Anda di halaman 1dari 337

International Tropical

Animal Nutrition Conference


Volume II

October 4-7, 2007


National Dairy Research Institute
Karnal, India

M. P. S. Bakshi
M. Wadhwa

Animal Nutrition Society of India


International Tropical
Animal Nutrition Conference

Volume II
Abstracts of the papers presented

October 4-7, 2007

National Dairy Research Institute


Karnal - 132001, India

M. P. S. Bakshi and M. Wadhwa


Department of Animal Nutrition
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Ludhiana-141004, India

ANIMAL NUTRITION SOCIETY OF INDIA


INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
CONTENTS

Session - I
Feed resource management for sustainable animal
production in tropics 1

Session - II
Animal nutrition education : Present status and future leads 93

Session - III
Biotechnological innovations in animal nutrition for
increasing animal productivity 94

Session - IV
Feed processing technologies for enhancing animal productivity 103

Session -V
Newer concepts in aquatic, pig and poultry nutrition
with economic implications 123

Session - VI
Pasture/nutritional management in relation to small
ruminant production 201

Session - VII
Feed quality assurance and feed marketing strategies 251

Session - VIII
Feeding strategies for livestock in relation to environment 257

Session - IX
Scope of GM feeds in animal nutrition 262

Session - X
Feed additives and supplements 267

Session - XI
Minerals and vitamins 303
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Session - I Feed resource management for sustainable


animal production in tropics
FR 1
Effect of feeding different levels of energy on nutrient utilization in
draught camels (Camelus dromedarius)
J. L. Chaudhary, Lokesh Gupta1 and G. S. Tiwari
AICRP on Increased Utilization of Animal Energy with Enhanced System Efficiency
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001

A nutritional trial was conducted for a period of 60 days on nine draught camels to study the effect of
different levels of energy on dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility coefficient of the nutrients and nutritive
value of feeds. The camels were offered three different levels of energy concentrate mixture viz. T1-65%
TDN; T2-70% TDN and T3-75% TDN respectively in concentrate mixture along with ground nut straw
(Arachis hypogaea L) as a sole in the diet of camels. The dry matter intake (kg/d) and DCP intake (g/d)
per animal was non-significant (P<0.05), but total digestible nutrients intake (kg/d) differed significantly
(P<0.05) among the treatments. The digestibility coefficient of DM and CP were significantly (P<0.05)
higher in T3 group as compared to T2 and T1 groups. There was no significant difference of digestibility
coefficients of nutrients between T2 and T1 groups. The digestibility of OM, CF, EE and NFE was not
affected by different levels of energy. The voluntary water intake (l) and total water intake (l) were signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) higher in T1 group as compared to T3 group. There was non-significant difference in VWI
and TWI between T2 and T1 groups. From the results, it can be concluded that ad libitium feeding of
groundnut straw (Arachis hypogaea L) along with 75 per cent TDN level in the concentrate resulted in
improved nutrient utilization in draught camel.

FR 2
Metabolisable energy and total digestible nutrient values of some ruminant
feedstuffs estimated through in vitro gas production method
A. K. Srivastava1, M. R. Garg and A. Kannan
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001(Gujarat), India
1
New Generation Cooperative, NDDB, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh

Metabolisable energy (ME) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) values of commonly used ruminant
feedstuffs by the cattle feed industry like maize, jowar, broken rice, bajra grain, rice bran, deoiled rice
bran, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, groundnut meal, rapeseed meal, mus-
tard cake and guar korma were estimated through Menke‘s in vitro gas production technique. Two
hundred mg feed sample was taken in a glass syringe and 30 ml of mixed rumen liquor was added and
incubated in water bath at 39oC, for 24hrs. Gas produced in the syringe was recorded at every 4, 8 and

1
1
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

24hrs. The net gas production in ml from 200 mg dry sample after 24 h of incubation along with chemical
composition of the sample were used for predicting the ME value of the feeds. The mean ME values (MJ/
kg DM) of maize, jowar, broken rice, bajra grain, rice bran, deoiled rice bran, wheat bran, cottonseed
meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, groundnut meal, rapeseed meal, mustard cake (expeller) and guar
korma were 13.00, 12.30, 12.20, 12.6, 10.98, 7.92, 10.40, 9.40, 12.73, 8.82, 10.40, 11.05, 11.96 and
12.90, respectively. The mean TDN values (in per cent) of maize, jowar, broken rice, bajra grain, rice
bran, deoiled rice bran, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, sunflower meal, groundnut meal,
rapeseed meal, mustard cake(expeller) and guar korma were 79.90, 76.00, 75.40, 77.80, 69.00, 53.00,
65.70, 60.40, 78.40, 57.50, 66.10, 69.00, 74.30 and 79.20, respectively. The data generated could be
utilized by the cattle feed industry for routine feed formulation.

FR 3
Energy and protein deficiency in rural dairy cattle of Purulia and
Bankura districts of West Bengal
R. B. Singh, R. C. Saha, A. Chatterjee, M. K.Ghosh, and P. K. Roy
Eastern Regional Station
National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani-741235, Nadia, West Bengal

Feeding practices and nutritional status of dairy cattle maintained by the farmers of Purulia and Bankura
district under the agro-eco-region-13 have been studied. A dairy cattle nutrition survey was conducted in
some randomly selected areas of Purulia and Bankura districts and data on locally available feeds, feeding
practices, milk yield, body weight of animals etc. were collected following a standard questionnaire spe-
cially made for the purpose. The cows mostly thrive on grazing in fields, forests, cut grass, paddy straw,
kitchen wastes and some concentrate ingredients. The use of ready made concentrate mixture is very less.
Only a very few farmers cultivate green fodder and quantity is very less. Intake of DCP and TDN of cows
have been calculated and compared with the ICAR Feeding Standard. As far as protein deficiency is
concerned, in around 24 % of the population deficiency was nil or marginal(up to 10%), in 27 % the
deficiency was moderate (11-20%), in 21 % the deficiency was high(21-30%) and in around 28 % of the
population the deficiency was acute(above 30%). In case of energy deficiency the situation is little better.
In around 65 % of the population deficiency was nil or marginal(up to 10%), in 26 % the deficiency was
moderate (11-20%), in 9% the deficiency was high(21-30%) and for none of the animals the energy
deficiency was acute(above 30%).

FR 4
Determination of nutrient requirements of Nili-Ravi
buffaloes for pregnancy
S. S. Paul, G. Singh, N. V. Patil 1 and S. M. Deb
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sub Campus, Nabha-147 201, Patiala, Punjab
1
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Thirty six pregnant Nili-ravi buffaloes (>2nd lactation) at 6th month of pregnancy were divided into six
equal groups on the basis of body weight, milk yield of previous lactation and utilized for the study. The

2
2
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

buffaloes were fed equal diet as per requirement during the 6th month of pregnancy. On 7th month of
pregnancy the buffaloes were allotted to six different treatment groups comprising three level of energy
and two level of protein in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments till calving. Energy and protein levels
represented levels both above and below the levels recommended by existing feeding standards. After
calving, all the buffaloes were fed ad lib fodder and limited concentrate based diet based on milk yield and
body weight as per feeding standards. Digestion trials were conducted at every change in diet. The study
indicated that energy requirement of pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes can be met with 55 % total digestible
nutrient (TDN) during 240-270 day of pregnancy and with 60% TDN during 270-308 day of pregnancy
and higher plane of energy did not improve conceptus growth, milk production or maintenance of body
weight in early lactation. However, pregnant buffaloes require at least 12% crude protein (CP) during
240-270 day of pregnancy and 14% CP during 270-308 days of pregnancy. Reduction in dietary CP
below these levels resulted in increase in loss of body weight and delayed postpartum estrus although milk
yield in early lactation is not affected.

FR 5
Synchronization of dietary energy and nitrogen release for improved
ruminal microbial protein synthesis in vitro
K. Ayyappan, K. K. Singhal and B. Singh
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001

Effects of synchronization of release of dietary organic matter (OM) and nitrogen supply to the rumen
microbes were assessed in vitro. On the basis of in sacco degradation kinetic parameters of the selected
feed ingredients including roughages, the quantities of OM and N degraded per 24 h were calculated,
which formed the basis of synchrony index (SI) of diets (R:C 60:40) based on several combinations of
feed ingredients. Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were designated as synchronous (S), medium
synchronous (MS) and asynchronous (AS) having the SI as 0.81, 0.68 and 0.54, respectively. The OM,
CP, EE, NDF and ADF of S, MS and AS diets were 92.51, 12.67, 1.92, 57.95 & 38.47; 92.40, 12.75,
1.85, 58.19 & 37.55 and 92.69, 12.06, 2.38, 59.80 & 36.46, respectively. Total gas (ml/200mg) pro-
duced during 24h from S, MS and AS diets was 33.67±0.27, 35.00±0.47 and 34.00±0.82, respectively.
IVDMD and IVOMD of S diet were lower (P<0.05) (46.05±0.68 & 48.22±0.22) than MS (48.92±0.51
& 51.08±0.25) and AS (47.48±0.50 & 50.26±0.26) diets. S diet resulted in higher (P<0.05) Total N
and TCA ppt N (35.43 & 14.11 mg/dl) than MS (27.97 & 10.52) and AS (15.85 & 7.52) diets. NH3-
N (mg/dl) was lower in S diet (1.36±0.10) than diets MS (5.09±0.11) and AS (6.56±0.14). TVFA (mM)
and acetate to propionate ratio for S, MS and AS diets were 67.93±0.25 & 3.22±0.06; 60.57±0.66 &
3.13±0.02 and 52.23±0.23 & 2.93±0.17, respectively, and the variation among diets were significant
(P<0.01). Total bacterial N (mg/g DOM), based on purine bases determination, was higher (P<0.01) in S
diet (16.75±0.39) than in MS (3.71±0.02) and AS (3.63±0.14) diets. It is concluded that in spite of
isocaloric and isonitrogenous nature of the diets, the synchronized diet produced significantly higher mi-
crobial protein due mainly to optimum availability of energy and nitrogen for microbial growth.

3
3
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 6
Evaluation of UDP content of protein supplements by cud liquor
vis-a-vis near infrared spectroscopy method and IVAR method :
A comparative study
Gopal Krishna
Department of Animal Nutrition,
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

Common animal feeds viz. Rapeseed meal, Cottonseed meal, Soybean meal and Groundnut meal
were collected from 10 different locations for studying UDP content by cud liquor biodegradation vis-a-
vis Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) method and IVAR method. The data published by AFRC was
considered as standard for comparison purpose. It was observed that UDP data based on cud liquor
biodegradation were near to AFRC (1993) published values as compared to NIR and IVAR methods. It
may be concluded that newly developed process for preparing cud liquor (US Patent and Indian patent
application yield biodegradation data more or less comparable to NIR and IVAR methods. It may be
concluded that cud liquor is a suitable alternative of costly NIR method for studying UDP content of
protein supplements.

FR 7
Comparison of cud liquor based in vitro biodegradation
values with in vivo figures
Gopal Krishna
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS-Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

Common animal feeds viz. Soybean meal, groundnut cake and fish meal were collected from different
locations for studying nitrogen degradability (%) estimates and data were compared with published values
based on in vivo studies. It was observed that cud liquor based in vitro biodegradation values were
found at par with in vivo figures, thereby confirm validation report of process developed for preparing
cud liquor enzyme complex using cud from cow and buffalo. It may be concluded that cud liquor could be
used as an alternative of rumen liquor and there is no need of rumen fistulation which support the direction
of Government of India.

FR 8
Casein crude protein disappearance percent in cud liquor vis-a-vis rumen
liquor and fungal cellulase: A comparative study
Gopal Krishna
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS-Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

Replicate samples of raw casein and protected casein were incubated with cud liquor, rumen liquor
and commercial Fungal cellulase (Trichoderma viridi)-Cat No E-9422 for studying biodegradation po-
tential in terms of crude protein disappearance percent. It was observed that proteolysis potential of cud
4
4
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

liquor was at par with rumen liquor and Sigma Fungal cellulase (Cat No E-9422) preparation; thereby
confirm validation report of process developed for preparing cud liquor enzyme complex using cud from
cow and buffalo. It may be concluded that cudliquor could be used as an alternative of rumen liquor and
there is no need of rumen fistulation which support the direction of Government of India

FR 9
Proteolytic potential of cud liquor vis-a-vis fungal cellulase based
on protein supplements incubation studies
Gopal Krishna
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS-Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, India

Common animal feeds viz. Mustard cake (10 from India, 10 from Germany), Cottonseed cake (10
from India), Soybean meal (08 from Germany) were collected from different locations and incubated with
cud liquor and simultaneously with Fungal cellulase (Sigma E-9422). It was Observed that proteolytic
potential of cud liquor in terms of in vitro crude protein disappearance percent was at par with Fungal
cellulase (Sigma E-9422), thereby confirm validation report of process developed for preparing cud liquor
enzyme complex using cud from cow and buffalo. It may be concluded that cud liquor could be used as
an alternative of rumen liquor which support the direction of Government of India.

FR 10
Cellulolytic potential of cud liquor vis-a-vis rumen liquor and fungal
cellulase based on sigma cellulose, type 101, incubation studies
Gopal Krishna
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS-Haryana Agricultural University, India

Sigma cellulose Type 101 (Cat No S-6790) was incubated with cud liquor in triplicate (Cattle /
Buffalo), rumen liquor (Cattle/ Buffalo), fungal cellulose (Sigma E-9422) and artificial saliva. It was ob-
served that figures of cellulose disappearance percent with cud liquor (Cattle / Buffalo) were at par with
rumen, liquor and Fungal cellulase (Sigma E-9422), thereby confirm validation report of process devel-
oped for preparing cud liquor enzyme complex using cud from Cow and Buffalo. It may be concluded
that cud liquor could be used as an alternative of rumen liquor which support the direction of Animal
Welfare Board, Government of India.

FR 11
Rumen fermentation pattern as effected by different
levels of fibre in the diet
Madhu Mohini,Veena Mani and A. K. Puniya
DCN Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal -132001, India

Three rumen fistulated steers weighing 280-350 kg were taken for conducting rumen studies. Three
rations, containing concentrate mixture and wheat straw in the ratio of 70:30 (I), 50:50 (II) and 30:70 (III)
5
5
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

to get 40, 50 and 60% NDF, were fed to the animals in latin square design. DM intake (kg/ 100 kg Body
weight) was 2.03, 1.89 and 1.56 on the three types of rations. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0,
2, 4, 6, and 7 hrs after feeding and were analysed for nitrogen parameters, TVFAs, protozoal number,
total, protweolytic, cellulolytic and methanogenic bacterial numbers. PH of the rumen liquor was not
different significantly. Total N (g/100ml SRL) decreased significantly from 96.20 to 65.79. There was
significant decrease in all the nitrogen parameters as well as TVFA concentration. Increase in fibre content
led to increase in acetate from 59.14 to 65.49% and decrease in propionate from 32.70 to 24.30%. Total
bacterial counts were not different in the three groups. Though there was increase in cellulolytic counts
from 6.10 to 12.48 X 104 and decrease in proteolytic counts from 12.69 to 9.01X104, the decrease was
not significant. Methnaogenic bacteria also increased with the increase in the fibre content in the diet.

FR 12
Effect of feeding standard, medium and low protein diets on
the performance of Murrah buffaloes during pre-patent
period of Fasciola gigantica infestation
P. Singh, A. K. Verma, Vinay Verma, S. C. Gupta* and U. R. Mehra
Division of Animal Nutrition
*Division of Parasitology Indian Veterinary Research Institute,Izatnagar-243 122

In order to study the effect of feeding standard, medium and low protein diets on the performance of
Murrah buffaloes during pre-patent period of Fasciola gigantica infestation, thirty male growing buffalo
calves (aged 8-12 months) were randomly divided into three groups of 10 each. They were fed isocaloric
diets having concentrate mixture (CM) varying in protein: standard protein (SP) as per Kearl (1982),
medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP). After a month the groups were further sub-divided into sub
groups; A & B. Animals in sub-group A under all the three treatments were served as non-infected con-
trol, while the animals in sub group B were infected individually with Fasciola gigantica metacercarie
(1000) through oral route. A metabolic trial on day 40 (post infection) was carried out to assess the intake
and utilization of nutrients in control and parasitized animals. All the nutrients were comparable in CM1,
CM2 and CM3 except CP content being 21.87, 19.09 and 16.69%, respectively. The dry matter intake
(g/d) did not differ significantly (P>0.05), however, intake of digestible DM, OM and ADF and intake of
ADF was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group 1 as compared to group 3. The intake (g/d) and digest-
ibility (%) of CP was significantly (P<0.01) higher in group 1 as compared to group 2 (MP) and 3. The
intake (g/d or g/kg W 0.75) of DM, OM, EE, NDF and digestibility (%) of DM, OM was comparable
(P>0.05) among groups and sub-groups. The digestibility (%) of EE, NDF and ADF was higher (P<0.05)
in group 1 compared to group 3, which was comparable to group 2. The DCP and TDN intakes were
also significantly different among groups but DCP intake was significantly (P<O.OOI) lower in infected
sub-groups compared to control groups. Intake and balance (g/d) of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus
were significantly higher in animals fed SP ration compared to LP ration. The blood biochemical values
were lower (P<0.001) for haemoglobin (%) and higher (P<O.OI) for ALT, AST and LDH (IU/L) in
infected sub-groups as compared to respective controls. The values of plasma albumin and A/G ratio
were significantly (P<0.05) higher in animals fed SP ration but plasma protein and glucose values were
similar among 3 groups. The values of urinary allantoin, creatinine and purine derivatives (mmol/d) were
significantly higher in animals’ fed LP ration. The PDC index was higher (P<0.05) in animals fed SP ration
and was also significantly (P<0.01) higher in animals of infected groups. The excretion of uric acid (mg/L
6
6
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and mmol/d) was significantly (P<0.001) higher in animals of infected groups as compared to control
groups. The average daily gain (ADG) of buffalo calves in SP, SPI, MP, MPI, LP and LPI was 333, 178,
356, 144, 222 and 144 g. respectively and was significantly (P<O.OJ) lower in animals fed LP ration as
compared to animals fed MP and SP rations. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (P<0.01)
higher in infected sub-groups as compared to respective control groups. From the results it is evident that
the performance of buffalo calves was adversely affected during pre-patent period of Fasciola giganlica
infestation irrespective of protein levels in the diet.

FR 13
Effect of feeding standard, medium and low protein diets on the
performance of murrah buffaloes during post-patent
period of Fasciola gigantica infestation
A. K. Verma, P. Singh, Vinay Verma, S. C. Gupta* and U. R. Mehra
Division of Animal Nutrition
*Division of Parasitology Indian Veterinary Research Institute,Izatnagar-243 122

In order to study the effect of feeding standard, medium and low protein diets on the performance of
Murrah buffaloes during post-patent period of Fasciola gigantica infestation, thirty male growing buffalo
calves (aged 8-12 months) were randomly divided into three groups of 10 each. They were fed isocaloric
diets having concentrate mixture (CM) varying in protein i.e. standard protein (SP) as per Kearl (1982),
medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP). After a month the groups were further sub-divided into sub
groups; A & B. Animals in sub group A under all the three treatments were served as non-infected control,
while the animals in sub group B were infected individually with Fasciola gigantica metacercarie (1000)
through oral route. A metabolic trial on day 40 (post infection) was carried out to assess the intake and
utilization of nutrients in control and parasitized animals. All the nutrients were comparable in CM1, CM2
and CM3 except CP content being 21.58, 19.57 and 16.56%, respectively. The dry matter intake (g/d)
but digestible DM, CP and EE and total DM intake and its intake through wheat straw was significantly
(P<0.01) higher in group 1 as compared to group 3. The digestibility of DM. OM, EE, NDF and ADF
was lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in infected groups as compared to control groups. The intake (g/d) and
digestibility (%) of CP was significantly (P<0.01) different among 3 groups and was the highest in group 1
followed by group 2 and 3. The intake of DM (% of body weight or g/kg W 0.75), DCP and TDN (g/d or
g/kg W 0.75) was higher (P<0.01) in animals fed SP ration. However, DCP intake (g/d or g/kg W 0.75) was
lower (P<0.01) in infected groups compared to control groups. Intake and balance (g/d) of nitrogen,
calcium and phosphorus was higher (P<0.01) in animals fed SP ration compared to LP ration. Moreover,
balance of N, Ca and P and balance as % of intake and absorbed of N and Ca were significantly
(P<0.01) lower in infected groups as compared to control groups. The blood biochemical values were
lower (P<0.01) for haemoglobin (%), creatinine (mg/dl) and A/G ratio and higher (P<0.01) for protein,
globulin and LDH (IU/L) in infected sub-groups as compared to respective control groups. Plasma glu-
cose, protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST and LDH values were significantly different among
3 groups. The excretion of allantoin and purine derivatives (mg/L, mrnol/L and mmol/d) was significantly
higher in infected animals compared to control animals. The PDC index was also significantly (P<0.01)
higher in animals fed SP rations and infected with Fasciola gigantica. The urinary excretion of uric acid
and creatinine was comparable in animals of infected and control groups and animals fed SP, MP and LP
rations. The average daily gain of buffalo calves in SP, SPI, MP, MPI, LP and LPI was 194, -200, 178,
7
7
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

-156, 111 and -78 g, respectively and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in animals fed LP ration as com-
pared to MP and SP ration fed animals, however, it was negative and significantly (P<0.01) lower in
infected animals as compared to control groups. Moreover, during recovery phase when animals were
drenched with fasciocidal drug, the ADO in SP, SPI, MP, MPI, LP and UPI was 111, 420, 78, 221, 133
and 294 g, respectively and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in fasciocidal drug treated groups. Signifi-
cantly higher (P<0.01) compensatory growth, and lower (P<0.01) FCR was recorded in treated animals
fed SP ration as compared to other rations. The FCR was higher (P<O.OI) in infected animals irrespec-
tive of levels of protein intake. The values of overall FCR was significantly (P<0.01) higher in animals fed
on LP ration as compared to SP and MP rations. The loss of body weight in sub-groups (SPI, MPI and
LPI) was –200, -156 and -78 g/day. respectively during 90 days post infection

FR 14
Effect of plane of nutrition on growth and nutrient utilization of
Fasciola gigantica infected crossbred calves
S. L. Ingale, P. Singh, A. K. Verma, U. R. Mehra and K. Y. Deshpande
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly

Present study evaluated the effect of plane of nutrition on growth performance, intake and digestibility
of nutrients in Fasciola giganlica infected crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) calves. Fifteen cross-
bred calves (12 months age; 184.5±6.75 kg BW) were randomly divided into three equal groups. Groups
I and II were fed with 100 % of’NRC (1988) requirement, whereas animals of group III were fed with
75% of NRC requirement. Animals in groups II and III were infected orally with 500 metacercariae of F.
gigantica whereas animals in group I served as un infected control. A metabolic trial of six days duration
was conducted 105 days post infection when there was appearance of F. gigantica eggs in faeces. Dry
matter intake of infected groups II and III was significantly (P<0.01) lower than control group I. Average
daily gain (g) in infected groups II (214.5) and III (47.17) was significantly (P< 0.01) lower than control
group I (487.0). Feed conversion efficiency in infected groups were declined significantly (P< 0.05) from
60 days post infection. Digestibility of nutrients did not vary significantly among three groups except ether
extract, which was significantly (P<0.05) lower in infected groups II and III compared to control group I.
Study revealed that Fasciola gigantica infestation in crossbred calves exhibited reduction in feed intake,
average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of ether extract.

FR 15
Effect of quality protein maize based calf starter on the
growth of young crossbred calves
A. K. Tyagi, S. S. Thakur and K. K. Singhal
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001

Besides other amino acids, lysine methionine and cystine in QPM was about 129, 6 and 45% higher
than those in conventional maize grains. QPM was containing higher protein and ether extract contents
than conventional maize, however, their fiber content was similar. To compare the performance of young
calves on calf starters based on conventional maize and QPM as energy sources, two calf starters were
formulated containing conventional or QPM at similar level (maize/ QPM 50, groundnut cake 28, wheat
8
8
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

bran 20, mineral mixture 2 and common salt 1 part) and fed to two groups of 10 each new born cross-
bred calves after 5 days of birth following group feeding practice. Average birth weight of calves in group
I (control) and II was 29.0±1.99 and 28.4±2.39 kg, respectively. Both groups were fed on whole milk
for 30 days of age, which was gradually replaced thereafter by skim milk as per NDRI schedule. DM
intake through milk and calf starter was recorded daily during an experimental period of 85 days. Initially,
calves in each group were offered calf starter @1 kg/ day/group for one week, and thereafter increased
gradually up to 7 kg/ day/ group. Chaffed maize fodder was made available to all the calves, which was
also increased gradually from one kg to 3 kg/day to each group. The body weight of calves was recorded
at fortnightly intervals. Both the calf starters were having almost similar level of nutrients, and CP content
of calf starter of group I and II was 21.82 and 22.75 %, respectively, on DM basis. The average DM
intake from calf starter, milk and forage in crossbred calves of group I and II was 0.98 and 0.99 kg/ day
and the variation between groups was not significant.
Body weight gain in group II (576±44.18 g/ d) was higher (P<0.05) than in group I (522±43.82 g/
d).Feed efficiency (feed intake/ kg body weight gain) in group II (1.71) was also higher than in group I
(1.87), however, variation between the groups was not significant. CP intake in both the groups through
various sources (milk, calf starter and roughage) was similar, however, CP intake/ kg body weight gain in
group II (427 g/d) was lower than in group I (465 g/day), obviously due to the higher availability of
essential amino acids and energy from the QPM based calf starter. It was concluded that replacement of
conventional maize grain with QPM in calf starter resulted in significantly higher weight gain in crossbred
calves.

