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2005 cqks ui 8 - n∞∞

ú≥y,
msgj
q 21
;dlaIK wxYh
úúOdldr wjYH;d i|yd Ndú; l< yels nyqldr®h bf,lafg%daksl
Wmdx. jr®.hla fõ'
wkqudk ;r®l l%uh (FUZZY LOGIC)
l%uf,aLkh (Program) m˙.Klhla Ndú; lr ksr®udKh wkqudk ;r®l ms<ns | isoO
a dka;" ≤kg jvd;a u Ndú; jkqfha
lr.; yels w;r" m˙.Klhg u iú lrk ,o úfYaI wu;r lD;su a h (Artitical intelligene) yd iïnkaO mr®fhaIK
% nqoê
tallhka Ndú; lr tu l%uf,aLkh w∞< uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rh yd jHdmD;s i|yd h' ≤kg m˙.Kl iïnkaO Wmdê y∞rk
;=<g we;=<;a l< yels h' YsIHhkag fuu ;r®l l%uh b.ekSug is≥ fõ' u;= ld,fha
l%uf,aLkh (Program) lrk ,o uhsfl%dlkafg%da,rh w∞< w'fmd'i Wiia fm< .◊;h y∞rk isik q g
a o fuu ;r®l l%uh
ksr®ñ; m˙m:hg we;=<;a ls¯fuka miqj Tng wjYH ls%hdld¯;ajh bf.kSug is≥ ùug bv ;sfí' w†ka werfUk fuu ,sms fmf<ys
,nd foñka lghq;= lrkq we;' wruqK fuu ;r®l l%uh yd tys uq,l s isoO
a dka; ms<n
s |j
fuys ° Tn wjfndaO lr.; hq;= jeo.;a lreKqla jkqfha jegySula ir, W∞yrK u.ska ,nd °u h'
uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rhg lsis≥ nqoaêuh yelshdjla fkdue;s nj h' W∞yrKh 1 ( ms˙is≥ iy b;d wms˙is≥ c,h Ndck 2lg fjk
uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rh hkq úúOdldr ixLHdxl bf,lafg%daksl
MICROCONTROLLERS moaO;Ska f.a (Co unters, flip-flops, ALU's, A/D Convert-
fjk ouuq' bkamiq §fuu Ndckfha we;s c,h ms˙is≥ h'¶ hk
m%ldYh i,luq' ms˙is≥ c,h we;s Ndckhg fuu m%ldYh i;H
ers) tl;=fjka ksuefjk tallhla ùu Bg fya;=jhs' Tn f.a jk w;r wms˙is≥ c,h we;s Ndckh i|yd m%ldYh wi;H fõ'
md,k moaO;sh ls%hd l< hq;= wdldrh" ls%hdmámdáh yd ksje/† idudkH ;r®l l%uh hgf;a hï m%ldYhl i;H;dj fyda wi;H;dj
laIqø md,k tall (MICROCONTROLLERS) ;ju;a Ndjh' iïmQr®Kfhka u /£ mj;skafka Tn úiska ilia lrkq jYfhka oaúudk f,i i,lk uq;a fï i;H;dj fyda wi;H;dj
Tn fndfyda fokl=g wd.ka;l = fh≥ula úh yels h' tfy;a ,nk l%uf,aLkh u; fõ' Tn úiska f∞aI iys; widr®:l l%u w;r w;rueo wjia:djkaa ms<sn|j ie,lSula ke;'
laIøq md,k tall jeä l,a fkdhjd u t†fk∞ „ú;hg ke;s f,aLkhka we;=<;a l< fyd;a Tn f.a m˙m:h o tf,i u f∞aI jvd ms˙is≥ fkd jk tfuka u b;d wms˙is≥ fkd jk w;rueo
iys;" m%fhdackhla ke;s tallhla jkq we;' wjia:djl mj;sk c,h Ndckhlg ouuq' túg tu Ndckh
j u ne˙ Wmdx.hla njg m;a jk ,l=Kq fmkakï q lrhs'
