan City 3100
Tel. No/s.: (068) 1404 (RCPI); 412-2873 Tel. No/s.: (044) 463-1647/1643
Fax No.: (044) 463-1643
BORBON WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager CABANGAN WATER DISTRICT
San Sebastian St., Poblacion, Borbon, Cebu The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (032) 432-9087 Cabangan, Zambales 2203

BORONGAN WATER DISTRICT CABARROGUIS WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Brgy. Songco, Borongan, BLISS, Zamora, Cabarroguis, Quirino 3400
Eastern Samar 6800
Tel. No/s.: (058) 461-2085 CADIZ CITY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
BUTUAN CITY WATER DISTRICT 2nd FIr, Commercial Complex Bldg., Cabahug
The General Manager St., Cadiz City, Negros Occidental 6121
Gov. J.P. Rosales Avenue, Butuan City Tel. No/s.: (034) 493-0788 / 0688 / 1254
Tel. No/s: (085) 341-6474/815-1268/1269 Fax No.: (034) 493-0075
Fax No. (085) 341-0508
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY WATER DISTRICT
C The General Manager
Corrales Ave., Cagayan de Oro City 9000
CABAGAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (08822) 72-2705 / 6248 / 856-
The General Manager 4509/856-4373
Centro. Cabagan, lsabela 3328 Fax No.: (08822) 72-2705
Tel. No/s.: (078) 636-3107 E-Mail: cowdnet@mozcom.com
Fax No.: (078) 636-3107

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CALAMBA WATER DISTRICT CALUMPIT WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Lakeview Subd., Halang, Balungao, Calumpit, Bulacan 3003
Cabaniba, Laguna 4027 Tel. No/s.: (044) 202-4235
Tel. No/s.: (049) 545-1614/ 2863; 245-3180 Fax No.: (044) 202-5125
to 82 Fax No.: (049) 245-3182
CAMALIG WATER DISTRICT
CALAUAG WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Brgy. 2, Camalig, Albay 4502
1081 Quezon St.,\Calauag Quezon 4318
Tel. No/s.: (042) 301-7548 CAMARINES NORTE WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
CALBAYOG CITY WATER DISTRICT Vinzons Ave. Daet, Camarines Norte 4600
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (054) 721-1810/511-2915
J. D. Avebino St., Calbayog City 6710
Tel. No/s.: (055) 209-1218 / 1843 / CAMILING WATER DISTRICT
911183/92976 The General Manager
Fax No.: (055) 911-1 83 Rizal St., Camiling, Tanlac 2306
Tel. No/s.: (045) 9340284 / 0304
CALBIGA WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (045) 9340284
The General Manager
Calbiga, Eastern Samar 6715 CATBALOGAN WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
CALUBIAN WATER DISTRICT Allen Ave. Ext. Pier 2,
The General Manager Catbalogan, Samar 6700
San Roque St., Poblacion, Tel. No/s.: (053) 756-1044
Calubian, Leyte 6534

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ANNEXES

CLARIN WATER DISTRICT CUYAPO WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion Centro, Clarin, Bohol 6330 Manpower Bldg., Cuyapo, Nueva Ecija
Tel. No/s.: (038) 198-8241 to 42 Tel. No/s.: (044) 608-2044

CLAVERIA WATER DISTRICT D


The General Manager
Centro 2, Claveria, Cagayan 3519 DAGUPAN CITY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
CLAVERIA WATER DISTRICT Tambac Dist., Dagupan City, Pangasinan 2400
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (075) 522-0050 / 515-8220
Poblacion, Clavenia, Misamis Oriental 9004 Fax No.:(075) 522-0050

CONCEPCION WATER DISTRICT DALAGUETE WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Concepcion, lloilo 5013 Poblacion Dalaguete, Cebu 6022
Tel. No/s.: (033) 392-0314 Tel. No/s: (032) 484-8724

CONCEPCION WATER DISTRICT DAPITAN CITY WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
San Nicolas, Concepcion, Tarlac 2316 Hanil Bldg., Lawaan, Dapitan City 7101
Tel. No/s.: (045) 9230-430 Tel. No/s.: (065) 213-6406
Fax No.: (065) 213-6406
COTABATO CITY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager DARAGA WATER DISTRICT
Gov. Gutierrez Avenue, Cotabato City 9600 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (064) 421-1070 / 3566 / 7135 Sta. Maria St., San Roque, Daraga, Albay 4501
Fax No.: (064) 421-3596 Tel. No/s.: (052) 483-3232
Fax No.: (052) 483-3906

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DASMARIÑAS WATER DISTRICT DINGLE-POTOTAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Camerino Avenue, Dasmarinas, Cavite 4114 Cor Dalipe & Sanico Sts., Dingle, lloilo 5035
Tel. No/s.: (046) 416-1236 /1237/ 0509 Tel. No/s.: (033) 351-0071 / 529-7122
Fax No.: (046) 416-1238
DIPOLOG CITY WATER DISTRICT
DAVAO CITY WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager 017 Rizal Ave., Ext., Estaka, Dipolog City 7100
Bajada, Davao City 8000 Tel. No/s: (065) 212-2574/4485
Tel. No/s.: (082) 221-9400 up to 12 Fax: (065) 212-4485
Fax No.: (082) 2264-885
DUMAGUETE CITY WATER DISTRICT
DIFFUN WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager North Rd., Daro, Dumaguete City 6200
Public Market Bldg., Diffun, Quirino 3401 Tel. No/s: (035) 225-5016/0551/422-8310
Fax: (035) 225-6677
DIGOS WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager E
Rizal Avenue, Digos, Davao del Sur 8002
Tel. No/s.: (082) 553-2121/2872/2111 ESTANCIA WATER DISTRICT
Fax No.: (082) 553-2872 The General Manager
364 V. Cudilla Ave., Estancia, lloilo 5017
DINALUPIHAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: 215
The General Manager
Brgy. Kataasan, Dinalupihan, Bataan 2110
Tel. No/s.: (047) 481-1444 / 3718
Fax No.: (047) 481-3717