FR 16
Influence of mustard (Brassica juncia) seed cake supplementation
on milk production of Rathi cattle in its home tract
B. K. Mathur1, J. P. Singh, R. K. Beniwal, N. V. Patil1 and A. C. Mathur2
Regional Research Station, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Bikaner-334001
1
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003
2
K.V.K. Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003

Although from last few decades this arid region has become mustard growing area, but mustard seed
cake feeding to cattle is not being practiced by arid region farmers, in spite of its readily availability at a
relatively cheaper rate. An attempt was made to demonstrate the use of mustard (Brassica juncia) seed
cake as a protein source replacing the commercial concentrate mixture. In a five months feeding trial
twelve (12) lactating Rathi cows were divided into two groups forming control (T1)and treatment groups
(T2) having 6 animals in each group. Animals in both the groups were at similar stage of production and
parity, however three animals in each group was suffering from gynecological disorders like prolapse of
uterus and or cervicitis . Treated these disorders and as preventive measure vitamin-mineral mixture was
added in the concentrate @ 1%. All the animals were daily allowed for about 7 hours grazing on Lasiurus
dominated pasture, and watered ad-libitum twice daily. The cows of both the groups were offered con-
centrate in the form of pelleted cattle feed (20% CP and 70 % TDN) @4.5 kg/ani./day However, in the
treatment group 25% of the pelleted cattle feed was replaced by mustard seed cake(29% CP and 74%
TDN) on nitrogen basis. The initial and final body weights of T1 and T2 group animals during experimen-
tation were 310.4 ±20.29, 310.6± 12.87 and307.33 ±23.0, 303.0±11.12 kg respectively. The T1 group
animals maintained higher average body weights up to 13 th week but the weekly milk average of T1 group
9
9
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

was significantly lower The average milk yield /cow/day for 145 days trial was 3.92 and 4.27 kg. in
T1and T2 groups respectively and was 8.9% higher in mustard fed group Therefore, the cost of feeding
concentrate was reduced in T2.Study showed higher milk yield can be obtained by inclusion of mustard
seed cake in the concentrate ration of Rathi cows and milk produced had no pungent odor of the mustard
seed cake as was feared by the farmers.

FR 17
Augmentation of reproductive efficiency in post partum crossbred cattle by
additional energy supplementation in transient period- A field study
P. S. P. Gupta, S. Selvaraju and G. Ravikiran
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore- 560030.

Nutritional management during the transient period is very important and it influences postpartum
fertility in cattle. Cross bred Holstein-Friesian cows (24 no) belonging to small live stock farmers of an
adopted village, which are in advanced pregnancy were employed. Body weights based on body mea-
surements and Body conditions scores (BCS) were recorded once in fortnight from eighth month of
pregnancy. At the time of calving the animals were grouped in to two groups i.e ragi (Finger Millet) grain
(1-2 kg. / day / animal) was fed from 7th day of calving to 30th day of calving in addition to normal
lactation ration in the treatment group (12 cows) and the other group that was not fed ragi stood as
control group (12 cows). Milk samples were collected starting from day 7 of calving to two months after
their conception. Milk progesterone was estimated by Radioimmunoassay. There was abrupt and steep
decrease in the body condition score in the control group of animals compared to the treatment group.
Among treatment group of animals, 25% of them exhibited luteal activity (>1 ng/ml of milk progesterone)
compared to only 11% in the control group. The mean day of occurrence of first postpartum estrus was
lesser in treatment group than that of control group (71 days vs 81 days). In control group, there was an
inverse relationship of BCS and day of occurrence of first heat, on the other hand in the treatment group
the two parameters had a direct relationship. The percentage of repeat breeders was less in treatment
group compared to that of control (18 % vs 22%). No animal could conceive before three months of
postpartum in control group, whereas 20% of the animals conceived in treatment group during this period.
By six months postpartum 60% of the treatment group cows conceived but only 44% of the control group
could conceive by this period. It was concluded that additional energy in the form of Ragi grain improved
postpartum fertility in cross bred Holstein-Friesian cattle in the village condition.

FR 18
Effects of limiting amino acid rich supplements in the ration on nutrient
utilization and milk production of buffaloes in early lactation
S. S. Dahiya1, S. Chandersekriah2, M. L. Sharma1, A. Thulsi2,
B. S. Punia1 and K. T. Sampath2
1
. Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar
2
. National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Banglore

The effects of feeding limiting amino acid (lysine and methionine) rich protein sources on nutrient
utilization, quality and quantity of milk produced were studied in early lactation. Eighteen buffaloes in 2nd

10
10
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and 3rd lactation were divided into three groups on the basis of their previous lactation yield and current
milk yield. All the animals were given wheat straw ad lib and green fodder 10-15 kg as per seasonal
availability. Rest of the requirements were met by feeding of concentrate mixture. The protein source in
concentrate mixture in control group was GNC while in groups II and III GNC was replaced by soy bean
cake (SBC) and cotton seed cake (CSC), respectively. All three-concentrate mixtures were isonitrogenous
and isocaloric. A digestibility trials was conducted to study the nutrient utilization. The total DM intake
(kg/head) was 12.59, 12.84, and 12.54 in control, SBC and CSC groups, respectively. The digestibilities
values were DM 62.72, 59.77, 63.65; OM 64.46, 60.21, 64.56; CP 59.07, 58.00, 61.29; CF 63.89,
62.23, 62.41; EE 64.71, 61.61, 61.13 and NFE 63.46, 61.19, 65.39 in control, SBC and CSC groups,
respectively. The nutritive value of the total ration was DCP (%) 6.57, 6.89, 7.09; TDN (%) 57.87,
55.36 and 59.12, respectively in control, SBC and CSC groups. Average milk production (kg/day) was
highest in CSC (9.31), followed by SBC (9.07) and lowest in control group (8.72). The increase was to
the tune of 4.01% in SBC and 6.77% in CSC groups as compared to control. The fat percentage in-
creased in all the animals with the progress of lactation and it remained highest in CSC group (7.33%) as
compared to SBC group (7.04%) and control groups ((6.77%). Similarly protein and total solids content
of milk remained highest in CSC group as compared to other two groups. In conclusion feeding of limiting
amino acid rich protein source enhanced the milk production and fat percentage without affecting the
nutrient utilization in buffaloes in early lactation.

FR 19
Effects of limiting amino acid rich protein supplements on nutrient
utilization and milk production of buffaloes in mid lactation
S. S. Dahiya1, S. Chandersekriah2, M. L. Sharma1, A. Thulsi2,
B. S. Punia1 and K. T. Sampath2
1
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Hisar;
2
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Banglore

Eighteen lactating buffaloes in 2nd and 3rd lactation, used in early lactation studies were continued in
mid lactation to see the effects of feeding limiting amino acid (lysine and methionine) rich protein sources
on nutrient utilization, quality and quantity of milk produced. All the animals were given wheat straw ad lib
and green fodder 10-15 kg as per seasonal availability. Rest of the requirements were met by feeding of
concentrate mixture. The protein source in concentrate mixture in control group was GNC while in groups
II and III GNC was replaced by soy bean cake (SBC) and cotton seed cake (CSC), respectively. All
three-concentrate mixtures were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. A digestibility trials was conducted to study
the nutrient utilization. The digestibilities values were DM 60.74, 59.26, 60.03; OM 60.31, 59.29, 59.88;
CP 60.77, 58.98, 56.38; CF 56.78, 60.03, 57.01; EE 63.35, 62.54, 64.30 and NFE 62.90, 60.92,
63.49 and the nutritive value of the total ration was DCP (%) 6.33, 6.39, 5.89; TDN (%) 54.95, 54.12,
54.64, respectively in control, SBC and CSC groups. Average milk production (kg/day) was highest in
CSC (7.50), followed by SBC (7.21) and lowest in control group (6.52). The increase was to the tune of
10.58% in SBC and 15.03% in CSC groups as compared to control. The fat percentage increased in all
the animals with the progress of the lactation and it remained highest in CSC group (7.81%) as compared
to SBC group (7.27%) and control groups (7.23%). Similarly protein and total solids content of milk
remained highest in CSC group as compared to other two groups. All the buffaloes became pregnant in
the experiment. In conclusion feeding of limiting amino acid rich protein sources enhanced the milk pro-

11
11
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

duction and fat percentage without affecting the nutrient utilization in mid lactating buffaloes. However,
with the progress of the lactation i.e in late lactation, the increasing effect in milk and milk fat was not so
marked.

FR 20
Effect of dietary crude protein levels on milk yield in crossbred cows
K. Ally, A. D. Mercy and T. V. Viswanathan
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala Agricultural University

A study was conducted to assess the influence of level of dietary protein on early lactation using
eighteen crossbred cows within one week of their lactation. These animals were grouped into three and
fed with concentrate mixtures having 26.6 (T1), 20 (T2) and 16.9 (T3) per cent CP on DM basis and
paddy straw, in the ratio 70:30 of total DM intake. The total dry matter intake (DMI) of animals in the T1
group was lower (P<0.01) than that of the other two groups. There was no significant difference in the
milk production, milk composition or blood parameters except blood urea nitrogen, among the groups.
The blood urea nitrogen levels of the 50th day collection was significantly higher (P< 0.01) in the T2 group
than that of the T3 group. Rumen pH and lactic acid content were higher (P< 0.05) in T1 group while
NH3-N concentration was lower (P< 0.05) for the animals fed T3 ration. The digestibility coefficient of
EE, CF, NDF and ADF were significantly higher (P< 0.01) for the T1 ration. The cost of producing one
kg milk was Rs. 7.79, 7.91 and 7.71 for the three groups, respectively. Results of the study suggested
that CP level of 16.9 per cent in the concentrate mixture (13.2 per cent in the total ration) was sufficient
to meet the requirements of cows in early lactation, producing a peak of 10 kg milk per day.

FR 21
Efficacy of feeding whey-based calf-milk replacers on the
performance of neonatal dairy calves
M. Yahya1, A. Tyagi2 and K. K. Singhal2
1
Bonilait Proteines, B.P.2-86361, Chasseneuil-Du-Poitou Cedex, France
2
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, 132001 Haryana, India

Neonatal calves of below three months of age are dependent on liquid milk feeding as their digestive
system are not ready for 100% solid feed intake. Fresh mother milk is the most natural and suited for the
calves. However, a calf milk formula or replacer almost always will be cheaper than feeding saleable
whole milk. Using calf milk replacer (CMR) provides flexibility of storage, day-to-day constancy of prod-
uct, and conduciveness for the control of diseases in the calves. Nonetheless, CMR come in many quali-
ties due to different production techniques and ingredients used. Some CMR are manufactured using
spray drying and with homogenised vegetable-fat and whey protein blending. Examples of such technical
CMR are Vodor One (VO) manufactured by Bonilait Proteines of France. In present trials, the aim was
to evaluate the efficacy of feeding VO-CMR on the performance of calves in comparison to feeding
whole milk. Two feeding trials were conducted. The first trial (E1) was performed at a government dairy
farm in Air Hitam, Malaysia, which used 24 male and 24 female Fiesian-Sahiwal calves as the experimen-
tal animals. The second trial (E2) was conducted at the Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India, which
used five to six Karan-Friesian calves of each sex. These numbers were equally and randomly alloted to
12
12
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

three or two dietary treatments consisting of (1) whole milk (E1 &E2), (2) alternative CMR (E1), and (3)
VO-CMR (E1 & E2).The calves were selected from their respective parent herds. All calves were iden-
tified with neck or ear tag numbers, and birth weights were recorded as soon as possible after birth. The
calves were allowed to drink from their mothers’ colostrum within 48 hours before they were separated to
individual pens (E1) or group pens (E2). Day-to-day management of the calves, the personnel involved in
the experimental handling and procedures were kept as constant as possible. Both the fresh milk and
CMR were fed twice daily at about 10% body weights, once in the morning and once in late afternoon
until they are weaned at 12th (E1) or 13th week. The CMR were dissolved with warm water of 60o C, at
1:7 recommended dilution rate. Individual birth weights, weekly (E2) or every fortnightly (E1) body weights,
daily intakes of fluid, calf concentrate and chopped fodder were recorded. Data were computed using
Statistical Analysis System (Version 9.1) and analysis performed by general linear model to determine
LSD between means. A difference between a pair of means of more than two standard error of the means
was considered statistically significant (P<0.05). In the trial E1, the final weights at 12th week, total gains,
ADG and fluid intakes were: 70.5, 60.7 and 62.9 kg; 45.1, 34.2 and 36.3 kg; 0.59, 0.44 and 0.47 kg/
day; 4.7, 4.7 and 5.1 liter/day for treatments (1), (2) and (3), respectively. For trial E2, the average
parameters were: 77.0 and 67.7 kg; 48.5 and 36.7 kg; 0.59 and 0.40 kg/day; 5.0 and 4.6 liters/day for
treatments (1) and (3), respectively. In conclusion, the feeding of whole milk for both the trials resulted in
higher final weights of 11-12% compared to feeding the VO-CMR, while the alternative CMR showed
slightly lower performance. As expectedly shown in trial E1, the VO-CMR feeding achieved a cost shav-
ing of 28% compared to the whole milk feeding. This was, nevertheless, based on the price of these items
at the time of the trial. As reported in other similar trials, these levels of differences in the calves’ perfor-
mance are acceptable trade offs for the CMR feeding.

FR 22
Effect of replacement of barley grain energy with
babul pods on in vitro nutrient utilization
Mayank Tandon and S. N. Rai
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana

Barley grain in concentrate mixture was replaced with Babul pods (Acacia nilotica) at 0, 40, 60, 80
and 100 % levels of energy and a TMR was prepared using concentrate to roughage ration of 50: 50 with
oat green and wheat straw (33:17). Inclusion of barley grain was 20% in the concentrate at zero percent
replacement level, while it was 12, 8, 4 and 0 % in the concentrate at 40, 60, 80 and 100 % replacement
levels. Various TMRs were evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro dry matter and organic matter
digestibility as well as gas production over 48 h. The organic matter for different TMRs ranged from
85.15 to 86.02 percent in various levels of replacement with babul pods. The crude protein contents for
TMRs were 13.19 to 14.46 percent, while crude fibre content was 21.30 to 23.11. Ether extract percent
was in the range of 2.43 to 3.0 in TMRs. NDF content was 58.98 to 62.09, while ADF content was
between 30.38 to 37.23 percent respectively for 0, 40, 60, 80 and 1000 % replacement levels in TMRs.
The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility at 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % replacement levels in
TMRs were as 59.90, 57.76, 62.46, 61.36 and 58.74 percent, and 62.48, 61.75, 62.77, 63.25 and
61.57 percent respectively. Total gas production of various TMRs during 48 h were 185.05, 182.23,
183.00, 182.14 and 175.63 ml/g TMR and the rate of gas production (ml/h/g) was 3.85, 3.79, 3.81,
3.79 and 3.65 respectively for 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % replacement levels of barley. The values of

13
13
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

IVDMD and IVOMD were remained similar with each other. It is concluded that Barley energy can be
replaced at 100 percent level with Babul pods energy without affecting nutrient utilization.

FR 23
Effect of replacement of sorghum grain energy with babul pods
on in vitro nutrient utilization
Mayank Tandon and S. N. Rai
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, NDRI, Karnal, Haryana

Sorghum grain in concentrate mixture was replaced with Babul pods (Acacia nilotica) at 0, 40, 60,
80 and 100 % levels of energy and a TMR was prepared using concentrate to roughage ration of 50: 50
with green oat and wheat straw (33:17). Inclusion of sorghum grain was 20% in the concentrate at zero
percent replacement level, while it was 12, 8, 4 and 0 % in the concentrate at 40, 60, 80 and 100 %
replacement levels. Various TMRs were evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro dry matter and
organic matter digestibility as well as gas production over 48 h. The organic matter for different TMRs
ranged from 85.55 to 88.73 percent in various levels of replacement with babul pods. The crude protein
contents for TMRs were between13.25 to 14.35 percent, while crude fibre content was 20.24 to 24.53
percent. Ether extract percent was in the range of 2.8 to 3.35 in TMRs. NDF content was 59.59 to
61.82 percent, while ADF content was between 35.96 to 39.08 percent respectively for 0, 40, 60, 80
and 100 % replacement levels in TMRs. The in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility at 0, 40,
60, 80 and 100 % replacement level in TMRs were as 52.60, 57.25, 54.97, 50.67 and 49.98 percent,
and 56.03, 62.44, 59.17, 57.08 and 55.25 percent respectively. Total gas production of various TMRs
during 48 h were 186.07, 217.67, 204.85, 200.15 and 189.34 ml/g TMR and the rate of gas production
(ml/h/g) was 3.87, 4.53, 4.26, 4.17 and 3.94 respectively for 0, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % replacement
levels of sorghum. The IVDMD values differed significantly between control and 40 % energy replace-
ment while other values remained similar to each other. It is concluded that Sorghum grain energy can be
replaced at 100 percent level with Babul pods energy without affecting nutrient utilization.

FR 24
Effect of balanced feed on the performance of milch cows-
A comparative study
S. K. Upadhyay and Kavita Sharma
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kangra-176 001, India

Generally dairy farmers are not aware of balanced feeding to their milch animals. Though they have
started rearing crossbred cows but due to imbalance in feeding, health of milch cattle could not be main-
tained thus leading to poor productivity and infertility problem. Hence the present study was conducted to
know the effect of balance feed on the performance of milch animals in comparison to farmers used feed.
In this study, six dairy farmers were selected. Balanced feed comprised of maize/ wheat 40, cotton seed
cake 15, mustard cake 15, wheat bran 27, mineral mixture 2 and Salt 1 kg each and fed to two groups
of HF cows and two groups of (Jersey x HF) cows for 90 days. Feeds were fed at the rate of one kg per
2.75 1 in Jersey x HF cows and 3.5 1 in HF cows in addition to maintenance ration per day. 30 kg green
fodder and 10 Kg dry fodder were also fed to the animals per day. Progressive increase in milk yield was
observed in the cows fed with balanced feed. During last week daily milk yield was 20.75 to 21.27 l /d,
14
14
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

which was 18 1 initially in HF cows. In crossbred (J x HF), during last week, milk yield was 15.5 1 and
initially it was 12.5 1. In other group almost same milk yield was obtained throughout the trial period i.e.
18 1 and 12.5 1 respectively, in two trials. The health and the reproduction performances of the balanced
feed fed groups improved and there was control of deficiency diseases.

FR 25
Effect of supplementation of wheat straw with graded levels of mustard
cake on in vitro fermentation and nutrient utilization in crossbred steers
K. Sharma, Narayan Dutta, A. K. Pattanaik, M. Singh, A. K. Patra and A. Singh
Center of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute Izatnagar-243 122, India

A study was conducted to ascertain the effects of supplementation of wheat straw with graded levels
of expeller pressed mustard cake (MOC) on in vitro and in vivo nutrient utilization. Graded levels of
MOC (0, 10, 20, 30. 50, 60, 70 and 100%) with wheat straw were used to study the substrate degra-
dation by in vitro gas production technique. Rates of gas production (c) and TDOMR increased (P<0.05)
and half time (t1/2) of asymptotic gas production decreased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of MOC
inclusion. MBP and EMP were significantly (P<0.05) high due to supplementation, however, optimum true
supplementary effect on in vitro fermentation was evident at 10% level. Subsequently, twenty crossbred
steers (2.5 yrs of age and 218±13.3 kg BW) were fed graded levels of MOC at the rate of 0, 10, 20,
and 30% of total diets. Supplementation of MOC to wheat straw was found to exert significant (P<0.05)
positive effect on DMI (% BW or g/kg W0.75) by steers. Intake of wheat straw improved significantly
(P<0.05) up to 20% level of MOC supplementation, however, substitution effect was pronounced be-
yond this critical level. Digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased significantly (PO.05) due to supple-
mentation although digestibility coefficient of fibre fractions exhibited improvement significantly (P<0.05)
by MOC supplementation at 10% dietary level with out any further increase beyond this level. Nutrient
intake and density of composite diet in term of DCP and TDN and N-retention improved significantly
(PO.05) from 10 to 30% levels of MOC. However, intake of DCP and TDN was sufficient at 10%
dietary level of MOC to meet their nutrient requirement. It may be concluded that supplementation of
expeller pressed rapeseed-mustard cake at 10% level may be effective as critical supplement for optimi-
zation of straw use and improving the performance of crossbred steers in the prevailing socio-economic
conditions of the farmers.

FR 26
Effect of supplementing wheat straw with pulse by-products (chuni):
In vitro fermentation characteristics and metabolism study
with crossbred steers
Narayan Dutta, K. Sharma, A. K. Pattanaik, M. Singh, A. K. Patra and A. Singh
Center of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India

The study was carried out to examine the effect of supplementation of wheat straw with graded levels
of lentil (Lens culimaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) by-products (chuni) on in vitro and in vivo
nutrient utilization. Graded levels of lentil or black gram chuni (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 70 and 100%) with
15
15
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

wheat straw were used to study the substrate degradation by in vitro gas production technique. Gas
volume produced in 24 h, TDOMR, MBP and EMP were significantly (P<0.05) high due to supplemen-
tation, however, true supplementary effects on in vitro fermentation were evident at 20% level. Twenty
crossbred steers (2.5 yrs and 215±15.0 kg BW) were fed lentil chuni at 0, 15, 25, and 35% levels in
Exp. 1, and black gram chuni at 0, 15, 25 and 35% levels in Exp. 2. Supplementation of chunies to wheat
straw was found to exert significant (P<0.05) positive effect on DM I by steers. Intake of wheat straw
improved significantly up to 15% level of supplementation, however, substitution effect was pronounced at
35% level in both the chunies. Similarly, digestibility coefficient of various nutrients improved significantly
(P<0.05) at 15% level and no additional beneficial effect was evident beyond this level in both the chunies,
except for higher CP digestibility at 25% level. In general, N retention increased (P<0.05) with increasing
levels of supplementation. Intake of DCP and TDN by steers was sufficient at 15% level to meet their
nutrient requirements. Various target blood biochemical parameters remained within the normal range at
different levels. Supplementation of lentil and black grain chuni at 15% level appears to be effective to
achieve optimum true supplementary effect and overall performance of crossbred steers in prevailing
feeding systems.

FR 27
Chemical composition of local feeds and fodder in
Kumaon region of Uttaranchal
N. Raghubanshi¹, O. P. Singh and A. Dey²
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying,
Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi, U.P.

A study was conducted to analyze the chemical composition of locally available feed resources in
Kumaon region of Uttaranchal. For this purpose two district namely Nainital and Almora and in each
district two blocks and in each block two villages situated at various altitudes were selected. Feeds and
fodder samples were collected from the selected households. The study revealed that locally available
roughages like paddy, wheat and bhatt straw (pulse straw) and minor millets straw (jhungra and mandua
straw), local grass hay, Bhimal and Timil leaves and mixed green grasses are being used for feeding of
livestock. The CP content was found highest in Bhimal leaves (19.20%) followed by Timil leaves (13.50%).
Hay made of local grasses had more CP percent (8.5%) than straw. The EE content of tree leaves and
local grasses was observed higher in winter season ranging between 2.08 to 3.77 %. Organic matter
content was higher in hay (6.83 %) and bhatt straw (6.95 %) than other roughages. In case of concen-
trate, maximum crude protein content was found in soybean (41.88%), bhatt grain (33.75%) while in
wheat, barley, maize and minor millet grain the content was observed at 10.50, 11.30, 12.25 and 6.88%,
respectively. The content of EE was found higher in whole soybean (9.40%) followed by bhatt grain
(5.76%). Therefore, the soybean was found better in all respect of nutritive value of feeds in livestock
feeding followed by bhatt grain. In case of tree leave, Bhimal leaves were found better for animal feeding
in hill region.

16
16
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 28
Effect of feeding broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) to dairy cattle as
lean season green forage in the north eastern region
P. B. Reddy* and J. J. Gupta
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793103 (India)

Paddy straw generally forms the sole source of roughage for feeding dairy cattle in NE region of
India in winter season due to non-availability of green fodder leading to decrease in milk yield. Therefore,
an experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) as
green fodder to dairy cattle during lean (winter) season. Three animals were fed with paddy straw as sole
source of roughage and three animals were fed with 50% broom grass and 50% paddy straw. An average
milk yield of 7.71 litres per day per animal was recorded when paddy straw was fed as sole roughage
(40% of total DM intake) and it increased to 8.38 litres when 50% of paddy straw was replaced by
broom grass. This indicated that broom grass, which grows well in this region when other greens are not
available, could be used as potential alternative to maintain milk production in dairy cattle during lean
season.

FR 29
Replacement of green maize by whole sugarcane in the
ration of “phule triveni” heifers
Y. G. Fulpagare, R. J. Desale, D. K. Deokar, S. V. Kale and S. P. Kalhapure
Research Cum Development Project on Cattle
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri -413 722 Dist- Ahmednagatr, India.

Phule Triveni crossbred heifers (16) of almost similar age and weights were divided into four treat-
ment groups. The total DM was provided as 1 /3 through concentrate and 2/3 through roughages. The
DM provided through roughages was splitted as 1 part through Lucerne, 1 part through Jowar kadbi and
remaining 1 part through Maize (T0). The Maize was replaced by whole sugarcane at the rate of 50%
(T1), 75% (T2) and 100% (T3), respectively. The experimental feeding was continued for 3 months, then
the digestion trial of 7 days duration was continued for estimation of digestibility of proximate nutrients.
The results revealed that the average daily dry matter intake was 1.78, 1.73, 1.74 and 1.72 kg and gain
in body weight was 0.421, 0.417, 0.443 and 0.409kg, in T0, T1, T2 and T3 treatment groups, respectively.
The treatment wise body measurements were observed to be increased with increase in body weight. The
digestibility of DM, CP, CF, EE and NFE ranged between 67.31 to 71.62, 59.01 to 64.81, 67.30 to
70.91, 46.28 to 49.03 and 69.22 to 71.22 per cent, respectively which shows decreasing trend with
increase in whole sugarcane level. The non-significant differences were noticed for daily DM intake, gain
in body weight, and body measurements. However, there was numerical increase up to 75% replacement
of maize by whole sugarcane. Therefore, from the results it can be concluded that the green maize can be
replaced by chopped whole sugarcane up to 75% in the ration of Phule Triveni crossbred heifers.

17
17
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 30
Prediction of dry matter intake of grazing lactating
cows in arid tract of Western Rajasthan
N. R. Chowdhry and Shiv Prasad
Dairy Cattle Breeding Division
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
A study was conducted on ten lactating Tharparkar cows to predict the dry matter intake under
grazing (August-September, 2006) in the field area of arid western Rajasthan. Double indicator method
was used to predict the dry matter intake. Acid insoluble ash (AIA) and chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3)
were taken as internal and external indicators, respectively. Twelve grams chromic sesquioxide was drenched
daily for 7 days and grabbed dung samples were collected on 6, 7 and 8th days at morning and evening.
The collected dung samples were digested in triple acid mixture and the chromium concentration was
measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometery. AIA was measured in representative feed and grabbed
dung samples of experimental cows. The mean recovery of chromium in dung was 0.28 g per cent (0.23
- 0.34 g %). Average predicted dry matter voided in dung was 2.93 kg day-1 (2.43 - 3.64 kg/day). The
average concentration of AIA in feed and dung samples was 2.58 and 9.30 per cent, respectively. The
mean of predicted dry matter intake per 100 kg BW, per kg BW0.75 and kg cow-1 day-1 was 3.40 kg
(2.95 - 3.74 kg), 0.14 kg (0.12 - 0.16 kg) and 10.53 kg (8.62 - 12.15 kg), respectively. High DM intake
was attributed to good availability of green grasses during rainy season.

