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“IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,

MOST GRACIOUS, MOST COMPASSIONATE”.


STUDY OF RING SPINNING MACHINE, ITS PROCESSES AS
WELL AS ITS EFFECTS & THEIR REMEDIES

GROUP MEMBERS

SECTION – A

1. ABDUL GHAFFAR 10 – TE – 02
2. ABRAR – UL – HASAN 10 – TE – 05
3. ARSALAN AZHAR 10 – TE – 15
4. ASIF ALI 10 – TE – 16
5. HABIB – UR – REHMAN 10 – TE – 24
6. JANSHER KHAN 10 – TE – 33
7. MAZHAR HUSSAIN 10 – TE – 37

SUBMITTED TO: –

COURSE CO – ORDINATOR

SIR. ABDUR RAHIM FAKIH

COLLEGE OF TEXTILE & POLYMER ENGINEERING

St – 02, Sector – 30, Korangi Industrial Area, Karachi – 75900.

Tel: (92 – 21) 5064112 – 3, 5066390, Fax: (92 – 21) 5060400.

E – mail: ctpe@cyber.net.pk
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the following group of students of semester VIII of college of
Textile Engineering was examined on as per requirement of degree
th
of bachelor of Textile Engineering batch 10 , 2005 to 2009 (Fall) prescribed by HAMDARD
UNIVERSITY, KARACHI. The report was studied & viva was conducted by the board. Each
student has successfully performed about his specific segment of this project & overall view of
the project assignment to them, was found to be satisfactory.

PROJECT ASSESMENT BOARD

Mr. Abdul Rahim Fakih


Project Supervisor
(Head of Textile Department)

Mr. Fazal – Ur – Rehman


(Associate Professor)
Member

Mr. Abdul Rasheed Johar


(Associate Professor)
Secretary

Mr. Muhammad Ayaz Sheikh


(Associate Professor)
Member
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Thank you Allah! To giving us the strength & understanding to make this report. Without
your blessing, we could not be able to complete our studies.

Firstly & foremost, we thanks to Sir. Abdul Rahim Fakih, who is our advisor, for always
being there for us. He extended his knowledge & guidance at every point, where we found
ourselves in difficulty.

We like to acknowledge the names of all the individuals, who extended their help to us
the top priority, go to our respectful teachers...

™ Sir Abdul Rahim Fakih (Head of Department)

™ Sir Fazal – ur – Rehman (Associate Professor)

™ Sir Rashid Jauhar (Associate Professor)

™ Sir Kabir – ud – Din (Associate Professor)

™ Sir Faqir Muhammad (Associate Professor)

We like to thanks to GM of SFDAC Mr. Ahsan Siddiqui, who helped us & provide us the
facility to use collage laboratory to perform our practical.

We like to thanks to Mr. Ibrahim Ghaffar (Trainee Incharge of Gul Ahmed Textile Mill),
Mr. Tariq (General Manager of Spinning Department of Gul Ahmed Textile Mills Unit # 03) &
Mr. Zulfiqar Ali (Ring Engineer, Spinning Department) who helped us & give us a chance to
watch & perform practical in the Gul Ahmed Textile Mill.

We appreciation to all others in the mill, who helped & guide us during training &
provided us the information about machines & their processes.
PREFACE

Today, the technological world, where every coming moment brings new innovations in
the field of science & technology, same is happening in the field of Textile Industry. As these
improvements & developments are life comfortable but these also interact the production,
quality, maintenance as well as other factors.
In order to survive in global market, textile organizations face a lot of challenges that test
their resolve every day. Global competition pushes companies to make better, faster & cheaper &
change seems to be a constant companion new markets, new products, new threats & new
opportunities. Now, as Textile spinning machinery & especially yarn forming machinery may be
reaching functional operating limits & unit labour costs have been minimized, the industry must
look to streamline other areas of its process to continue to improve efficiencies & to achieve
further cost reductions. This is the only way by which our industry & particularly Textile
industry may able to meet the global market challenges in order to remain in the competition.
During our studies, we found that there are many problems facing by the textile industry in
Pakistan in each segment. We characterized these problems due to following reasons:

• Inefficiency of the plant.


• Miscommunication.
• Large / High consumption of Energy.
• Wastage of raw material through effluent.
• Poor house keeping & management approach.
• Wrong process selection to accomplish task.
• Quality & Environmental problems.
• Minimum labour & maintenance cost.
• Safely working options.
• Government policies.

These were the points that lead us to do this project to identify the root causes & then find
out ways to minimize these problems. By this small effort, we suggest different beneficial
alternates, which we think are helpful for textile industry. The last but not the least, the design
portion of which is to improve the working conditions of the workstation & it is basically the
improvement considering the ergonomics of the worker as well as the environment.
DEDICATION

First, we would dedicate this project to our Beloved Parents who enabled us to stand – up
in the Society.

We would also like to dedicate this project to all those personals that contributed in
formulating of this project either directly or indirectly; as without their supervision, technical
support, moral support & guidance, it would be impossible to gather the information & to
condense it into such a report.
~ TABLE OF CONTENTS ~
Index Page No.
Introduction to Textile 01
An overview of textile industry in PAKISTAN 03
Gul Ahmed Textile Mills Limited, PAKISTAN 04

Chapter No. 01 STUDY OF RING SPINNING 05

™ Spinning flow chart 06


™ Introduction to Ring Spinning 07
™ Comparison of the advantages & the disadvantages of ring spinning system 08
™ Functions / objectives of ring spinning 10
™ The mechanism of spinning 11
™ Main spinning arrangements 12
• Drafting arrangements 13
o Design concepts in the structure of the drafting arrangements 14
o Implementation on to the ring spinning machine 15
o Factors that affect drafting at ring frame 15
o Irregularity in drafting 18
o The thread path 19
™ Introduction to main parts of ring frame 19
• Ring 19
o Materials for the ring 20
• Traveller 21
o Parts of traveller 22
o Features of a traveller 22
o Shape of the traveller 22
o The traveller mass 23
o The significance of the ring & the traveller 23
• Traveller clearer 24
• Spindle & bolster 24

I
o The spindle 25
o Frame parts description 25
o Structure of the spindle 25
o Influence of the spindle on spinning 25
o Spindle drive 26
• Balloon controlling / balloon control ring 26
o Negative consequences 27
• Lappet guide 27
• Spacers 27
o Separators 28
• Approns 28
• Spindle tape 29
• Blower system 29
™ Ring frame faults 29
• Ring frame creel faults 29
• Drafting region faults 31
• Twisting & packing formation region faults 33
• Common faults 36
™ Principle of twist insertion mechanism 36
™ Spinning geometry 36
™ Spinning triangle 37
™ Reasons for yarn breakage in ring frame 38
™ The machine drive 39
™ The structure of the cop 39
• The winding process 39
• The builder motion 39
• Building the base 40
™ Doffing 40
• Manuel doffing 41
™ The possibilities for automation 41
™ The equipment of the ring spinning frame 42

II
• End break aspirators 42
• Piecing devices 42
™ Origin of ends – down in ring spinning 43
• Exposed section of the yarn path 43
• Conditions in spinning triangle 44
• Factors influencing the strength of the spinning triangle 46
• Ends – down distribution 47
• Summary 48
™ Specification of ring frame EJM – 168 48
• Machine specifications 48
• Bobbin specification 48
• Drafting system 49
• Gauges 49
• Appron 49
• Spacers 50
• Dimensions of machine 50
• Roller cots 50
• Changeable places 50
• Belts, bearings & lubrications 51
• Gearing settings 51
• Machine constants 52
• Existing machine settings 52

Chapter No. 02 FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTION 53

™ Introduction 54
™ Effect of raw material on production 55
• Staple length 55
• Lebgth uniformity 55
• Fibre strength 55
• Fibre maturity 56

III
• Moisture in fibre 56
• Uniformity ratio 56
• Elongation 56
™ Effect of work force on production 56
• Working hours 56
• Health & safety 57
• Chiled labour 57
• Proper training of labours 57
™ Effect of machinery on production 57
• Maintenance 57
• Handling of machinery 57
• Machinery layout 57
• Machine production capacity 57
• Lower HP of driving motor 57

Chapter No. 03 STUDY OF WORK FORCE 59

™ Introduction 60
™ Work force policy 60
• Chiled labour 60
• Forced labour 60
• Health & safety 60
• Disciplinary practices 60
• Working hours 61
™ Employee training 61
• Objectives of training 61
• Internal training 61
• External training 62
• Evaluation of training 62

IV
Chapter No. 04 IMPORTANCE OF RH & TEMPERATURE 63

™ Introduction 64
™ Psychrometry 64
• Dry bulb temperature 65
• Wet bulb temperature 65
• Dew point temperature 65
• Specific humidity 65
• Relative humidity 65
• Specific volume 65
• Enthalpy 65
• Sensible heat & latent heat 66
™ Typical air – conditioning processes 66
• Sensible cooling / heating 66
• Cooling & dehumidification 66
• Cooling & humidification 66
• Heating & dehumidification 66
• Latent heating 66
• Heating & humidification 67
• Evaporative cooling 67

Chapter No. 05 RING CALCULATIONS 68

™ Practical work & calculations 69

V
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INTRODUCTION
DEFINATION OF TEXTILE:
A woven fabric; now applied generally to any one of the following:
1) Staple fibres & filaments suitable for conversion to or use as yarns or for the preparation
of Woven, knit, or nonwoven fabrics.
2) Yarns made from natural or manufactured fibres.
3) Fabrics & other manufactured products made from fibres as defined above & from yarns.
4) Garments & other articles fabricated from fibres, yarns, or fabrics when the products
retain the characteristic flexibility & drape of the original fabrics.

Pertaining to weaving or to woven fabrics; as textile arts; woven, capable of being woven;
formed by weaving; as Textile fabrics.