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F GEN. SANTOS CITY WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager
FLORIDABLANCA WATER DISTRICT Dr # 1 Chua Bldg., Naranjita St.,
The General Manager Gen. Santos City 9500
Rizal St., Poblacion, Tel. No/s.: (083) 552-3824
Floridablanca, Pampanga 2006 Fax No.: (083) 553-4960
Tel. No/s.: (04597) 337 / (049) 646-0311
GERONA WATER DISTRICT
G The General Manager
Don Pedro Simeon St., Gerona, Tarlac 2302
GAPAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (045) 931-0407
The General Manager
Tinio St., San Vicente, Gapan, Nueva Ecija 3105 GINGOOG CITY WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (045) 976-2040 The General Manager
Fax No.: (045) 976-1823 J.Z. Mercado Ave., Gingoog City 9014
Tel. No/s.: (088) 861-1190 / (08842) 7448
GEN. M. NATIVIDAD WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager GUAGUA WATER DISTRICT
Poblacion, Gen. M. Natividad, Nueva Ecija 3125 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (0912) 306-8791 San Nicolas, Guagua, Pampanga 2003
Tel. No/s.: (045) 910-547 / 91 2-949
GEN. MARIANO ALVAREZ WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (045) 912-949
The General Manager
Blk. 4 Lot 4, Poblacion 2, Gen. Mariano GUBAT WATER DISTRICT
Alvarez, Cavite 4117 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (046) 972-0982 0538 Manook St., Gubat, Sorsogon 4710
Fax No.: (046) 972-0982 Tel. No/s.: (056) 311-1242 / 1016

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GUIMBA WATER DISTRICT IPIL WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Cor Faigal & Danzalan Sts., National Highway, Ipil,
Guimba, Nueva Ecija 3115 Zamboanga del Sur 2201
Tel. No.: (044) 611-1207 Tel. No/s.: (062) 333-2274
Fax No.:(044) 611-121-07
IRIGA CITY WATER DISTRICT
GUINAYANGAN WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Rufino Llagas Sr St.,
Brgy. Calimpak, Poblacion, San Roque, Iriga City 4431
Guinayangan, Quezon 4319 Tel. No/s.: (054) 299-2220 / 5709/ 655-0508
Tel. No/s.: (042) 303-4189 Fax No.: (054) 655-0508

HAGONOY WATER DISTRICT ISABEL WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Municipal Compound LGU Compound, Isabel, Leyte 6539
Hagonoy, Bulacan 3002 Tel. No/s.: 556-9227 / 0726 (lslacom)
Tel. No/s: (044) 793-0019/0433/1409
Fax: (044) 794-2524 ISABELA WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
I Carlos F Garcia St., lsabela, Basilan 6128
Tel. No/s.: (062) 200-7418
ILOCOS NORTE WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager ISABELA WATER DISTRICT
Jr. Ennui Hill, Laoag City, The General Manager
llocos Norte 2900 Isabela, Negros Occidental 6128
Tel. No/s.: (077) 772-0985
Fax No.: (077) 771-4814

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J K

JAEN WATER DISTRICT KABACAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Jaen, Nueva Ecija 3109 Rizal Avenue, Kabacan,
Tel. No/s.: (044) 306-9495 / 486-2889 North Cotabato 9407
Tel. No/s.: (064) 248-2074
JANIUAY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager KABANKALAN WATER DISTRICT
#313 Don I Lutero St., The General Manager
Janiuay, Iloilo 5034 Cor Rizal-Tayum Sts., Kabankalan,
Tel. No/s.: (lslacom) 531-8100 Negros Occidental 6111
Tel. No/s.: (034) 4712-134
JARO WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (034) 4712-634
The General Manager
G/F, ABC Hall Bldg. Real St., KALAMANSIG WATER DISTRICT
Jaro, Leyte 6527 The General Manager
341 Poblacion, Kalamansig,
JOLO MAINLAND WATER DISTRICT Sultan Kudarat 9808
The General Manager
Camp Asturias, Jolo, SuIu 7400 KALIBO WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: 2305/2107 (RCPI) The General Manager
Mabini St., Kalibo, Aklan 5600
JORDAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (036) 262-3064 / 268-4200
The General Manager Fax No.: (036) 262-4285
Brgy. RizaI, Jordan, Guimaras 5045
Tel. No/s.: (033) 851-3011 / (0915) 300-4321