FR 31
Seasonal variations in grazing resources of western arid region
and strategies to combat the pro blem
N. R. Chowdhryand Shiv Prasad
Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal

Animal husbandry is the major source of livelihood of people in the western arid region, where
common rangelands are main feed input resource for the livestock. An investigation on the seasonal fluc-
tuations in grass cover of rangelands was carried out in two locations of Barmer and Jaisalmer districts
during 2006-07. The average number of seedlings per quadrate (1m x 1m) of rangeland was 201, 28 and
6 in rainy, winter and summer seasons, respectively. The annual and perennial green grasses during rainy
season were available only as dried stubbles and litter in winter and summer. The pasture was dominated
by the moderately palatable grass species for cattle dominated by Indigofera cordifolia, Aristida
adscensionis, Cenchrus biflorus and Cenchrus ciliaris contributing 58.18 per cent seedlings in rainy
season. However during winter and summer seasons the seedlings of unpalatable grasses/shrubs of mainly
Crotalaria burhia and Aerva pseudotomentosa were predominant with proportionate contribution of
59.89 and 78.95 per cent, respectively. Thus the grass cover of rangeland steeply declined from moderate
grazing value in rainy season to near zero grazing value in summer. The gap of fodder scarcity in lean
period was moderated by farmers by feeding grass hay and straws stocked during flush season supple-
mented with feeding limited quantity of feed to the animals, short distance migration of unproductive stock
and sale of surplus stock. In case of recurrence of drought a frequent problem in the arid region, the only
options available to the livestock keepers are long distance migration of herd, purchase fodder from other
sources beyond economical means, letting loose the cattle, especially unproductive ones, on the mercy of
18
18
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

God, or rearing them in cattle relief camps financially supported by state government under famine relief
programme.

FR 32
Evaluation of nutritive value of local grass of
Kumaon Himalaya in crossbred calves
A. Sahoo and R. K. Mahapatra
Division of Temperate Animal Husbandry
Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Mukteswar Campus-263138 (Uttarakhand)

The present experiment is planned to assess intake and utilization of nutrients in six crossbred cattle
calves (age 12-18 mo and average live weight 174 kg) fed solely on local mixed green grass. The princi-
pal component grass species, viz. Bimalsiya (Pennisetum orientale), Kumeria (Heteropogon contortus)
and Kikiyu (Penesetum clandestinum) in the local mixed grasses were identified and analysed for proxi-
mate and fiber constituents. The feeding trial was continued for a period of 3 weeks followed by a
digestibility trial of six days duration for collection of feed and faeces sample. The three grass species had
a wide range of CP content (% of DM) ranging from 6.1 in Kumeria to 20.9 in Bimalsiya and that of
Kikiyu was 10.9. The acid detergent lignin content (% of DM) was high in Kumeria (7.4) followed by
Kikiyu (6.3) and Bimalsiya (2.8). All the three grass species had high NDF content (73.1-77.4%), but
ADF was low in Bimalsiya and thus it had high hemicellulose (44.8%) and low cellulose content (27.7%).
The Kumeria grass had a low total ash (8.1%), but it had high acid insoluble ash (4.45%) followed by
Bimalsiya (2.71%) and Kikiyu (1.93%). On the whole, the local mixed grass had CP 6.6 %, NDF
80.2%, ADL 13.2%, ash 12.0% and AIA 5.23%. The intake of DM, CP, DCP, TDN and ME was
averaged at 4.70 kg, 310 g, 182 g, 2.79 kg and 10.06 Mcal, respectively. The digestibility of DM, OM,
CP, NDF and ADF were 64.0, 65.8, 58.9, 67.5 and 61.8 %, respectively. Thus the major nutrient
composition of local grass with respect to DCP, TDN and ME was 39 g, 595 g and 2.14 Mcal per kg
DM. Feeding of local mixed grass as a sole diet was thus observed to be deficient in CP and DCP to
meet the requirement of crossbred calves (approx. 200 kg BW) with an average daily gain of 300 g.
However, a high proportion of Bimalsiya grass could definitely ameliorate the deficit due to its high CP
content.

FR 33
In vivo assessment of nutrient utilization in indigenous cattle heifers
reared on a basal diet of local grass hay and oak leaves at
Kumaon regions of Himalaya
V. K. Paswan, A. Sahoo and R. K. Mahapatra
Division of Temperate Animal Husbandry
Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Mukteswar Campus-263138 (Uttarakhand)

The in vivo experiment was carried out at Animal Nutrition Shed of Indian Veterinary Research
Institute, Mukteshwar located at 2250-2350 m above sea level in the Kumaon regions of Himalaya in the
Uttarakhand Province (28o 53’ 24”-31o 27’ 50” N and 77o 34’ 27”-81o 02’ 22” E) of India. The experi-
ment was conducted in two stages, viz. stage-I involved evaluation of three different feeding practices in

19
19
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

six native hill cattle heifers (18-24 mo age and average body weight 101.5 kg) in a partial switch-over
design; and during stage-II, concentrate mixture (CM) was supplemented to local grass hay (GH) so as to
meet the major nutritional requirements as prescribed in the feeding standard (NRC, 2001). The three
different dietary treatments were GH (G1), GH + low level of oak leaves (OL) (G2) and GH + high level
of OL (G3). The switch over feeding trial involving two animals each for a treatment continued for a
period of forty days including a digestibility trial towards the end and the dietary treatments were switched
over in three different periods. The study on CM supplementation to GH (G4) was conducted in all the six
animals at the end of the switchover trials. The GH contained OM 92.4, CP 5.9, TCHO 84.7, NDF 81.5
and ADL 10.9. The DM content of OL was 65.4% and it contained CP 10.1, EE 6.0, NDF 63.1, and
ADL 21.6. The concentrate mixture had OM 89.3, CP 18.6 and EE 3.23. The GH contained a higher
percentage of AIA (4.76). The DM intake (kg/d) was relatively higher (19%) in G3 (3.52) than G1
(2.96), but the group differences were statistically non-significant, the intake in G2 and G4 being 3.11 and
2.99 kg/d, respectively. The intake of other nutrients (OM, TCHO, NDF, ADF, HC and C) followed a
similar trend, but the intake of TCHO and fiber components was low in G4. While comparing the effect of
OL supplementation at two dietary levels, a linear but non-significant increase in DM and OM intake was
seen in G2 and G3, but the trend in intake of TCHO and fiber components was different. There was a
significant (P<0.001) increase in CP intake in the OL and concentrate mixture fed groups compared to G1
fed on only the GH. The CP intake was 175, 243, 306 and 292 g/d in G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively.
The intake of both CP and EE revealed a linear increase in G2 and G3 fed on increasing levels of OL. The
EE intake in G4 was comparable to that in G1. The DM digestibility (%) was lowest (P<0.001) in G1
(49.4), which increased linearly in G2 (55.3) and G3 (61.1) fed on OL in addition to GH. The DM
digestibility in G4 (57.6%) was comparable to G2, but higher than G1. Similarly, the digestibility of OM,
EE, TCHO, and ADF was highest in G3 followed by G2 or G4 and was lowest in G1. The CP digestibil-
ity (%) was highest in G4 (70.3) followed by G3 (66.8), G2 (58.6) and G1 (43.9). The digestibility of
fiber components except ADF showed non-significant difference between the groups. The effect of OL
feeding in G2 and G3 showed a linear trend with respect to digestibility of OM, CP, EE, TCHO and
ADF. Thus, the diet of G1 contained 59.1g CP, 25.9g DCP, 0.49 kg TDN and 1.75 Mcal ME per kg
DM. The nutrient content of the diet linearly increased with additional OL and was highest in G3. How-
ever, the CP and DCP content were higher in GH+CM diet in G4 than GH+OL diet in G3 (98.3 vs 86.5
for CP and 69.1 vs 57.8 for DCP). The group receiving lower level of oak leaves (G2) had an interme-
diate level of CP, DCP, TDN and ME content (between G1 and G3) i.e. 77.9g, 45.6g, 0.56kg and 2.02
Mcal per kg DM, respectively.

FR 34
Replacement of mustard cake with green berseem in sorghum
stover based rations of growing buffalo calves
L. K. Karnani, S. K. Mahanta, S. B. Maity and G. H. Pailan
Plant Animal Relationship Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute
Jhansi-284 003 (U.P.), India

Bundel Berseem-2 has been developed at this institute through mass selection from indigenous germplasm
and released in the recent past for cultivation in central and north-west zone of India. It has excelled
existing national check ‘Wardan’ by a margin of 7.9%, 7.3% and 10-15% for green fodder, dry matter

20
20
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and crude protein yields, respectively. Growing Bhadawari buffalo calves, divided into 3 groups (G1 to
G3) of 5 each, were offered a mixed ration of sorghum stovers and green bundel berseem-2, replacing
mustard cake as protein source to record their feed intake and utilization. Buffalo calves under G1 group
were fed mustard cake to meet the protein requirements, while mustard cake was replaced with green
berseem at 50 and 100% on CP basis in animals under G2 and G3 groups, respectively. All the experi-
mental calves were offered sorghum stovers as basal forage. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was
4.47, 4.81and 4.65 kg in buffalo calves of G1, G2 and G3, respectively and the differences were non-
significant. When DMI was calculated as kg/ 100 kg body weight or g per kg W 0.75, then it varies from
1.81 to 1.91 kg and 71.68 to 75.84 g, and also was comparable among the groups. Similarly digestibility
of DM was maximum (53.23%) in calves of G3 group, followed by G2 (51.72%) and G1 (48.86%).
Average CPI and TDNI were comparable among the groups and varied from 462 to 547 g/d and 2.11 to
2.38 kg/d, respectively. This showed that without any adverse effect on feed intake as well as nutrient
utilization, mustard cake could be replaced completely with green Bundel berseem-2 in sorghum stovers
based diets of growing Bhadawari buffalo calves

FR 35
Evaluation of dual-purpose wheat for grain and fodder production
and the nutritive value of wheat fodder
K. K. Singhal, H. P Tripathi, B. Singh and A. S. Harika
Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001

A field experiment was conducted in split plot design with three varieties of wheat (VL 829, VL 616
and PBW 343) in main plots and four treatments of cutting for fodder and nitrogen application (no cut
120 kg N, one cut 120 kg N, one cut 150 kg N and one cut 180 kg N/ ha) in sub plots replicated four
times. The crops, sown on Nov. 11, 2005 in lines at a spacing of 22.5 cm between the rows using 100 kg
seed/ ha were harvested for fodder 60 days after sowing leaving stubble height of 10 cm. In a feeding
trial, 12 crossbred calves, divided in two groups of 6 each, were fed ad lib. on wheat fodder from dual
purpose varieties (VL 829 and VL 616) and oat fodder, grown under identical conditions without chop-
ping and a metabolism trail was conducted after 21 days of experimental feeding to determine the nutritive
value of both the fodders. Fodder yield of VL 829, VL 616 and PBW 343 was 120.2, 134.2 and 131.8
quintals/ ha, respectively, and the variation among the varieties and N levels was not significant. Straw
yield of dual purpose varieties was similar (about 72 q/ ha) but higher (P<0.05) than that from PBW 343
(67 q/ha). Grain yield from the varieties VL 829, VL 616 and PBW 343 without harvesting them for
fodder was 32.90, 32.15 and 49.58 quintals/ ha, which was increased by 13.7, 11.63 and 3.91 percent,
respectively after harvesting them for fodder purpose, however affect of N application beyond 120 q/ ha
was not significant. CP content of wheat fodder, irrespective of the variety, was in the range of 32 to 35
per cent on DM basis and ADF content varied in the narrow range of 19.20 to 20.88 per cent. Wheat
fodder was richer in CP and EE than oats fodder on DM basis; however, both fodders were having
similar fiber content. Hemi-cellulose and lignin contents in wheat fodder were lower than in oats fodder.
DM intake/ 100 kg body weight in crossbred calves was higher (P>0.05) on feeding oats fodder (2.32
kg) than on wheat fodder (2.10 kg). Nutrient digestibility of wheat fodder except that of EE and NFE was
higher (P<0.01) than that of oats fodder. Higher N intake and its excretion through urine in wheat fodder
fed calves than those on oats fodder resulted in higher N balance on feeding of wheat fodder in compari-

21
21
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

son to oats fodder. DCP and TDN value of wheat fodder was 18.45 and 69.58 %, respectively and
corresponding value for oats fodder was 8.85 and 67.03%. These results showed that wheat fodder can
replace concentrate mixture in the ration of dairy animals.

FR 36
Effect of supplementation of sugarcane tops with two different
levels of oat and berseem in voluntary intake and nutrient
utilization of growing crossbred heifers
Jyoti Sharma , Mahendra Singh and Ripusudan Kumar
Department of Animal Nutrition,
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-263145, India

Availability of feeds and fodder throughout the year is one of the biggest problems for livestock
sector. To mitigate the shortage of feeds and fodder and to make animal production viable and profitable,
attempts have been made to improve the utilization of various poor quality crop residues and non-conven-
tional feeds and fodders. Among the various crop residues, sugarcane tops are available in large quantities
in tropical countries. Sugarcane tops are one of the usable crop residues as animal feeds suitable for
ruminants. Sugarcane tops can be used as animal feed, particularly during the sugarcane-harvesting sea-
son, which covers almost 6-7 months of year from Oct. to April Though sugarcane tops are highly palat-
able with good intake characteristics but at present they are being utilized partially because of being low in
protein, digestibility of nutrients and poor mineral content. The supplementation of Sugarcane tops based
diets should not only satisfy the need of rumen microbes for fermentable nitrogen (ammonia) and trace
nutrients but also provide the source of protein, glucose precursors and long chain fatty acids. Addition-
ally, as a source of bypass nutrients, fermentation is required to balance the need of animal production. In
this study efforts were made to mitigate the problem of severe scarcity of feeds and fodder by using
different combinations of non conventional source of feed stuff with seasonally available crop and to find
out the best combination among them. As Berseem and Oat are abundantly available in Rabi season, so
this study was done for better utilization of sugarcane tops with these two crops and sugarcane tops were
supplemented with different ratios of oat and Berseem to find out the suitable ratio at which it gives better
performance. The study was carried out to study effect of sugarcane tops supplementation with two
different levels of oat and Berseem on the voluntary intake and nutrient utilization. Four different treat-
ments, T1 (SCT:Oat::50:50), T2 (SCT:Oat::75:25), T3 (SCT:Ber::50:50), T4 (SCT:Ber::75:25) were given to
sixteen crossbred heifers. Chemical analysis of all treatments revealed that among all the four groups CP
and Ash % was highest in T3 group. The DMI and live weight gain (kg/day) was significantly (p<0.05)
higher in T3 than T2 and T4. Digestibility of T3 was highest in terms of DM, OM, CP, EE, ADL, cellulose
and hemicelluloses. It was concluded that 50% berseem with 50% SCT gave the best results among all
four combinations and 50% oat supplementation could be as good as 25% berseem with SCT.

22
22
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 37
Effects of feeding broccoli fodder on nutrients utilization
and milk production in cross-bred cattle
B. S. Tewatia, K. R.Yadav and S. Dhankar
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India)

Ten cross-bred lactating cattle were divided into two groups of five animals each. Animals in the first
(T1) and second group (T2) were offered equal dry matter from berseem and broccoli fodder, respec-
tively. Animals were also offered calculated amounts of concentrate mixture to meet the nutrients require-
ment. Wheat straw was offered ad lib to all the animals. Berseem and broccoli fodder on dry matter basis
contained 20.2 and 23.4% crude protein, respectively. Total feed intake did not vary between the groups
indicating that broccoli fodder was as palatable as berseem. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter,
crude protein and NFE was 61.2, 66.4, 64.5 and 63.1% in the broccoli fodder fed group. The corre-
sponding figures for berseem fed group were 58.6, 63.2, 60.8 and 62.3%. Total milk production was
higher in the group fed broccoli fodder (12.1) than those fed berseem fodder (10.65). Milk composition
did not vary significantly between the groups. Milk urea nitrogen (mg/dl) concentration was 12.4 and
14.55 in T1 and T2 group, respectively. Efficiency of milk production in terms of DM intake per kg milk
production was better in animals fed broccoli fodder. Results of the present study clearly indicate that
broccoli fodder is highly palatable and its feeding resulted in higher and efficient milk production in cross-
bred cattle.

FR 38
Nutritional assessment of new cultivars of sorghum fodder in calves
Sajjan Sihag, V. S. Panwar and D. S. Dahiya
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India)

Fifteen female buffalo calves were divided into three equal groups. Fodder of sorghum variety HC-
308 and new cultivars S-540 and S-541 was solely fed to the animals in respective group. After 20 days
of feeding, a digestion trial of 7 days duration was conducted. The CF, NDF, ADF and cellulose content
of check variety HC-308 were higher as compared to new cultivars, while NFE content was higher in
newly developed cultivars. Total dry matter, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrients intake
were higher in calves fed cultivars S-541 as compared to other groups fed HC-308 or S-540. however,
Dry matter intake per 100 kg body weight and per kg metabolic size (W0.75) did not differ significantly
among animal groups fed cultivars S-541 or S-540. The digestibility coefficients of DM and cellulose
were significantly (P <0.05) higher in calves groups G-II (S-540) and G-III (S-541) as compared to G-
1 (HC-308). Digestibility of CP, CF, NDF and ADF were significantly (P<0.05) highest in experimental
animal group fed fodder of new cultivar S-541 over other variety / cultivar. Nutritive values in terms of
DCP and TDN was also better in new genotypes S-541 over check variety and cultivar S-540. Hence, it
may inferred that the newly developed cultivars of sorghum fodder S-541 is nutritionally better in terms of
intake, palatability, digestibility and nutritional value than popular variety HC-308 and cultivar S-540.

23
23
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 39
Comparative chemical composition and in-vitro dry matter digestibility
of some promising strains of berseem
D. P. Chaudhary, B. L. Bhardwaj, Manoj Sreevastava and Ajaib Singh
Deptt. of Plant Breeding, Genetics and Biotechnology
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

Egyptian clover or berseem Trifolium alexandrinum (L.) is one of the most important rabi fodder
crop of Northern India. In Punjab berseem alone occupies around 60% area of winter fodders. Its fodder
is tender and palatable. It is a multicut fodder and provides 5-6 cuttings. The scientists at the Punjab
Agricultural University, Ludhiana have developed many improved varieties of berseem, some of which
(BL-10) provides green fodder till mid June. The importance of any forage crop depends upon its green
matter or dry fodder yield, chemical composition and dry matter digestibility. Keeping this in mind the
present study was designed to evaluate some promising strains of berseem for nutritional quality and dry
matter digestibility. 10 promising strains of berseem were sown in a randomized block deign with three
replication. The fodder of 2nd and 3rd cutting was taken for the present study. The samples were oven
dried at 50°C and were pooled and grinded finally. Crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, total ash,
and nitrogen free extract were estimated by the standard method of AOAC (1980). Neutral detergent
fiber, acid detergent fiber and hemicellulose were estimated by the method of Goering and Vansoest
(1970). The in-vitro dry matter digestibility was estimated by the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). The
percent dry matter content ranges between 13.00 to 15.25. Genotype BL-306 showed maximum crude
protein (22.53%) and crude fiber content (28.9%). Ether extract varies from 2.10 to 4.50% among
different genotypes. Highest values of ash were observed in the genotype BL-350. The genotypes BL-
306, BL-350, BL-362 and BL-365 recorded high levels of IVDMD. Similarly BL-306 was found to
have high values of NDF also. From the above scenario it seems that the genotype BL-306 outnumber
the remaining genotypes in terms of quality components.

FR 40
Availability of green fodder (berseem and sorgum) in
Harauti Anchal of Rajasthan
Nazim Ali, M. Shingh J. Yadav and Y. P. Shingh
Dept of Animal Husbandry
SVBPUAT Modipuram, Meerut, India

In present study 200 formers were selected from four district of Rajasthan namely Jhalawar Baran
Kota & Bundi . Formers belonging to 5 land holding size i.e. zero, upto 5, 5.1-10.0, 10.1-20.0, and
above 20.0 acre . From each District 10 villages were selected randomly out of which 5 villages were
under adoption of KVK of concerned district . Berseem area was significantly higher in adopted village of
Jhalawar and Bundi in comparison to non adopted village . The average area was 1.29, 1.22, 0.67, and
1.03 acre in adopted village and 0.7, 0.54, 0.64, and 0.83 acre in non adopted villages of Jhalawar,
Baran, Kota & Bundi district respectively. On overall basis the area of berseem in adopted village was
8.54 % significantly higher than non KVK adopted villages The yield of berseem fodder was higher in
adopted villages in all four districts compared to unadopted village. This difference was significant
(P< 0.05). The average yield was 458.2, 452.25, 446.75 and 444.25 in adopted and 422.75, 420.5,
24
24
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

409.1 and 441.64 in unadopted village in Jhalawar, Baran, Kota and Bundi districts, respectively The
area under sorghum crops was 1.35, 1.28, 1.49 and 1.08 acres in adopted and 1.07, 1.11, 1.23 and
0.99 acres in unadopted village in Jhalawar, Baran, Kota and Bundi, respectively (Table 4.7j and Appen-
dix VIIIk. However, area in adopted village in all the districts was higher but difference was not significant
(P> 0.05). On % basis of total holdings the area under sorghum fodder was 11.36, 10.98, 11.63 and
9.64 % in adopted village and 8.80, 8.61, 8.08 and 9.57% in unadopted villages in Jhalawar, Baran,
Kota and Bundi districts, respectively. However, there were significance difference (P<0.05) between
adopted (10.91%) and unadopted (8.76%) village on over all basis in % area of sorghum. The fodder
yield of sorghum was 211.5, 213.75, 206.25 and 216.0 quintal per acre in adopted village and 194.5,
189.75, 183.25 and 185.25 q/acre in unadopted village in Jhalawar, Baran, Kota and Bundi, respectively.
The difference between adopted and non adopted villages was significant (P<0.05), the yield was higher
in adopted village. The yield of sorghum fodder was higher significantly (P<0.05) in all categories of
farmers belong to adopted villages.

FR 41
Effects of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on yield,
chemical composition and nutritive value of german grass
(Echinochloa crusgalli) at two stages of maturity
N. M. M. A. Malik, A. M. M. Tareque, S. S. Islam and A. K. F. H. Bhuiyan
Department of Animal Nutrition
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus
(P) fertilizer on yield, chemical composition, in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and metaboliz-
able energy (ME) content of German grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) at two stages of maturity. The land
was divided into 36 plots under 4 blocks having the size of 24 m2/plot. Nine treatments with the combi-
nation of three levels of N (80, 100 and 120 kg/ha) and three levels of P (12, 17 and 22 kg/ha) were
randomly assigned to one of nine plots in each block in a 3×3 factorial experiment. The green matter, dry
matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) yields of German grass were increased significantly and progres-
sively with the increasing level of N and P fertilizer application. Advanced stage of maturity had positive
effect on green matter and DM yield; however, it showed negative effect on CP yield. Due to increasing
level of N and P fertilizer, the content of DM, CP and EE increased significantly while ash and NFE
content decreased in both stages of maturity. With the advanced stage of maturity the content of crude
fibre (CF) and ether extract (EE) increased while CP, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE) content de-
creased. Application of N and P fertilizer had significant (P<0.01) effect on IVOMD and ME content of
German grass. The research findings revealed that the yield, chemical composition, IVOMD and ME
content of German grass increased with the increasing levels of N and P fertilizer. On the other hand, yield
of both green forage and DM were greater at 60 days of maturity, however, the quality of grass in terms
of chemical composition and nutritive value was better at 45 days of maturity.

25
25
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 42
Effect of feeding APBN-I and guinea (Tanzania) green fodder with
minimum supplementation of concentrate mixture on growth,
nutrient utilization and carcasss characters in buffalo bull calves
R. Prasanna Kumar1 and E. Raghava Rao2
Department of animal Nutrition,C.V.sc,R’Nagar,Hyderabad

Ten buffalo bull calves of age 18.0±0.37 months were distributed into two groups five in each group
and fed 1st group with APBN-I green fodder and other group was fed with Tanzania (Guinea) fodder for
160 days. Average dally gains were 407.01 ±0.03 and 499.19± 0.04 grams in group-I and II, respec-
tively and average DMI (Kg/100 Kg body wt was 2.35±0.14 and 2.15±0.07 in buffalo calves fed on
APBN-I and Tanzania fodder, respectively. The digestibility (%) Coefficient were 57.85± 1.81, 53.24
±0.65, 60.37±0.55, 37.88±0.87, 69.46±0.43, 57.75±0.59, 47.20± 0.74, 39.19±0.85 and 59.33±0.56
for DM, OM, CP, CF, EE, NFE, NDF, ADF, and cellulose respectively in calves fed on (APBN-I and
calves fed Tanzania. The digestibility (%) coefficients were 63.13±1.40, 50.76±0.69, 70.85±0.41,
40.64±0.83, 72.54±0.38, 47.00±0.74, 56.92±0.60, 49.78±0.70 and 66.44±0.47 for DM, OM, CP,
CF, EE, NFE, NDF, ADF, and cellulose respectively. The nitrogen retention observed as 40.80±3.66 g/
day in group-I and 81.64±1.84 in Group-II. And the DCP and TDN of the Group-I, II was 6.69±0.23,
43.28±1.68and 10.50±0.37, 39.60±1.51 percent, respectively. Average cost (feed) cost/Kg live weight
(Rs.) was 32.74±2.56 and 26.77±1.77 in group-I and group-II, respectively. Average carcass weights
were recorded in group-I as 87.60±4.07 and in group-II as 97.96±4.13 Kg

FR 43
Effect of various level of green maize (Zea mays L.) on milk yield and
composition and feed conversion efficiency in crossbred cows
Bacchu Singh and J. L. Chaudhary
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-India

A study was conducted on sixteen lactating crossbred cows in early stage of lactation. The cows
were divided into four groups of 4 animals each on the basis of milk yield (8.32 kg) and body weight
(408.25 kg) and were allotted to four dietary treatments viz., T1, T2 T3 and T4 at 0, 10, 20 and 40 kg
green fodder along with ad lib wheat straw and concentrate mixture as per requirement. The cows of T4
group consumed more (P<0.05) DM, DCP and TDN per kg metabolic body size than those of T2 and T1
groups. However, no significant difference is nutrient intake was observed between T2 and T3 groups. The
daily milk yield was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 group as compared to other three groups. Similarly,
the 4% FCM yield was of significantly (P<0.05) higher in T4 as compared to T3, T2 and T1 groups.
However, no significant different in 4% FCM yield was observed between T3 and T2 on one hand and T2
and T1 on other. The average fat percent in milk was significantly (r<0.05) higher in T4 group as compared
to T3, T2 and T1 groups. Similarly, T3 group content significantly (P<0.05) more fat as compared to T2
andT1 groups. The same trend was also observed in term of SNF and T5 content in milk while feed
conversion efficiency was not affected (PO.05) by feeding four levels of maize to cows.