In textile industry there are 4 main sectors are as follows:

1. Fibre Process:
™ Ginning process
2. Dry Process:
™ Spinning
™ Weaving
™ Knitting
3. Wet Process:
™ Pre – Treatment
™ Dyeing
™ Printing
™ Finishing
4. Garments Process:
Textile also refers to the yarns, threads & wools that can be spun, woven, tufted, tied &
otherwise used to manufacture cloth. The production of textiles is an ancient art, whose speed &
scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by mass – production & the
introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. An ancient Roman weaver would have no
problem recognizing a plain weave, twill, or satin. This definition involves, for example. Fibre –

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based products in the following categories: threads, cords, ropes & braids; woven, knitted & non
woven fabrics, lace, nets & embroidery; hosiery, knitwear & made – up apparel; household
textiles, soft furnishings & upholstery; carpets & other floor coverings; technical, industrial &
engineering textiles, including Geo textiles & medical textiles. Descriptive of textiles as defined
above & of the raw materials, processes, machinery, buildings, craft, technology, personnel used
in & the organizations as well as activities connected with, their manufacture.

Some of the major textile industries can be divided as


Awings, textile Piece goods
Blankets Rope (except wire rope)
Bags or sacks, textile Sail cloth
Blinds, textile Sewing thread
Canvas goods Soft furnishings
Cordage Strings
Elasticized fabrics Tarpaulins
Fabrics, textile Tents
Felt ( except floor coverings) Textiles n.e.c
Glass fibre fabrics Thread
Household linen Towels
Lace Trimmings, texile
Narrow fabrics Yarns
Netting, textile

Pakistan is an agricultural country. Among all others, cotton is the major crop. Cotton,
after processing takes various forms including yam, fabric & other textile related products. The
industry that is engaged in this area is much diversified in nature. There was a need of central
platform that can assure a liaison between all the sectors of this industry. To cater the same need,
All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA) was established in 1959. It was an untiring
effort of its founders that resulted in a success and APTMA became a real representative of the
whole textile sector of the country. APTMA is the most important & resourceful association of
the country.

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AN OVERVIEW OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN

The textile industry is one of the most important sectors of PAKISTAN. It contributes
significantly to the country’s GDP, exports as well as employment. It is, in fact, the backbone of
the Pakistani economy.

ESTABLISHED CAPACITY

The textile industry of PAKISTAN has a total established spinning capacity of 1550
million kg’s of yarn, weaving capacity of 4368 million square metres of fabric & finishing
capacity of 4000 million square metres. The industry has a production capacity of 670 million
units of garments, 400 million units of knitwear & 53 million kg’s of towels. The industry has a
total of 1221 units engaged in ginning & 442 units engaged in spinning. There are around 124
large units that undertake weaving & 425 small units. There are around 20600 power looms in
operation in the industry. The industry also houses around 10 large finishing units & 625 small
units. Pakistan’s textile industry has about 50 large & 2500 small garment manufacturing units.
Moreover, it also houses around 600 knitwear – producing units & 400 towels – producing units.

CONTRIBUTION TO EXPORTS

According to recent figures, the PAKISTAN Textile Industry contributes more than 60%
to the country’s total exports, which amounts to around 5.2 billion US dollars. The industry
contributes around 46% to the total output produced in the country. In Asia, PAKISTAN is the
8th largest exporter of textile products.

CONTRIBUTION TO GDP & EMPLOYMENT

The contribution of this industry to the total GDP is 8.5%. It provides employment to
38% of the work force in the country, which amounts to a figure of 15 million. However, the
proportion of skilled labour is very less as compared to that of unskilled labour.

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ORGANIZATIONS IN THE INDUSTRY

All Pakistan Textile Mills Association (APTMA) is the chief organization that
determines the rules & regulations in the Pakistan Textile Industry.

OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE

The world demand for textiles is rising at around 2.5%, due to which there is a greater
opportunity for rise in exports from PAKISTAN.

GUL AHMED TEXTILE MILLS LIMITED

GUL AHMED Textile Mills is Pakistan’s leading exporter of home textiles, including
bed linen, curtains & fabric. It also manufactures lawn fabric for the domestic market. Recently,
it has begun to produce value – added materials such as apparel & accessories for both men &
women under the label Ideas.

HISTORY

The GUL AHMED Group began trading in textiles in the early 1900s. In 1953, the group
decided to enter the field of manufacturing under the name Gul Ahmed Textile Mills Limited, &
was incorporated as a privately limited company. In 1972, it was listed on the Karachi Stock
Exchange. Since then, the company has made rapid progress & is currently one of the leading
composite textile houses in the world.

Considering the growing trend towards the retail industry in Pakistan, as well as the
increase in cotton prices & the need to focus more on value – added products, the company
decided to diversify into the country's retail sector in 2003. Ideas offer a range of home textiles
& furnishings for the bedroom, kitchen & bathroom, as well as men's & women's apparel. It also
provides in – house monogramming, embroidery & tailor – made services.
The mill is presently a composite unit with an installed capacity of 103,000 spindles, 220
wide width air jet looms, 90 Sulzers, 297 conventional looms, & a state – of – the – art
processing & finishing unit.

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CHAPTER NO. 01

STUDY OF RING SPINNING


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INTRODUCTION

RING FRAME is the main machine of spinning department, since it produces the final
product i.e.; Yarn. The main purpose of this machine is to transform roving into yarn. The ring
spinning will continue to be the most widely used form of spinning machine in the near future,
because it exhibits significant advantages in comparison with the new spinning processes. Ring
spinning frame technology is a simple & old technology, but the production & quality
requirements at the present scenario puts in a lot of pressure on the technologist to select the
optimum process parameters & machine parameters, so that a good quality yarn can be produced
at a lower manufacturing cost.
The ring spinning machine was invented in 1828. In 1830, the traveller rotating on the
ring was being contributed. After more than 150 years, that have passed since that time, the
machine has experienced considerable modification in detail, but the basic concept has remained
unchanged.
In cotton yarn production, there are two main spinning systems which are used for the
production of these two types of cotton yarns:
9 Ring Spinning System
9 Open – End Spinning System
Apart from these systems, there are new yarn spinning systems like friction & air jet
spinning systems. The ring spinning system is the most flexible system from the viewpoints of
fibres, which can be used & the extent of the yarn counts which can be produced.

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COMPARISON OF THE ADVANTAGES & THE DISADVANTAGES OF RING


SPINNING SYSTEM

ADVANTAGES:
™ Production of high strength yarns.
™ Spinning of fine count yarns.
™ Proper for special yarns.
™ It is universally applicable (any material can be spun).
™ The know – how for operation of machine is well established accessible to everyone.
™ It is flexible as regards quantities (blend & lot size).
™ Since the speeds in drawing section are best controlled, yarn evenness is excellent.
But if short fibers are too much, yarn unevenness occurs.
™ Fine yarns can be produced as compared to open – end system.

DISADVANTAGES:
™ Process stages are more numerous. Roving stage exists as an extra process compared
to the other systems.
™ Yarn breakages are more numerous as a result of ring traveller friction & yarn air
friction. Interruptions, broken ends & piecing up problems exist because of the yarn
breakages.
™ The high speed of the traveller damages the fibres.
™ The capacity of the cops is limited.
™ Energy cost is very high.
™ Low production rate.

New spinning processes have difficulty in gaining widespread acceptance. Owing to their
individual limitations, the new spinning processes are confined to restricted sectors of the market.
The ring frame can only survive in longer term, if further success is achieved in
automation of the ring spinning process. Also, spinning costs must be markedly reduced, since
this machine is significant cost factor in spinning mill.

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The cost structure in ring spinning mill is shown in the graph.

Figure 1: RING Spinning Cost Structure

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FUNCTIONS / OBJECTIVES OF RING FRAME

To draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved.


To impart strength to the fibres by inserting twist.
To wind up the twisted strand in a specific form for storage, transportation & control
sloughing off.

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN RING FRAME

™ Draft distribution & settings.


™ Ring & travellers.
™ Spindle speed.
™ Twist.
™ Lift of the machine.
™ Creel type.
™ Feed material.
™ Length of the machine.
™ Type of drive.
™ Above all, Raw material characteristic plays a major role in selecting the above said
process parameters.

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THE MECHANISM OF SPINNING


Roving bobbins are creeled in appropriate holders. Guide rails lead the roving’s into the
drafting arrangement, which attenuates them to the final count. The drafting arrangement is
inclined at an angle of about 45 – 60°. It is one of the most important assemblies on the machine,
since it has considerable influence on irregularities in the yarn.

MAIN PARTS OF THE MACHINE

1. Roving Bobbin
2. Leading part
3. Holders
4. Guide Rails
5. Drafting Arrangements
6. Collection of Waste
7. Threads Guide
8. Spindle
9. Traveller
10. Ring

Figure 2: Spinning Mechanism

Figure 3: Material Passage through Ring Machine

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Upon leaving the front rollers, the emerging fine


fibre strand receives the turns of twist needed to give it
strength. This twist is generated by the spindle, which
rotates at high speed. Each revolution of the spindle
imparts one turn of twist to the strand. Spinning of the
yarn is thus complete. In order to wind up this yarn on a
bobbin tube carried by the spindle is required to cooperate
with the spindle. The traveller moves on a guide rail (the
ring) encircling the spindle.
Figure 4: Drafting System

The traveller has no drive of his own; instead, it is


carried along by the yarn it is threaded with. The rotation
rate of traveller is lower than that of the spindle owing the
significant friction generated between the traveller & the
ring, & also because of air drag on the yarn balloon
formed between the thread guide & the traveller. The
difference in speed between the spindle & traveller
enables winding of the yarn on to the tube. In distinction
to the roving frame, a ring spinning machine operates
with a leading spindle. Figure 5:

MAIN SPINNING ARRANGEMENTS


• Drafting arrangement
• Spindle
• Ring & Traveller

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DRAFTING ARRANGEMENTS
The drafting arrangement is the most important
part of the machine. It influences mainly evenness &
strength. The following aspects are therefore of great
significance:

™ The type of drafting arrangement.


™ Its design.
™ Precise settings.
Figure 6: Drafting System (Side View)
™ Selection of correct individual elements.
™ Choice of appropriate draft.
™ Service & maintains.