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KAPATAGAN WATER DISTRICT LEON WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Kapatagan, F Cabarles St. Leon, lloibo 5026
Lanao del Norte 9214 Tel. No/s.: (033) 331-0039
Tel. No/s.: (063) 38272317
Fax No.: (063) 382-2317 LEGAZPI CITY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
KORONADAL WATER DISTRICT Bitano, Legazpi City 4500
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (052) 480-9395 / 820-1175 / 214-3750
2nd Flr. Public Market Bldg., Koronadal Fax No.: (052) 214-3482
South Cotabato 9506
Tel. No/s: (083) 228-2783 LEYTE METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT
Fax: (083) 228-4840 The General Manager
Mabini St., Tacloban City 6500
L Tel. No/s.: (053) 325-689
Fax No.: (053) 325-7330
LA CARLOTA WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager LIANGA WATER DISTRICT
Rizal St., La Carlota City, The General Manager
Negros Occidental 6130 Mabini St., Lianga, Surigao del Sur 8307
Tel: (034) 460-2488
Fax: (034) 460-2641 LIBACAO WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
LEMERY WATER DISTRICT Malanga Poblacion, Libacao, Aklan 5602
The General Manager
Carnero Subdv., Brgy. Sangalang, LIGAO-OAS WATER DISTRICT
Lemery, Batangas 4209 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (043) 411-1208 / 4552 Tuburan, Ligao, Albay 4504
Fax No.: (043) 411-4552 Tel. No/s.: (052) 431-1348

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LILOY WATER DISTRICT LOPEZ WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Liloy, 210 Gen. V. Yngente Ave., Lopez, Quezon 4316
Zamboanga del Norte 7115 Tel. No/s.: (042) 841-1175 / 302-5233

LIMAY WATER DISTRICT LUBAO WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
R Ambrocio St., Townsite, San Nicolas I, Lubao, Pampanga 2005
Limay, Bataan 2103 Tel. No/s.: (045) 93- 6656 / 971-6656
Tel. No/s.: (047) 2445274 Fax No.: (045) 93-6656 / 971-6656

LINAMON WATER DISTRICT LUPON WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Linamon, Lanao del Norte 9201 Aguinaldo cor K. Baratua Sts., Lupon, Davao
Tel. No/s.: (063) 227-0107 Oriental 8207
Fax No.: (063) 221-5855 / 227-1998 Tel. No/s.: (087) 808-0381

LINGIG WATER DISTRICT M


The General Manager
Poblacion, Lingig, Surigao del Sur 8312 M’LANG WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
LLORENTE WATER DISTRICT Rizal St., M’lang, North Cotabato 9402
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (064) 268-4006
Llorente, Eastern Samar 6803
MALAYBALAY CITY WATER DISTRICT
LOBO WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Sayre Hi-way, Sumpong, Malaybalay City 8700
A. Mabini St., Poblacion, Tel. No/s.: (088) 221-2640 / 813-3670
Lobo, Batangas 4229 Fax No.: (088) 221-2640

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MALINAO WATER DISTRICT MANAOAG WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Sta Maria St, Poblacion, Milo St., Manaoag, Pangasinan 2430
Malinao, Aklan 5606 Tel. No/s.: (075) 519-3155
Tel No/s. (036) 265-8040 Fax No.: (075) 529-0254

MALOLOS WATER DISTRICT MANAPLA WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Malolos, Bulacan 3000 B. Gallo St., Manapla,
Tel. No/s.: (044) 791-0876 / 4539 Negros Occidental 6120
Fax No.: (044) 791-0876 Tel. No/s.: (034) 491-0013

MALUSO WATER DISTRICT MANGALDAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Townsite, Maluso, Basilan 7303 Serafica St., Mangaldan, Pangasinan 2432
Tel. No/s: (075) 523-5884
MAMBAJAO WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager MARAGONDON WATER DISTRICT
Umycco, Poblacion, The General Manager
Mambajao, Camiguin 9100 Poblacion Il-A, Maragondon, Cavite 4112
Tel. No/s.: (088) 870-013 Tel. No/s.: (046) 412-0787

MAMBUSAO WATER DISTRICT MARAMAG WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Sta. Catalina St., Mambusao, Capiz 5807 Toribio Coruna St., South Poblacion,
Tel. No/s.: (036) 647-0121 Maramag, Bukidnon 8714
Tel. No/s.: (088) 226-2382 / 4230 / 4231

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MARAWI CITY WATER DISTRICT MASBATE WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Pumping St., Bubonga-Marawi, DPWH Bldg., Zurbito St.,
Marawi City 9700 Masbate, Masbate 5400
Tel. No/s.: (063) 520-339 Tel. No/s.: (056) 333-2311
Fax No.: (063) 520-383 Fax No.: (056) 333-2342

MARILAO WATER DISTRICT MASINLOC WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
11 T. Sandico St., Poblacion 2, Top Hut, Masinloc, Zambales 2011
Marilao, Bulacan 3019 Tel. No/s.: (047) 82-1050
Tel. No/s.: (044) 711-1529/ 4423 Fax No.: (032) 254-5391
Fax No.: (044) 71i-1529
METRO HILONGOS WATER DISTRICT
MARIVELES WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Mabini & Capt. Flordelis Sts.,
Prov’I Road, San lsidro, Hilongos, Leyte 6524
Mariveles, Bataan 2105 Tel. No/s.: (053) 336-2026; 567-9312
Tel. No/s.: (047) 935-4635
Fax No.: (047) 935-5561 METRO ILOILO WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
MASANTOL WATER DISTRICT Bonifacio Drive, lIoilo City 5000
The General Manager Tel No/s (033) 337-3272 / 3246/4744/8482
San Nicolas, Masantol, Pampanga 2017 Fax No.: (033) 336-6538
Tel. No/s.: (045) 981-1306