26
26
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 44
Nutrient evaluation of ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) leaves based
complete feed blocks in goats
K. Lukha, R. S. Arya, T. Sharma and R. K. Dhuria
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001

In order to determine the nutrient utilization from ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) leaves based complete
feed blocks six Marwari goats of same age group and of uniform conformation were subjected to a
feeding trial followed by metabolism trial of 7 days for complete feed blocks composed of Ardu leaves
(70 parts), barley (15 parts), DORB (8 parts), cotton seed cake (2 parts), molasses (3 parts), mineral
mixture (2 parts) and common salt (1 part). The complete feed blocks of 2 kg each were prepared at
4000 PSI. The chemical composition of complete feed was recorded to be 92.59% DM, 88.44% OM,
14.18% CP, 2.79% EE, 17.20%CF, 54.27% NFE, 11.56% total ash, 1.31% calcium and 0.43% phos-
phorus. All the animals maintained good health throughout the experiment. The dry matter intake calcu-
lated both as % of body weight as well as g/kgW0.75 was found to be 3.57±0.27 and 72.97±3.76,
respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were 63.27% for DM, 75.63% for CP, 52.89% for EE, 50.46%
for CF and 67.97% for NFE. The practical nutritional worth of feed calculated in term of DCP, TDN, NR
and SE were found to be 10.72%, 59.62%, 1:4.56 and 58.75% respectively. The intake in respect of
DCP and TDN were recorded to be 68.42 g/d and 380.52 g/d, which supported a live weight gain of
93.07 g/d. The results of study indicated that complete feed blocks containing 70 % level of Ardu leaves
could be effectively used for the feeding of goats without any adverse effect on health.

FR 45
Effect of feeding tree leaves and conventional fodder based
ration on rumen fermentation pattern, nutrient utilization
and growth performance in mithun (Bos frontalis)
B. Prakasha., A. Dhalia., K. C. Dasa., A. Mecha., K. Khatea.,
S. S. Rathoreb. and C. Rajkhowaa
a
National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland-797 106
b
ICAR-RC for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland-797106

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding green fodder, rice straw and
concentrate based total mixed rations (TMR) on dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), nutrient utilization, rumen
fermentation pattern and body weight (BW) gain (BWG) in mithun (Bos frontalis) calves. In a random-
ized block design, male mithun calves (n=18, 8 to 10 months of age, 121±2 kg BW) were randomly
divided into three experimental equal groups (6 animals in each group) and fed isonitrogenous TMRs ad
libitum for 120 days. The TMR1 contained 30% Napier grass and 30% rice straw, TMR2 contained 60%
rice straw and TMR3 contained 30% tree leaves (Lagerstroemia speciosa) and 30% rice straw (DM
basis). All the TMRs contained 40% concentrate mixture (DM basis). The results indicated that the BWG,
DMI and feed conversion efficiency were significantly (P<0.01) increased with the inclusion of green
fodder in TMRs. The apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and nitrogen
free extract were also improved significantly (P<0.01) with the inclusion of green fodder in TMRs. The

27
27
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

higher concentration of total nitrogen and total volatile fatty acid in rumen liquor, but low ruminal pH were
evident in animals fed green fodder supplemented TMRs. An increased (p<0.01) molar proportion of
acetic acid was evident in animals fed rice straw based TMR. In contrast, the molar proportion of propi-
onic and butyric acids were significantly (p<0.01) higher in animals fed green fodder supplemented TMRs.
On the basis of higher DMI and higher daily BWG, it is concluded that Napier grass and Lagerstroemia
speciosa tree leaves may be incorporated up to 30% (DM basis) in TMR of growing mithuns for feeding
in complete confinement system.

FR 46
Influence of feeding babul pods (Acacia nilotica) on nutrient utilization,
balances of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus in lactating goats
Merga, Bayassa and S. N. Rai*
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal -132 001

Twenty-four crossbred lactating goats (alpine x beetal) of similar milk yield were divided into 4
groups of 6 each in completely randomized block design. The animals were maintained on four different
diets in the ratio of 50:50 concentrate: roughage. Babul pods (Acacia nilotica) were incorporated in
concentrate mixture, equivalent to 0, 4, 6 and 6 % tannin in the total mixed ration TMRs I to IV respec-
tively. Native babul pods were supplemented in group II (with out treatment) while in groups III and IV,
it was treated with 3 % Ca (OH)2, and 3% Ca(OH)2 + PEG (1.8%,w/w). The contents of organic matter
and crude protein ranged from 90.01% in concentrate mixture IV to 92.5 % in concentrate mixture III,
and Crude protein ranged from 18.82% in concentrate mixture III to 19.05 % in concentrate mixture II.
Other parameters remained with in normal range of variation. The CP contents of the TMRs ranged from
14.00 to 14.83% in TMRs I-IV, respectively. The intake of DMI and DOMI remained similar in different
groups. The intake of other nutrients such as CP crude fibre NFE, NDF, ADF and hemicelluloses re-
mained similar amongst the treatment groups. None of the nutrient digestibility differ significantly except
ether extract and hemicelluloses which were increased in treated groups III and IV. The Milk yield and its
composition remained similar except milk protein yield which was increased in diets III and IV than
control. The balances of N, Ca and P remained similar in different diets. It is concluded that native babul
pods can be incorporated in the TMR of lactating goats to the extent of 4% tannins equivalent with out
affecting digestibility of nutrients and balances of Nitrogen, Ca and Phosphorus.

FR 47
Nutritional evaluation of tree foliages of mithun (Bos frontalis):
relationship between in situ ruminal degradability and nutrient composition
B. Prakasha, K. C. Dasa, A. Dhalia, S. S. Rathoreb, D. Medhia,
I. Wallinga and C. Rajkhowaa
a
National Research Centre on Mithun, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland-797 106
b
ICAR-RC for NEH Region, Nagaland Centre, Jharnapani, Medziphema, Nagaland-797106

Browse species in the northeast area are an important feed source for mithun in meeting the nutrient
requirement throughout the year. The present study was undertaken to determine the nutrient composition,
macro and micro mineral, anti-nutrient and in situ degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein
(CP) of important (n=16) tree foliages in mithun. The tree foliages were collected from different pockets
28
28
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

of Arunachal Pradesh. The mean DM, CP, ether extract, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent
fibre (ADF), Lignin, Ash, total extractable phenolic components (TP) and condensed tannin (CT) content
of different browse species were 319, 144, 23, 507, 366, 120, 131, 51 and 35 g/kg DM, respectively.
Most of the foliages contained Ca>1%, K>1% and Mg>0.17% but the Na content was found to be low
in selected browse species except, Daubanga grandiflora contained 0.2% (on DM basis). Phosphorus
was mostly within the normal required range of 0.12–0.40%. Trace mineral contents, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn
were 10.4, 234, 82.2 and 89.3 mg/kg DM, respectively. The nutritive value of the samples was deter-
mined by in situ degradability technique by incubating for 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 84 h to determine the
kinetics of fermentation using an exponential equation p=a+b(1-e-ct). The effective degradability (ED) of
DM and CP varied greatly among the selected browse species. The CP content is negatively correlated
(P<0.01) with NDF (r=-0.87) and ADF (r=-0.78) content, but positively correlated (P<0.01) to the ED
of DM (r=0.74). Whereas the ED of DM and CP were negatively correlated (P<0.05) with NDF (r=-
0.86; r=-0.59), ADF (r=-0.85; r=-0.44), TP (r=-0.51; r=-0.62) and CT (r=-0.51; r=-0.65) contents.
The best prediction equation was derived to calculate the degradability parameters from the NDF, ADF
and CT content of browse species, which explained 75 and 23; 73 and 11; 40 and 27% of total variation
respectively for the ED of DM and CP. It is concluded that, most of the tree species were adequate for
the majority of the nutrient, except Na content, which is deficient in most of the tree species studied.

FR 48
Nutritional status of some top foliages of Doda district
R. K. Sharma and S. K. Kotwal*
Division of Animal Nutrition, * Division of Vety. Public Health
Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, R. S. Pura, Jammu-181102

Ten top foliages viz. Aesculus indica (Bankhour), Berberis lycium (Kimal), Callacanthis burotoni
(Chapoo), Celtis australis (Khirk), Ficus foveolata (Fagoo), Indigoferra pulchella (Kathu), Melia
azedarach (Drenk), Morus alba (Toot), Pyrus pashia (Kainth) and Robinia pseudoacacia (Wild kikar)
commonly available in Doda District of J&K State were analysed for chemical constituents, nitrogen
solubility, fibre bound nitrogen, nitrogen fractions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). There
was variation in chemical constituents. The crude protein (CP) content was maximum in M. azedarach
(25.95%) and minimum in A. indica (10.73%), whereas, ether extract (EE) was highest in M. alba
(6.57%) and lowest in I. pulchella (1.10 %). The NDF varied from 49.79% in M. alba to 70.24 % in I.
pulchella, whereas, ADF varied from 33.83 % in M. alba to 56.71% in P. pashia. The variations from
the reported values may be due differences in agro climatic and soil conditions. The nitrogen (N) solubility
ranged from 34.35% in P. pashia to 94.70% in R. pseudoacacia. The fraction “C” varied from 7.04 %
in M. alba to 59.88 % in C. burotoni. The NDIN as per cent of total nitrogen varied from 14.42 % in B.
lycium to 86.61 % in A. indica. It appears that N from A. indica, B. lyceum, C. australis and R.
pseudoacacia would be degraded quickly in the rumen because of their higher solubility. The IVDMD
(%) ranged from 29.50 in B. lycium to 79.97 % in M. azedarach. On the basis of present studies, C.
australis, F. foveolata, M. azedarach, M. alba and P. pashia seems to have good nutritional potential
for ruminants.

29
29
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 49
Nutritional status of some top foliages of Rajouri district
R. K. Sharma, A. K. Samanta, A. Rastogi and Ravindra Kumar
Division of Animal Nutrition, S.K.U.A.S.T., R. S. Pura, Jammu- 181102
Eight top foliages viz. Albizia lebbeck (Sirin), Bahunia variegata (Kaliyarh), Carissa spinarum
(Garna), Celtis australis (Khirk),, Cocculus laurifolius (Choproo), Ficus foveolata (Fagoo), Morus
alba (Toot) and Segeretia filiformis (Aindra) available in Rajouri District of J&K State were analysed
for chemical constituents, nitrogen solubility, fibre bound nitrogen, nitrogen fractions and in vitro dry
matter digestibility (IVDMD). There was variation in chemical constituents. The crude protein (CP) con-
tent was maximum in M. azedarach (15.03%) and minimum in Celtis australis (2.26 %), whereas, ether
extract (EE) was highest in M. alba (8.44 %) and lowest in Cocculus laurifolius (1.11 %). The total ash
content varied from 3.95 % in Segeretia filiformis to 16.67 % in F. foveolata. The NDF varied from
33.21 % in S. filiformis to 57.00 % in A. lebbeck, whereas, ADF varied from 21.31 % in M. alba to
54.37 % in C. laurifolius. The variations from the reported values may be due differences in agro climatic
and soil conditions. The nitrogen (N) solubility ranged from 22.40% in Carissa spinarum to 86.80% in
Ficus foveolata. The fraction “C” varied from 6.83 % in M. alba to 58.03 % in C. laurifolius. The
NDIN as per cent of total nitrogen varied from 14.38 % in M. alba to 77.26 % in Carissa spinarum. It
appears that N from A.lebbeck, C. spinarum, M. alba and S. filiformis would be degraded slowly in
the rumen because of their low nitrogen solubility. The IVDMD (%) ranged from 40.97 % in B. variegata
to 78.68 % in M. alba. On the basis of present studies, C. spinarum, F. foveolata, and M. alba seems
to be good fodders for ruminants.

FR 50
Non-tannin flavonol oligomer with ruminal enzyme inhibitory
activity from Anogeissus pendula leaves
Brijesh K. Bhadoria, Suman Lata and Sultan Singh
Plant Animal Relationship Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, INDIA

Polyphenolics derivatives have already established their importance in ruminant nutrition as they are
integral constituent of vascular plants used in feeding systems. Proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) are
polymeric flavan-3ol or flavan-3,4-diol, linked through inter flavan bonds at C-4 and C-8, with out sugar
moiety. The top feeds are rich in proanthocyanidins, with variety of combinations of monomeric units and
C-C bonds leading to thousands of possible proanthocyanidin molecular structures. Besides these, there
are many more in plants flavonol type polyphenolics in monomeric and oligomeric form with or without
sugar moieties and they have not reported hitherto, in relation of ruminant nutrition. Anogeissus pendula.
Edgew (Family Combretaceae) is a small gregarious tree, commonly known as ‘Kardhai” in Bundelkhand
region with abundance. Its foliage in often used as feed at the time of scarcity. The leaves are rich in
nutritional attributes, and contain, total PA ranging (~6-7 g/100g dm) total flavonoids (~47-60mg/100g
dm). The leaves yielded a novel trimeric dihydroflavonol, Pendulol, (Fig.) characterized as (2S,3R) [6-
(3”,5”-dihydroxy, 6”-methoxy dihydrochromone) 3’,4’,5’,5-tetrahydroxy, 7-methoxy 3-O-8 dihydro
biflavone] 3-O-8 [ 6-(3”,5”-dihydroxy, 6”-methoxy dihydro chromone) 3’,4’,5’3,5-penta hydroxyl 7-
methoxy dihydroflavonol] on the basis of UV, FABMS and 2DNMR spectra. It showed R-cellulase

30
30
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

inhibitory activity with maiden effective concentration to inhibit 50% activity (EC50) 7.41mg/ml. It is very
first report of structure revealing effect of non-tannin flavonol oligomer nature on ruminal enzyme.

FR 51
Metabolism of Acacia nilotica tannins in dairy cattle
Keshab Barman* and S. N. Rai
Division of Dairy Cattle Nutrition
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana
Division of Animal Nutrition, SKUAST-Jammu, R. S.Pura, Jammu-181102

Twelve lactating crossbred cows were divided into two groups of five animals in each in a random-
ized block design on the basis of milk yield, fat % and body weight. Animals were supplemented with two
different types of concentrate mixture containing 20 and 40 % Acacia nilotica pods as a source of tannin
to study its metabolism in lactating cows. Dry matter intake (kg/day) was 9.81±0.41 and 9.75±0.27
respectively at 20 and 40 % supplementation of Acacia pods which reduced significantly (P<0.05) with
increased level of pods in the concentrate mixture. Total tannin intake (g/d) was 215.00±13.34 and
327.57±28.61 respectively at 20 and 40 % supplementation of Acacia pods. Phloroglucinol, gallic acid,
(+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and catechin gallate were identified in rumen liquor, serum, faeces and urine
of cows. Additionally, resorcinol was also identified in the urine. The total quantity of degraded products
(µg/g of tannin) in faeces was 21.17±13.00 and 10.12±9.75 respectively at 20 and 40 % supplementation
of Acacia pods. The total urinary excretion (µg/g of tannin) was 5.50±1.61 and 14.85±12.02 respectively
at 20 and 40 % supplementation of Acacia pods. The amount of degraded products in (µg/100 ml of
serum) was 245.18±55.87 and 124.07±72.37 respectively at 20 and 40 % supplementation of Acacia
pods. Phloroglucinol, gallic acid, (+) catechin and (-) epicatechin were also identified in the milk. The
urinary excretion of tannin degraded products was higher at 40 % level of supplementation of Acacia
pods compared to 20 % level of supplementation while reversed at 20 % level of supplementation. The
total excretion of tannin degraded products (g/d) was 16.92±3.64 and 11.37±4.12 respectively at 20 and
40 % supplementation of Acacia pods in the concentrate mixture. The tannin balance (g/d) was 198.81±13.65
and 316.21±39.51 respectively at 20 and 40 % supplementation of Acacia pods. From this study it can
be concluded that Acacia nilotica tannin was degraded to Phloroglucinol, gallic acid, (+) catechin, (-)
epicatechin, resorcinol and catechin gallate in cattle. Moreover, degraded products of Acacia tannin also
excreted through milk.

FR 52
Ruminal dry matter degradability of anjan (Hardwickia binata Roxb.)
tree leaves in buffaloes
Shital Chopde, R. N. Dhore, A. P. Dhok, S. A. Udar and M. R. Jawale
Department of Animal Nutrition
Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Akola, India

Anjan (Hardwickia binata Roxb.) tree leaves were introduced in the nylon bags and suspended for
12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 hrs in the rumen of three fistulated buffalo bulls fed on sorghum kutti (ad libitum)
and fresh Anjan leaves (3 kg/ head) for 32 days. At 48 hrs of incubation nutrient disappearance was
54.32, 45.45, 64.28, 51.05 and 56.94 % for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE),
31
31
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), respectively. The mean In situ nutrient
disappearance rate at different hours i.e. 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 hrs of incubation was 48.24±3.65 for
DM, 36.52±0.69 for CP, 48.84±8.52 for EE, 44.08±4.78 for NDF and 45.46±6.30 for ADF. It can be
inferred that as the incubation period increase dry matter disappearance rate was also increases linearly
but the effective disappearance of dry matter and ether extract were statistically optimum at 48 hrs.
However, the disappearance of CP, NDF and ADF increased significantly in subsequent periods of incu-
bation at 60 hrs.

FR 53
Rumen metabolic profile in buffaloes fed Anjan
(Hardwickia binata Roxb.) tree leaves
Shital Chopde, R. N. Dhore, S. A. Udar, A. P. Dhok and M. R. Jawale
Department of Animal Nutrition
Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Akola, India

The experimental animals (three fistulated buffalo bulls) were maintained on sorghum kutti as a basal
roughage diet and 3 kg fresh Anjan leaves were offered to each animal for 32 days. Rumen liquor was
collected two hours post feeding on 0, 8th, 16th, 24th and 32nd day of feeding trial to study rumen param-
eters. The mean two hour post feeding concentration of rumen liquor constituents was 15.02±3.01 mg/
100ml SRL for total nitrogen, 2.63±0.19 mg/ 100ml SRL for non-protein nitrogen (NPN), 12.48±2.92
mg/ 100ml SRL for TCA precipitable nitrogen, 5.34±0.23 mg/ 100ml SRL for ammonia nitrogen (NH3N)
and 11.09±0.3 meq / 100ml SRL for total volatile fatty acids (TVFA). It was observed that there was
significant increase in total nitrogen, NPN and TCA precipitable nitrogen, whereas NH3N and TVFA
were found to be progressively decreased from 0 to 32 days on Anjan tree leaves feeding.

FR 54
Blood biochemical profile in buffaloes on feeding anjan
(Hardwickia binata Roxb.) tree leaves
Shital Chopde, R. N. Dhore, S. A. Udar, A. P. Dhok and M. R. Jawale
Department of Animal Nutrition
Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Akola, India

The present investigation was carried out on buffalo bulls fed 3 kg/head Anjan (Hardwickia binata
Roxb.) tree leaves for 32 days with sorghum kutti as basal roughage. Blood samples were collected two
hrs post feeding from each animal on 0, 8th, 16th, 24th and 32nd day of feeding period to study the rumen
parameters. The mean concentration of blood glucose, total protein and total lipids were 61.38±2.78,
7.38±0.09 and 132.11±16.99 mg/dl, respectively. It was observed that there was significant increase in
post feeding blood glucose level after 16th day. Further, it was observed that there was non-significant
increase in total serum lipids at 8th day, significant increase at 16th day and thereafter non-significant
decrease at 24th and 32nd day. It was also noted that there was sudden increase in the total lipids value at
8th day, which was then significantly reduced at 16th day, and thereafter gradually reduced upto 32 days.
However, there were non-significant differences between 0, 24 and 32 days value of total lipids.

32
32
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 55
Utilization of salty shrub-lani (Salsola baryosma) of
arid region as drought feed for goats
B. K. Mathur1, J. P. Singh, R. K. Beniwal and N. P. Singh
Regional Research Station, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Bikaner-334001
1
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342003

Feeding trial was initiated to understand the acceptability and palatability of fresh cut shoots of salty
shrub Lani (Salsola baryosma) of arid region at vegetative stage in goats. This shrub is available as a
feed resource for the browsing goats in arid region during drought. Shoots consists of mainly fleshy stem,
since leaves are very minute, consisting not more than 5- 7% of the total biomass. The shoots along with
leaves contain 15.75%C.P and are preferred by goats as an alternate feed. Eight (8) goats were divided
into two equal groups forming T1 (Control) and T2 (Treatment). All experimental animals were dewormed
with albendazole prior to feeding trail. Experimental goats were watered ad libitum daily. Animals were
housed in semi open enclosure and were completely stall fed. Animals of T1 group were offered with a
ration consisting of roughages: a mixture of 4.0 kg groundnut straw+1.0kg wheat straw and concentrate:
1.0kg of pelleted cattle feed daily. T2 group’s animals were also offered same quantity of roughages, while
concentrate offered was 800 g only and additionally fed Lani (Salsola baryosma) shoots weighing
2.0kg daily. The average body weight of T1 and T2 group goat was 24.86±0.1875 and 24.44±0.1730 kg
during the experiment. During experiment animals passed on normal faeces and urine and were healthy.
Lani consumption was on an average 45% of the quantity offered and ranges from 200 gms in first week
to a maximum of 1400 gms during the last weeks. Observed non significant difference in DM intake in T1
and T2 i.e., 3.22±0.0397 and 3.17±0.0662 respectively. However, in the initial stage of feeding the DM
intake in Lani feed group was less than the control group, but by 3rd week onwards it became more or
less comparable. Average water intake in T1 and T2 group showed significant difference and was 16.72
±0.2882 and 17.60±0.2787 liters/day. Throughout feeding trail water intake from treatment group was
mostly on higher side as compared to control group. Thus the feeding trial showed that Lani is palatable
and can serve as an alternate feed resource during drought for the arid region goats.

FR 56
Carotene levels in desert grasses and top feeds
H. C. Bohra and M. S. Khan
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur-342 003,
*Dept of Animal Husbandry, SVBPUAT Modipuram, Meerut, India

A variety of top feeds and grasses were analysed for carotene-a precursor of vitamin A-essentially
required for normal production and reproduction of animals. The carotene content of top feeds viz.,
Albizzia lebback, Acacia senegal, Prosopis juliflora, Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia samia, Azadirachta
indica, Tecomella undulate, Prosopis cineraria, Ficus religiosa, Ziziphus nummularia and Salvadora
persica leaves was 22.7, 16.1, 16.2, 15.9, 15.5, 14.3, 11.8, 12.7, 10.1, 7.4 and 2.2 mg per cent,
respectively; grasses Cenchrus ciliaris and Lasiurus sindicus have 1.61 and 0.65 mg per cent carotene,
respectively, and cow-pea forage has 2.86 mg per cent carotene. Pods of A. lebback and A. senegal
have 2.6 and 0.43 mg percent carotene, respectively. Interestingly A. lebback, A. senegal, A. excelsa,
and A. indica, leaves also have higher quantity of crude protein in addition of high carotene level-making
33
33
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

them highly nutritive. The trend is, tree leaves have highest carotene, followed by leguminous forages and
lowest in the grasses.

FR 57
Impact of feeding ardu leaves alongwith cereal straws on livestock
productivity and socio-economic status of livestock farmers
Sheela Choudhary
Research Centre for Livestock Health and Production
SFS, Sector IV, Agarwal Farm, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Prasanna Kumar

This study was conducted in semi-arid eastern plain of Rajasthan. The information about farmers,
feeding practices, health and reproductive status of animals were collected through personal interview
technique. The famine conditions prevailing for the last so many years and the severe scarcity of water has
compelled the livestock owners to reduce the number of livestock they were rearing. Most of the farmers
did not have knowledge about balanced feed and the need to include various feed ingredients in the
ration. Majority of farmers were having livestock with low milk productivity and high reproductive prob-
lems viz. anoestrus, repeat breeder, retention of placenta.
Livestock farmers were suggested to feed Ardu leaves alongwith cereal straws. About 13% of the
farmers adopted feeding of ardu leaves. Among these farmers significant improvement was observed in
certain reproductive problems and the milk production.

FR 58
Digestibility of Ficus roxburghii, Castanopsis indica and Ficus cunia
in growing buffalo from Western Hills of Nepal
N. P. Osti1, P.B. Chapagain2 and M. R. Tiwari2
1
Animal Nutrition Division, National Animal Science Research Institute (NASRI),
Khumaltar, P.O. Box 1950, Kathmandu, Nepal

Nine buffalo calves were subjected to three fodder tree species namely; Ficus roxburghii (Nimaro),
Castanopsis indica (Dhalne Katus) and Ficus cunia (Rai Khanyu) for digestibility trial during November
27 to December 3, 2005 in Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Lumle, Kaski Nepal. Ani-
mals were kept 7 days for adaptation for these fodders. Weighed amount of fodder tree leaves including
twigs and small branches were fed two times a day and observation on fodder offered, refused and faeces
voided were recorded daily. Chemical composition of fresh matter and faeces voided were carried out for
dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin,
calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P). The mean DM content and their dry matter digestibility (DMD) of
these three fodder tree species were found 27.86, 46.02, 34.72, 73.21, 65.93 and 71.28 percent re-
spectively. There were strong negative correlations (r=-0.75 to –0.78; p<0.05) observed between Ca.
and CP with fiber fraction (NDF and ADF). The weak correlation was also observed between P and
other constituents with respect to digestibility. From the results, if there could be provision of low fiber
content in dry season, the three main nutrients (Ca, P and CP) may easily be absorbed by the animals.

34
34
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 59
Seasonal variability in the protein and cell wall polysaccharides
content in relation to phenolics of tree leaves
Suman Lata, Sultan Singh and Brijesh K. Bhadoria
Plant Animal Relationship Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, India.