tfia u uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rh hkq jev ls¯ug Wmka" wdYdjka ms<sn|j by; jdlHfha i;H wi;H;dj .ek Tng mjikq
kq≥re wkd.;h jk úg laIøq md,k tallhla wvx.= fkdjk
iys; b;d lSlre fiajlhl= f,i u;l ;nd .ekSu jà' th yelafla l=ula o@
bf,lafg%dksl WmlrKhla fidhd .ekSug o ne˙ ;rï jkq l%uf,aLkfha we;s Wmfoia tlla fkd yer lsis≥ wvqmdvqjlska f;dr
we;' kQ;kfha fudagr® r:" iSã hka;"% leiÜ hka;"% leurd wd† j ls%hd lrk w;r th lsis úgl;a l%uf,aLkfha fkdue;s
WmlrK /il laIøq md,k tall wka;r®.; fõ' ls%hdldrlula is≥ fkd lrhs'
th Tfí wjYH;djla fjkqfjka Wmfoia ° wjYH ld˙hl fuu ,sms fm< ;=<ska uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rhla Ndú; lr m˙m:
fhoúh yels Wmdx.hls' W∞yrKhla f,i forgqjla yryd ksr®udKh lr .ekSu yd Bg w∞< l%uf,aLkhla (Program)
.uka lrk ñksik q a .Kk .Kka ls¯u i|yd laIøq md,k ksr®udKh ls¯u;a" th uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rh ;=< msysgqùu;a (In-
tallhla l%uf,aL.; ls¯ug ms<j s k' m˙.Klhl laIøq stall) hk ldr®hhka ms<sn| wjfndaOhla m%dfhda.sl ls%hdldrlï
ilikhla jeks u tfy;a Bg jvd ir, uÜgfï Wmdx.hla lsysmhla ;=<ska mdGlhdg b†˙m;a ls¯ug wms n,dfmdfrd;a;= fjuq'
f,i o fuh y∫kajd †h yels h' tfia u" bf,lafg%daksl lafIa;%fha uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rj, fh°ï yd 1'1 (a) ms˙is≥ c,h - 1'1 (b) wms˙is≥ c,h - 1'1 (c) w;rueo
ú≥ir mdGl Tn fjkqfjka laIøq md,k tall ms<n s | jdis wjdis ms<sn| j ye¢kaùula b†˙m;a ls¯ug o wms m%ldYh wi;H fõ' m%ldYh wi;H fõ wjia:dj - m%ldYh@
m%fhdackj;a ,sms fm<la wm wo mgka f.k tkafka fï lafIa;h % n,dfmdfrd;a;= fjuq' rEm igyk 1'1
w<,d i;=g∞q hl ≤kqula Tn fj; ,nd °fï wruq◊ks' fuajd túg fuu m%ldYfha wi;H wi;H;dj ug mejish fkdyels h
wvx.= WmlrK w¨;ajeähdj i|yd o fï iïnkaOfhka ♣ uhsfl%dfm%dfiirh hkq uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rhla o@ lshd Tng lsj yels h' thska yefÛkqfha tu Ndckh ;=< we;s
,nkakd jQ ≤kqula Tng m%fhdackj;a úh yels w;r fï c,fha ms˙is≥lu ms<sn|j Tfí ≤kqula ke;s nj o@ wms fuh
lafIa;f% ha /lshd" iajhx /lshd wjia:d W∞ lr .ekSu i|yd m˙.Kl Ndú;h ms<sn| b;d ir, ≤kqula we;s whl= ;j≥rg;a ú.%y lr .ekSu i|yd ;j;a W∞yrKhla i,luq'
o tlS ≤kqu bjy,a jkq we;' mjd uhsfl%dfm%dfiirh hk jok y∫kkq we;' fndfyda fokd W∞yrKh 2 ( Ndck 3la f.k tu Ndck 3g ms˙is≥ c,h iy