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METRO KIDAPAWAN WATER DISTRICT METRO MIDSAYAP WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Lanao, Kidapawan, North Cotabato 9400 007 Poblacion 8, Midsayap,
Tel. No/s.: (064) 288-1865 / 1533 North Cotabato 9410
Fax No.: (064) 288-5257 Tel. No/s.: (064) 229-8215 / 8973
Fax No.: c/o (064) 229-8024
METRO LA UNION WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager METRO NAGA WATER DISTRICT
Quezon Ave., The General Manager
San Fernando City, La Union 2500 40 J. Miranda Ave., Naga City 4400
Tel. No/s.: (072) 242-2003 / 888-2158 / 3183 Tel. No/s.: (054) 811-3155 /
Fax No.: (072) 242-2003 473-7813 / 2040/ 8438
Fax No.: (054) 811-1899
METRO LINGAYEN WATER DISTRICT E-Mail: mnwd~mozom.com
The General Manager
06 Avenida Rizal West, METRO ROXAS WATER DISTRICT
Lingayen, Pangasinan 2401 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (075) 542-6136 MRWD Bldg., Punta Tabuc,
Roxas City 5800
METRO LIPA WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (036) 621-0044 / 6085
The General Manager Fax No.: (036) 621-0737
B. Morada Ave., Lipa City
Tel. No/s.: (043) 756-6972 / 1670 METRO SIARGAO WATER DISTRICT
Fax No.: (043) 756-6972 The General Manager
Dapa, Surigao del Norte 8417

METRO SIQUIJOR WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager
South Poblacion, Siquijor, Siquijor 6225

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METRO VIGAN WATER DISTRICT NORZAGARAY WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Mira Hills, Vigan, llocos Sur 2700 #28 A. Payumo St., Poblacion,
Tel. No/s.: (077) 722-2098 Norzagaray, Bulacan 3013
Fax No.: (077) 722-2098 Tel. No/s.: (0912) 827-2431
Fax No.: (044) 694-1939
MEYCAUAYAN WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager N
Poblacion, Meycauayan,
Bulacan 3020 NUMANCIA WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (044) 840-7413 / 4506 The General Manager
Fax No.: (044) 228-3074 Laguenbanua, Numancia, Aklan 5604
Tel. No/s (036) 868-4451
MISAMIS OCCIDENTAL WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager O
Maningcol, Ozamis City 7200
Tel. No/s.: (088) 521-0339 / 1743 OBANDO WATER DISTRICT
Fax No.: (088) 521-1743 The General Manager
Sevilla St. Catanghalan,
MOALBOAL WATER DISTRICT Obando, Bulacan 3021 34
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (044) 294-0965 to 68
Moalboal, Cebu 6032 Fax No.: (044) 293-0609
Tel. No/s.: (032) 474-8068
ORANI WATER DISTRICT
MONCADA WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Centro Uno, Orani, Bataan 2112
Poblacion I, Moncada, Tarlac 2308 Tel. No/s.: (047) 431-1364 / 431-1262
Tel. No/s.: (045) 931-1217 Fax No.: (047) 431-1364

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ORION WATER DISTRICT PANABO WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Lopez Jaena St., Wakas, National Hi-way, Garcia St.,
Orion, Bataan 2102 Gredu, Panabo, Davao del No. 8105
Tel. No/s.: (047) 2444046 Tel. No/s.: (084) 628-5356 / (Mu) 822-3167

PAGADIAN CITY WATER DISTRICT PANDAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
F. Datoc St., Gatas Dist., Pandan, Antique 5712
Pagadian City 7016 No. of S. C.: 422
Tel. No/s.: (062) 214-1747 Tel. No/s.: (036) 288-9288
Fax No.: (066) 214-2179
PANDI WATER DISTRICT
P The General Manager
Poblacion, Pandi, Bulacan 3014
PAGSANJAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (044) 661-1050
The General Manager
No. 52 Dr J. R Rizal St., PANIQUI WATER DISTRICT
Pagsanjan, Laguna 4008 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (049) 808-4298 103 Cedasco Commercial Center,
Zamora, Paniqui, Tarlac 2307
PALOMPON WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (045) 931-0293
The General Manager
Kadiwa Bldg., Rizal St., PARACALE WATER DISTRICT
Palompon, Leyte 6538 The General Manager
Sto. Nino, Paracale, Camarines Norte 4605

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PASACAO WATER DISTRICT POLANCO WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
San Ceribo, Pasacao, Camarines Sur 4417 Poblacion North, Polanco,
Zamboanga del Norte 7106
PILI WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager POLOMOLOK WATER DISTRICT
Guevarra St., San Vicente, Pili, The General Manager
Camarines Sur 4418 Dulay Subdv., National Highway,
Tel. No/s: (054) 361-1215 Pobomolok, So. Cotabato 9504
Tel. No/s.: (0912) 703-4530 / (083) 225-2020
PINAMALAYAN WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (083) 501-0083
The General Manager
Brgy. Sta. Rita, Pinamalayan, Or. Mindoro 5208 PONTEVEDRA WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s: (043) 284-3203 The General Manager
Pontevedra, Capiz 5802
PINAMUNGAJAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (036) 6340102 / 0302
The General Manager
Poblacion, Pinamungajan, Cebu 6039 PONTEVEDRA WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (032) 468-9002 /(091 8) 773-6595 The General Manager
Pontevedra Municipal Hall,
PLARIDEL WATER DISTRICT Pontevedra, Negros Occidental 6105
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (034) 391-3273
A. C. Reyes St., Poblacion,
Plaridel, Bulacan 3004 POZORRUBIO WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (044) 795-0102 The General Manager
Sison St., Pozorrubio,
POLA WATER DISTRICT Pangasinan 2435
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (075) 566-7025
Bayanan, Pola, Oriental Mindoro 5206