Leaves of four tree species viz Ficus recemosa, Ficus religiosa, Anogeissus pendula and Eugenia
jambolana collected monthly in three different seasons (January-April, May-August and September-
December) were evaluated for protein, cell wall fractions and phenolics as total phenolics, condensed
tannins and total proanthocyanidins. The proanthocyanidins were further fractionated as free, protein bound
and fibre bound. CP content of tree leaves except Ficus recemosa were relatively more during Septem-
ber-December and January-April than May-August. Conversely the accumulation of NDF, ADF and
cellulose tended to lower in former than later season. CP contents varied from 6.8 in Eugenia jambolana
to 11.5% in Ficus recemosa during different seasons. Similarly (he concentration of NDF and ADF was
lower in Ficus religiosa (42.5%, 37.39% and 24.15%) vis-a-vis higher in Eugenia jambolana (57.38%
and 49.5%). The lignin contents were higher in Eugenia jambolana (14.66-23.61%). Total phenolics
both as catechin and tannic acid equivalent were more in Eugenia jambolana and their concentration
varied from 57.62-80.38 and 92.30-128.41 g/kg, respectively. Concentration of total phenolics (both as
catechin and tannic acid equivalent) was lower in Ficus religiosa and varied from 13.48-18.61 and
20.65-32.71 g/kg across seasons. Condensed tannins (catechin equivalent) isolated through vanillin-IICI
were higher in Eugenia jambolana and varied from 135.1-326.6 g/kg-1 DM in different seasons.
Proanthocyanidins (PA) extracted through butanol-HC1 was highest in Ficus recemosa and ranged from
1 17.1-277.80 g/kg DM in different seasons. Relative degree of polymerization was highest in Eugenia
jambolana (1.50-1.64) and lowest in Ficus religiosa (0.13-0.32). PA concentration was highest in Fi-
cus recemosa and it varied from 1 12.63 to 189.44 g/kg DM across seasons, while accumulation of PA
was lowest in Anogeissus pendula (27.58-104.71 g/kg DM). Fiber bound proanthocyanidins constituted
nearly 50% (40-65%) of the total PA. Protein bound proanthocyanidins (PBPA) was more than free PA
in Ficus religiosa. Ficus recemosa and Anogeissus pendula while Eugenia jambolana had more free
PA than PBPA. Concentration of NDF and ADF bound PA was more in Eugenia jambolana (12.62-
21.11 g/kg) and lower in Ficus religiosa (2.0-10.05 g/kg). Biochemical evaluation of phenolics revealed
that tannins from Ficus religiosa formed no complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and had no
protein precipitating capacity, in May-August months. Eugenia jambolana tree leaves had highest total
phenolics (TP) in May-August (71.8%) and September-December (119.6) months than other tree leaves,
while lowest concentration of TP was recorded in Ficus recemosa in May- August (7.7g/kg DM). Re-
sults revealed thai a wide variability exists in tannins and phenolics within plants and seasons. Nearly 50%
of proanthocyanidins are bound to fiber. Eugenia jambolana tree leaves had higher accumulation of cell
wall polysaccarides, tannin, phenolics and NDF bound PA than other tree leaves.

35
35
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 60
Evaluation of Psidium guajava leaves as natural protectant of mustard
cake protein by in vitro gas production technique
Manish Dubey, Narayan Dutta, P. S. Banerjee, A. K. Pattanaik, K. Sharma,
M. K. Raikwar and M. Singh
Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India

This experiment was conducted to ascertain the effect of condensed tannins from Psidium guajava
leaves on in vitro nitrogen degradation (IVDN), substrate degradation and microbial biomass production.
Psidium guajava leaves were found to good source of condensed tannins. Graded levels of condensed
tannins (0, 1, 2 and 3% on DM basis) included in mustard cake (MC) substrate were evaluated by in
vitro gas production technique. Supplementation of condensed tannins from 1 to 3% through Psidium
guajava leaves significantly (P<0.01) reduced the IVDN (0.87-0.51) of MC. Nitrogen protection in the
rumen was highest (P<0.01) at 3% condensed tannins inclusion and reduced about 39% IVDN of MC.
Although supplementation of condensed tannins at 1 % level did not exert any adverse effect on gas
volume (24h), TDOMR (%) and ME of the substrate but condensed tannins supplementation from 2 to 3
% significantly (P<0.01) reduced gas volume (ml/200mg), TDOMR (%) and ME (Mcal/kg DM) of the
MC substrate. Nonetheless, microbial biomass production (mg/200mg), efficiency of microbial biomass
production (mg/ 100 mg TDOMR) and partioning factor (mg TDOMR/ ml gas volume) of substrate were
increased significantly (P<0.01) with condensed tannins supplementation. It may be concluded that Psidium
guajava may be used as a prospective source of condensed tannins. Supplementation of condensed
tannins (1-3%) supplied through Psidium guajava leaves could be used as a protectant of proteins with
out any adverse effect on the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis.

FR 61
Samanea saman tree leaves and pods for sustainable
animal production in tropics
S. V. Hosamani, C. K. Renuka, V. S. Kulkarni and S. D. Kololgi
Animal Science Division
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 008

Samanea Saman (Rain tree) is one of the fodder tree widely distributed in the tropics. They grow
naturally in many parts of the country such as West Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka,
Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. On an average there is a yield of 500-600 kg green foliage and
250 - 300 kg pods from mature tree every year during scarce period (February to May). Livestock very
well relishes the leaves and pods. Rain tree leaf contain CP 18.87, EE 5.68, CF 18.66, NFE 52.47, ash
4.32, Ca 1.75, P 0.71, lignin 19.79 and tannins 5.76 percent. Pods contain CP 16.02, EE 1.89, CF 8.74,
NFE 71.23, Sugar 11.85, ash 2.12, lignin 12.27, tannins 2.53, Ca 1.74 and P 0.83 percent, Fe 140 and
Cu 9.80 mg/kg. The IVDMD in leaf was 35.83 and in pod 69.80% and the ISDMD in leaf was 16.86
and in pod 67.82 percent. Among different treatments (1% solutions) employed to leaf and pod, sodium
hydroxide, sodium bi carbonate and lime were significantly (p<0.05) reduced the tannin content than salt
and water treatments. Different durations of treatments did not differ significantly. Additional supplementa-
tion of rain tree pods to cattle and sheen has improved the growth, reproduction and wool yield. The
36
36
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

nutritive value of pods was DCP 7.88%, TDN 58.67% and ME 2090 K cal/kg. Deoiled rice bran can be
replaced up to 50% level with rain tree pods without affecting nutrient intake, digestibility, balance, rumen
metabolism, blood parameters, reproduction, growth, milk yield and composition in crossbred cattle. It
was inferred that the rain tree leaves and pods are esteemed as feed and fodder for livestock. The pods
can very well be incorporated in the diet of ruminants to replace concentrate to reduce the cost of feeding
significantly.

FR 62
Performance of crossbred Sri Lankan cattle to rice straw based diets
Thakshala Seresinhe, K. K. Pathirana and Nilushi Nugara
Dept. of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Mapalana,
Kamburupitiya, Sri Lanka

An experiment was conducted to examine the performance of cross bred Sri Lankan cattle fed with
rice straw based diets in order to develop dry season feeding strategies. Four dietary treatments were
straw ad-libitum (T1); T1+ supplement (Rice bran (85g)+ urea (28g) + Molasses (114g) + Mineral mix
(23g) / 0.25kg on fresh matter basis)[T2] ; T1+ Gliricia sepium (1 kg/head/day) [T3]; T1+ supple-
ment+ Gliricia sepium (T4). Four bull calves of age 12±2 months and 120 kg±10 were housed in
metabolic cages and fed with above rations for 4 weeks. The experimental design was a 4x4 latin square.
Dry matter intake (2.518 kg/head/day) of animals fed with T2 ration was significantly higher as com-
pared to three other treatments. The dry matter digestibility of T4 (60.2%) and T3 (54.1%) were higher
as compared with T2 (44.3%) and T1 (40.0%). Nitrogen retention was increased from T1 (4.5g/N/head/
day) followed by T2 and T3 towards T4 (26.4 g/N/head/day). Supplementation had no effect on either
the water intake or the urine output. Blood parameters (Hb%, BUN%) were not significantly affected due
to supplementation. The results revealed that feeding of straw supplemented with tree fodder could im-
prove the digestibility of straw, while supplement improved the dry matter intake. While beneficial effects
of supplementation of rice straw have been demonstrated, further improvements can be made through
different levels of supplement and tree fodder to be incorporated into roughage diets together with proper
ration formulation in order to increase the production levels of ruminants.

FR 63
Chemical composition of different varities of soyabean straw
N. Patil, R. K. Jain and D. Tiwari
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry Mhow-453446, India

Nine samples of different varities of Soyabean straw (JS-336, NRC-12, JS-90-41, NRC-7, NRC-
2, Hardi, JS-80-21, NRC-37, NRC-86-47) were obtained from National Research Centre For Soyabean,
Indore (M.P.) and analyzed for proximate principles and fibre fractions. Among different varities of soyabean
straw OM Content ranged from 92.39% to 96.00%, averaging 93.69±0.39. The mean values (range in
paranthesis) were CP 5.64±0.34 [4.27(JS-90-41) to 7.22(JS-336)], EE 0.86±0.06 [0.62(NRC-86-47)
to 1.16(NRC-2)], CF 41.91±1.30 [36.47(NRC-12) to 47.94(JS-90-41)], NFE 44.64±1.30 [40.05
(NRC-7) to 51.07(NRC-12)], TA 6.2±0.40 [4.00(JS-90-41) to 7.61(JS-336)], Ca 1.03±0.04 [0.84
(JS-336) to 1.18(NRC-37)], P 0.21±0.005 [0.19(JS-80-21) to 0.24(NRC-7)] and AIA 0.4±0.09 [0.11
(JS-80-21) to 0.97(NRC-86-47)], percent on DM basis. The mean values (range in paranthesis) were
37
37
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

NDF 67.83±1.68 [61.90(NRC-12) to 79.69(JS-90-41)] and ADF 52.01±1.21 [46.42(JS-336) to 57.56(JS-


90-41)], percent on DM basis.

FR 64
Effect of feeding bajra straw based total mixed ration to growing calves
Subhash Parnerkar, R. S. Gupta, P. R. Pandya, D.C. Patel and B. R. Devalia
Animal Nutrition Research Department,
Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110

An experiment of 28 weeks duration was conducted on fifteen crossbred calves (5.5 to 9 months)
weighing 89.2 to 90.0 kg following completely randomized design. Three total mixed rations (TMR)
comprising of 40 (T1), 50 (T2) and 60 (T3) % bajra straw (BS) were formulated. The experimental calves
were fed respective total mixed rations ad libitum with limited (2 kg/day) supply of green ‘NB-21’
fodder. The daily gain (P> 0.01) was 0.543, 0.536 and 0.408 kg under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The
values under T1 and T2 did not differ. The DM intake in terms of kg/100kg B. wt. and g/kg W0.75 were
found to be similar. The digestibility coefficients of different proximate constituents followed the same
trend. The balances of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium were positive in all the treatments. The average
daily nutrients intake (CP, DCP and TDN kg/d) was different (P> 0.01). The trend of results did not
indicate any significant difference on rumen fermentation parameters studied and the values were found
within the normal range. The feed cost (Rs./kg gain) worked out as 37.56, 33.49 and 33.76 under T1, T2
and T3 groups, respectively. The TMR with 50% BS was found economical.

FR 65
In- vitro rumen fermentation as influenced by
different leguminous straws
Kapil Bandil and T. K. Dulta
Central Institute for research on Goats
Makhdoom, P.O. Farah-281122, India

To compare the effect of different legume straw based rations on in//; vilro gas production and
fermentation, three total mixed rations (TMR) were prepared with concentrate mixture, straw (cowpea,
Medicago sativa or guar, Cymposis tetragonoloba or sem, Dolichos lablab) and green fodder (cow-
pea) in the ratio of 40:40:20 (DM basis). Concentrate mixture and green fodder in all the three TMRs
were same, but leguminous straw was different. CP content was 16.80, 15.84 and 16.63 per cent in the
three rations (R1 to R3) respectively. NDF and ADF values were measured similar in the three rations. R3
ration produced more gas by 25.90 and 27.45 ml per g substrate over R1 and R2 when one gram sub-
strate was incubated for 48 hours under anaerobic condition using PC based Biofermentor. Total gas
production per gram of degradable DM and OM was also higher in R3, ration than R1 and R2 rations.
This could be attributed to higher cell wall component (NDF) in R3 ration over other two rations (R1 and
R2). The degradability of these nutrients (DM, OM and CP) was found numerically higher in R2 group
(57.5, 58.1 and 60.6 per cent) than other two groups. However, the differences among treatment groups
were non-significance. The pH in the incubation medium was higher (P<0.01) in R1 (6.87) and R3 (6.86)
than R2 (6.77). Total VFA, ammonia-N and TCA-N concentrations increased as the incubation period of
ration increased irrespective of treatments, thereby, there was a positive relationship of the concentration
38
38
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

of these parameters with the time of incubation (P<0.01). The concentrations of TVFA, total nitrogen and
NPN were higher (P< 0.01) in R2 than other two treatments (R1 and R3). TVFA ranged from 6.80 (R2) to
6.43 (R1) mmol/dl strained incubation medium. The ammonia-N was higher (P<0.01) in R2 and R3 than
R1. Whereas, TCA-N was significantly higher (P<0.01) in R1 than R2 and R3. Total protozoal count (Log10
value/ml SRF) was recorded higher in R1 (514) than R3 (4.72). Treatment x Period interaction was signifi-
cant (P<0.01) for TVFA, total-N, NPN, ammonia-N, TCA-N and protozoal count. Therefore, it may be
concluded than TMR-2 (R2) gave best results in terms of degradability of nutrients and higher production
of rumen biochemical end products, which are required for higher productivity of goats in terms of growth.

FR 66
Chemical composition, in vitro digestibility and metabolisable energy
values of agricultural crop residues found in Tripura
Chander Datt, A. Chhabra1, N. P. Singh and K. M. Bujarbaruah2
ICAR Research Complex for N.E.H. Region, Tripura Centre,
P.O. Lembucherra, 799210; 1DCN, NDRI, Karnal

Agricultural crop residues form an important part of ruminant feeding in Tripura, however, there is no
information on their nutritional characteristics. Therefore, crop residues (paddy straw, GN straw, GN
husk, moong straw, urd straw, cowpea husk, pea straw, maize stover, sarson straw and arhar pod husk;
n=10) were evaluated for their nutritional value in terms of proximate principles, cell wall constituents, in
vitro DM and OM digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) values. There
were significant variations among the crop residues for these parameters. The average values (range in
parenthesis) for OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE and total ash were found to be 89.68±0.94 (82.74-93.35),
6.95±0.77 (3.44-10.51), 2.14±0.18 (1.12-3.26), 35.03±3.16 (27.50-39.10), 45.57±3.16 (36.54-53.12)
and 10.32±0.41 (6.65-17.26) per cent (DM basis), respectively. The respective values for NDF, ADF,
cellulose, hemicellulose and ADL were observed to be 60.69±3.69, 42.07±3.42, 18.62±1.53, 28.93±2.95
and 7.28±0.45 per cent. IVDMD and IVOMD values ranged from 35.18 to 47.15 per cent and from
36.39 to 49.03 per cent with respective means of 42.21±1.21 and 43.76±1.26 per cent. The over all ME
concentration averaged 5.43±0.27 (3.54-6.27) MJ/kg DM. The highest IVDMD, IVOMD and ME val-
ues were recorded in pea straw and the lowest in GN hulls. Fibre fractions were negatively correlated
with digestibility and ME values.

FR 67
Variation in chemical composition of different sugarcane crop residues
R. K. Tiwari, Jagdish Prasad and A. K. Garg
Division of Animal Nutrition,
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India

Sugarcane is third most important crop in India after wheat and paddy. Sugarcane crop residues are
of special importance for tropical countries, particularly those where, there is a shortage of cereals and
other green fodders. Sugarcane crop residues are available in large quantities. The main crop residues
available from sugarcane farming/industry are sugarcane tops, trash, bagasse, bagasse pith, molasses and
press mud. Thus sugarcane plays a special role in the 3 F Chains - Food, Fodder and Fuel. In view of
above facts sugarcane crop residues were analyzed for their variation in chemical composition.
39
39
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

The DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, TCHO, AIA, NDF, ADF, Hemi-cellulose, ADL, Cellulose, Ca
and P contents in SCT were 30.23, 94.05, 5.31, 2.35, 31.10, 55.29, 86.39, 3.00, 71.61, 36.64, 34.97,
6.69, 29.95, 0.57 and 0.27 percent, respectively. These contents were 84.19, 89.01, 3.87, 2.05, 33.65,
49.44, 83.09, 7.66, 78.47, 43.94, 34.53, 6.42, 37.52, 0.84, 0.24 in Trash, 54.61, 97.61, 2.17, 0.70,
44.21, 50.53, 94.74, 1.66, 82.22, 50.55, 31.67, 10.18, 40.37, 0.39, 0.10 in bagasse, 58.59, 95.41,
2.51, 0.96, 43.55, 48.39, 88.94, 3.57, 89.81, 52.01, 37.80, 9.73, 42.28, 0.40, 0.13 in bagasse pith and
27.29, 83.11, 10.59, 3.69, 18.56, 50.27, 68.83, 6.51, 48.09, 22.34, 25.75, 5.46, 16.88, 2.93, 0.56 in
press-mud. The contents of DM, OM, AIA, Ca and P contents were 77.89, 82.07, 2.15, 2.51 and 0.51
in molasses. Press-mud and molasses had lower organic matter than other by-products. Crude protein
content of press-mud was highest (10.59%), followed by sugarcane tops (5.31%), trash (3.87%), molas-
ses (3.28%), bagasse pith (2.51%) and bagasse (2.17%). Crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, acid deter-
gent fiber and lignin contents of bagasse and bagasse pith were almost similar and higher than other by-
products. Calcium content of press-mud was highest (2.93%) followed by molasses (2.51%), sugarcane
trash (0.84%), sugarcane top (0.57%), bagasse pith (0.40%) and bagasse (0.39%). Phosphorus contents
followed same trend as that of Ca, as these were highest in press-mud (0.56%) followed by molasses
(0.51%), tops (0.27%), trash (0.24%), bagasse pith (0.13%) and lowest in bagasse (0.1%). Thus overall
composition of different sugarcane by-products appear to suggest that they have a scope to be utilized as
animal feed either as such or after certain processing/ treatments.

FR 68
Evaluation of different varieties cowpea (Vigna sinensis) straw based on
the composition, in vitro dcgradability and nutrient yield
B. Devasena, A. Ravi, J. V. Ramana, D. Sreenivas Kumar and J. Ramaprasad
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati

Thirteen varieties of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) straw samples were evaluated by chemical composi-
tion, in vitro DM digestibility and yield of nutrients (ton/ha). The varieties of cowpea straw evaluated
were DCP-2, DCP-5, DCP-6, DCP-7 DCP-10, DCP-11, GC-9040, HC-2-40, V-240, GC-11, DCS-
5, DCS-6, and V-585. The average yield (ton/ha) of DM, OM and CP were 5.6, 22.23 and 0.90,
respectively. The average dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (FE),
crude liber (CF), total ash (TA) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents of thirteen varieties of cowpea
straw were, 24.91% (18.5 to 30.6), 89.0% (90.7 to 88.5), 16.2% (13.3 to 20.8), 3.13% (2.86 to 3.51),
30.3% (28.3 to 32.9), 1 1.0% (9.3 to 12.8) and 40.1% (37.3 to 42.9), respectively. The average NDF,
ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and silica contents (%) of cowpea straw were 52.5 (48.3 to 57.7),
43.57 (39.4 47.2), 31.1 (24.3 to 35.8), 8.95 (5.9 to 1 1.8), 10.25 (7.3 to 12.2) and 2.23 (1.15 to 2.9)
respectively. The average in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. %) was 63.1 (52.5 to 68.5). The
availability index (%) was 78.3 (72.8 to 85). IVDMD was positively correlated with CP (r = 0.3021) and
cellulose (r = 0.2356) and negatively correlated with CF (r = - 0.43885), NDF (r = - 0.12332) and lignin
(r = - 0.1323). It can be concluded that among the cowpea straw varieties evaluated DCP-10, GC-ll,
DCP-2 and DCS-6 contain higher CP (19.7, 20.8, 18.2 and 18.5%) and IVDMD (68.3, 65.6, 66.3 and
58.9%) values as compared to other varieties and so they are superior compared to the other cowpea
varieties evaluated.

40
40
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 69
Potential for feed block production in a food-ethanol-fodder value
chain of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench)
A. A. Khan1, S. Palaniswami, L. Shah, Belum Reddy and M Blümmel2
1
International Livestock Research Institute, Patancheru-502 324, AP
2
Hytech Seed India Private Limited, ICRISAT, Patancheru-502324, AP

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) is one of the most efficient dry land crops to convert
atmospheric CO2 into sugar and the crop is gaining rapid importance as a feedstock for ethanol produc-
tion after grain harvest. This provides income for dry land farmers, but it potentially competes with fodder
for the livestock, thus aggravating feed scarcity. Use of the bagasse residue (BR) after juice extraction of
the stems for ethanol together with the leave strippings (LS) as fodder could compensate for fodder loss
and provide an additional source of income. In the present work we compared a commercial feed block
(CFB) from Miracle Fodder & Feeds PVT LTD consisting of 53% of sorghum stover with an experimen-
tal feed block where all sorghum stover was replaced by sweet sorghum BRLS. The BRLS were sourced
from Rusni Distillery, chopped and transferred to the manufacturer who produced the experimental blocks.
An ad libitum feeding trial with bulls of approximately 180 kg live weight (LW) was conducted at ILRI
research facilities at ICRISAT. A treatment consisting only of the sorghum stover used for the commercial
feed block was included. Daily dry matter intake was 37 and 35 g/kg LW (P>0.05) in BRLS blocks and
CFB, respectively. Intake was low on sole sorghum stover (13 g/kg LW; P<0.0001). Bulls on CFB
gained 975 g/d compared to 871 g/d on BRSL based blocks (P>0.05). Bulls fed only stover lost bodyweight.
We conclude that BRLS can largely or even completely substitute for sorghum stover in CFB’s.

FR 70
Potential of maize stover from a new dual-purpose hybrid in substituting
for sorghum stover in a commercially produced feed block
A. A. Khan1, M. D. Gupta, L. Shah and M Blümmel2
1
International Livestock Research Institute, Patancheru-502 324, AP
2
Miracle Fodder & Feeds, Shamshabad -501218, AP

Sorghum stover is the single most important ingredient (53%) of a commercial feed block (CFB) for
dairy animals designed and marketed by Miracle Fodder & Feed Manufacturer in Hyderabad. However,
decreasing availability, increasing transport distances and raising costs now associated with sorghum sto-
ver urge the search for alternative stover sources. In laboratory trials at ILRI, stover from Hytech Seed
India Private Limited new maize hybrid-5101, had similar fodder quality as sorghum stover used for the
CFB. An ad libitum feeding trial with bulls (c. 180 kg LW) was designed at ILRI to investigate if maize
stover based-feed block would promote comparable levels of livestock productivity than the CFB. Stover
from maize hybrid 5101 was sourced from Hytech Seeds at ICRISAT. Possible variation in maize stover
fodder quality was introduced by using stover from black and red soils. After grain harvest, the maize
stover was chopped and transported to the CFB manufacturer who produced two experimental feed
blocks (EFB) by substituting sorghum stover with maize stover from the black (EFBMblack) and red soil
(EFBMred). Five bulls, balanced according to LW, were allocated to a treatment. Daily dry matter intake
was 35, 33 and 30 g/kg LW (P < 0.05) in BRLS, EFBMblack and EFBMred blocks, respectively. Daily
weight gains were 1.02 kg on EFBMblack, 0.98 kg on CFB and 0.79 kg on EFBMred (P>0.05). We con-
41
41
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

clude that quality maize stover can substitute for sorghum stover in CFB. This offers additional income for
maize grower, since the feed block manufacturer currently purchases sorghum stover for 2.4 Indian Ru-
pees per kg.

FR 71
Evaluation of sorghum stover based diets in Murrah and
Bhadawari buffalo heifers
G. H. Pailan, S. K. Mahanta and N. C. Verma
Plant Animal Relationship Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284 003, India

An experiment was conducted to study the comparative nutrient utilization from sorghum stover based
diets in Murrah and Bhadawari buffalo heifers. Six growing buffalo heifers from each breed were fed ad
lib sorghum stover and supplemented with a concentrate mixture @ 1.0% of body weight for 90 days.
After 45 days of experimental feeding a metabolism trial was conducted. DM, TDN and DCP intake per
kg metabolic body size was similar in both the breeds and the values were 96.83, 53.89 and 5.35 g for
Murrah and 95.68, 53.37 and 5.33 g for Bhadawari heifers, respectively. Digestibility of DM (53.36 vs.
53.81%), OM (56.65 vs. 56.03%), CP (55.35 vs. 55.66%), NDF (49.91 vs. 49.71%) and ADF (42.07
vs. 42.64%) was similar both in Murrah and Bhadawari heifers. N retention (as % of N intake) was
similar in Murrah (25.94) and in Bhadawari (26.15) heifers. The diet content similar levels of TDN and
DCP in Murrah (55.69 and 5.59%) and in Bhadawari (55.87 and 5.61%) heifers. Nitrogen balance (g/d)
was also similar in Murrah (17.28) and Bhadawari (16.31), however, daily weight gain was higher (P<0.05)
in Murrah (363.30g) than in Bhadawari (283.30g) heifers. The nutrient utilization efficiency in the form of
DM, protein and energy intake for unit weight gain was higher (P<0.05) in Murrah than in Bhadawari
buffalo. The study revealed that intake and digestibility of nutrient from sorghum stover based diets was
comparable in Murrah and Bhadawari buffalo heifers however, growth performance and nutrient utilization
efficiency were higher in Murrah than in Bhadawari buffalo heifers under stall fed conditions.

