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PRINCIPLES OF MATHEMATICS 12

STUDENT REFERENCE A SUMMARY OF BASIC IDENTITIES AND FORMULAE

Pythagorean Identities:

sin 2 ! + cos 2 ! = 1

1 + tan 2 ! = sec 2 !

Reciprocal and Quotient Identities:

sec ! =

1

cos !

tan ! = cos sin ! !

csc ! =

1

sin !

cot ! = cos sin ! !

1 + cot 2 ! = csc 2 !

cot ! =

1

tan !

 cos (! + " ) = cos ! cos " # sin ! sin " sin (! + " ) = sin ! cos " + cos ! sin " cos (! # " ) = cos ! cos " + sin ! sin " sin (! # " ) = sin ! cos " # cos ! sin "

Double-Angle Identities:

cos 2! =

=

=

Formulae:

t n = ar n ! 1

cos 2 ! " sin 2 !

2 cos 2 ! " 1 1 " 2 sin 2 !

S n =

a

(

1 ! r

n

)

1 ! r

Combinatorics and Probability:

n P r =

n!

(n ! r )!

P ( A ) = 1 ! P ( A )

P ( A |

B ) = P ( A and B )

P ( B )

P

( x ) = n C x p x q n ! x

n C r =

sin 2! = 2 sin ! cos !

S n = a ! r!

1 ! r

n!

" n \$ r % =

#

r! (n ! r )!

S =

a

1 ! r

x

t k + 1 =

= ! b
±
b 2 ! 4ac

2a

n C k a n ! k b k

P ( A

or B ) = P ( A ) + P ( B ) ! P ( A and B )

P ( A and B ) = P ( A ) " P ( B | A )

q = 1 ! p

Note: Graphing calculators will contain many of these formulae as pre-programmed functions.