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PROSPERIDAD WATER DISTRICT RAMON WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Agusan del Sur 8500 Old Municipal Bldg.,
Tel. No/s.: (082) 241-3199 (Cruztelco) Ramon, lsabela 3319

PUERTO PRINCESA CITY WATER RAMOS WATER DISTRICT


DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Poblacion Center, Ramos, Tarlac 2311
263 Rizal Ave., Puerto Princesa City, Tel. No/s.: (045) 931-0180 c/o GM Jonatas
Palawan 5300
Tel. No/s.: (048) 433-5032 / 2408 / 9745 ROMBLON WATER DISTRICT
Fax No.: (048) 433-6803 The General Manager
Paseo de Magallanes cor Reduplica Sts.,
Q Romblon 5500
Tel. No/s.: dial 109 412-28-64 loc. 2385
QUEZON METROPOLITAN WATER
DISTRICT S
The General Manager
Brgy. lbabang Dupay, Lucena City 4301 SAN ANTONIO WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (042) 373-0736 / The General Manager
710-2855 / 2965/2508 Poblacion, San Antonio,
Fax No.: (042) 710-2965 Nueva Ecija 3108
Tel. No/s.: (0912) 236-1441
R
SAN ANTONIO WATER DISTRICT
RAGAY WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Brgy Rizal, San Antonio,
Pamarang St., Ragay, Zambabes 2206
Camarines Sur 4410 Tel No/s (04765) 4108
Tel. No/s.: (054) 741-1014

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SAN CARLOS CITY WATER DISTRICT SAN ILDEFONSO WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
R’zal Ave., San Carlos City, Don Pedro Borja Subd., Poblacion,
Pangasinan 2420 San Ildefonso, Bulacan 3010
Tel. No/s.: (075) 532-3005 / 955-5632 / 634.156 Tel. No/s.: (044) 7641060
Fax No.: (075) 955-5632
SAN ISIDRO WATER DISTRICT
SAN FELIPE WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager 4360 Pob. Bato-Bato, San lsidro,
Abed St., Brgy. East Feria, Davao Oriental 8209
San Felipe, Zambales 2204
Tel. No/s.: (047) 65-4511 SAN JOSE WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
SAN FERNANDO WATER DISTRICT Municipal Cmpd., San Jose,
The General Manager Occidental Mindoro 5100
B. Mendoza St., Dolores, San Fernando, Tel. No/s.: (043) 491-1357 / 1972
Pampanga 2000 Fax No.: (043) 491-1357
Tel. No/s.: (045) 961-3546
Fax No.: (045) 963-3729 SAN JOSE CITY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
SAN FRANCISCO WATER DISTRICT Maharlika Rd., Abar 1st.,
The General Manager San Jose City, Nueva Ecija 3121
Bonifacio St., Brgy. 4, Tel. No/s.: (044) 511-1004 / 947-2840
San Francisco, Agusan del Sur 8501 Fax No.: (044) 511-1004
Tel. No/s.: (085) 343-8032 / 8033 / 8623

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SAN JOSE DEL MONTE WATER DISTRICT SIBALOM WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Area I, Sapang Palay, Bulacan 3024 Gonzales St., Sibabom, Antique 5713
Tel. No/s.: (0912) 305-3245 (Main) / Tel. No/s.: (036) 543-7699
(044) 9241473 (Ext.)
Fax No.: (0912) 305-3245
SIBULAN WATER DISTRICT
SAN JOSE (DINAGAT ISLAND) WATER The General Manager
DISTRICT Diputado St.,Pobbacion.,
The General Manager Sibuban, Negros Oriental 6201
San Jose, Dinagat Island, Tel. No/s.: (Cruztelco) 225-0120 /
Surigao del Norte 8412 Telephone 419-8598

SAN JUAN WATER DISTRICT SILANG WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Hall St., San Juan, Batangas 4226 M. H. del Pilar cor E. Montoya Sts.,
Tel. No/s.: (043) 341-1003 (0436) 3512 Silang, Cavite 4118
Tel. No/s.: (046) 4140240
SANTIAGO CITY WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (046) 4140886
The General Manager
3 Carreon St., Centro East, SILAY CITY WATER DISTRICT
Santiago City, Isabela 3311 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (078) 682-8300 / 7363 2/F, Public Market Bldg., Burgos St.,
Fax No.: (076) 682-8300 Silay City, Negros Occidental 6116
Tel. No/s.: (034) 495-0163 / 495-5011
SASMUAN WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (034) 495-0163
The General Manager
Sta. Lucia, Sasmuan, Pampanga 2004
Tel. No/s.: (045) 826-0765 / 0767

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SIOCON WATER DISTRICT SURIGAO METROPOLITAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
B. Tomboc St., Poblacion, Siocon, Km. 2 National Highway,
Zamboanga del Node 7120 Surigao City 8400
Tel. No/s.: (086) 232-6706 /
SIPOCOT WATER DISTRICT 231-7163 / 826-0269 / 5045
The General Manager Fax: (086) 826-0269
South Centro, Sipocot, Camarines Sur
Tel. No/s: (054) 256-6105 T