The drafting arrangement also exerts an influence on the economics of the machine
(directly via the end break rate, & indirectly via the draft level). If higher drafts can be set in the
drafting arrangement, then coarser roving can be used as feed stock. This implies a higher
production rate at the roving frame & thus a saving in roving spindle, space, personnel & so on.
Admittedly, increases in draft usually also bring reductions in quality.
Since, drafting at Ring Frame is a major influence on yarn qualities & ultimately tells on
even fabric appearance, conversion of drafting to upgrade Ring Frame is a worthwhile exercise.
Among the various components of ring frame, drafting has the maximum influence on yarn
quality & Ring performance. Drafting at Ring Frame considerably influences not only evenness
& appearance of yarn, but also performance of yarn, appearance of fabric, & rejections due to
yarn faults. Therefore, conversion of drafting is given a high priority in the efforts to upgrade a
Ring Frame & the payback from such investments is attractive.
Following draft limits have been established for practical operation:
9 Carded Cotton up to 35
9 Carded Blend up to 40
Combed Cotton & Blended Yarns
9 Medium Fineness up to 40
9 Fine Yarns up to 45
9 Synthetic Fibres up to 45 – 50

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DESIGN CONCEPTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE DRAFTING


ARRANGEMENTS
Without exception, Ring spinning machine in modern short – staple spinning mill are
fitted with 03 line double – apron drafting arrangements. They comprise three lower fluted steel
rollers (a) to which the drive is applied. Top rollers (b), carried in a pivoted weighting arm (c), are
arranged above the fluted rollers & are pressed against them.

Figure 7: Drafting Arrangement

Figure 8: Drafting Rollers

The strand contains only few remaining fibres, when it reaches the main draft field;
accordingly, this is provided with a guide device consisting of an upper & a lower revolving apron
(e).
Normally, the top rollers are arranged. The front top roller is set slightly forward by a
distance (a) relative to the front bottom roller, while the middle top roller is arranged a short
distance (b) is about 02 – 04 mm. This positioning gives smooth running of the top rollers;
furthermore, the overhang of the front top roller shortens the spinning triangle by shifting the nip
line forward. This has a correspondingly favourable influence on the end break rate.

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IMPLEMENTATION ON THE RING SPINNING MACHINE


The fibre strand in the main drafting field consists of only a few
remaining fibres. There is hardly any friction field & fibre guidance
provided by the rollers alone is inadequate. Special fibre guiding
devices are therefore needed to carry out a satisfactory drafting
operation.

Figure 9:Implementation

FACTORS THAT EFFECT DRAFTING AT RING FRAME

¾ ENVIRONMENT
• Fluff in department.
• Temperature & RH%.

¾ MATERIAL
• Uneven Staple Length.
• Long Fibres.
• Denier Variation.

¾ MACHINE
• High Twisted Roving.
• Close Gauges.
• Low Back Draft.
• Spacer Opening.
• Defective Bearing.
• Worn Out Rubber Cots.

¾ MAN
• Improper Cleaning.
• Wrong Adjustment of Top Rollers.
• Bad Piecing.

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¾ RUBBER COTS & APPRONS


1. For processing combed cotton, soft cots (60 to 70 degree shore hardness) will result
in lower U%, thin & thick places.
2. There are different types of cores (inner fixing part of a rubber cot) available from
different manufacturers. Aluminum core, PVC core etc. It is always better to use
softer cots with Aluminum core.
3. When softer cots are used, buffing frequency should be reduced to 45 to 90 days
depending upon the quality of the rubber cots, if the mill is aiming at very high
consistent quality in cotton counts.
4. If the lapping tendency is very high, when processing synthetic fibre for non critical
end uses, it is better to use 90 degree shore hardness cots, to avoid cots damages. This
will improve the working & the yarn quality compared to working with 83 degree
shore hardness.
5. If rubber cots damages are more due to lapping, frequent buffing as high as once in
30 days will be of great help to improve the working & quality. Of course, one should
try to work the ring – frame without lapping.

The basic reasons for lapping in the case of processing synthetic fibres are:

¾ End Breaks.
¾ Pneumatic Suction.
¾ Rubber Cots Type.
¾ Fibre Fineness.
¾ Oil Content (Electrostatic Charges).
¾ Department Temperature & Humidity.
¾ Almost, all the lapping originates after an end break. If a mill has an abnormally high
lapping problem, the first thing to do is to control the end breaks.
¾ After Doffing.
¾ During Speed Change.
¾ During The Maximum Speed.

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By optimizing the process parameters:

¾ It is obvious that fine fibres will have a stronger tendency to follow the profile of the
roller. Therefore lapping tendency will be more.
¾ If the fibres are fine, the number of fibres in the cross section will be more, therefore
lapping frequency will be more.
¾ If the pressure applied on to the rollers is more, then lapping tendency will be more.
Hence, fine & longer fibres will have more tendencies for lapping because of high top
roller pressure required to overcome the drafting resistance.
¾ If the pneumatic suction is less, the lapping tendency will be more both on top & bottom
roller. But the pneumatic suction depends on the fan diameter, fan type, fan speed, duct
design, length of the machine, profile of the suction tube etc. If any one of the above can
be modified & the suction can be improved, it is better to do that to reduce the lapping.
¾ The closer the setting between the suction nozzle & the bottom roller, the higher the
suction efficiency & lower the lapping propensity.
¾ Higher roving twist will reduce the lapping tendency to some extent. Therefore, it is
better to have a slightly higher roving twist, provide there is no problem in Ring – Frame
drafting, when the lapping tendency is more.
¾ With Softer rubber cots lapping tendency will be more due to more surface contact.
¾ The minutest pores, pinholes in the rubber cots or impurities in the cots can cause
lapping. Therefore, the quality of buffing & the cots treatment after buffing is very
important. Acid treatment is good for synthetic fibres & is good for cotton.

Electrostatic charges are troublesome especially, where relatively large amount of fibres
are being processed in a loose state e.g. Draw – Frame, Card etc. Lapping tendency on the top
roll increases with increasing relative humidity. The frequently held opinion is that processing
performance remains stable at a steady absolute relative humidity, i.e.; at constant moisture
content per kg of dry air.

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OTHER IMPACTS WHICH ARE AS FOLLOW


¾ It is better to adopt group creeling in speed frame. Because every piecing of sliver will
result in a thin & thick place. Therefore, it is preferable to change 30 up to 60 cans
together & remove the sliver piecing from the roving.
¾ Care should be taken so that no sliver piecing & roving piecing enters the Ring – Frame
& results in yarn. This yarn always results in thin & thick places from 0.6 to 02 meters
length. This will not be cut by the yarn clearers if the difference in size is less.
¾ Roving breaks in speed frame should not be more 01 to 02 per 100 spindle hours. If it is
more than that, the reasons should be analyzed & corrective action should be taken
immediately.
¾ Spacers should be as small as possible, to improve yarn quality. If slubs & roving breaks
due to un – drafted is more, it would be better to use a bigger spacer (distance clip)
instead of increasing the break draft & break draft zone setting to an abnormal level.
¾ It is better to use good quality appron & rubber cots, since the quantity produced by one
appron & top roller is very high compared to Ring frame. If the appron breaks & top
roller damages are under control, it is always better to use the best appron & rubber cots
available in the market. One should not think about cost saving in this machine. Cost
saving for appron & cots can be considered for Ring frames.
¾ Buffing should be done once in 03 months & the top roller shore hardness is around 80 to
85 degrees. After buffing, it is better to treat with acid or some special liquids, which are
being supplied to reduce lapping.
¾ Bottom & top clearers should rotate & should touch the top & bottom roller properly.

IRREGULARITY IN DRAFTING
Irregularity added in drafting is mainly caused by:
1. Inadequate control over the movement of short & floating fibres.
2. Slippage of strand & fibres under the drafting roller.
3. Variations in speed of drafting rollers.
4. Mechanical faults.
Developments in drafting have therefore focused mainly on reducing the contribution from

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these factors.

COTS
Hardness, diameter & width are important characteristics of cots influencing irregularity.
Softer cots on front roller, with a shore hardness of 65%, bring down the U & thick, thin places
in yarn, significantly in cotton counts. The improvement arises from the improved grip over the
strand because of the extended contact at the nip. As a result, slippage of fibres under the nip is
reduced. Softer cots are however more susceptible to wear & tear & roller lapping & are
therefore not preferred for polyester blends. Bigger cot diameter up to 30 mm diameter brings
down slubs, crackers & other classmate faults particularly with polyester blends. Roller lapping
is also reduced with bigger diameter. Lower cot width up to 25 mm improves pressure over the
nip & so contributes to better drafting.

THE THREAD PATH


The yarn produced by twisting at the delivery of the
drafting arrangement is guide to a position directly over the
spindle. Before passing to wind up on the spindle, the yarn runs
through a second guide position, the balloon control ring. Winding
on the spindle itself arises from interplay between the speed of the
traveller rotating on the ring & the rotational speed of the spindle.
Mechanically, the spindle is capable of speeds up to 28000 rev /
min, but this maximum speed can’t be exploited commercially
because the traveller speed is limited.

Figure 10: The Thread Path


INTODUCTION TO MAIN PARTS OF RING FRAME
1. RING
It is an important part of the frame because of whole frame is known as the Ring frame.
The function of the ring is to serve as a track upon which the traveller may revolve; it also helps
to guide the yarn on to the bobbin. The cylindrical band or vertical band or vertical part of the
ring is called as “web”. Its thickness is about 0.32 inches. The horizontal part of the top of the
ring is called as frame.

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The size of the ring is designated by its diameter, flange width & height. Ring diameter
ranges from 01 – ⅜ to 3 (1.375 – 03) inches. Small diameter rings are used for fine yarns. Flange
number indicates the overall width of flange.

S.No Flange Number Width (Inches)


01. 00 3/32
02. 01 4/35
03. 02 5/32
04. 02 – ½ 5.5/32
05. 03 6/32

The Ring should be tough & hard on its exterior. The running surface must have high &
even hardness in the range 800 – 850 Vickers. A good ring in operation should have the
following features:

™ Best quality raw material.


™ Good, but not too high, surface smoothness.
™ An even surface.
™ Exact roundness.
™ Good, even surface hardness, higher than that of the traveller.
™ Should have been run in as well as possible (per ring manufacturers’ requirement).
™ Long operating life time.
™ Correct relationship between ring & bobbin tube diameters.
™ Perfectly horizontal position.
™ It should be exactly centered relative to the spindle.