fïa ,sms fm< i|yd wdor®Y jYfhka fhd∞ .kakd laIøq md,k okakd m˙† m˙.Klhl m%Odk o;a; ieliqï yd m˙md,k wms˙is≥ c,h 3 ( 1" 1 ( 1" iy 1 ( 3 hk wkqmd;j,ska
tall fï †kj, mj;sk ñ, .Kkaj,g wkqj remsh,a 350- WmlrKh uhsfl%dfm%dfiirh (µP) fjhs' tfy;a µPys tl u ms<sfj<ska ñY% fldg tu Ndckj,g ouuq' tys ° §fuu Ndckh
700 w;r uqo,lg ñ, ° .; yels neúka uQ,l s fh≥u mqoa., m˙.Klj, (PC) uOHu ieliqï tallh ;=< we;s c,h ms˙is≥ h¶ hk m%ldYh ms<sn|j Tfí woyi l=ula
w;ay∞ne,Sïj, ° wdr®:l s w;ska o Tng lsih
s ï myiqjla (C.P.U) f,i Ndú; ls¯u muKla fkd jk nj isys ;nd o@
ie,fikq we;' .kak' wkqmd;h = ms˙is≥ c,h ( wms˙is≥ c,h
uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rh (µC) hkq uhsfl%dfm%dfiirfhka ir,
1' ye¢kaùu lrk ,o fh≥ula f,i ye¢kaúh yels fõ' tfy;a µP yd
µC w;r m%Odk fjkila we;' uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rhla hkq
♣ fudlla o fï uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rh@ 'Single Chip Computer' tlla f,i ye¢kaúh yels h'
Tn §whs iS¶ (IC - Integraded Circuit) .ek wid fyda ≤l fuu md˙NdIsl jpkfhys ksje/† wr®:h jgyd .ekSug my;
fyda we;sjd ksiel h' uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,r (Microcontroller) ≤lafjk whq˙ka mqΩjk' idudkH m˙.Kl hka;%hla tl,ia
ndysr fmkqñka tlS ix.Dys; m˙m:hla (Integraded Circuit) ù we;af;a ieliqï yd md,k tallfhka (Processors), u;l
jeks WmlrKhls' Tn fyd¢ka okakd ir, ICj, fmkqfuka hq;= .nvdfjka (Memory units) yd o;a; ,nd .ekSfï yd msg 1 ( 1 1 ( 3
3 ( 1
j fjf<| fmdf<ys Microcontroller mj;S' tfuka u fïjd ls¯fï tallj, (Input/Output units) tl;=fjks' 1'2 (a) 1'1 (b) 1'2 (c)
úfYaI ieliqï (Packages) f,i o we;' fuh mdo lsysmhl uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,r IC tlla ;=< by; lS m˙.Klhl rEm igyk 1'2
ir, IC ;;a;ajfha isg mdo ish .Kkla iys; ixlSr®K wjia:d wvx.= jk ishÆ u uQ,sl tall wvqjeä jYfhka ixCIsma;
m%ldYfha i;H wi;H;dj flfia fj;;a fuu Ndck w;=˙ka
olajd mqΩ,a weiqreï wdlD;s jr®.j,ska iukaú; úh yels h' lr mj;S' tu ksid tjeks Chi p tlla ;ks m˙.Klhla
jvd;a u ms˙is≥ c,h we;af;a 1'2 (a)ys o jvd;a u wms˙is≥
wfkl=;a ixLHdxl (Digital) yd m%;siu (Analog) ix.Dys; f,i y∫kajd †h yels h' c,h we;af;a 1'1 (c)ys o nj meye†,s h' 1'2 (b) Ndckh ;=<
m˙m: fuka u fuu uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,r o g%dkaisiagr® ^oaú O%ej&" ♣ µP iy µC w;r iei£ul