SOLANA WATER DISTRICT TAAL WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Bonifacio St., Centro Solana, Cagayan 3503 J P Laurel cor F. Zamora Sts.,
Taal, Batangas 4208
SORS0G0N WATER DISTRICT Tel No/s.: (043) 421-1134
The General Manager Fax No.: (043) 411-1022
Capitol Compound, Sorsogon, Sorsogon 4700
Tel. No/s.: (056) 211-1570 / 2024 TABACO WATER DISTRICT
Fax No.: (056) 211-1570 The General Manager
Karangahan Blvd., Tabaco, Albay 4511
SULTAN KUDARAT WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (052) 487-4073
The General Manager Fax No.: (052) 487-4416
Cor Bonifacio & Quirino Sts., Tacurong,
Sultan Kudarat 9800 TAGAYTAY CITY WATER DISTRICT
Tel. No/s.: (064) 200-3353 / 3359 The General Manager
Fax No.: (064) 885-5532 Bacolod St., Brgy. Kaybagal,
Tagaytay City 4120
SURALLAH WATER DISTRICT No. of S. C.: 3,865
The General Manager Tel. No/s.: (046) 413-1312 / 1122 / 860-C
Municipal Hall, Surallah, South Cotabato 9512 Fax No.: (046) 413-1122

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TAGBINA WATER DISTRICT TALAVERA WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Poblacion, Tagbina, Surigao del Sur 8308 # 042 Diaz St. Pag-asa Dist.,
Talavera, Nueva Ecija 3114
TAGKAWAYAN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.: (044) 411-1589 / 3194
The General Manager Fax No.: 411-3194
Gulf View Subd., Tagkawayan, Quezon 4321
Tel. No/s.: (042) 3048128 TALIBON WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager
TAGUDIN WATER DISTRICT Foblacion, Talibon, Bohol 6325
The General Manager
Ground FIr., Justice Hall Bldg., TALISAY CITY WATER DISTRICT
Tagudin, llocos Sur 2714 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (077) 748-7104 Bonifacio SF, Talisay City, Negros
Occidental 6115
TAGUDIN WATER DISTRICT Tel. No/s.(034) 495-0669
The General Manager
Ground Fir, Justice Hall Bldg., TANAY, EASTERN RIZAL WATER DISTRICT
Tagudin, Ilocos Sur 2714 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (077) 748-7104 F. Catapusan St., Tanay, Rizal 1909
Tel. No/s.: (02) 6540027 / 0033 / 2373
TAGUM WATER DISTRICT Fax No.: (02) 6540027
The General Manager
Mirafuentes District, National Hi-way, TANDAG WATER DISTRICT
Tagum, Davao del Norte 8100 The General Manager
Tel. No/s.: (084) 217-3159 / 1620 / 400-1137 Cor Rizal-F Delicona Sts., Tandag,
Fax No.: (084) 400-1137 Surigao del Sur 8300
Tel. No/s.: (086) 211-3258

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TANGUB CITY WATER DISTRICT TUKURAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
2nd South St., Tangub City, Ocampo St., Sto. Nino, Tukuran,
Misamis Occidental 7214 Zamboanga del Sur 7019

TANJAY WATER DISTRICT TIMAUINI WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Legaspi St., Tanjay, Negros Oriental 6204 2nd FIr, Public Market Bldg.,
Tel. No/s.: (035) 527-0017 / 415-8480 Tumauini, lsabela 3325
Fax No.: (035) 5270-017 Tel. No/s.: (076) 632-4051

TANZA WATER DISTRICT TUPI WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
A. Soriano Highway, Tanza, Cavite 4108 BIk. 6, Lt. 11, Tupi Pilot Subd., Poblacion,
Tel. No/s.: (046) 437-7475 Tupi, South Cotabato 9505
Tel. No/s.: (083) 501-5109 / (0918) 450-3237
TUBOD-BAROY WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager TUY WATER DISTRICT
Ultramax Bldg.,Crossing Pob., The General Manager
Tubod, Lanao del Norte 9209 Luna St., Tuy, Batangas 4214
Tel. No/s.:(063) 341-5313
Fax No.: (063) 341-5226 U

TUGUEGARAO WATER DISTRICT UMINGAN WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
2nd FIr, Supermarket Bldg., Bonifacio St., Progreso St., Umingan, Pangasinan 2443
Tuguegarao, Cagayan 3500 Tel. No/s.: (075) 576-2170
Tel. No/s.: (078) 8441586
Fax No.: (078) 844-1586

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UNISAN WATER DISTRICT VICTORIAS WATER DISTRICT


The General Manager The General Manager
Brgy. F de Jesus, Unisan, Quezon 4305 Quirino St., Victorias City,
Tel. No/s.: (0912) 325-2575 Negros Occidental 6119
Tel. No/s.: (034) 399-2865
URBIZTONDO WATER DISTRICT
The General Manager VILLASIS WATER DISTRICT
Luna St., Poblacion, The General Manager
Urbiztondo, Pangasinan 2414 Villasis, Pangasinan 2427
Tel. No/s.: (075) 5942003
VIRAC WATER DISTRICT
URDANETA WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager San Isidro Village, Virac,
Marcos Complex, Urdaneta, Pangasinan Catanduanes 4800
Tel. No/s.: (075) 568-2425 / 3553 Tel. No/s: (052) 811-1254
Fax No.: (075) 568-2425
Z
V
ZAMBOANGA CITY WATER DISTRICT
VALENCIA WATER DISTRICT The General Manager
The General Manager Pilar St., Zamboanga City 7000
Hagkol, Valencia, Bukidnon 8709 Tel No/s (062) 991-1857/1556
Tel. No/s.: (088) 828-2057 to 59 / 844-2422 Fax No: (062) 991-2799
Fax No.: (088) 828-2058

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❙ Non- Government Organizations