MATERIALS FOR THE RING


The ring should always be tough & hard on its exterior. The running surface in particular
deserves the closest attention. The surface layer must have high & even hardness. The traveller
hardness should be lower so that wear occurs mainly on the travellers, which is easier to replace
& cheaper. Surface smoothness is also important. The following materials are used:

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¾ Flame, or induction, hardened steel, to some extent.


¾ Nitrided steel.
¾ Carbo – Nitrided steel (this is the most common).
¾ Come steel (this is found more rarely).

2. TRAVELLER
Traveller imparts twist to the yarn. Traveller & spindle together help to wind the yarn on
to the bobbin. Length wound up on to the bobbin corresponds to the difference in peripheral
speeds of the spindle & traveller. The difference in speed should correspond to length delivered
at the front rollers. Since traveller doesn’t have a drive on its own, but is dragged along being by
the spindle. The “C” type ring guarantees space for the passage to thread, but it presents a high
barycentre, the “M” type has a low barycentre to guarantee the passage of the yarn, the elliptical
type ring has a low barycentre, but offers less space for the passage of the thread.
The latter is preferred, because it has the lowest centre of gravity in the point of contact
with the ring, establishing a position of equilibrium so that the contact with the ring is
determined in a single point of the internal flange, making friction minimal to guarantee passage
of the yarn. Combining the type “C” with the elliptical one, a type of traveller known as oval
formed, which maintains the advantages of the elliptical traveller but provides a larger space for
the yarn passage.
The section of yarn that goes from the traveller to the fixed thread guide in its rapid
motor driven motion around the ring is subject to a combined action of centrifugal force & air
resistance, so it swells forming a particular curve called “balloon”. An excessive balloon effect
leads to a maximum size, larger than which the balloon becomes plaited causing the thread to
break.
High contact pressure (up to 35 N/square mm) is generated between the ring & the
traveller during winding, mainly due to centrifugal force. This pressure leads to generation of
heat. Low mass of the traveller doesn’t permit dissipation of the generated heat in the short time
available. As a result, the operating speed of the traveller is limited. Heat produced when by
the ring traveller is around 300° Celsius. This has to be dissipated in milliseconds by traveller
into the air.

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PARTS OF TRAVELLER:
a) Ring Contact Area:
This area should be more, uniform, smooth & continuous for the best performance.
b) Toe Gap:
This will vary according to traveller number & flange width of the ring.
c) Height of Bow:
It should be as low as possible for stable running of traveller. It should also have
sufficient yarn passage.
d) Inner Width:
This varies according to traveller profile & ring flange.
e) Yarn Passage:
According to count spun the traveller profile to be selected with required yarn passage.

FEATURES OF A TRAVELLER:
9 Generate less heat.
9 Dissipate heat fastly.
9 Have sufficient elasticity for easy insertion & to retain its original shape.
9 After insertion, friction between ring & traveller should be minimal.
9 It should have excellent wear resistance for longer life.
9 Hardness of the traveller should be less than the ring.

SHAPE OF THE TRAVELLER:


The traveller must be shaped to match exactly with the ring in the contact zone, so that a
single contact surface, with the maximum surface area is created between ring & traveller. The
bow of the traveller should be as flat as possible, in order to keep the centre of gravity low &
thereby improve smoothness of running.
However, the flat bow must still leave adequate space for passage of the yarn. If the yarn
clearance opening is too small, rubbing of the yarn on the ring leads to roughening of the yarn, a
high level of fibre loss as fly, deterioration of yarn quality & formation of melt spots in spinning
of synthetic fibre yarns.

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Figure 11: Traveller & its shapes

THE TRAVELLER MASS


The traveller mass determines the magnitude of frictional forces between the traveller &
the ring, & these in turn determine the winding & the balloon tension. If the traveller is too small,
the balloon will be too big & the cop too soft; material takes – up in the cop will be low. An
unduly high traveller mass leads to high yarn tension & many end breaks. Accordingly, the mass
of the traveller must be matched exactly to both yarn & the spindle speed. If a choice is available
between two traveller weights, then the heavier is normally selected, since it will give greater cop
weight, smoother running of the traveller & between transfer of heat out of the traveller.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RING &THE TRAVELLER:


In most cases, the limit to productivity of the spinning machine is defined by the traveller
in interdependence with the ring & the yarn. Optimal running conditions depend upon:
¾ Materials of the ring & the traveler.
¾ Surface of the characteristics.
¾ The forms of the ring & the traveler.
¾ Wear resistance.
¾ Smoothness of running.
¾ Running in conditions.
¾ Fibre lubrication.

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3. TRAVELLER CLEARER
As the yarns runs through the traveller, some fibres are detached. Mostly these fibres
spread in to the atmosphere, but some may remain in the traveller. These fibres cause & break
through so, travellers clearers are mounted close to the ring in order to clear the traveller from
loose fibres. Its setting is close for fine counts & vice versa.
Yarn consists of fibres that are bound into structure more or less effectively, but that are in
any event relatively short. The yarn runs through the traveller, some fibres will be detached. For
the most part, they float away into the atmosphere, but some remain caught on the traveller. These
retained fibres can accumulate until they form a tuft, & the resulting increase in traveller mass can
lead to much increased yarn tension, which finally can induce an end break. Traveller clearers are
mounted close to the ring in order to prevent formation of such fibre accumulations. They should
be set as close as possible to the traveller without interfering with its movements. Exact setting is
vitally important.

4. SPINDLE & BOLSTER


It is a combination of two parts.
¾ Upper part (Spindle)
¾ Lower part (Bolster)
The upper part is made of aluminum alloy & is slightly tapered. There are two functions
of spindle:
• To rotate the bobbin to give twist to the fibrous strand.
• To wind the yarn onto the bobbin.
Different types of spindles are used. Bolster is made of cast iron or steel alloy & is fixed
to the spindle rail. It is used to hold the spindle & to dissipate the heat generated by high speed of
spindle.
⅔ Volume of bolster is filled with special oil to act as a lubricant & to absorb heat. There
are three types of bolsters:
1) Simple Bolster.
2) Macmillan Bolster.
3) Roller Bearing Bolsters.

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THE SPINDLE
1) Thread Guide
2) Balloon Control Ring
3) Ring
4) Spindle
5) Bear
6) Ring rail
7) Bolster

Figure 12: Spindle

8) Nut

FRAME PARTS DESCRIPTION


1) Ring
2) Traveller
3) Spindle & bolster
4) Traveler Clearer
5) Balloon Control Ring
6) Lappet guide
7) Spacers
8) Approns

Figure 13: Ring Frame Parts


9) Spindle Tape
10) Blower System

STRUCTURE OF THE SPINDLE:


The spindle consists of two clearly separate parts, namely the
upper part & the bolster. The upper part is now made of aluminum
alloy & is slightly tapered. Near its upper end, & in larger spindles
also near the lower end, it has a tube gripping device that ensures
firm seating of the tube on the upper part.
Figure 14: Spindles

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INFLUENCE OF THE SPINDLE ON SPINNING:


Spindles & their drive, have a great influence on power consumption & noise level in the
machine. The running characteristics of a spindle, especially imbalance & eccentricity relative to
the ring; also affect yarn quality & of course the number of end breakages. Almost, all yarn
parameters are disadvantageously affected by poorly running spindles. The mill must ensure at all
times that centering of the spindles relative to the rings is an accurate as possible. Since the ring &
spindle form independent units & are able to shift relative to each other in operation, these two
parts must be re – centered from time to time. Previously, this was done by shifting the spindle
relative to the ring, but it is now usually carried out by adjusting the ring. Mechanical end
electronic devices are used for centering.

SPINDLE DRIVE
Basically, two groups of spindle drives can be distinguished:
¾ Tape drives.
¾ Tangential belt drives

SPINDLE TAPE DRIVES:


In this system, a tape drives two spindles on one side of
the machine & a further two spindles on one side of the
machine. In running from the machine side to other, the tape
passes around a drive pulley. One or two tension rolls ensure
even, firm tension of the drive tape.

Figure 15: Spindle Tape Drive

5. BALLOON CONTROLLING / BALLOON CONTROL RING


As the spindle revolves at high speed, so the length of yarn from yarn
guide to the traveller revolves very fast. Due to which balloon diameter is
more then tension, on the yarn will be more. So in order to decrease tension,
we control balloon diameter by using balloon control ring.

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™ Yarn length speed.


™ Length of balloon. Figure 16: Balloon
™ Mass of traveler.
™ Count of yarn.

If balloon diameter isn’t controlled, the tension in the yam becomes larger enough to
make the end down. So a balloon control ring is used to control the diameter of the balloon.
Spindles used today are relatively long. The spacing between the ring & the thread guide
is correspondingly long, thus giving a high balloon.
The balloon control rings are used, to divide the balloon into to smaller sub – balloons. In
spite of its large overall height, the double balloon created in this way is stable even at relatively
low yarn tensions.

NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES:
• A high balloon is associated with a large balloon diameter, causing space problems.
• The large balloon dimensions causes increased the deformation of the balloon curve
out of the plane intersecting the spindle axis. This deformation can lead to balloon
instability; there is increased danger of collapse.
• The large balloon dimensions lead to relatively high air drag & therefore high amount
of energy.
Both these disadvantages cause an increase in yarn tension, corresponding with a heavier
traveller. However, this would be followed by an increase in the number of ends down as a direct
result of the higher yarn tension.

6. LAPPET GUIDE
Lappet guide is also called “snail wire” or “ballooning eye”. It is a yarn guide mounted
on the lappet rail with a small stroke to give uniform balloon height & resulting in
tension.Mounted directly above each spindle is a lappet designed to lead the yarn centrally over
the spindle axis. The lappet consists of a thread guide, made of bent wire, & a pivot able support
arm. The guide is adjustably mounted on the support arm to enable centering.
Movement of the guides ensures that differences in balloon height caused by changes in
the ring rail position don’t become too large.

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7. SPACERS
As the top rollers are pressed against the bottom rollers by spring pressure, so in order to
give allowance for the fibres, spacers are used. Spacers are set according to the number of fibres.
For coarser counts, we need more space between the approns. Spacer height is co – related with
its colour. They are used on the cradle arm & there are two types of spacers:

1) Central Support Spacers:


These are most commonly used on ring frames. One spacer is used for two
spindles. The descending order of the height of spacers with colours is as follows:
Brown, Blue, Pink, Green, Beige, Black, Grey, While, Lilac, Yellow & Red.