FR 72
Variability in straw quality of wheat cultivars in India
A. K. Misra, G. H. Pailan, K. K. Singh, M. M. Das and T. A. Khan
Plant Animal Rela Tionship Division
Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India

Adopting stratified random sampling, a total of 1964 samples of wheat plants from 165 fields spread
over 8 states consisting of 32 wheat cultivars were collected from different parts of the country. Plant
samples were processed for straw quality attributes and grain to straw ratio. Regional and varietals varia-
tions in the grain to straw ratio (1:1.3 to 1:1.60) of the samples collected from major wheat-producing
states (Bihar, Haryana, MP, Punjab, Rajasthan, UP, West Bengal and Uttranchal) were found to be signifi-
cant (P<0.01). Results showed significant (P<0.05) variability in the chemical composition of the straw
cultivars, and ADF (37.9-57.3%) and lignin (4.6-12.2%) were the fractions, which exhibited the highest
variability. Crude protein content of any of the variety was insufficient to meet nitrogen requirement for
maintenance in adult ruminants. There was a high degree of variability (37.1 to 51.4 %) in the In situ DM
digestibility of different cultivars. The ADF(r = 0.56). cellulose (r= 0.31) and lignin (r= 0.33) contents
42
42
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

were negatively (P<0.05) associated with its in situ DM degradability. The relationship between hemicel-
lulose, the easily digestible fiber fraction, and DM degradability was positive (r = 0.31). The straw yield
and digestibility was positively associated meaning that wheat varieties yielding more straw per kg grain
may have better straw quality.

FR 73
Chemical composition of certain unconventional feed
D. Tiwari, R. K. Jain and N. Patil
College Of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Mhow -453446

Certain unconventional feeds were collected from Indore district and analyzed for proximate prin-
ciples and fibre fractions as a primary step towards determining their nutritive value. The feeds were
Soyabean hulls, Mordhan husk, water melon seed coat, Babul churi, Souff byproduct, Rajgiri husk and
Soyabean churi. The average values (range in paranthesis) were CP 11.26±1.44 [6.41(Rajgiri husk) to
17.05(Soyabean churi)], EE 1.99±0.36 [0.85(Soyabean churi) to 3.36 (Souff byproduct)], CF 31.50±6.90
[14.2(Soyabean churi) to 64.66(water melon seed coat)], NFE 41.52±3.78 [24.40(water melon seed
coat) to 53.81(Babul churi)], TA 10.10±2.6 [1.94(water melon seed coat) to 20.59 Souff byproduct)],
Ca 1.98±0.54 [0.52(Mordhan husk) to 4.33(Souff byproduct)], P 0.28±0.58 [0.07(water melon seed
coat) to 0.54(Soyabean churi)], AIA 4.04±0.95 [0.78(water melon seed coat) to 7.44(Souff byproduct)],
NDF 57.84±9.1 [31.59(Soyabean churi) to 85.12(Mordhan husk)] and ADF 43.78±6.4 [25.03(Soyabean
churi) to 70.14(water melon seed coat)], prcent on DM basis.

FR 74
Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of agro-industrial
residues of vegetable origin
Mohammad Imran Khan* and Prem P. Atreja
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India;
*Instrumentation Division, Food Research and Analysis Centre, New Delhi-110075, India

In order to fill the gap between demand and supply of quality feeds and fodders for dairy animals the
vegetable residue samples of cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, okra, empty pea pods and pumpkins from
agro-processing plants were assessed for their nutriti onal potential through chemical composition and in
vitro evaluation. For different nutritional parameters of vegetable residues (on DM basis) showed that
OM ranged between 85.4 (Cauliflower) to 96.1 (pumpkins) per cent for; between 6.78 % (carrots) to
22.4 % (cauliflower) for CP; EE ranged between 0.99 (cauliflower) to 9.8 % (okra); CF from 8.4% to
30.7%, NDF from 23.7 to 44.0%; total ash from 3.9 (pumpkins) to 14.7% (cauliflower) and NFE from
24.9 to 71.6%. The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) ranged from 50.6% (cauliflower) to 54.6%
(cabbage). In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) was 40.0 to 54.3% for different vegetable
residues substrates. The gas production ranged from 104.5 in okra to 112.5% in carrots except in cauli-
flower, which produced 132 .5 ml of gas per g of substrate. The ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N) and total
nitrogen (Total-N) production (mg/100 ml) were 19.6 to 29.1 and 175.0 to 220.5, respectively. The non-
ammonical nitrogen (NAN) (mg/100 ml) was ranged from 155.4 to 196.0. Total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs)
production ranged from 30.3 to 36.4 mM/100ml. Studies further showed that the residues from different
43
43
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

vegetables were good sources of fatty acids (C8 to C22) and amino acids (essential and non essential) as
they were present in one or other substrate. Vegetables residues studied were also good sources of
minerals such as calcium (0.38 to 1.35%), phosphorus (0.16 to 0.41%), magnesium (0.21 to 0.38%),
iron (90.15 to 231.51ppm), zinc (41.74 to 74.84ppm), copper (10.93 to 17.11 ppm) and manganese
(17.69 to 30.77ppm). The proximate as well as in vitro results indicated nutritional potentiality of veg-
etable residues, which could be well utilized as animal feeds.

FR 75
Studies on variability in sunflower heads
P. R. Nisal, S. N.Kale and V. C. Badve
BAIF Development Research Foundation, CRS,
Uruli Kanchan, Pune 412-202, India

Survey conducted in seven districts of Marathawada region.Total four hundred and seventy five farm-
ers were surveyed. The information regarding land holding cropping pattern, area under sunflower cultiva-
tion, yield of sunflower seeds and sunflower head utilization pattern was collected. It was observed that
farmers utilize sunflower heads in more than one way. Majority of the farmers use sunflower heads for
composting to produce manure (49.6%) and for feeding animals(38.7%). The sunflower heads are fed to
the animals in fresh form i.e.immediately after de-seeding.. Once it becomes dry it is either composted or
burnt (35.6%). The variation in chemical composition of sunflower heads of different varieties/hybrids is
observed. The crude protein content ranged from 4 to 12.3 %.The variation in crude fiber content was in
the range of 14 to 20 %.The in vitro digestibility of SFH ranged from 64.4 to 78 .3 %which indicates that
the material has potential for use in animal feeding.About 15 formulations of complete feeds based on
sunflower heads were formulated .The samples were analysed for proximate principles and van soest
fobre fractions. The weight of seed and that of husk with receptacle show that production of sunflower
heads (husk with receptacle is approximately 35 to 40 % of the production of seed. Thus from 3.23 lakh
tones of sunflower seeds production SFH could be 1 13 lakh tones,which is equivalent to 0.1 lakh tones
of crude protein and 0.8 lakh tones of digestible organic matter.

FR 76
Aflatoxin in milk samples from dairy animals fed as basal diet groundnut
haulms from a local and a new improved dual-purpose groundnut cultivar
D. Ravi1, A. A. Khan1, P. Rao 2, S. Pande2, F. Waliyar2 and M Blümmel1
1
International Livestock Research Institute, Patancheru - 502 324;
2
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324 AP

The relationship between intake of aflatoxin B1 in feed and aflatoxin M1 excretion in milk was inves-
tigated in three villages (LR Palli, Jalapuram and Talpur) in the Anantapur district in Andhra Pradesh.
Emphasis was on possible intake of aflatoxins from groundnut haulms of a local and a new improved dual-
purpose groundnut cultivar, which provide for major fodder resources in the district. In the present work
groundnut haulms presented about half of the total intake. Aflatoxins were analyzed by an ELISA tech-
nique. Mean aflatoxin B1 content in TMV 2 and ICGV 91114 was 2.4 and 2.1 µm/kg of dry haulms (P >
0.05), respectively. These contents are well below the Indian feed regulation limits for aflatoxin B1 of 30
µm/kg. Despite this close to 50% of the milk samples had non-permissible levels (> 0.5 µm/kg) of afla-
44
44
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

toxin M1. Mean aflatoxin M1 levels in milk of animals fed haulms from TMV 2 and ICGV 91114 was
0.79 and 0.77 µm/kg (P > 0.05), respectively, with daily milk yields of 4.3 for the 91114 and 4.1 kg for
the TMV 2 treatment (P > 0.05). Mean Aflatoxin content in other basal feed sources (green sorghum, rice
straw, sorghum stover) was 5.1 µm/kg (range 0 to 27.6 µm/kg) and was 15.5 µm/kg in concentrates
(range 0 to 98 µm/kg). Highest aflatoxin content was measured in groundnut cake. Aflatoxin intake and
aflatoxin excretion in milk were statistically completely unrelated (P =0.93) and permissible level of afla-
toxin B1 in feed could result in non-permissible levels of aflatoxin M1 in milk.

FR 77
Chemical compositon of sugarcane press residue
B. N. Suresh, B. S. V. Reddy, N. K. S. Gowda1, T. M. Prabhu,
R. G. Gloridoss and K. C. Singh
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College, KVAFSU (Bidar), Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024; 1National Institute of Animal
Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore, India

Sugarcane press residue (SPR) is a byproduct of sugar industry constitute about 3 per cent of cane
crushing and available to the tune of 5 tons annually in India. SPR samples (6 Nos.) collected from
different regions of Karnataka were sun-dried and subjected for detailed chemical analysis. The proximate
analysis of SPR (average on dry matter basis) revealed: CP-11.76, EE-7.87, CF-10.08, TA-21.94, NFE-
48.35 %. The fiber fractions of SPR included: NDF-55.01, ADF-28.84 and AD Lignin-11.69 %. Its
mineral constituents were: Ca-3.87, P-1.10, Mg-0.95 % and Fe-3500, Mn-284, Zn-113, Cu-61.5 and
Co– 5.0 ppm. The average amino acid composition (% of CP) was: methionine-2.21, cystine-1.05, lysine-
4.85, threonine-5.48, arginine-4.10, isoleucine-4.77, leucine-8.72, valine-6.27, histidine-2.44, phenylala-
nine-4.90, glycine-5.95, serine-4.76, proline-4.83, alanine-6.44, aspartic acid-10.28 and glutamic acid-
12.45. The fatty acid profile of SPR (% of EE) included: caprylic acid-0.2, capric acid-0.2, lauric acid-
1.4, myristic acid-0.9, palmitic acid-30.3, stearic acid-4.1, oleic aicd-17.2, linoleic acid-38.0 and lino-
lenic acid-5.4. The study indicated that SPR has the potential serve as a source of both organic and
inorganic minerals for livestock and poultry.

FR 78
Effect of feeding wet maize husk on the
growth performance of heifers
R. S. Gupta, B. R. Devalia, S. G. Vahora, G. R. Patel, D. C. Patel and S. Parnerkar
Animal Nutrition Research Department,
Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110.

Wet maize husk is a fermented byproduct of starch industry available after wet milling process. The
CP, EE, CF, NFE, ash, silica, P and Ca contents were 9.32, 1.86, 15.25, 72.13, 1.44, 0.16, 0.08 and
0.42% on DM basis, respectively. A feeding experiment of 28 weeks duration was conducted on 18
growing heifers subjected to three dietary treatments under completely randomized design. The treatment
were: T1-compound concentrate mixture + 5 kg green NB 21 and mature pasture grass (Dicanthium
annulatum) ad libitum, T2-T1 + 3 kg wet maize husk and T3-T1 + 6 kg wet maize husk partially replacing
compound concentrate mixture on protein equivalent basis. The average daily gain (P<0.01) was 0.292,
45
45
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

0.468 and 0.509 kg per head under T1, T2 and T3 respectively which was 60 and 70 % higher in T2 and
T3 compared to T1 (control).
The average DM intake was 5.758 + 0.352, 6.412 +- 0.218 and 6.962 + 0.228 kg /day/animal and
20.32 +1.43, 13.76+ 0.34 and 14.08 + 1.22 kg/kg gain in weight, respectively. The treatment differences
were found to be significant (P<0.05). The microbiological examination of wet maize husk revealed the
presence of Lactobacilli and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which might have been proved beneficial
to the animals. The feed cost (Rs./kg gain) was 31.52 and 29.76 % lower (P<0.01) in T2 and T3 com-
pared to T1 group.

FR 79
Chemical composition, in vitro and in sacco evaluation
of sheanut extract (Vitellaria paradoxa)
D. Sreenivas Kumar, B. Devasena, A. Ravi, J. V. Ramana, and J. Ramaprasad
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science,
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, TIRUPATI

Sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa) extract is a byproduct obtained during extraction of butter from sheanuts.
A study was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of sheanut extract. The dry matter content was
95.3%, organic matter 95.0%, crude protein 14.1%, ether extract 1.8%, crude fiber 11.3%, total ash
5.0%, nitrogen free extract 67.8% and acid insoluble ash 0.62%. Macro mineral content (%) of sheanut
was Ca 0.44, P, 0.1, Na, 0.122 and K, 1.95, and Micro mineral content (mg/Kg) of sheanut extract was
Mg, 1.0891, Cu, 6.2, Fe, 759, Mn, 127.25, Co, 1.3 and Cr, 0.2. The in Vitro dry matter digestibility
(%) of sheanut extract was 48.2 and 54.7 when incubated sheanut sample with cattle and buffaloe rumen
liquor. The in sacco dry matter degradability values observed for sheanut extract were a = 22.9; 26.1
b=66.9; 72.3, c = 0.0065; 0.0068 with effective degradable dry matter (EDDM %) content 30.6; 34.8 in
cattle and buffaloes, respectively.

FR 80
Effect of dietary incorporation of expeller pressed castor bean cake on
in vitro nutrient degradability and rumen fermentation pattern in buffalo
M. H. Lade, V. R. B. Sastry, S. K. Saha and Shrikant Katole
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly

An in vitro experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of expeller pressed
castor bean cake inclusion on in vitro rumen fermentation and DM degradability. Five iso-nitrogenous
(CP 20%) and iso-caloric (TDN 66.5%) concentrate mixtures were prepared containing different levels
of expeller pressed castor bean cake i.e. 50% and 100% by replacing SBM protein from the control.
Exactly 80 mg concentrate mixture and 120 mg oat straw was taken into the in vitro flasks and incubated
for 24 hours at 39ºC in BOD incubator as per the method of Tilley and Terry (1963). After 24 h of
incubation in vitro flasks were taken out from the incubator and microbial activity was stopped by adding
2 drops of dilute sulphuric acid. The content of in vitro flasks were filtered through pre-weighed sintered
crucible and before that the liquor was collected for NH3 -N and TVFA estimation. The DM degradability

46
46
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

was found to be significantly (P<0.05) lower in experimental groups as compared to that of control
probably due to presence of ricin in expeller pressed castor bean cake. The NH3 -N and TVFA concen-
tration in the expeller pressed castor bean cake was also found significantly (P<0.05) lowered in experi-
mental groups than the control one, which might be due to lower degradability in former group. Therefore,
it could be concluded that there is a negative effect of incriminating factors on in vitro DM degradability
and rumen fermentation pattern due to inclusion of castor bean cake (ECC) at all levels and needs detoxi-
fication before being incorporated in the concentrate mixtures for livestock feeding.

FR 81
Effect of replacing concentrate mixture with stylo meal on nutrient
utilization, growth and blood metabolites of crossbred heifers
A. B. Mojumdar, S. K. Mahanta, M. M. Das and P. K. Pathak
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003

Use of Stylosanthes more commonly termed as Stylo-a tropical range legume have gained impor-
tance as it provides larger yield of good quality protein for livestock. The recurring deficiency of 62% in
the availability of concentrate mixture in the country for sustaining optimum livestock productivity, calls for
development of alternative feed supplement from diverse forages. In this context, nutritive value of Stylo
meal prepared form Stylosanthes hamata at full flowering stage was evaluated for the replacement of
concentrate mixture in growing cross-bred heifers. Fifteen growing heifers (Av. Body wt. 201.80 + 0.2
kg) distributed in 3 equal groups (G-1 to G-3) were fed on wheat straw based ration for a period of 120
days. In control group (G-1), the concentrate mixture was offered to meet the protein requirement, whereas,
in G-2 and G-3, the Stylo meal replaced the concentrate mixture @ 50 and 100% respectively, on iso-
nitrogenous basis. Average DMI was 2.30, 2.47 and 2.34% of body weight in G-1, G-2 and G-3 groups,
respectively. Similarly, CP and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake (g/d) in the corresponding groups
were 76.67 and 36.63; 76.52 and 41.32 and 77.02 and 36.22, respectively. Body weight gain was
comparatively higher in G-2 (550 g/h/d) than G-1 (535 g/h/d) and G-3 (486 g/h/d). Digestibility of DM
(62.94%), OM (64.83%), N-balance (30.11 g/d) were higher (P<0.01) in G-2, while digestibility of
nutrients were comparable amongst the groups. Average digestibilities of CP, NDF and ADF ranged from
47.33 to 54.06, 50.08 to 56.83 and 51.08 to 53.76%, respectively. Blood glucose, urea and plasma
protein levels did not vary in different experimental groups. Thus, stylo meal can replace the concentrate
requirement at 50% level in the dry roughage based ration of growing heifers.

FR 82
Effect of replacement of conventional concentrate/ barley with
urea impregnated slurry waste on utilization and carcass
characteristics in growing buffalo calves
M. L. Sharma, T. R. Chauhan, Rajan Gupta, S. S.Dahiya, P. C. Lailer and D. Lall
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sirsa Road, Hisar- 125 001

Fifteen male buffaloes calves of about one year age (Av. Wt 140 kg) were divided into three groups
with five animals each. Calves in the control group were fed concentrate mixture + green forage + wheat
straw as basal roughage. As in T-l group, 30 percent of the concentrate mixture was replaced with urea

47
47
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

impregnated slurry waste wheat straw sunny. In treatment-11, 70% of the concentrate mixture was re-
placed with barley (weight by weight) and rest 30 percent of concentrate mixture was replaced with urea
(50g) impregnated 4-5 l of slurry waste mixed with W.S. in the form of sunny. These three treatments
were fed to these calves for a period of six months and the bull calves were slaughtered at beef stage.
Digestion-cum -metabolic trial conducted at the end of the experiment before slaughtering revealed that
the daily DM intake and digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, EF, NDF, ADF and cellulose were comparable
in these dietary groups and no significant differences were observed. The average daily gain (ADG) for a
period of 180 days of the calves was 597, 590 and 586 g in control, T-l and T-l 1 groups, respectively
and the difference were non-significant. Similarly no significant difference was observed for slaughter and
carcass parameters between these experimental groups, although slaughter and carcass weights showed
an increase trend from group 1 to 111 with corresponding mean values of 1195, 1277 and 1257 kg with
total mean 3729 kg; and 551.4, 608.8 and 616 kg, respectively. Dressing percentage of slaughter weight
and weight after chiller (kg) in control, Tl and T2 groups were 46.14%,47.67% and 49.01% ; 544.8, 603
and 609.8 kg respectively, showing an increasing trend in these groups. The overall meat, bone, fat and
wastage percentages in these groups were almost similar. It can be inferred from this study that conven-
tional concentrate mixture can be replaced with barley grains along with urea impregnated slurry waste
used in the form of sunny with W.S. Similarly 30 per cent of the conventional concentrate mixture can be
replaced with urea impregnated slurry waste without effecting nutrient utilization and meat quality in grow-
ing buffaloes bull calves slaughtered at beef stage.

FR 83
Yield and nutritional characteristics of tubers of different
cultivars of tapioca and sweet potato
Chander Datt, M. Sankaran and N. P. Singh and B. Santhosh
ICAR Research Complex for N.E.H. Region, Tripura Centre,
P.O. Lembucherra, 799210, Tripura (West)

There is acute shortage of concentrate energy feeds for livestock and poultry in Tripura. As alternate
energy sources, various cultivars of tapioca (Megh-61, H-1687, H-226, H-165, Sree Prakash, Sree
Vijay and Sree Jaya) and sweet potato (Gouri, Sree Gouri, 440038, 4400127, Shankar, 442074) were
evaluated in terms of tuber yield, proximate composition and essential mineral (Ca, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and
Co) contents. In case of tapioca, the average yield of tubers (DM basis) was found to be 15.37±0.81 t/
ha ranging from 10.86 (Megh-61) to 19.04 t/ha (H-226). The yields of H-1687, H-165 and Sree Jaya
were at par with H-220. In sweet potato, the average yield was 8.75±0.58 t/ha. Gouri gave the highest
yield (11.07 t/ha) and Sree Gouri, the lowest (3.95 t/ha). The values for cv. 440038 and 442074 were
similar to those of Gouri. The differences among the cultivars in both the crops were significant (P<0.01).
The mean values for DM content were observed to be 37.00±0.65 (32.48-39.82%) and 26.73±0.96
(22.92-31.28) per cent in tapioca and sweet potato, respectively. The values for proximate principles
except EE differed markedly (P<0.01) among the cultivars of both the tuber crops. The mean values for
CP, EE, CF, NFE and total ash were recorded to be 3.33±0.12, 0.55±0.03, 2.28±0.09, 91.47±0.38
and 2.36±0.11 per cent, respectively in tapioca with corresponding values of 4.87±0.20, 1.90±0.06,
2.38±0.08, 88.20±0.45 and 2.65±0.15 per cent in case of sweet potato. The concentration of mineral
elements except Co also varied significantly among the cultivars of both the crops, however, they were
deficient in all the minerals studied. The mean respective content of Ca and P were found to be 0.17±0.01

48
48
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and 0.07±0.006 per cent in tapioca with corresponding values of 0.09±0.007 and 0.12±0.006 per cent
in case of sweet potato. The mean concentrations of 36.05±3.10, 4.37±0.34, 17.37±0.15, 11.42±0.71
and 0.04±0.008 ppm were observed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Co in tapioca tubers while the respective
content in sweet potato were 37.50±2.59, 3.99±0.35, 9.88±0.42, 12.65±53 and 0.02±0.003 ppm.
Thus, the tubers were rich in soluble carbohydrate content and very low in protein, fibre and mineral
elements. The tapioca cultivars viz., H-226, H-1687, H-165 and Sree Jaya and sweet potato cultivars
viz., Gouri, 440038 and 442074 hold good promise as energy sources as an alternate to grains but need
to be supplemented particularly with protein and minerals when used in the diets of livestock and poultry.

FR 84
Impact of calf starter on growth performance of crossbred calves
S. Saijpaul, S. S. Sikka, P. Malhotra and Narinder Singh
Department of Animal Nutrition
G.A.D. Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004

In an experiment effect of level of leather meal incorporation in calf starters on the growth perfor-
mance and economics of raising crossbred calves was studied. Sixteen calves of 15-30 days age with
average BW of 37.9 kg were randomly divided into four groups of four calves in each. Four isocaloric
calf starters containing 0, 2, 3 and 4% leather meal were formulated wherein soybean meal from the
control calf starter was replaced by leather meal on isonitrogenous basis. Experimental calf starters were
offered individually to the calves along with ad lib. feeding of berseem. The daily calf starter intake was
621.0, 618.8, 664.9 and 602.8 g respectively in calf starters containing 0, 2, 3 and 4% leather meal. The
corresponding daily body weigt gain was 579.3, 577.9, 585.9 and 620.3g. The treatment means for heart
girth (100-101.7 cm), pounch girth (99.3-101.8 cm), body length (92.8-96.0 cm) and height (89.8-94.3
cm) in all the groups were not affected (P<0.05) by the dietary treatments. The cost of calf starter intake
per kg gain was Rs 11.97, 11.14, 11.86 and 10.08 respectively in 0, 2, 3 and 4% leather meal containing
starters. From the data it was concluded that calf starter containing leather meal upto 4% can give com-
parable and more economical growth as compared to soybean meal.

FR 85
Mineral status of feeds and fodders for dairy animals in
Thane district of Maharashtra
M. R. Jawale, V. D. Kank, M. B. Patil, S. V. Chopde,
S. D. Jagadale and G. M. Gadegaonkar
Department of Animal Nutrition
Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai-12, India

A survey was conducted to assess macro and micro minerals status of dairy animals in North Konkan
Coastal zone (Thane district) of Maharashtra, by analyzing feed and fodder samples. Almost all of the
concentrate and roughages analyzed were found to be deficit in Ca and Mg contents. The P content in
straws (0.11%) and green fodders (0.20%) was lower in comparison to concentrate ingredients (0.34%).
The average copper content in all concentrate an©d straw samples was found above the required critical
level of 8 ppm (Mc Dowell et al., 1985), while green roughages were found to be deficit in Cu content,
except local grass kasai (8.56 ppm). Fe level in all of the feed ingredients was adequate (average level >
49
49
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

220 ppm). The straws (182.39 ppm) and green fodders (105.29 ppm) were found to be better source of
Mn than the concentrates (52.67 ppm). The Zn content in roughages (31.25 ppm) was found to be on the
borderline of the required critical level (30 ppm), while the concentrates were comparatively higher in Zn
content (42.18 ppm). From the present survey, it was apparent that the levels of certain minerals like Ca,
Mg and occasionally P and Cu were deficient. However, the levels of some other mineral elements such as
Fe, Mn and Zn were found to be adequate in the feeds and fodders from the surveyed area.

FR 86
Mineral contents of locally available feeds and fodders and diet of cattle,
buffaloes, sheep and goats in flood prone eastern plains of Rajasthan
A. K. Shinde and S. K. Sankhyan
Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar 304501, Rajasthan, India

Mineral contents of common feeds and fodders and dietary mineral composition of cattle, buffaloes,
sheep and goats under existing feeding practices in flood prone eastern plains of Rajasthan have been
evaluated to identify the deficiency and development of supplementation strategies. Wheat, barley and
sorghum cereal grains contained Ca 0.03-0.50%, P 0.34-0.39%, Mg 0.13-0.27%, Zn 28-36 ppm, Cu 7-
8 ppm, Mn 27-50 ppm and, Fe 319-365 ppm. Mustard, cotton seed cake, cluster bean grain and gram
churi contained Ca 0.49-0.81 %, P 0.34-0.60%, Mg 0.46-0.68%, Zn 35-51ppm, Cu 4-10ppm, Mn 13-
67ppm and Fe 131-635ppm. Green fodder contained Ca 0.42-1.00%, P 0.09%, Mg 0.64-0.83%, Zn
23-51ppm, Cu 3-19ppm, Mn 86-106ppm and Fe 925-1536ppm. Cereal straws and Stover contained
Ca 0.47-1.14%, P 0.09-0.18%, Mg 0.18-0.83%, Zn 13-29 ppm, Cu 3-11 ppm, Mn 23-63 ppm and Fe
434-1431 ppm. Tree leaves contained Ca 0.79-1.61%, P 0.09-0.10%, Mg 0.46-0.86%, Zn 24-34 ppm,
Cu 9-31 ppm, Mn 34-68 ppm and Fe 555-801 ppm. Cattle and buffaloes in pregnancy and lactation
stages were found short of Ca (7-10 %) and P (50- 56%) requirement. Magnesium content of diet of
cattle and buffaloes was adequate and excesses the requirement in all the stages. Zn content during preg-
nancy and lactation stages in the diet were deficient (14 -16%), Cu and Mn contents of diet were ad-
equate and Fe content of diet was considerably higher (1074 -1201 ppm) than requirement in the diet.
Sheep ~d goats under existing feeding practices were found short of Ca in their diet. Phosphorus content
of diet of sheep and goats in all the stage were below than the requirement owing to grazing resource and
tree leaves in the region were primarily poor in P content. Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe intakes of sheep and
goats was found to be adequate under the prevailing feeding practices. It was concluded from the study
that diet of pregnant and lactating cattle and buffaloes were deficient in Ca, P and Zn and sheep and goats
diets were deficient only in Ca and P. Mineral mixtures or concentrate need to be supplemented to
overcome the deficiency and production and health losses.