A B

AGNO RIVER BASIN DEVELOPMENT BULACAN ASSOCIATION OF WATER


COMMISSION DISTRICTS
The Executive Director The President
CBC Bldg., PSU-Sta. Maria, Pangasinan C/o Malolos Water District
Tel: 075-5742036/53 Poblacion, Malolos, Bulacan 3000
Fax: 075-574-2035 Tel: (044) 791-0876
Email: Benjamin1@digitelone.com
C
APPROTECH ASIA
The Executive Director CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL
G/F Phil. Social development Center AWARENESS AND EDUCATION
Magallanes corner Real Streets, The Executive Director
Intramuros, Manila Unit 141, Virra 1 Condominium
Tel: 527-65-14,338-0643 500 P. Burgos Street, Bel Air
Telefax: 527-37-44 Makati City 1209
Email: loramos@sun1.dost.gov.ph Telephone: 8956031 to 39, local 141
Telefax: 8995660
ASSOCIATED COUNCIL FOR COORDINATED Web: www.ceae.org
DEVELOPMENT IN NEGROS OCCIDENTAL Email: regina@ceae.org
(ACCORD NEGROS)
The Executive Director
Address: Room 211, JTL Building, B.S. Aquino
Drive Bacolod City, Negros Occidental
Phone: (034) 433 718
Email: acordneg@bacololod.wordtelphil.com

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K MUNTINLUPA DEVELOPMENT
FOUNDATION
KAAGAPAY NG MINDOREÑO, INC. (KAMI) The Executive Director
The Executive Director Fax: 842-45-61
PCPC, Brgy. San Aquilino Tel: 842-22-75
Roxas, Oriental Mindoro
Fax: 043-289-2308 N
Tel: 043-289-2254
NATIONAL HYDRAULIC RESEARCH CENTER
M The Executive Director
College of Engineering,
MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL UP Diliman , Quezon City
DEVELOPMENT FOR EMPOWERMENT Tels: 927-71-49, 927-7176
(MODE) Fax: 927-7190
The Executive Director Email: nitz@nhrc.eng.upd.edu.ph
99 Matimtiman St., Sikatuna Village, Loenardo Liongson- Executive Director
Quezon City
Tel: 435-3652 NORTHERN PHILIPPINES TRIBAL
Fax: 435-3655 COMMUNITIES DEVELOPMENT CENTER
Email: au@mode.org (NPTCDC)
# 28 Roxas St., Brookside, Baguio City
MINDORO'Y ANGKING YAMAN NATIN Albert Ano/Joey Daiwey
(MANGYAN) DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION
(MDFI)
The Executive Director
Fax: 043-491-1178
Tel: 043-491-1178

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P PHILIPPINE RURAL RECONSTRUCTION


MOVEMENT- NV CHAPTER (PRRM)
PARTNERSHIP OF PHILIPPINE SUPPORT C/o NVSIT Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
The Executive Director Phone: (078) 321-2280
SERVICES AGENCIES (PHILSSA) Fax: 078-321-2112
3rd Floor, Cardinal Hoffner Bldg., Tel: 078-321-3783
Social Development Complex, Ateneo de
Manila Campus, Loyola Heights, Quezon City PHILIPPINE SOCIETY OF SANITARY
Tels: 426-0811, ENGINNERS ( PSSE)
Telefax: 426-4328 The Executive Director
Unit 2A, Teresa de Manila Condominium
PHILIPPINE ASSOCIATION OF WATER 1 Puray St., Santolan, Quezon City
DISTRICTS (PAWD) Tels: 716-7989,7167997
The Executive Director Fax: 716-7777
2/F LWUA Bldg., Katipunan Road, Balara,
Quezon City PHILIPPINE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Trunklines: 920-55-82 to 90 NETWORK (PSDN)
The Chairman
PHILIPPINE CENTER FOR WATER AND Unit 1006 Jollibee Center Condominium
SANITATION –INTERNATIONAL TRAINING San Miguel Avenue, Pasig City
NETWORK FOUNDATION (PCWS-ITNF) Tels: 634-77-06
The Executive Director Fax: 631-09-77
P-3 Minnesota Mansion, 267 Ermin Garcia St., Telefax: (032) 414-93-16
Cubao, Quezon City
Telefax: 911-57-83, 912-0531
E-mail: pcws@compass.com.ph
lync@compass.com.ph
Website: http://www.itnphil.org.ph

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PHILIPPINE WATERSHED MANAGEMENT S


COALITION
The Executive Director SEA REGIONAL COORDINATOR/ BATANGAS
C/o Kahublagan Sang Panimalay Foundation PPS URBAN WASTE EXPERTISE
25 Magsaysay Village PROGRAMME
Lapaz, Iloilo City The Executive Director
Tels: (033) 320-23-73 Fax: 632-434-59354
Telefax: (033) 320-0854 Tel: 632-434-5573, 929-84-29
Dan Lapid, Manager
PHILIPPINE WATERWORKS ASSOCIATION
(PWWA) U
The Executive Director
PWWA Bldg., Katipunan Road, URBAN WASTE EXPERTISE PROGRAMME-
Balara, Quezon City CENTER FOR ADVANCED PHILS. STUDIES
Trunklines: 920-7145 Rm. 202, cor Loyola Heights Condo,
Fax: 920-71-43 Loyola Heights, Quezon City
The Executive Director
PLAN INTERNATIONAL Tel: 343-5573, 929-8429
The Executive Director Fax: 434-5954
6th Flr., N&M Bldg.,
1184 Chino Roces Ave. Makati City. 1258 W
Tel. No/s: 897-1656/ 897-2745 to 46
Fax: 897-8358 WATER RESOURCES CENTER- UNIVERSITY
OF SAN CARLOS (WRC-USC)
The Executive Director
University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City
Tels: (032) 346-1128 loc. 504
Fax: (032) 346-0583