2) Lateral Support Spacers:


These spacers are on the sides. There are as many spacers on the frame as the
spindles.

SEPARATORS:
Most ends down arise from breaks in spinning triangle, because very high forces are
exerted on a strand consisting of fibres, which haven’t yet been fully
bound together. If a break occurs in the triangle, then the newly created
free yarn end must be drawn to the cop & wound into it. During this
process, the broken thread end lashes around the spindle. In the
absence of protective devices, this broken end would be hurled into the
neighboring yarn balloon & would cause an end down on that spindle
also. In order to prevent this happening, separator plates of aluminum
or plastics material are arranged between the individual spindles.
Figure 17: Separators
8. APPRONS
Approns are used in the front zone to support the delicate mass of fibres. In drafting
system, two aprons are used. The upper appron is short & made of synthetic rubber. The lower
apron is longer & usually made of leather & rarely of synthetic rubber. The size of appron is
expressed as:
Length × Width × Thickness

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9. SPINDLE TAPE
Spindle tape of different manufacturers is available in the market. Most commonly used
are REPLON & HABASIT. The life of HABASIT tape is three to four years usually its width is
⅝ inches.

10. BLOWER SYSTEM


There are total 30 blowers working in the ring frame department. One blower works for
two machines in the straight line. Its purpose is to suck fly in the department as well as blowing
of the dirt, dust & short fibres flying during the process due to the rubbing action of the traveller.
If these fibres are not well sucked, these will deposition machine parts causing serious problems.
There is a pipe on one end of the machine, where each blower strikes after completion of
one traverse. In this system, the sucked material is further sucked by the pipes through rotary
filter section. This section then goes in a separate room & is deposited into the bags.

RING FRAME FAULTS (PRODUCT FAULT)

As faults in product arise due to faults in machine, so by controlling faults of machine,


the faults can be removed. According to the regions of the Ring Frames, different types of faults
are classified are as follows.

RING FRAME CREEL FAULT

Fault No. 01

¾ Bobbin hanger unable to move.


Reason:
Bobbin has a circular motion, so if proper lubrication isn’t done or hanger is very
old than such problems can be occur.
Results:
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• Roving breaks.
• Uneven feeding to drafting zone.
• Thick & thin places in yarn.

Fault No. 02
¾ Rough surface of guide bar.
Reasons:
This occurs due to the oldness of guide bars that results in rusting of bars &
causes a rough surface of the bars.
Result:
• Breakage of the roving.
• Uneven feeding to the next zone resulting in uneven yarn.
Control of fault:
o By replacing the bars if it is old.

Fault No. 03
¾ Non – traversing motion of the roving guide.
Reason:
If machine used for its motion is small.
Results:
• Passage of material from the same portion of the back rollers. Back roller
damage & results in slippage of the roving so proper drafting isn’t done.
• Uneven yarn is obtained.
Control of fault:
o By proper checking that, whether the traversing motion of the roving bar takes
place or not. If there is some problem then remove that fault.

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Fault No. 04
¾ Dirty parts of the creel frame.
Reason:
Proper cleaning isn’t done (man fault) or bad management.
Results:
• Dirty product is obtained.
• Low quality yarn.
Control of fault:
o By proper cleaning of the machine.

DRAFTING REGION FAULTS

Fault No. 01

¾ Pressure on to the top rollers isn’t correct.


Reason:
Pressure isn’t settled according to the material, as it is more for synthetic & vise
versa.
Results:
• Fibres are damage.
• Proper gripping isn’t done so drafting isn’t according to requirements.
• Uneven yarn is obtained.
Control of fault:
o Proper checking is carried out according to the count & material; for fine
count pressure is more & vice versa.

Fault No. 02
¾ Rollers are not tightly fitted.
Reason:
Nuts used are old & proper maintenance isn’t done.
Results:
• Drafting isn’t correct.

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• Uneven product.
Control of fault:
o This can be avoided by following the maintenance schedule, checking the
rollers expiry time & also in each shift.

Fault No. 03
¾ Incorrect rubber cots hardness.
Reason:
Due to wrong selecting of hardness of rubber cots.
Results:
• Fibers are damaged; as for different materials different hardness is used,
results in low quality yarn.
Control of fault:
o Better management should be for selecting exact hardness of rubber cots.

Fault No. 04
¾ Damaged rubber cots.
Reason:
It may be due to overage of the cots or bad handling.
Results:
• Uneven yarn is obtained.
• Proper drafting isn’t done.
• Low quality yarn.
Control of fault:
o This can be overcome by maintenance of the machine & replacement of cots
if these are damaged or their life period has completed.
Fault No. 05
¾ Loose apron.
Reasons:
Old aprons.
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Results:
o Slippage of the material resulting in bad quality product.
Control of fault:
o Appron should be checked; if it is loose it should be replaced.

Fault No. 06
¾ Fault of suction fan.
Reasons:
Holes for suction are close or fan isn’t working properly.
Results:
o Fly or short pieces of the fibres stick to the yarn resulting in bad quality yarn,
this fault causes variable dye uptake & shade variations.
Control of fault:
o Fan should be checked properly. Suction holes should be cleaned.

TWISTING & PACKING FORMATION REGION FAULTS

Fault No. 01
¾ Faults of lappet.
¾ Cut in snail wire.
¾ Non – proper setting of snail wire.
Reasons:
Old or bad material of snail wire & center of the snail wire isn’t on the center of
the spindle.
Results:
• Breakage is increased.
• Efficiency of the machine is reduced.
• Low quality yarn.
Control of fault:
o Wire should be replaced if it is old or has any cut.

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o Proper setting of the wire should be done.

Fault No. 02
¾ Wrong selection of ring traveler.

Reasons:
Bad material of ring traveler
Results:
• For fine count, traveller should be light & vice versa.
• Wrong selection of the traveller causes breakage resulting in low quality yarn.
Control of fault:
o Selection of traveller according to the count.

Fault No. 03
¾ Cut in balloon breaker.
Reason:
Low quality material of balloon breaker or bad handling of breaker.
Results:
• Breakage of yarn.
• Low quality product.
• Less efficiency of machine.
Control of fault:
o Replacement of balloon breaker should be done if there is any fault in it.

Fault No. 04
¾ Rough surface of ring.
¾ Cuts in ring.
Reasons:
Lifetime of ring is over & even then it is being used as well as bad handling.
Results:
• Hindrance in smooth running of traveler, which results in bad twist, so
unevenness in yarn increases.

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Control of fault:
• Ring should be replaced when its life time is over.
• Handling of machine should be good.

Fault No. 05
¾ Spindle isn’t tightly fitted to its axis.
Reason:
Nuts are not tightly fitted.
Result of fault:
• Twist isn’t properly given to the yarn resulting in thick & thin places.
Control of fault:
o Nuts should be tightly fitted.

Fault No. 06
¾ Spindle tape is loose.
Reasons:
Spindle tape is overage or there may be some cut in spindle tape those results in l
oose grip to the spindle.
Results:
• Variation in speed of spindle.
• Twist variation results in thick & thin places.
Control of fault:
o By replacing the spindle tape or recovering the fault in tape if it is
recoverable.

Fault No. 07
¾ Lack of oil in spindle bolsters.

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¾ Spindle bolsters bearing out of order.


Reasons:
There may be some leakage of oil that results in lack of oil or bearings may be old
or some ball of bearing is short.
Results:
• Movement of spindle isn’t smooth, resulting in breakage.
• Low efficiency of machine.
Control of fault:
o Proper maintenance should be done.
o There should be a check & balance of maintenance of machine.

COMMON FAULTS

Cleaning schedule; machine should be cleaned otherwise dirty parts result in dirty yarn
that has low quality.

PRINCIPLE OF TWIST INSERTION MECHANISM


In practice, spindle speed (rpm) is used instead of
traveller speed (rpm) in the above equation; this results
in a slightly over – estimated value of twist because
n spindle is slightly greater than n traveller . The difference in
speed between spindle & traveler causes the yarn to
wind on to the package. The increase or a decrease in
twist is mainly a result of a change in the speed of the
delivery roller. Thus twist level affect productivity.

SPINNING GEOMETRY Figure 18: Twist Mechanism

From Roving bobbin to cop, the fibre strength & passes through drafting arrangement,
thread guide, balloon control rings & traveller. These parts are arranged at various angles &
distances relative to each other. The distances & angles together are referred to as the spinning
geometry, has a significant influence on the spinning operation & the resulting yarn. They are:

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• Yarn tension.
• Number of end breaks.
• Yarn irregularity.
• Binding – in of the fibres.
• Yarn hairiness.
• Generation of fly etc.

SPINNING TRIANGLE
Twist in a yarn is generated at the traveller & travel against the direction of yarn
movement to the front roller. Twist must run back as close as possible to the nip of the rollers,
but it never penetrates completely to the nip because, after leaving the rollers, the fibres first
have to be diverted inwards & wrapped around each other. There is always a triangular bundle of
fibres without twist at the exit of the rollers; this is called as SPINNING TRIANGLE. Most of
the end breaks originates at this point. The length of the spinning triangle depends upon the
spinning geometry & upon the twist level in the yarn. The top roller is always shifted 3 to 6 mm
forward compared to bottom roller. This is called top roller overhang. This gives smoother
running & smaller spinning triangle. The overhang must not be made too large, as the distance
from the opening of the approns to the roller nip line becomes too long resulting in poorer fibre
control & increased yarn irregularity. Continuous variation of the operating conditions arises
during winding of a cop. The result is that the tensile force exerted on yarn must be much higher
during winding on the bare tube than during winding on the full cop, because of the difference in
the angle of attack of the yarn on the traveller. When the Ring rail is at the upper end of its
stroke, in spinning onto the tube, the yarn tension is substantially higher than when the ring rail
is at its lower most position. This can be observed easily in the balloon on any ring spinning
machine. The tube & ring diameters must have a minimum ratio, between approx; 1:2 & 1:2.2, in
order to ensure that the yarn tension oscillations do not become too great. Yarn tension in the
balloon is the tension which finally penetrates almost to the spinning triangle & which is
responsible for the greater part of the thread breaks. It is reduced to a very small degree by the
deviation of the yarn at the thread guide. Equilibrium of forces must be obtained between the
yarn tension & balloon tension.