50
50
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 87
Assessment of dietary macro and micro-minerals status of
milch buffaloes in sub-mountain zone of Punjab
B. M. Bhanderi, M. R. Garg and S. K. Gupta
Animal Nutrition & Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India

A study was carried out to assess dietary macro and micro-mineral status of milch buffaloes in Ropar
and Gurdaspur districts, under sub-mountain zone of Punjab. Feed and fodder samples were collected at
random from various locations, following standard sampling procedure. The average calcium (Ca) content
in straws was low (0.23%). Green fodders such as berseem (1.78%), chikori (1.67%), oat (0.56%) and
rye grass (0.61%) were found to be rich source of Ca. Concentrate ingredients were particularly low
(0.12%) in Ca. The phosphorus content in crop residues and green fodders was 0.09 and 0.30 per cent,
respectively, which was low but higher (0.57%) in concentrate ingredients. The magnesium content in
green and dry fodders was 0.19 and 0.31 per cent, respectively. The sodium content was low in concen-
trate ingredients (0.038%) and dry fodder (0.07%), but very high in green fodder (0.74%). The dry and
green roughages were found to be rich in potassium content (2.27%) than concentrate ingredients (0.81%).
The sulphur content was adequate in green fodder (0.26%), whereas, crop residues (0.10%) and concen-
trate ingredients (0.12%) were deficient in sulphur; hence, its supplementation was necessary in the ration
of milch animals. The cobalt was deficient in the diet of animals to the extent of 56 per cent; however, iron
(>161 ppm) and manganese (>61 ppm) in most of the feed ingredients were adequate, with traditional
feeding system. The average copper content was low in straws (3.34 ppm) and moderate in green fod-
ders (12.18 ppm). Concentrate ingredients were again low in copper (7.94 ppm). Molybdenum content in
feeds was within the safe limit and gave Cu:Mo ratio wider than 3, except berseem green. Selenium
content in most of the feeds and fodder samples was adequate (0.85 ppm) and its supplementation in the
diet was not advocated. Zinc was deficient in most of the feedstuffs (average level<41 ppm) and needed
to be supplemented for proper productive and reproductive functions. From the present study, it was
apparent that the levels of certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc, copper
and cobalt were inadequate, as per the prevailing feeding practices and requirement of a buffalo yielding
10 kg milk (6% fat) per day. However, the levels of some other mineral elements such as sodium, potas-
sium, iron, manganese and selenium were found to be adequate in the sub-mountain zone of Punjab.

FR 88
Macro and micro-mineral status of dairy animals in hilly zone of Kerala
B. M. Bhanderi, M. R. Garg and S. Sathish Kumar1
Animal Nutrition & Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India
1
Southern Regional Demonstration & Training Centre, NDDB, Erode, Tamil Nadu

A study was conducted in Idukki and Wayanad districts under the hilly zone of Kerala, to assess the
status of certain macro and micro-minerals in dairy animals, by analyzing feed and fodder samples. Paddy
straw was major dry roughage available for feeding dairy animals and found to be low in Ca (0.11%), P

51
51
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

(0.09%), S (0.11%), Cu (1.79 ppm) and Zn (11.69 ppm). Amongst green fodders, mainly local grasses
and hybrid napier were available and found to be good sources of Ca (0.43%), Mg (0.34%), Cu (13.83
ppm), Mn (74.52 ppm) and Fe (1379 ppm). Azolla was subsidiary green fodder grown in stagnant water
by the farmers and found to be a good source of various minerals. The feeds and fodder were found to be
rich in K content (1.83%) and Fe (192-3600 ppm). Groundnut cake and copra extraction were major
concentrate supplements in the surveyed area. Groundnut cake, copra extraction, rice bran and wheat
bran were good sources of P (0.57-1.13%), Mg (0.25-0.45%), S (0.24-0.33%), Cu (17.82-41.22 ppm),
Zn (38.40-84.12 ppm) and Mn (44.51-174.5 ppm). The Na content was lower in concentrate ingredi-
ents (0.014%) and roughages (0.06%). Se content in feeds and fodder was adequate (0.18-0.83 ppm),
however, Co was found to be marginally deficient in feedstuffs (0.10-1.19 ppm). From the present study,
it was apparent that in view of the feeding practices followed in the survey area, levels of certain minerals
such as Ca, P, S, Zn, Cu and Co were inadequate and much below the requirement of animals yielding 8-
11 kg milk (4% fat) per day. Supplementation of area specific mineral mixture with highly bio-available
mineral salts could be a cost effective method, to improve productive life and productivity of animals in the
zone.

FR 89
Macro and micro-mineral status of dairy animals in
Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh
M. R. Garg, B. M. Bhanderi and A. Kannan
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India

A survey was conducted in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, to assess the status of certain
macro and micro-minerals in dairy animals. Feeds, fodder and blood serum samples were collected at
random from the area under survey. Calcium content in paddy straw (0.18%), maize green (0.20%) and
sugarcane tops (0.28%) was found to be below the critical level (0.30%). The phosphorus content in
concentrate ingredients was 0.45 per cent, which was high but lower in roughages (0.20%). Feeds and
fodder were found to be adequate in magnesium (0.27%) and potassium (1.20%), but low in sulphur
(0.13%). Groundnut cake, coconut cake, rice bran and wheat bran were good sources of copper
(19.53ppm). Wheat bran was also found to be good source of Zn (83.93ppm), manganese (99.60 ppm),
iron (425ppm) and cobalt (0.42ppm). Straws of paddy (122.47 ppm) and ragi (434.4 ppm) were rich
sources of manganese. Iron (>300 ppm) and selenium (0.23 ppm) were present in appreciable quantities
in most of the feedstuffs. The average blood serum levels of Ca (8.65mg%), phosphorus (4.17mg%),
magnesium (2.41mg%) and iron (2.17 ppm) were found to be higher than critical limits, however, 34
percent of the animals screened showed low levels of calcium and 53% showed low levels of phosphorus.
Copper (0.61 ppm) and zinc (0.71 ppm) were found to be lower than the normal values, in 53 and 75
percent of the screened animals, respectively. Supplementing the deficient minerals through area specific
mineral mixture could alleviate the deficiency in the district.

52
52
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 90
Macro and micro-mineral status of dairy animals in
coastal zone of Kerala state
B. M. Bhanderi, M. R. Garg and S. Sathish Kumar1
Animal Nutrition & Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India
1
Southern Regional Demonstration & Training Centre, NDDB, Erode, Tamil Nadu

A study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram and Kasaragod districts, under the coastal zone of
Kerala, to assess the status of certain macro and micro-minerals in dairy animals. Feeds, fodder and
blood serum samples were collected at random from the area under survey. Paddy straw was major dry
roughage in surveyed area and found to be low in Ca (0.11%), P (0.10%), S (0.067%), Cu (1.72 ppm)
and Zn (8.91 ppm). Amongst green fodders, mainly local grasses and hybrid napier were available and
found to be good sources of Ca (0.44%), Mg (0.38%), S (0.23%) and Mn (83-263 ppm). The feeds
and fodder were found to be rich in K content (1.33%) and Fe (154-2350 ppm). Gingely cake and copra
extraction were major concentrate supplements in the surveyed area. Gingely cake was rich in Ca (2.40%),
P (1.17%), Mg (0.62%), S (0.32%), Cu (31.74 ppm), Zn (88.54 ppm) and Co (0.70 ppm). Copra
extraction, cottonseed cake, groundnut cake, rice bran and wheat bran were rich source of P (0.70%).
Brans were also rich in Mn (130.66 ppm). Grains were poor sources of Ca (0.12%) as compared to P
(0.27%). Se content in feeds and fodder was adequate (0.11-1.45 ppm), however, Co was found to be
marginally deficient in feedstuffs (0.09-1.98 ppm). Average Ca (10.48 mg%), P (4.5 mg%) and Mg (2.53
mg%) levels in blood serum were higher than the critical limits. However, about 12 and 35 % of the
screened animals showed lower levels of serum Ca (7.11mg%) and P (3.23mg%), respectively. Cu (0.61
ppm) and Zn (0.89 ppm) levels in blood serum of dairy cows were below the critical limit. In this zone, 65
and 31% of the screened animals showed lower levels of serum Cu (0.53 ppm) and Zn (0.69ppm) values.
Supplementation of area specific mineral mixtures with highly bioavailable mineral salts or methionine-
based Cu and Zn chelates could be a cost effective method to improve productive life and productivity of
animals in the zone.

FR 91
Trace mineral status of dairy animals in Ernakulam district of Kerala
M. R. Garg, B. M. Bhanderi and S. Sathishkumar1
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India
1
Southern Regional Demonstration & Training Centre, NDDB, Erode, Tamil Nadu

A study was carried out to assess trace mineral status of dairy animals in Ernakulam district of Kerala.
Feed, fodder and blood serum samples were collected from various locations, for estimation of mineral
content. Copper (Cu) content in paddy straw (6.01 ppm) was low as compared to local grasses. Gingely
oil cake (31.70 ppm), black gram (27.70 ppm), rice bran (20.05 ppm) and wheat bran (18.11 ppm)
were found to be good sources of Cu. Grains had around 5 ppm Cu. Zn content in different feed re-
sources varied from 16.04 to 97.9 ppm. The manganese levels in this district ranged from 38.50-434.8
ppm in roughages and 12.54-164.57 ppm in concentrate feed ingredients. Average iron content was 778
ppm in roughages and 381 ppm in concentrates, showing adequacy of this mineral. The cobalt level in
53
53
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

feeds and fodder ranged from 0.12-1.09 ppm. Se content in most of feeds and fodder samples was
adequate, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.92 ppm. Mo content in feedstuffs was within safe limit, which
ranged from 0.09 to 2.85 ppm. Average serum Cu and Zn content were 0.61 and 0.67 ppm, respectively.
About 54 and 75 percent of the animals screened, showed below the critical levels for Cu and Zn,
respectively. Iron and selenium levels in blood serum were within the normal range. Ration of animals was
found to be deficient in Cu, Zn and Co to the extent of 20, 52 and 31 percent, respectively. Hence, it is
necessary to supplement these minerals in the ration. It was observed that Mn, Fe and Se in the ration of
animals were found to be adequate.

FR 92
Mapping of certain macro and micro minerals in feedstuffs for
formulation of area specific mineral mixture for Jalgaon district
M. R. Garg, B. M. Bhanderi, S. K. Gupta, J. L. Kukreja1 and S. A. Biradar1
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India
1
National Dairy Development Board, Mumbai

A study was carried out to assess the dietary status of macro and micro-minerals of milch animals in
Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, for developing area specific mineral mixture. Feed and fodder samples
were collected at random from various locations, following standard sampling procedure. The average
calcium content in straws of bajra, jowar, maize and wheat was high (0.37%), but low (0.10%) phospho-
rus level. Calcium content in green fodder such as hybrid napier, jowar and green local grasses was 0.42
per cent. Concentrate ingredients such as cottonseed cake and crushed maize were particularly low (0.15%)
in calcium, but high (0.44%) in phosphorus. The phosphorus content in green fodders was 0.22 per cent.
The magnesium content in roughages and concentrate ingredients was 0.25 and 0.23 percent, respec-
tively. The sodium content was below the critical level (<0.06%) in concentrate ingredients, dry and green
fodders. Potassium content in concentrates (0.87%) and roughages (1.46%) was found to be adequate in
surveyed area. The sulphur content was deficient in concentrate ingredients (0.21%) and crop residues
(0.09%); hence, its supplementation was necessary in the ration. Cobalt was occasionally deficient in the
diet of animals; however, iron level in most of the feed ingredients was adequate (average level>769
ppm), with the prevailing feeding system. The manganese (Mn) was low in concentrate ingredients (27.84
ppm), whereas, dry (65 ppm) and green (47.55 ppm) fodders were adequate in Mn. The average copper
content in dry and green fodders was 12.85 and 14.35 ppm, respectively. Concentrate ingredients were
low in copper (11.49 ppm). Molybdenum content in feeds was within the safe limit (average level<0.37
ppm) and gave Cu:Mo ratio wider than 12.0. Selenium content in most of the feeds and fodder samples
was adequate (0.76 ppm) and its supplementation in the ration was not necessary. Zinc was acutely
deficient in most of the feedstuffs (average level<38.0 ppm) and needed to be supplemented in the ration
for proper productive and reproductive functions. From the present study, it is apparent that the levels of
certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, sulphur, zinc, copper, manganese and
cobalt were inadequate, as per the estimates for the requirement of a buffalo yielding 8 kg milk (6% fat)
per day. However, the levels of some other mineral elements such as potassium, iron, selenium and molyb-
denum were found to be adequate in Jalgaon district.

54
54
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 93
Dietary mineral status of milch animals in the
south-west zone of Punjab
M. R. Garg, S. K. Gupta and B. M. Bhanderi
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India

A study was carried out to assess dietary macro and micro-mineral status of milch buffaloes in Firozpur,
Mansa and Muktsar districts, under south-west zone of Punjab. Feed and fodder samples were collected
at random from various locations, following standard sampling procedure. The average calcium (Ca)
content in straws was low (0.28%). Green fodders such as berseem (1.88%), chikori (1.26%), oat
(0.45%), rye grass (0.56%) and mustard (1.34%) were found to be rich source of Ca. Concentrate
ingredients such as mustard cake (0.68%), cottonseed cake (0.23%), rice polish (0.11%) and wheat flour
(0.053%) were high to low in Ca. The phosphorus (P) content in crop residues and green fodders was
0.08 and 0.47 per cent, respectively. Concentrate ingredients were high (0.78%) in P. The magnesium
content in roughages and concentrate feed ingredients was 0.31 and 0.41 per cent, respectively. The
sodium content was low in concentrate ingredients (0.043%) and dry fodder (0.065%), but high in green
fodder (0.63%). The dry and green roughages were found to be rich in potassium content (2.76%) than
concentrate ingredients (1.11%). The sulphur content was adequate in green fodder (0.32%), whereas,
crop residues (0.16%) and concentrate ingredients (0.18%), except mustard cake (0.33%) were deficient
in sulphur; hence, its supplementation was necessary in the ration of milch animals. The cobalt was defi-
cient in the diet of animals to the extent of 45 per cent; however, iron (average level > 500 ppm) and
manganese (average level > 60 ppm) in most of the feed ingredients were adequate, with traditional
feeding system. The average copper content was very low in straws (2.94 ppm) and moderate in green
fodders (11.93 ppm). Concentrate ingredients were again low in copper (9.19 ppm). Molybdenum con-
tent in feeds was within the safe limit and gave Cu:Mo ratio wider than 2. Selenium content in most of the
feeds and fodder samples was adequate (0.47 ppm) and its supplementation in the diet was not advo-
cated. Zinc was deficient in most of the feedstuffs (average level<38 ppm) and needed to be supple-
mented for proper productive and reproductive functions. From the present study, it was apparent that the
levels of certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, sulphur, zinc, copper and cobalt were inadequate,
as per the prevailing feeding practices and requirement of a buffalo yielding 10 kg milk (6% fat) per day.
However, the levels of some other mineral elements such as magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manga-
nese and selenium were found to be adequate in the south-west zone of Punjab.

FR 94
Assessment of mineral status of dairy animals for developing area
specific mineral mixture for central plain zone of Punjab
M. R. Garg, B. M. Bhanderi and S. K. Gupta
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory
National Dairy Development Board, Anand 388 001 (Gujarat), India
A study was carried out to assess dietary macro and micro-mineral status of milch buffaloes in Amritsar,
Ludhiana and Patiala districts, under central plain zone of Punjab. Feed and fodder samples were col-
lected at random from various locations, following standard sampling procedure. The average calcium
55
55
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

(Ca) content in straws was low (0.28%). Green fodders such as berseem (1.82%), chikori (1.30%)
mustard (1.59%) and rye grass (0.46%) were found to be rich source of Ca. Concentrate feed ingredi-
ents such as cottonseed cake, wheat flour, rice polish and barley grain were particularly low (0.13%) in
Ca, however, mustard cake was high (0.64%) in Ca. The phosphorus content in crop residues and green
fodders was 0.10 and 0.43 per cent, respectively. Concentrate ingredients such as cottonseed cake,
mustard cake, wheat bran and rice polish were high (0.77%) in P. Feeds and fodders were found to be
adequate in magnesium (0.34%) and potassium (1.89%) and sulphur (0.23%). The average copper con-
tent was low in straws (4.46 ppm) and moderate in green fodders (13.38 ppm). Copper content in
concentrate feed ingredients was around 10 ppm. The cobalt was deficient in the diet of animals to the
extent of 36 per cent; however, iron (average level >597 ppm) and manganese (average level > 63 ppm)
in most of the feed ingredients were adequate, with the prevailing feeding practices. Molybdenum content
in feeds was within the safe limit and gave Cu:Mo ratio wider than 3. Selenium content in most of the
feeds and fodder samples was adequate (0.40 ppm) and its supplementation in the diet was not consid-
ered necessary. Zinc was deficient in most of the feedstuffs (average level<44 ppm) and needed to be
supplemented for proper productive and reproductive functions. From the present study, it was apparent
that the levels of certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and cobalt were inadequate,
as per the prevailing feeding practices and requirement of buffalo yielding 10 kg milk (6% fat) per day.
However, the levels of some other mineral elements such as magnesium, sulphur, sodium, potassium, iron,
manganese and selenium were found to be adequate in the central plain zone of Punj

FR 95
Agricultural trends, feed resources and livestock feeding practices in
diara land of Malda district of North Bengal
Avijit Dey, B. Das and P. K. Gangopadhyay
Malda Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Block Seed Farm, Ratua, Malda-732 205

Malda district is geographically located in a strategic place of the state West Bengal and operates as
a connecting link between South and North Bengal. Topographically, the district has been divided into
three distinct zones in the form of Barind, Diara and Tal. The river Mahananda, flowing from north to
east acts as a major dividing line and bifurcates the district into two regions. The eastern region, charac-
terized by relatively higher land of red clay soil of Old Alluvium nature, is known as Barind. The western
region is further divided into two areas by the river Kalindi. Whereas the northern low lying area is known
as Tal, the southern and the most fertile segment of the district is known as Diara. A field survey was
conducted in the Diara tract, consists of a strip of roughly eight miles in width along the western and
southern sides of the district. The area under this tract is 1,12,188 ha of which cultivable area is 78,098
ha. Maximum (52%) farmers are land less while only 2.6% farmers have about 5 acres of land. The main
crops during Pre-Kharif and Kharif season are rice, jute, sugarcane and maize while during Rabi season
wheat and mustard are the main crops of this region. Eighty per cent of farmers’ source of income is
agriculture, while 14% working outside, 4% are labourers and another 2% engaged in small business.
Feeding of animals depends on the land holdings and the cropping patterns. Rice straw constitutes the
major dry fodder resources while wheat straw is generally not fed to animals because of the myth that it
reduces milk production. Sugarcane tops are the source of green fodder in Pre-Kharif and Kharif sea-
sons. Pulses like Black gram, lentil, gram and arhar whereas oilseeds mainly mustard are grown and their

56
56
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

residues and by-product are fed to the livestock. Fodder production is very limited confining to only 5.0%
of the total cropped area. Fodder is produced only during May-June (Sorghum sp and Millets) when land
is fallow after wheat harvest. During lean period local grasses and vegetations are cut and fed to dairy
animals. Grazing is practiced for dairy animals as well as goats. Balanced concentrate mixtures are rarely
fed to dairy animals however; they are supplemented with maize grain, rice bran/chunni and mustard cake
as par availability in the term of surka, where the supplements are mixed with rice gruel and little water.
Common salt is seldom used whereas mineral mixtures are not at al used by the livestock owners. The
common feeding practice is wet feeding system in terms of sani, where chaffed straw and green fodder/
field grass mixed together with excess of water and fed to animals. Separate drinking water is not pro-
vided.

FR 96
Evaluation of mineral status of soil and fodder to establish soil- fodder
relationship in Aizawl district of Mizoram
K. Sarma, G. Kalita, K. C. Das, A. Ali and R. Buragohain
College of Veterinary Sciences and A.H.
Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram

A study was undertaken to assess the mineral status of soil and fodders to establish soil-fodder
relationship. Ten villages from Aizawl district of Mizoram selected randomly. Soil and fodder samples
were evaluated for Calcium(Ca), Phosphorus(P), Magnesium(Mg), Cupper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Iron(Fe)
as per standard procedures. The analysis revealed percent status of Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn in soil and
fodder being 0.154±0.018 and 1.665±0.210, 0.082±0.007 and 0.244±0.005, 0.127±0.031and
1.013±0.157,0.022±0.002 and 0.024±0.002, 0.381±0.026 and 0.399±0.039 and 0.025±0.002 and
0.023±0.003 respectively. There was negative correlation between soil and fodder in respect of Ca, Mg,
Cu, Zn and Fe while P had positive correlation.

FR 97
Assessment of mineral status of soil, plant and animal in
Mahaboobnagar district of Andhra Pradesh
S. Ramesh, D. Nagalakshmi, Y. Ramana Reddy, A. Rajasekhar Reddy And D. B. V. Ramana
College of Veterinary Science, S.V.Veterinary University, Rajendranagr, Hyd-30

A study was conducted to evaluate the mineral status of soil, plant, animal and their inter relationship
in two mandals viz. Jadcharla and Bhoothpur in Mahaboobnagar district of Andhra Pradesh. Two villages
were selected from each mandal and 10 samples of soil were collected from different grazing lands and
cultivated fodder plots. Samples of green and dry fodder, concentrate ingredients, home made and com-
mercial concentrate mixtures were collected randomly from 40 farmers in each village. Similarly blood
samples from different categories of livestock in each village were also collected. The soils were optimum
in Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Co content, while deficient in P. Some soils (32.5 %) had Cu and Zn levels below
the critical level. The dry and green roughages on average were deficient to marginally adequate in Ca
(0.20-0.46 %), adequate in Mg (0.19-0.36 %), Co (0.20-0.30 ppm), optimum in Mn (24.78-155.74
ppm) and quite excess in Fe (103.3-525.8 ppm) content, while deficient in Cu (1.52-9.91 ppm) and P
(0.12-0.32 %). The dry roughages were deficient in Zn (16.98-30.28 ppm), while greens were adequate.
57
57
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

The brans were rich in P, Fe, Mn and Co content, moderate in Cu, Zn and Mg. Maize grain was deficient
in most of the minerals except P, Fe and Co., where as ragi straw and horse gram were good sources of
Ca. The blood hemoglobin content in animals was with in the normal range of 8-12 g%. Inspite of ad-
equate intake of Ca through straw, the deficiency was observed in stall fed milch (20-25%) animals due to
higher P intake. P deficiency was also observed in some animals fed only with dry roughages inaddition to
grazing on P deficiency soils. Though the mean plasma Cu and Zn concentration was above the critical
level, deficiency was observed in some animals due to lower intake inaddition to interference of their
absorption by excess Fe in the diet. The plasma Mg, Mn, Fe, and Co levels in all categories of animals
were well above the critical levels. Thus the results of the study indicate that there is a relation ship
between the soil, plant and animal with respect to minerals and area specific mineral mixture could be the
alternate to ameliorate the deficiency problems in various categories of livestock.

FR 98
Status of some essential heavy metals (copper, iron and zinc) in animal
feeds and fodders in different districts of Haryana
Kaushalendra Kumar, Neelam Kewalramani, Harjit Kaur and Veena Mani
DCN Division, National Dairy Research Institute, KARNAL-132001 India

The present study was carried out with the objective to know the status of copper,iron and Zinc in
feeds and fodders of all the districts of Haryana. The districts surveyed were Karnal, Kurukshetra, Ambala,
Panipat, Sonepat, Yamunanagar, Panchkula, Kaithal, Gurgaon, Faridabad (Zone-I) and Jind, Hisar, Rohtak,
Jhajjar, Rewari, Mahendragarh, Bhiwani, Fatehabad and Sirsa (Zone-II). All the districts were divided
into two zones on the basis of different agro-climatic zones of Haryana state as per All-India Coordinated
Research Project on Agro-Meteorology. The samples of feeds, green fodders (Berseem and Oats), dry
roughages (Wheat straw and Paddy straw), were collected from 19 district of Haryana. The samples of
berseem fodder were found to be deficient in all the districts of Haryana. Out of 77 samples of Berseem
fodder collected from zone I, 22 samples were found to be deficient in copper content showing a defi-
ciency of 28.6%. Similarly, from zone II, the overall deficiency of copper was 27.1%. Similar to Berseem
fodder, oats fodder was also found to be deficient in copper.
The copper deficiency in wheat straw from zone I was 43.7% whereas from zone II, 78.9% of the
samples were deficient in copper and contained less than 10 ppm of copper which is a critical level. The
zinc content in Berseem fodder was also found to be deficient in Haryana. Overall, the deficiency of zinc
was 53.0% in Haryana state On an average, 43.7% of wheat straw samples from zone I and 78.9% from
zone II showed zinc deficiency. The iron content of all the green and dry roughages appeared to be in an
adequate quantity from all the districts of Haryana. The different feed ingredients collected from Haryana
state were cottonseed cake, mustard oil cake, concentrate mixture, feed pellets, wheat bran and grains.
Again the % deficiency of copper in different ingredients was as follows; Cottonseed cake, 41.6; Mustard
oil cake, 43.5; Concentrate mixture, 44.6; Pellets, 28.6; Wheat bran, 40.0; and Grains, 10.0%. The
deficiency of zinc was as follows; Cottonseed cake, 45.8; Mustard oil cake, 43.5; Concentrate mixture,
11.1; Pellets, 7.1; and Grains, 42.8%. The iron content was found to be in adequate quantity. Thus,it was
concluded that there is a need to supplement mineral mixture to fulfill the deficiency of copper and zinc in
Haryana state.