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❙ Private Sector

ABOITIZ EQUITY VENTURES CENTRAL LUZON ASSOCIATION OF WATER


110 Legaspi St., Penthouse, DISTRICTS
Legaspi Village, Makati City Poblacion, Meycauayan, Bulacan 3020
Tel: 816-2881, Fax: 817-9508 Tel: (044) 840-45-03
Email: miguel.aboitiz@bigfoot.com Fax: (044) 701-3074
Mariano Sangalang, Jr.
ALL ASIA ANGLIAN WATER CORPORATION
Suite 1607 Ayala Triangle Tower I MAMBURAO WATERWORKS AND
Ayala Avenue, Makati City SANITATION ASSOCIATION, INC.
Tel: 848-6881 The Executive Director
Fax: 848-6884 38 National Road, Mamburao,
Occidental Mindoro
AYALA PROPERTY MANAGEMENT CORP. Tel: (046) 711-1044
201 University Ave. cor., Caliraya St.,
Ayala Alabang Vill. Muntinlupa City MANILA WATER COMPANY. INC.
Tel: 807-1984-86, Fax: 842-4478,752-7939 Administration Bldg.,
489 Katipunan Rd. , Balara, Quezon City 1105
BALIBAGO WATERWORKS SYSTEM, INC. Tel: 928-1223/ 922-3761
# 3923 McArthur Hi-way, Fax: 922-3761/ 928-1223
Balibago, Angeles City
Tel: (045) 888-1707 MAYNILAD WATER SERVICES, INC.
MWSS Engineering Building
Katipunan Rd., Balara, Quezon City 1105
Tel: 920-5521 to 40
Fax: 920-54-08

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NORTHWELL WATERWORKS, INC. SOUTHWELL WATERWORKS, INC.


827 Palmera Center, Aurora Blvd., Ilang-Ilang St., Mother Earth Subd.,
Cubao, Quezon City 1100 Talon, Pas Piñas, MM
Tel: 727-6739 Tel: 806-8156
Fax: 410-0484 Fax: 801-4697

PHILIPPINE WATERWORKS CONSTRUCTION UNILEVER PHILIPPINES


CORPORATION Corporate Relations and Communications
63 J. Elizalde St., B.F. Homes, Manager
Parañaque, Metro Manila 1700 1351 United Nations Avenue, Manila
Tel: 807-3622 to 28 Tel: 562-3951 loc. 780 Fax: 562-3951 loc. 329
Fax: 807-3628 E-mail: jika.mendoza@unilever.com

PILAR WATERWORKS CORPORATION VA TECH WABAG ASIA PACIFIC


PDC Compound, Rose Ave., Pilar Village Rm. 401 Golden Rock Building,
Las Piñas, Metro Manila 1700 168 Salcedo St., Legaspi Village, Makati City
Tel: 806-8640/817-6465/565-3314 Tel: 894-1010 / 817-4392
Fax: 801-0150 Fax: 817-4674
Email: c4pwc-LP@philonline.com Email: vati@csi.com

SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION VIVENDI WATER PHILS., INC. (CGE PHILS)


Water Resources Division President
San Miguel Avenue., Pasig City 7/F PS Bank Tower,
Tel: 932-3000/632-3961 to 62 Sen Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City
Fax: 632-2168 Tel: 759-67-93 to 95
Fax: 759-67-90
Email: cgdeaux@philonline.com

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❙ External Support Agencies


OXFAM-UK and IRELAND (OXFAM-UKI) UNICEF Manila
274 Banbury Rd., Oxford, OX27DZ UNICEF P.O. Box 1076 Makati Central Post Office
United Kingdom 1250 Makati City Philippines 1200
Tel: (+44-18-65) 311-311
UNICEF, 6th Floor NEDA Makati Building
95-A Malumanay St., 1101 Teachers Village, 106 Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village,
Quezon City Makati City, Philippines
Tel: 921-7203 GCO on the First Floor

Philippine Center for Water and Phone: +632 892 0611 through 25 (Trunk Lines)
Sanitation- ITN Foundation Fax: +632 892 8126
Tel: (632) 9115783 Email: manila@unicef.org
Website: http://www.unicef.org/philippines/
The World Bank Philippines
23rd Floor, The Taipan Place Building Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative
Emerald Avenue, Ortigas Council (WSSCC)
Manila, Philippines c/o WHO, 20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211,
Phone: (63-2) 637-5855 extension: 3003 Geneva 27, Switzerland
Facsimile: (63-2) 917-3050 Phone: +41 22 7913544
E-mail: Lgonzales@worldbank.org, Fax: +41 22 791 4847
www.lguportal.worldbank.org. Email: wsscc@who.ch
Website: http://www.wsscc.org/

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World Health Organization


Water, Sanitation and Health, Department
of Protection of the Human Environment
20 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27,
Switzerland
Tel: +41 22 791 3537
Fax: +41 22 791 3531
E-mail: bartramj@who.ch
Website: http://www.who.ch

P.O. Box 2932 (UN Ave.)


1000 Manila, Philippines
Tel: 528-9890/ 5288001
Fax: 528-521-1036
Email: abramsr@wpro.who.int

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