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Figure 19: Spinning Triangles (Short & Long)

The length of the spinning triangle depends upon


the spinning geometry & upon the twist level in the yarn. If
the spinning triangle is too short, then the fibres on the edge
must be strongly deflected to bind them in. This is not
possible with all fibres & lost as fly. Thus with shorter
triangle, smaller weak point resulting into fewer end breaks
but makes the yarn hairy. On the other hand, a long
spinning triangle implies a long weak point & hence more
end breaks giving smoother yarn & less fly. Figure 20: Conventional System
(Large Spinning Triangle)

REASONS FOR YARN BREAKAGE IN RING FRAME


1) Fluff in traveller.
2) Fluff.
3) Without ring traveller.
4) Roving run out.
5) Roving cut.
6) Roving weakness.
7) Roving over twist.
8) Yarn intermingling.
9) Mechanical.
10) Bobbin jump.
11) Unknown.

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THE MACHINE DRIVE


About 20% of production costs in spinning mill (tex 20) fall under the heading energy &
of these costs about two thirds are used in the ring spinning section.
In a ring spinning mill with 25000 spindles & an operating time of 7000 hours per year, a
saving of 10% on an annual power bill of 01 million dollars will bring very interesting financial
returns.
Power supplied to the Ring spinning machine is absorbed by:
The spindle (including the travellers) 65 – 70%
The drafting arrangements 25%
The ring rail 05 – 10%

THE STRUCTURE OF THE COP


The cop is the characteristic form of package by the ring spinning machine. It has three
clearly distinguishable parts. The lower curved base (A), the middle, cylindrical part (Z) & the
conical part (S).

THE WINDING PROCESS


If the point of lay of the yarn on the tube is constantly moved upwards, a cop structure
could be occurred. There are two ways of achieving this; a gradual rise of the ring rail can be joint
on the continual up & down movement or the spindle rail can be gradually lowered.
Ring frames produced today are exclusively of the moving rail type. The ring rail has to
perform two movements in order to lay one main & one cross winding, gradual rising in small
steps after each layer movement in order to fill the cop.

THE BUILDER MOTION


Owing to the rotation of the eccentric, the lever & the chain drum are continually raised &
lowered. This movement is transferred to the ring rail by way of the discs (a & b) together with
the chain & belt, thus giving the traverse movement.
Each time the lever moves down, it presses the catch to release the ratchet wheel (A),
which a slight rotation of the drum (T) connected to the ratchet wheel.

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A short length of chain (K) is thus wound up


on the drum. This leads to rotation of the disc (a),
shaft (W) & disc (b), & finally to a slight rise in
position of the ring rail (R). The shaft (W) also
carries a third disc (c) from which the balloon control
rings (B) & lappets (F) are suspended by belts. These
are correspondingly raised & lowered but since disc
(c) is slightly smaller than disc (b), the stroke length
Figure 21: Builder Motion Mechanism
is somewhat shorter.

BUILDING THE BASE


Raising & lowering of the ring rail (R) comes about because the eccentric (E) moves the
lever (H) up & down & thus the disc (a) is continually turned alternately to the left & the right.
Disc (a) carries the cam (N), which projects beyond the periphery the disc & thus forms a lobe of
larger diameter than the rest of the disc.
At the start of winding of a cop, disc (a) is located in the position, in which the lobe
noticeably deflects the chain (K). The effect of this deflection is that the chain elongation upon
rising of the level (H) is not wholly transferred to the ring rail. Some part is lost as deflection at N.
The traverse stroke of the ring rail no longer corresponds to the setting. It is shorter. Since the
length of yarn delivered during each traverse stroke is the same, the volume per layer is increased
thereby generating the curvature.
Disc (a) turns to the right in the same small steps & the cam is carried out of line with the
chain. Finally, the complete elongation of the chain is passed on to the ring rail & the cop takes up
its normal build.

DOFFING
Although it takes between 30 – 60 minutes to fill a cop depending upon yarn fineness,
process limitations restrict weight of the yarn on the cop to the range 50 – 140 grams. Therefore
adding an additional processing stage is unavoidable after spinning. In case of hand doffing, this
thread reverse is formed on the tube, & in the case of automatic doffing on the spindle. The
reverse is needed so when the cop is doffed the yarn is still held on the spindle. Otherwise, a
thread break would occur. In modern machines doffing is carried out automatically.

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MANUEL DOFFING
Manuel doffing is un – attractive work. It comprises only very few manipulations, which
have to be performed very quickly & must be continually repeated. Furthermore, the work usually
has to be carried out in the bent posture.

THE POSSIBILITIES FOR AUTOMATIONS


The following operations associated with the ring spinning machine can be considered for
automation.
¾ Transport of roving bobbins to the ring frame:
This would be a very useful step. Installations enabling this are becoming available.
¾ Exchange of roving bobbins in the creel of the ring spinning machine:
This would also be useful step but raises difficult problems; the first installations for the
purpose are also now becoming available.
¾ Threading rovings & piecing roving breaks:
It is difficult to design appropriate automatic devices & the operation itself doesn’t arise
very frequently. Benefits would be inadequate in relation to costs.
¾ Take up & removal of waste:
This has been put into practice already in thread break aspirators.
¾ Piecing end breaks:
This is desirable but involves complex solutions which still cann’t bring 100% piecing
success. At present the cost / benefit ratio is often unfavorable.
¾ Stopping roving feed when an end breaks:
The devices currently available tend to be complex.
¾ Doffing:
Doffing has been solved satisfactorily & is already normal practice.
¾ Cleaning:
Cleaning has been largely solved by use of traveling cleaners. Although, quality of
performance is not fully satisfactory.
¾ Repair & maintenance:
Effort involved has been reduced in comparison with the past but much still has to be
performed manually.

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¾ Transport of cops to the winder:


It represents the next major step in automating the ring frame.
¾ Machine monitoring.
¾ Production monitoring.
¾ Quality monitoring:
This probably can’t be achieved directly because of the large number of individual
producing units. Recently clearing systems solve this problem while the spinning
processes continuous.

THE EQUIPMENT OF THE RING SPINNING FRAME


o End break aspirators.
o Piecing devices.
o Cleaning devices.
o Roving stop devices.
o Travelling cleaner.
o Monitoring.
o Automatic cop transport.

END BREAK ASPIRATORS:


End break aspirators removes fibres delivered by the drafting arrangements after an end
break & thus prevent a series of end breaks on neighboring spindles. At another level, it enables
better environmental control; since large part of the return air – flow of the air conditioning
system is led pass the drafting arrangement, especially the region of the spinning triangle. Today,
50% of the air conditioning plant via the end breaks aspirators.

PIECING DEVICES:
Fitting each spinning position with its own piecing device would be too expensive.
Travelling piecing carriages are provided on rails fitted to the machine. The piecing carriages
have to perform mechanically the same rather complicated operations as the operative performs
manually.
The complete process is carried out as follows: During patrolling movement along the ring
spinning machine, each individual position for an end down. If a yarn is present, the patrol is

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continued & the next position is checked. If a broken end is detected, the device stops in front of
the spindle, swings out a frame carrying the operating elements & centers it further operating unit
is lowered onto the ring rail & follows its movements during the subsequent operations.

ORIGIN OF ENDS – DOWN IN RING SPINNING


The ends – down rate in ring spinning has a direct influence on the profitability of the
spinning process. In view of the persistent trend of realizing spindle speeds up to 25,000 rpm in
industrial practice, the probability of ends – down as a result of higher yarn tension & other
factors of influence are getting very important.

¾ Exposed Section of the Yarn Path:


In all probability, ends – down in ring spinning always occur between the front roller pair
of the drafting system & the yarn guide, arranged centrically to the spindle. In this section, the
yarn has a more or less reduced twist due to the twist – retaining effect of the yarn guide. (Fig:
20)

Figure 22: Twist Retention at the yarn guide of the Ring Spinning Machine

This connection is inherent in ring spinning and can be influenced to a certain extent by
re-arranging the spinning elements (spinning geometry). Twist reduction affects the stability of
the spinning process. This negative effect is even increased by the following factors:
• High yarn tension.
• Smaller deviation radius of the yarn at the yarn guide.
• Smaller diameter of the yarn guide material.

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• Reduced twist multiplier.


• Smaller elasticity module of the fibres.

Ends – down will always occur just at the weakest point of the yarn within the described
section. This may be either in the spinning triangle, itself at the front roller pair of the drafting
system or in the subsequent yarn section between spinning triangle & yarn guide.

¾ Conditions in the Spinning Triangle:


In a spinning triangle, fibres are always subjected to uneven load due to the spinning
tension, while maximum load is exerted on marginal fibres. The fan – shaped fibre band is
transferred into the more or less round cross – section of the yarn. The wider the spinning
triangle, the more different is the pre – tension of the marginal fibres at the moment of twist
impartation. As a result of this pre – tension, especially the marginal fibres are prevented from
migrating between the different layers of the yarn cross – section.
The size of the spinning triangle is determined by width B of the fibre band leaving the
drafting system & length L, which is confined by twisting point Z. The position of point Z
depends on width B, the amount of turns per meter & the yarn tension

applied.

Figure 23: Spinning Triangle & Fibre Load Distribution

When the outer marginal fibre arrives at its elongation at rupture, it will break. Then the
next fibre will break & finally the resistance of the spinning triangle is exhausted & the yarn will
break. On the assumption that fibre distribution is uniform & fan – like in the spinning triangle &

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that all fibres are clamped on both sides, which is coming very close to practice, there exist in
theory the following two fundamental load scenarios:
• The marginal fibre arrives at its elongation at rupture. The central fibre (middle of
spinning triangle) isn’t yet under load.
This is the case in conventional ring spinning with higher twist multipliers, wide spinning
triangle or low elongation at break of the fibres (cotton) (Fig. 22).

Figure 24: Load Scenario 1 – Marginal fibre has arrived at its elongation at break.
Cental fibre not yet under load.