iei£ula 1'2 (c) Ndckhg jvd ms˙is≥ c,h we;s w;r 1'2 (a) ;=< we;s
fCIa;% wdprK g%dkaisiagr (F.E.T), m%;sfrdaOl yd Od˙;%l wd° c,h 1'2 (b) ;=< we;s c,hg o jvd ms˙is≥ fõ' tkï 1'2 (a)
uQ,sl bf,lafg%daksl Wmdx. ñ,shk" ì,shk" .Kkla tl;= ùfuka (1) µPg idfmaCI j µCys o;a; ieliSfï yelshdj wvq Ndckh i|yd by; m%ldYh jvd;a i;H;djg wdikak nj;a 1'2
ksr®ñ; ù we;s ix.Dys; m˙m: jr®.hla fõ' h' (c) Ndckh i|yd th jvd;a wi;H;djg wdikak nj;a lsj
¶uhsfl%da¶ hk jokska §ish,a, ix.Dys; lr we;¶ hk wre; o" (2) ls%hdld¯ fõ.h w;ska µP b;d by< h' ^kQ;k yels h' ta wkqj hï m%ldYhl i;H wi;H wjia:djg wu;r j
lkafg%da,r® ^md,lh& hkak uÛska §md,k WmlrKh¶ hk wre; o m˙.Klj, 2GHz muK moaO;s >áld mj;S& µCys úúO w;rueo wjia:djka we;s nj meye†,s h'
ms<sìUq fõ' % dld¯ >áld fõ.h 50MHz (System clock) muK fõ'
lsh idudkH ;r®l l%uh hgf;a hï m%ldYhl fyda hï lreKl fyda
b;d ir, f,i ye¢kajqj fyd;a fuu Micro Controllers,
(3) u;l moaO;s m˙md,kh iïnkaOfhka µCg jvd µP i;H fyda wi;H fyda nj muKla ;r®lhg Ndckh fõ' tfyhska
Ndú; lrkakd yg wjYH m˙† l%uf,aLkh lr (Program) fuu w;rueo wjia:dj ie,lSu i|yd wkqudk ;r®l (Fuzzy
b;d úYd, u;l m%udKhla md,kh ls¯fï yelshdj iys; h'
fï ksid µP uQ,sl moaO;sj, (Microprocessor base logic) Ndú; fõ'
system) tljr fh≥ï (Applications) rdYshla Ndú; fuu w;rueo wjia:dj ie,lSfï ° tu wjia:dfõ ° i;H;dj
ls¯fï yelshdj mj;S' idudkHfhka fuh µC md,l fldmuK o@ tkï i;H;djg fldmuK wdikak o hk .eg¨j
moaO;shlg u|la wmyiq ldr®hhla fõ' fndfyda úg µC mek kef.a' fuys ° i;H wi;H;dfõ m%udKd;aul jákdlula
Ndú; lrkqfha tla úfYaIs; fh≥ula mu◊' th idr®:l f,i (Quantified value) ,nd .ekSug wjYH fõ' fï i|yd
bgq ls¯u µCys we;s úfYaI;ajhhs' fndfyda úg ls%hdlrejl= m%ldYh" lreK fyda ;r®lh i;H úg §1¶ w.h o" wi;H úg
(User) wjYH fkd fõ' §0¶ w.h o fh†h yels h' w;rueo wjia:dj i|yd §0¶ yd §1¶
w;r we;s ´kE u w.hhla .; yels h' i;H ùfï m%udKh
ms<sn| ukd wjfndaOhla we;s úg tu w.h o ksje/† j
m%ldY l< yels h' 1'1 j.=fjka by; W∞yrK fol i|yd
,nk i;sfha ( uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rfhys m%dfhda.sl fh≥ï i;H;dfõ m%udkh ≤lafõ' fuyss z hkq 0 iy 1 w;r ´kE u
fudrgqj úYaj úoHd,hfha úoHq;a iy ú≥,s ixfoaY wxYfha w.hhla úh yels h'
.dñ” chisxy 20 jeks msgj
q g
flda,;
s Or®um%h
s fudrgqj úYAj úoHd,hfha hdka;l
%s wxYfha
uhsfl%dfldkafg%da,rhl ndysr fmkqu ^Wv me;a;& wdpdr®h md,s; oikdhl