• The marginal fibre arrives at its elongation at break, when the central fibre is
already under load.
This is the case in conventional ring spinning with low twist multiplier, narrow spinning
triangle and high elongation at break of the fibres (synthetic fibres) (Fig. 4).

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Figure 25: Load Scenario 2 – Marginal fibre has arrived at its elongation at break.
Cental fibre is under load.

¾ Factors influencing the strength of the spinning triangle:


If the twist multiplier is increased at a constant width B of the fibre band, the strength of
the spinning triangle will decrease accordingly. The reason is the increasing slope of the
marginal fibres & consequently their higher load. When the fibre band is wider, but yarn tension
maintained, the strength of the spinning triangle will also decrease, as the load of the marginal
fibres is increasing in this case, too. When spinning tension is raised, the other conditions being
unchanged, the spinning triangle will get longer. As a result, the number of marginal fibres
clamped on both sides will decrease. Simultaneously, however, the pre – tension of the fibres
still being clamped on both sides is increased. A high spinning tension results in higher hairiness
& more fibre loss.
Fibre length has an analogous influence, but isn’t so important in practice, because the
fibre length is significantly longer than the length of the spinning triangle.
All the above – mentioned factors alone are not decisive for the ends – down rate, but
only take effect in combination with the elongation at break of the fibres.
When fibres have a higher elongation at break, the spinning triangle will extend, so that
the marginal fibres have less slope & can contribute better to the strength. As a result, cotton
yarns & synthetic yarns have a fundamentally different ends – down distribution between
spinning triangle & yarn section.

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¾ Ends – down distribution:


For industrial practice & technical development of the ring spinning technique, it is of
importance – apart from knowing the factors of influence – in which relation the two critical
areas, i.e. spinning triangle & yarn section between spinning triangle & yarn guide, contribute to
the total ends down rate.
Trials have shown that with cotton yarns with a α e range from 3.5 to 5.5 almost 100% of
all ends – down happen at the spinning triangle. Some yarns with a twist multiplier α e < 3.5 can
have a lower strength than the spinning triangle. So, when spinning cotton, the spinning triangle
is clearly the weak point.

Figure 26: Percentage of ends – down occurring at the spinning triangle of total ends – down

Synthetic yarns on the other hand have an ends – down portion of about 50% at the
spinning triangle, largely irrespective of yarn twist, what underlines again the vast influence of
elongation at break of the fibres on the spinning triangle strength.

Figure 27: Ends – down distribution in conventional ring spinning & compact spinning

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¾ Summary:
As a result of different elongation at break of cotton & man – made fibres, the ends –
down rate at the spinning triangle of such yarns is different.

SPECIFICATIONS

RING FRAME (EJM – 168)

SPECIFICATIONS OF EJM – 168


Total number of machines 18
Type 2003
Model EJM – 168
Number of spindles / machine 516
Type of cop Blade type
Spindle drive Belt
Traveler RAF (German)
Suction type Pneuamble LUWA, Pak
Spindle tape length 2580 mm
Inverter Puma 30 kw ~ 400 v ~ 3 phase

BOBBIN SPECIFICATIONS
Length 08 inches
Diameter 38 mm
Weight 52 mm
Yarn weight 40 ~ 45 gram
Tare weight 2.5 gram

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DRAFTING SYSTEM
3/3 Drafting arrangement
Drafting system
Pk – 255
Pressure on Drafting Rollers
Back Rollers 12 kg
Middle Rollers 16 kg
Front Rollers 18 kg
Angle of drafting system 15°
Rubber cot hardness 75 degrees
Drafting Rollers
Front bottom roller 27 mm (with helical flutes)
Middle bottom roller 27 mm (with knurled flutes)
Back bottom roller 27 mm (with helical flutes)
Front top roller 28 mm
Middle top roller 28 mm
Back top roller 28 mm

GAUGES
Between front & middle 44 mm
Between middle & back 52 mm
Traveler clearer gauge 1.2 ~ 1.5 mm

APPRON
Made by WAR (China)
Appron Thickness 1.1 mm top & bottom
Appron Colour Off – Green
Top appron 37 28 1.1 (China)
Bottom appron 83 30 1.1 (China)

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SPACER
Size 2.2 mm
Color Yellow

DIMENTIONS OF MACHINE
Length 20350 mm

ROLLER COTS
Top roller cots
Cot hardness 75 shore
Top 19 30 75
Cot dimensions
Bottom 19 30 28
Cot life ½ years depends upon buffing
Roller grinding is done after 01 month by means of machine
Grinding method named as roller grinding machine (yamatakoei). Rollers are
attached or griped with in the roller griping device.

CHANGEABLE PLACES
™ Ring.
™ Traveller.
™ Spacer.
™ Twist Wheel.
™ Draft Wheel.
™ Back Draft.
™ Speeds.
™ Lifter Wheel.

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BELTS, BEARINGS & LUBRICATION


Belt Endless, H – 1160
Bearing Ball, needle
Grease oil Bintop HT
Gears Alvania 02 grease
For spindle
Shell / Caltex
to tight bobbin

GEARING SETTINGS

Dia of motor pulley D1 200 mm


Dia of machine pulley D2 200 mm
Twist change gear ZA 39
Twist set gear (gear # 1) ZB 58
Twist set gear (gear # 2) ZC 68
Draft set gear (gear # 1) ZD 46
Draft set gear (gear # 2) ZE 114
Main draft change gear ZF 37
Fine draft change gear ZG 138
Break draft change gear ZH 40
Lifter set gear (gear # 1) ZJ 62
Lifter set gear (gear # 2) ZK 32
Dia of tin pulley D3 250.5 mm
Dia of spindle wharve 19.5 mm

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MACHINE CONSTANTS
Main motor rpm 1470
Break daft constant 55.1618
Main draft constant 3.9975
Twist constant 723.615
Machine pulley dia 200 mm
Motor pulley dia 200 mm
Teen pulley dia 250.5 mm
Spindle whareve dia 19.5 mm

EXISTIN MACHINE SETTINGS


Break draft 1.38
Main draft 29.54
Total drfat 30.92
Maximum draft 29.59 30/1
Hank roving 0.87
Yarn count 31/s (PC)
Twist multiplyer (TM) 3.90 / 3.68
TPI 21.75 / 20.32
Lift 07 inch
Delivery rate 237 m /min
Spindle speed 20800 rpm
Efficiency 95%
Doff time 75 minutes
OPS 8.05 31/PC, 8.5 30/PC
Atmospheric conditions
Dry bulb temperature
Wet bulb temperature

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Humidity 58 ~ 60°C (Cotton) 50 ~ 54°C (Polyester Cotton)

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CHAPTER NO. 02

FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTION


FINAL YEAR PROJECT 

FACTORS EFFECTING PRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
All spinners wish that the spinning productivity of their mill (ring frame production in
gms/spindle shift) has the optimum level of efficiency. Though, there are many aspects that limit
the actual production like raw material, lot size, ring diameter & its age, lift, age & make of the
ring frame, its maximum mechanical speed, type of spindle drive, fluctuating production
program, poor control on RH, lower HP of main driving motor, greater percentage of untrained
workers, impoverished technical knowledge of subordinates etc.
Today, there is a pressure on the mills management to decrease the conversion cost to its
lowest possible level & to increase the production because of cut throat competition in both the
local & export markets. But there are some factors which affecting the production of any mill.

Figure 28: Production Capability

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FACTORS EFFECTING PRODUCTION

Figure 29: Production Cycle

EFFECT OF RAW MATERIAL ON PRODUCTION

STAPLE LENGTH
If the length of fibre is longer, it can be spun into finer counts of Yarn which can fetch
higher prices. It also gives stronger Yarn. The fibres which we want to use, should have proper
length. It is necessary to have an average length through out the lot. Variation in length effects
the production & quality also.

LENGTH UNIFORMITY
Low uniformity index shows that there might be a high content of short fibres, which
increases the production loss & lowers the quality.

FIBRE STRENGTH
Fibre strength is very important characteristic of any fibre which effects the production.
Stronger fibres give stronger Yarns. Further, processing speeds can be higher so that higher
productivity can be achieved with fewer ends – breakage.

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FIBRE MATURITY
Mature fibres give better evenness of Yarn. There will be fewer ends – breakages & high
production rate can be achieved. Better dyes absorbency is additional benefit.

MOISTURE IN FIBRE
The moisture greatly effects the production in textile industry. If Moisture Content is
more than standard value of 8.5 %, there will be more invisible loss. If moisture is less than
8.5%, then there will be tendency for brittleness of fiber resulting in frequent Yarn breakages
which tends to high production loss.

UNIFORMITY RATIO
If the ratio is higher, Yam is more even then the end – breakages will be less & gain high
production rate.

ELONGATION
A better value of elongation will help to reduce end – breakages in spinning & hence
higher productivity with low wastage of raw material.

EFFECT OF WORKFORCE ON PRODUCTION

It has been found that, although, the machine used as well as the raw materials consumed
are the same, both in our mills & in advance countries, yet the quality of yarn & workforce
productivity of our mills don’t come up to the standards of the more advance countries.
Investigations have shown that this is largely due to deficiencies in the workforce, work
methods, such as piecing of end breaks, machine tending & material handling on one hand &
poor working conditions also effect the production as well as quality.

WORKING HOURS
Compliance with applicable laws & industry standards is necessary; the normal work
week not (on regular basis) to exceed 48 hours; personnel to have at least one day off in every
seven day period; overtime work not to exceed 12 hours per employee per week. More work can
affect the physical & mentally the worker & he’ll not work devoutly & production loss increases.

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HEALTH & SAFTEY


Provide a safe & healthy work environment; take steps to prevent injuries; regular health
& safety worker training; system to detect threats to health & safety; access to bathrooms &
potable water.

CHILED LABOUR
No use of child labour & therefore no workers under the age of 18, It is the company's
policy not to engage in or support the use of child labor (under the age of 18 years). This
includes employees who are employed on contract basis as well for a specific job. Because they
can’t do their job as we want.

PROPER TRAINING OF LABOUR


Trained labour should hire by the management. If untrained labours work in any unit, the
production of that unit will be low because they don’t know how to do their job.

RIGHT MAN FOR THE RIGHT JOB


Right man for the right job is essential for higher production.

EFFECT OF MACHINERY ON PRODUCTION

MAINTENANCE
Proper maintenance of the machinery is too much important for more production.
Routine maintenance, weekly & annual maintenance should be done on time. For more
production preventive maintenance should prefer.

HANDLING OF MACHINERY
Machinery handling should be in proper way & should operate by the trained operator.

MACHINERY LAYOUT
Proper machinery layout is very important for high production. Layout should be in the
way that material transportation time can be minimized.

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MACHINE PRODUCTION CAPACITY


Machine production capacity should keep in view that how much load should be on this
machine for more production & good quality.

LOWER HP OF DRIVING MOTOR


The main driving motor horse power should be high. The low HP of the main driving
motor or fluctuation in it decreases the production.

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CHAPTER NO. 03

STUDY OF WORK FORCE


FINAL YEAR PROJECT 

WORK FORCE

INTRODUCTION
It has been found that, although, the machine used as well as the raw materials consumed
are the same, both in our mills & in advance countries, yet the quality of yarn & workforce
productivity of our mills don’t come up to the standards of the more advance countries.
Investigations have shown that this is largely due to deficiencies in the workforce, work
methods, such as piecing of end breaks, machine tending & material handling on one hand &
poor working conditions also effect the production as well as quality.

The present methods, followed by the workers, have been in existence since the
establishment of the textile industry & haven’t changed much. In fact, most workers learn their
jobs by watching others & their work methods need much to be modified.

WORK FORCE POLICY

CHILD LABOUR
No use of child labour & therefore no workers under the age of 18. It should be the
company's policy not to engage in or support the use of child labor (under the age of 18 years).
This includes employees, who are employed on contract basis as well for a specific job.

FORCED LABOR
No forced labour, including prison or bondage labour; no lodging of deposits or identity
papers by employers or outside recruiters.

HEALTH & SAFETY


Provide a safe & healthy work environment; take steps to prevent injuries; regular health
& safety worker training; system to detect threats to health & safety; access to bathrooms &
potable water.

DISCIPLINARY PRACTICES
No corporal punishment, mental or physical coercion or verbal abuse.

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WORKING HOURS
Compliance with applicable laws & industry standards is necessary; the normal work
week not (on regular basis) to exceed 48 hours; personnel to have at least one day off in every
seven day period; overtime work not to exceed 12 hours per employee per week.

EMPLOYEE TRAINING

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING
1. The Primary objective of training is to enhance employee’s skill in his specialty
occupation through participation in a structured training program.
2. To ensure personal performing work are competent & understand their rules/ activities
with in the organization.
3. On the job training, provide a unique opportunity for the trainee to experience an active
& hands on learning strategy & development process.

INTERNAL TRAINING
1. At the time of appointment, there is need to told employees about the work according to
the job description, company policies, procedures & instruction is an in – formal activity
& specific documents are used for records.
2. Departmental heads identify the training needs of the personnel on the basis of their
experience & performance. The other factors that identify the training needs are the
results of internal quality audits, corrective & preventive actions, customers’ complaints
& the other issues creating non – conformities.
3. Manager Compliance gives training programs & makes arrangements for training. GUL
AHMED Textile mills Pvt. Ltd. provides three types of training.
¾ Orientation training is given to the new appointments. On job, training is provided
to the personnel whenever required by the relevant Head of the Department.
¾ Classroom training is provided to impart theoretical knowledge of various
activities by the relevant Head of Department.
¾ Manager Compliance provides training regarding Quality Management System
through lecturers & presentations as required.

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EXTERNAL TRAINING
External training is arranged, when sufficient training facilities are not available with in
the GUL AHMED textile mills. External training is entirely at the discretion of the top
management. The Management of GUL AHMED Textile mill has arranged a training session
having lectures on Quality Assurance & Quality Control.

EVALUATION OF TRAINING
Training feedback form is distributed to trainee during or after the training session for
their evaluation of the training subject. Evaluation of trainee is assessed by head of departments,
auditors, customer according to the performance in the relevant area of training, through audits,
asking relevant question.

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CHAPTER NO. 04

IMPORTANCE OF RH & TEMPERATUTE


FINAL YEAR PROJECT 

IMPORTANCE OF RH & TEMPERATURE

The atmospheric conditions with respect to temperature & humidity play very important
role in the manufacturing process of textile yarns & fabrics. The properties like dimensions,
weight, tensile strength, elastic recovery, electrical resistance, rigidity etc; of all textile fibre
whether natural or synthetic are influenced by Moisture Regain.
Moisture Regain is the ratio of the moisture to the bone – dry weight of the material
expressed as a percentage.
Many properties of textile materials vary considerably with moisture regain, which in
turn is affected by the ambient Relative Humidity (RH) & Temperature. If a dry textile material
is placed in a room with a particular set of ambient conditions, it absorbs moisture & in course of
time, attains equilibrium.
Some physical properties of textile materials which are affected by RH are given below:

• Strength of COTTON goes up when R.H % goes up.


• Elongation % age goes up with increased R.H % for most textile fibres.
• The tendency for generation of static electricity due to friction decreases as RH % goes
up.
• At higher levels of RH %, there is also a tendency of the fibres to stick together.
A temperature alone does not have a great effect on the fibres. However; the temperature
dictates the amount of moisture, the air will hold in suspension & therefore, temperature &
humidity must be considered together.

PSYCHROMETRY
Psychometrics’ is the study of the thermodynamic properties of air & water vapour
mixture or simply the study of solubility of moisture in air at different temperatures, the
associated heat contents & the method of controlling the thermal properties of air. There are
various properties of moist air, they are

• Dry Bulb Temperature.


• Wet Bulb Temperature.
• Dew Point Temperature.

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• Relative Humidity.
• Specific Volume.
• Enthalpy etc.

DRY BULB TEMPERATURE


This is the temperature of air – moisture mixture as registered by an ordinary
thermometer.

WET BULB TEMPERATURE


It is the temperature of air – moisture mixture as registered by a thermometer where the
Bulb is covered with the wetted wick.

DEW POINT TEMPERATURE


This is the temperature of air at which moisture starts condensing when air is cooled.

SPECIFIC HUMIDITY
This is the weight of water vapour present in unit weight of dry air.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY
This is the ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air with which the water
vapour is associated to form the moist air. Relative humidity is a measure of how thirsty the air is
at a given temperature. At 100 %, the air is completely saturated. At 50 %, the air holds one –
half of what it could hold if saturated at the same temperature. The thirstier the air, the lower the
percentage & the more it can rob fibres of moisture.

SPECIFIC VOLUME
It is the volume per unit weight of air.

ENTHALPY
It is the total heat contained in unit weight of air, taking the heat content of dry air at 0
degree centigrade. Enthalpy includes both the sensible heat & latent heat contained in the air.

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SENSIBLE HEAT & LATENT HEAT


Sensible Heat is any heat that raises the temperature but not the moisture content of the
substance. This is our regular & familiar every day heat. Because it raises the, temperature it can
be detected by the senses, & this in fact, is why it is called Sensible Heat.
Latent Heat is the tricky one. Latent Heat means “Latent Heat of Vapourization”. It is
that heat required transforming a liquid to vapour.

TYPICAL AIR – CONDITIONING PROCESSES

SENSIBLE COOLING / HEATING


Involving a sensible change in the temperature of air with the specific temperature of air
with the specific humidity or moisture content of air remaining the same. This process is shown
as a horzontal line in Psychrometric chart as no Moisutre has been added or removed from the air
& the humidity ratio remains the same.

COOLING & DEHUMIDIFICATION


This is a process involving reduction in both the dry bulb temperature & the specific
humidity. If air is cooled to temperature below its dew point, condensation of moisture occurs.
This condensation continues as long as the air is being further cooled. By noting the
enthalpy of air before & after cooling, it can determine the heat to be extracted or the tonnage of
refrigeration required for cooling air continuously.

COOLING & HUMDIFICATION


This is a process involving reduction in Dry Bulb Temperature & increase in specific
humidity.

HEATING & DEHUMIDIFICATION:


This is a process where there is an increase in Dry Bulb Temperature & reduction in specific
humidity.
LATENT HEATING
This is a process where there is only an increase in specific humidity. This is a process of
steam injection.

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HEATING & HUMIDIFICATION


This is the process where there is an increase in both DRY BULB temperature & specific
humidity.

EVAPORATIVE COOLING:
This is a process of cooling & humidification but with no change in the enthalpy of air
during the process. This is the process through an air – washer using re – circulated water for
spraying. This is the most commonly used humidification system in a textile mill.

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FINAL YEAR PROJECT

CHAPTER NO. 05

RING CALCULATIONS
FINAL YEAR PROJECT 

RING FRAME CALCULATIONS

PRODUCTION

Ounces / Spindles

EFFICIENCY

TOTAL BREAKAGE {105 total time, 100 %, 60 an hour, 1248 spindles}

Total Draft

Draft Constant Total Draft × Draft Gear Teeth

Twist Constant Twist Wheel × Twist Constant

TPI

Twist

Twist Multiplyer

Twist Wheel for one count to another count

ACTUAL DRAFT

MECHANICAL DRAFT 0.54

ACTUAL COUNT MECHANICAL DRAFT 100

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EXISTING MACHINE CALCULATIONS

SPINDLE SPEED 18883 rpm

DRAFT

COUNT 30, ROVING 0.87

ACTUAL DRAFT 34.4827

MECHANICAL DRAFT 34.0920

DRAFT SET ZE + ZD 160

DRAFT CONSTANT 3.9975

BREAK DRAFT

BREAK DRAFT CONSTANT 55.1618

BREAK DRAFT CHANGE ZH 40

BREAK DRAFT 1.3790

FRONT ROLL DELIVERY

FRONT ROLL DELIVERY

0.32499

12.79

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TRAVELLER SPEED

TRAVELLER SPEED

EFFICIENCY

η 100

OUNCES PER SPINDLE (OPS)

Ounces / Spindles

7.4838

WINDING RPM

Winding rpm

Circumference of Bobbin Π D (dia of bobbin)

YARN DIA

YARN DIA

0.0069951

SYNTHETIC FIBRE DEVELOPMENT & APPLICATION CENTRE, KARACHI.  Page 71