58
58
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 99
Status of some essential heavy metals (copper, iron and zinc) in animal
hair, milk and tissues in different districts of Haryana
Kaushalendra Kumar, Neelam Kewalramani, Veena Mani and Harjit Kaur
DCN Division, National Dairy Research Institute, KARNAL-132001 India

The present study was carried out with the objective to know the status of copper,iron and Zinc in
milk, hair and tissues of animals of all the districts of Haryana. The districts surveyed were Karnal, Kurukshetra,
Ambala, Panipat, Sonepat, Yamunanagar, Panchkula, Kaithal, Gurgaon, Faridabad (Zone-I) and Jind,
Hisar, Rohtak, Jhajjar, Rewari, Mahendragarh, Bhiwani, Fatehabad and Sirsa (Zone-II). All the districts
were divided into two zones on the basis of different agro-climatic zones of Haryana state as per All-India
Coordinated Research Project on Agro-Meteorology. A total number of 191 samples of milk (Cow and
Buffalo); 113 samples of hair, 199 samples of tissues and 148 samples of water were collected from all
the districts of Haryana. In milk, the deficiency of copper was observed. From zone I, 41.0% of buffalo
milk samples were found to be deficient whereas from zone II, this figure was 18.2%. In cow’s milk, the
copper deficiency was 57.7% from zone I and 28.2% in zone II. Similar to copper, zinc was also deficient
in milk. From zone I, the % deficiency of zinc in buffalo milk was 64.3 and from zone II, it was 44.6. The
cow milk also showed zinc deficiency of 76.6% from zone I and 56.04% from zone II. With respect to
iron, all the samples of milk contained iron in a normal range and was found to be in adequate amount.
The samples of buffalo and cow hair collected from various districts of Haryana showed a deficiency of
copper and zinc. From zone I, 75.0% of buffalo hair and 52.9% of cow hair were deficient in copper
whereas these values from zone II were 32.4% and 17.4%, respectively. All these samples contained less
than 8 ppm of copper. Zinc deficiency values were higher than copper. From zone I, zinc deficiency was
83.0% for buffalo and 76.5% for cows whereas from zone II, these figures were 78.4% and 73.9%. The
iron content was found to be adequate. The goat tissue samples viz. liver, kidney and muscle were col-
lected, from butcher’s shop of the respective district. Based on the literature available, 80.0% of liver
tissues from zone I and zone II were deficient in copper. Similarly for zinc, the deficiency was up to the
extent of 36.6% from zone I and 61.0% from zone II. The iron content of liver did not show any defi-
ciency. To check the contamination of water by trace minerals, the copper, zinc and iron content of water
was estimated. The copper content of water from both hand pump and tube well was 0.037 ppm which
was within a normal range. The zinc content of water from tube well and hand pump was 0.031 ppm and
0.043 ppm. These values were lower than the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm. With respect to iron,
the value obtained was 0.29 ppm which is close to the maximum permissible level of 0.3 ppm given by
NRC (2001).

FR 100
Mineral status of soil, fodders and dairy animals in
Krishna Godavari zone of Andhra Pradesh
D. Nagalakshmi, D. Narasimha Reddy, M. Rajendra Prasad and P. Pavani
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science,
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Rajendranager, Hyderabad, India

Mineral status of dairy animals in relation to soil, feeds and fodders in Krishna Godavari zone of
Andhara Pradesh was studied. Two districts (West Godavari and Krishna) from the zone and two mandals
59
59
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and two villages from each mandal were randomly selected for the study. The soil, feeds and fodders
samples and blood serum from various physiological categories viz., calves, heifers, bullocks, lactating and
pregnant cattle and buffaloes were collected and analyzed for Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe to the extent of
87.5, 75, 50, 25 and 0% in Krishna and 100, 100, 10, 37.5 and 37.5 in West Godavari. The forages and
concentrate ingredients were adequate in Ca, P and Fe. Paddy straw and sorghum green had lower levels
of Cu and Mn than the critical levels. Among the concentrate ingredients, horse gram was deficient in Cu,
Zn and Mn and cottonseed cake in Cu and Mn. Gingelly cake was good source of all minerals. The mean
serum values of Ca (11.48mg %), P (4.48mg %), Mn (0.14ppm) and Fe (1.87ppm) in animals of the
zone were found to be above the critical levels. The serum Zn (1.55ppm) in W. Godavari was adequate
while Zn (0.69ppm) in animals of Krishna were lower than critical levels. The Cu (0.53ppm) content in
animal of the zone was deficient. The overall percent incidence of deficiency was higher for Cu (76.16%),
Zn (52.34%), P (41.62%) and Mn (37.93%) with incidences high in lactating animals. The findings sug-
gest the need for supplementation of Cu, Zn, Mn and P through mineral mixture.

FR 101
Macro and trace mineral status of agricultural crop residues
and concentrate feeds available in Tripura
Chander Datt, M. Datta, K. M. Bujarbaruah1 and N. P. Singh
ICAR Research Complex for N.E.H. Region, Tripura Centre,
P.O. Lembucherra, 799210 Tripura (West)
Mineral elements play a vital role in overall nutrition of the animals, however, there is no information
on essential mineral status of agricultural crop residues and concentrate feeds which are of significance in
the ruminants feeding. Therefore, the crop residues (paddy straw, GN straw, GN husk, moong straw, urd
straw, cowpea husk, pea straw, maize stover, sarson straw and arhar pod husk) and concentrate feed
ingredients (maize, broken wheat, broken rice, wheat bran, rice bran, mustard cake, sesamum cake and
ground nut cake) available in the state were analysed for major (Ca and P) and trace (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn
and Co) minerals. The mean content of Ca and P in agricultural crop residues were observed to be
0.51±0.07 and 0.21±0.03 per cent, respectively. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Co averaged
201.10±49.68 (88.34-613.57), 6.39±0.87 (2.88-11.10), 40.74±3.46 (27.39-61.28), 117.82±20.66 (43.29-
254.37) and 0.12±0.03 (0.07-0.14) ppm, respectively. There were marked differences among the crop
residues with regard to the concentration of these elements. In case of concentrates, brans contained
higher (1.25%) concentration of P than their grains (0.50%). Sesamum cake was particularly rich in Ca
(1.88%). Most of these possessed satisfactory level of Fe (>50 ppm), Mn (>40 ppm) and Co (0.1 ppm)
but were deficient in Cu (<8 ppm) and Zn (<80 ppm). The content of P was adequate. It was noticed that
the majority of the crop residues possessed adequate to rich content of Ca, Fe, Mn and Co. On the other
hand, the concentration P, Cu and Zn was quite low in almost all the crop residues when compared to the
critical limits for these elements. Therefore, supplementation with these elements is needed.

60
60
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 102
Mineral status of feeds, fodders, soil, water and plasma of animals
in the Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh
J. V. Ramana, S. D. Sudheer, B. Devasena, D. Srinivas Kumar and J. Rama Prasad
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati-517 502, Ap, India

Feed, fodder, soil, water and plasma samples were collected from different villages of Cuddapah
District of Andhra Pradesh to analyse the mineral status. The soil and water samples showed alkaline pH.
Most of the animals were fed on paddy straw which was deficient in most of the minerals. Seven hundred
blood samples from animals were collected and analysed for mineral status (Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cu, Zn,
Fe, Mn, Co, Mo, Cr). The plasma mineral profile indicated that the calcium content ranged from 0.82 to
20.85 mg % with 75 % of the animals showing calcium deficiency. The phosphorus content ranged from
1.56 to 8.11 mg % with 90 % of the animals showing phosphorus deficiency. The magnesium content of
the animals ranged from 0.23 to 14.18 mg %. The copper, Iron and Zinc contents ranged from 0 to 0.92
ppm, 0 to 9.5 ppm and 0 to 14.28 ppm respectively with 95 %, 35 % and 65 % deficiencies of respec-
tive minerals in the animals.

FR 103
Mineral status of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats
in Tonk district of Rajasthan
S. K. Sankhyan and A. K. Shinde
Central Sheep and Wool research Institute, A Vikanagar, via Jaipur 304501, Rajasthan

The mineral content of locally available feed resources and diet of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats
were estimated to identify the deficiency and development of strategies supplementation in Tonk district of
Rajasthan. Linseed cake, mustard cake and cotton seed cake were good source of Ca (0.37-0.50%), P
(0.44-0.56%), cereal grains were poor source of Ca (0.03-0.05%) and moderate source of P (0.34%).
Green fodders were good source of Ca (0.33-0.57%) but poor source of P (0.09%). Tree leaves were
good source of Ca (0.43-1.45 %) but poor source off (0.09-0.12%). Mg contents of all the feed and
fodder resources found in the district was adequate (concentrate ingredient 0.39%, green fodder 0.57%,
straws 0.32% and tree leaves (0.57%). Local feeds and fodders were found to be adequate in Zn (con-
centrate ingredient 44.18, green fodder, 39.43, straws 46.43 and tree leaves 44.47ppm) and Cu (con-
centrate ingredient 14.61, green fodder 14.66, straws 35.48 and tree leaves 35.19 ppm) contents. Mn
contents was also adequate in almost all the feed and fodder feed in animals (concentrate ingredients
39.14, green fodders 133.36, straws 55.04 and tree leaves 41.67ppm) except pearl millet grain and
maize grain which contained 0.06-0.56ppm. Fe content of concentrate ingredient was 731.87, green
fodder 1051.25, straws 399.00 and tree leaves 628.5 ppm and far higher than required concentration in
the feeds and fodders. In lactating cattle and buffaloes under existing feeding systems in the district, Mg,
Mn, Fe, Cu intakes were found adequate except Ca, P and Zn. In lactating sheep and goats, deficiency of
Ca and P was recorded under existing system of rearing on rangeland. It was concluded from the study
that P deficiency is wide spread in all the species in all the stages while Ca and P deficiency is common
during critical physiological stages. The intake of Fe was found much higher in all the species and in some
cases reaching the toxic level. Some kind of supplementation in form of concentrate mixture containing
61
61
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

cakes and wheat bran or mineral mixture should be supplemented for bridging the gap between require-
ment and intake of minerals particularly during pregnancy and lactating stages.

FR 104
Soil-plant- animal relationship of manganese in cattle of
Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan
O. P. Krishnia, R. K. Dhuria, T. Sharma and R. S. Arya
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001

An experiment was conducted to assess the manganese status in soil, feeds, fodder and cattle of
Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan. The samples of soil, feed and fodder grown on such soils as well as milk
and blood samples from 90 lactating and 90 non lactating cattle belonging to 18 village of Jhunjhunu
district of Rajasthan were collected and analyzed for manganese content. Diethylene triamine penta acetic
acid (DTPA) extractable manganese content of soil varied from 4.13-4.79 mg/kg with an average of 4.47
mg/kg. Mean manganese content of wheat straw, cotton seed cake, guar, barley, Bajra grain, wheat flour,
wheat bran and compound cattle feed were found to be 31.66, 42.52, 34.93, 14.97, 12.23, 52.70,
76.09 and 55.57 mg/kg, respectively. Manganese content of serum of lactating and non-lactating cattle
and milk averaged 41.60, 40.77 and 2.03 µg/dl, respectively. The manganese content of soil was posi-
tively (P<0.01) correlated with manganese content of fodder (r=0.40**), serum of lactating cattle (r=0.45**)
and milk (r=0.54**). The manganese content of fodder was also positively (P<0.01) correlated with the
manganese content of serum of lactating and non-lactating cattle (r=0.66, ** r=0.29**) and milk (r=0.50**).
Similarly, manganese content of serum (lactating) was positively (P<0.01) correlated with manganese
content of milk (r=0.67**). The results of present study indicated that the manganese content in soil were
adequate and therefore, the feed stuffs available in the district were containing sufficient manganese to
meet the requirement of animals as indicated by normal level of manganese in serum as well as milk of
cattle in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan.

FR 105
Molybdenum status in soil, fodder, serum and milk of cattle in
Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan
O. P. Krishnia, R. K. Dhuria, T. Sharma and R. S. Arya
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001

A study was conducted to determine the molybdenum status in soil, feeds, fodder and cattle in differ-
ent tehsil of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan. The samples of soil, feeds and fodder grown on such soils as
well as milk and blood samples from 90 lactating and 90 non lactating cattle belonging to 18 village of
Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan were collected and analyzed for molybdenum content. The molybdenum
content of soil varied from 0.21 to 0.25 mg/kg with an average of 0.23 mg/kg. Mean molybdenum
content of wheat straw, cotton seed cake, guar, barley, Bajra grain, wheat flour, wheat bran and com-
pound cattle feed were found to be 0.31, 0.36, 0.40, 0.23, 0.25, 0.32, 0.47 and 0.59 mg/kg, respec-
tively. Molybdenum content of serum of lactating and non-lactating cattle and milk averaged 3.47, 3.42
and 3.83 µg/dl, respectively. The molybdenum content of soil was positively (P<0.01) correlated with
molybdenum content of fodder (r=0.76**), serum of62 lactating (r=0.46**) and non-lactating cattle (r=0.47**)
62
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and milk (r=0.63**). Similarly, the molybdenum content of fodder was also positively (P<0.01) correlated
with the molybdenum content of serum of lactating cattle (r=0.42**), serum of non-lactating cattle (r=0.32**)
and milk (r=0.59**). Likewise, molybdenum content of serum (lactating) was positively correlated with
molybdenum content of milk (r=0.61**). These observations showed that molybdenum content of soil was
sufficient to meet the needs of plant growth and therefore, the feed stuffs available in the district were
containing sufficient molybdenum to meet the requirement of animals as indicated by normal level of mo-
lybdenum in serum as well as milk of cattle in Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan.

FR 106
Status of minerals in soil, feed and serum of camel
N. Saini, B. D. Kiradoo, N. Singh and Arvind Bhardwaj
National Research Center on Camel, Bikaner
Camel Nutrition Unit (AICRP)

A survey of four Agro eco zones of Rajasthan i.e. zone I, II, III, IV designated as Arid western plain
(Bikaner, Jaisalmer), Irrigated northwestern region (Hanumangarh, Ganganagar), Transitional plain of in-
land drainage (Churu, Nagaur) and Transitional plain of luni basin (Pali, Jodhpur) was conducted to docu-
ment the feeding cum management practices and to collect the samples of soil, feed and blood at farmers
level. Feeding cum management practices differ from zone to zone. Farmers of zone I and IV used to
follow grazing practices, where as in zone II, 62.50% respondents followed stall feeding and in zone III
grazing + providing additional fodder to meet out the dry matter requirement was common practices
(50%). Only farmers of zone II offer green fodder to their camels. Major fodders of camels are gram
straw, cluster bean straw, vigna straw, vigna aconitifolia straw, groundnut straw etc. Samples of straws
and tree leaves were collected and analyzed for mineral content. Data revealed that Ca, P, Mg, Fe and
Mn were sufficient in feed as well as in blood in all zones. In feed, Zn was deficient (In straw and leaves)
and copper was deficient only in straw in all zones. Likewise, Cu and Zn were found deficient in blood
except zone II and Co was deficient in III and I. There is need to supplement Zn, Cu in diet of camel to
meet the requirement of mineral for optimum production.

FR 107
Studies on fluoride content and hydrogen ion concentration of
Sunegaon dam water in Nanded district of Maharashtra
A. S. Hembade*, R. G. Pawale1 and V. S. Jadhav2
*Department of Dairy Science, 1Department of Enviornment Science
Yeshwant Mahavidyalaya, Nanded-431602.
2
S. P. Agri School, Bhokar2-431 801. Dist.Nanded, India

Sunegaon Dam is one of the major reservoir supplying the water to Loha city and nearby villages of
Nanded district of Maharashtra. The water pollution may distrubs the normal use of water. Fluoride is one
of the major parameter for water quality management. Hence it is important to monitor the status of
Fluoride content and pH of water. The present study was carried out fortnightly over a period of one year
from January to December 2001 to examine the variations of Fluoride content and pH of Sunegaon
Dam Water by standard methods for assessing the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation and domestic
use. An average Fluoride concentration of the Dam Water was 0.37 mg/l having range of 0.21 mg/l
63
63
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

(December) to 0.51 mg/l (May). It is below the allowable prescribed limits set by BIS, ICMR and WHO
for drinking. However, the problem of high Fluoride content is more common than the low. Hydrogen ion
Concentration of water was observed in the range of 7.2 to 8.5. It is alkaline in nature throughout the year
and within the prescribed limit for human and animal drinking.

FR 108
Arsenic content in water samples from different districts in Haryana
Debashis Roy, Veena Mani, Neelam Kewalramani and Harjit Kaur
DCN Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132001

A survey was conducted to assess As status in water in Haryana state. Total 163 samples were
collected from different locations from all the 19 districts of the state. Samples were taken in clean plastic
bottles from ground water (tap and hand pump) as well as canals/ rivers Arsenic content was estimated
using atomic absorption spectrophotometer in graphite furnance mode. It was observed that all the samples
contained As below the maximum contamination level of 10 ppb (WHO, 1993), which is being opted
currently. So considering the maximum permissible level almost all the samples were found to be within the
safe limits. Slightly higher concentration was found in some samples collected from tube well water of
Faridabad (11.99 ppb). The results, obtained in the study, are indicating that As contamination is not a
problem in the state, as even in industrial cities the levels were more or less similar to non- industrial one.
On comparing different sources i.e . canal and pond water showed significantly higher levels than tube
well and hand pump. But it is not of that much concern because all were far below the maximum permis-
sible level.

FR 109
Arsenic content of various feeds and fodders in
different districts of Haryana
Debashis Roy, Veena Mani, Harjit Kaur and Neelam Kewalramani
DCN Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132001

In order to assess the status of mercury and arsenic in various animal feeds, sufficient number of
samples (Total 158 berseem samples and 51 oats samples 52 wheat straw and 28 paddy straw) were
collected from nineteen districts of Haryana. Considering different agro climatic conditions the data ob-
tained was classified in two zones (eastern and western). Results revealed that in zone I districts of
Haryana, arsenic content of berseem ranged from 0.25 to 0.63 ppm (average 0.43 ppm) (on DM basis)
and in zone II districts it varied from 0.29 to 0.85 ppm. The overall mean in both the zones was 0.43
ppm, thus depicted that the As status in both the zones was similar. As content of oats fodder varied from
0 to 0.53 (mean 0.39 ppm) and from 0.30 to 0.57 ppm (mean 0.44 ppm) in zone I and II respectively.
However, mean As level in paddy straw was found to be somewhat higher (0.65 ppm and 0.56 ppm in
zone I and zone II respectively) than other fodders. It is evident from the data obtained that As levels of
all the feeds and fodder was in the normal range and far below maximum dietary tolerable limit, rendering
the feeds fit for animal consumption.

64
64
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 110
Minerals in soil, feeds, fodders and biological samples of cattle
in sewage and non-sewage areas
K. S. N. Prasad, A. Obi reddy and M. R. Garg1
Southern campus, National Dairy Research Institute, Adugodi, Bangalore-560030
1
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology Laboratory, Productivity Enhancement Group, National
Dairy Development Board, Anand-388001

Minerals (Ca, P, Na, K, Mg & S) in 240 samples of soil, water, feeds, fodders, milk, hair and urine
of sewage and non sewage areas in and around Bangalore were analysed on Inductively Coupled Plasma
(ICP) instrument. The result revealed that all the analysed macro minerals in soils of sewage areas were
higher than in non-sewage areas (176.65, 0.97, 21.63, 18.49, 27.73 and 9.83 ppm in sewage areas and
111.16, 0.39, 10.86, 9.39, 19.45, 5.6 ppm in non sewage areas for Ca, P, Na, K, Mg & S). The water
content of major elements mostly higher in sewage areas than in non sewage areas except Ca & K (452,
23.2, 540, 168, 172, 140 ppm in sewage areas where as 600, 16, 410, 325, 120, 95 ppm in non sewage
areas for Ca, P, Na, K, Mg & S) . The concentrate feeds were procured from elsewhere while the
roughages were grown locally. The minerals in roughages were more in sewage areas than in non-sewage
areas. (1.17, 0.96, 0.81, 1.68, 0.63, 0.53% in sewage areas and 0.97, 0.66, 0.14, 0.95, 0.70, 0.44% in
non sewage areas for Ca, P, Na, K, Mg & S). Analysed minerals in milk were also found higher in
sewage areas than in non-sewage area’s milk. Hair has more Na & K in sewage areas. Urine excretion of
most of the minerals was also higher in sewage water areas than in non-sewage areas.

FR 111
Mineral status in plants and animals in soil mineral
deficient zone of Haryana
M. A. Akbar and V. Kapoor
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (Haryana) - 125 004

Based on survey conducted by the Department Soil Sciences of this University, two villages each,
one from soil mineral nutrient sufficient area Thal (Karnal district) and another from soil mineral nutrient
deficient area Dahima (Hisar district) were selected for this study. Forty three fodder samples from Dahima
village and 76 from village Thal were collected and analyzed for their various mineral nutrient concentra-
tions. The mean concentration (%) of Ca and P in fodder samples of village Dahima was 0.77± 0.22 and
0.31±0.1, respectively while the corresponding values for Thal village were 0.70± 0.4 and 0.28±0.1.The
mean Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn content (ppm) in plant samples of village Dahima was 53.1, 338.4, 6.3 and
31.2 and the corresponding values for Thal village was 39.8, 341.5, 6.2 and 47.3, respectively. The data
reflected deficiency of Zn, Cu and Mn in the fodder of Dahima village whereas that of Zn and Cu in village
Thal. Keeping in view the intensity of mineral nutrient deficiency in plant samples, in depth study was
undertaken in Dahima village. For this purpose, five families of the village whose soil samples were found
deficient in mineral nutrients were selected. Feeds and fodder samples being fed to the buffaloes and
biological samples of the animals maintained by these families were collected and analyzed for their min-
eral nutrient concentration. The Ca and P contents were within the normal range. The mean concentration
(%) of Ca and P in berseem was 0.56± 0.08 and 0.31± 0.05, respectively while in wheat straw, the
65
65
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

corresponding values were 0.35±0.03 and 0.10±0.1. The available green (Berseem, Bajra and Barley)
was found to be sufficient in Ca and P, if available in plenty. Among the concentrates, cottonseed cake
and cottonseeds were good source of Ca and P. The average values (%) of Ca and P in cottonseed cake
were 0.73± 0.07 and 0.40± 0.03, respectively while the corresponding values (%) in cottonseed were
0.63±0.04 and 0.40 0.03, respectively. The berseem contained just enough amounts of Cu (9.70±0.72
ppm) and Mn (40.30± 3.25 ppm) whereas wheat straw served as poor source of copper (6.8±0.23
ppm) and Mn (31.9 ppm) to meet out the requirement. The Cu and Mn content (ppm) in cottonseed cake
was 18.4 and 43.5 while in cottonseed it was 11.7 and 18.8, respectively. The content of Zn in all the
green and dry roughages as well as concentrates were found to be less than the required level of 80 ppm.
Further, in all the feeds and fodders analyzed the Fe content was more than the required level of 50 ppm.
The mean serum Ca level (8.46 mg/dl) of buffaloes was lower than the normal range of 9-12 mg/dl. The
average value of serum phosphorus was 4.40± 0.17 mg /dl (PSD 12.5). The mean values of trace mineral
level in serum were Zn 2.1 ppm, Fe 2.41 ppm, Cu 0.9 ppm (PSD 37.5 and Mn 0.04 ppm and were
within the normal reported range. In spite of deficient Zn status of all the feeds and fodders analyzed, the
serum Zn level was found to be sufficient. The hair Zn content was 103.4 ppm (PSD 85.7). The mean hair
Mn contents were 10.62 ppm, which are within the normal range (8-15 ppm).
Most of the feeds and fodders grown in the soil mineral deficient zone of Haryana State do not meet
the trace mineral requirement of the animals except that of Iron and therefore supplementation of P, Cu
and Zn will be needed.

FR 112
Mineral profile of soils and fodders of yak rearing zones of Arunachal
Pradesh and their availability on blood plasma of yaks
P. Konwar, M. K. Ghosh, S. Bandyopadhyay and M. Bhattacharya
National Research centre on Yak, Dirang-790 101, West Kameng district
Arunachal Pradesh, India

The high plateau of Arunachal Pradesh (3000m-6000m) is inhabited of yak(Poephagus grunniens).


The farmers rear this species mainly for milk, meat, wool, hide, dung and drought purpose. It is easily
adoptable in high altitude area and cold climatic condition. The mineral content of feeds and fodders
offered to the yak have been studied in two yak rearing district of Arunachal Pradesh viz., West Kameng
and Tawang and hence to see their availability in soil as well as the yak blood plasma. The soils, feeds and
fodders and blood plasma were collected and processed as per the specific method for mineral estimation
by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer). The Ca, Na and K content of soil varied with
different places of Arunachal Pradesh. The values obtained ranged between 0.06 and 1.44 mg% for Ca,
0.01 and 0.017 mg% for Na and 0.93 and 2.45 mg% for K. The range for micro minerals were, Cu 3.9
to 4.9 mg/Kg, Zn 1.72 to 11.17 mg/Kg, Mn 23.23 to 45.87 mg/Kg, iron 78.19 to 246.61 mg/Kg and Co
0.35 to 0.88 mg/Kg (on DM basis). The pH of the soil from different parts of Arunachal Pradesh ranges
from 5.03 to 7.29. The calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium and potassium content of different tree
leaves varied from 0.002±0.02 to 2.383±0.03 %, 0.089±0.04 to 0.725±0.03%, 0.046±0.30 to
0.160±0.17%, 0.001±0.10 to 0.023±0.05% and 0.108±0.21 to 0.151±0.07% (on DM basis) respec-
tively. Micro mineral contents (mg/kg DM) were found to be variable among the tree leaves with manga-
nese, iron, cobalt and zinc content ranging from 15.45±0.22 to 496.2±0.27; 28.20±0.22 to 647.00±0.06;

66
66
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

0.50±0.00 to 3.90±0.06; 2.30±0.01 to 18.25±0.33 and 2.75±0.11 to 43.00±0.00 mg/kg DM respec-


tively. Similarly the average Ca, Mg, Na and K content of blood plasma of yaks were found to be
10.28±0.36 mg%, 1.24±0.11 mg%, 3.85±1.022 mg% and 2.87±0.088 mg% respectively. The average
micro mineral contents of yak plasma were found to be 0.80±0.02mg/kg, 1.96±0.07mg/kg and 0.93±0.09
mg/kg for Cu, Fe and Zn respectively.

FR 113
Feeding practices of dairy animals in Raigad District of Maharashtra
M. R. Jawale, V. D. Kank, M. B. Patil, S. V. Chopde,
S. D. Jagadale and G. M. Gadegaonkar
Department of Animal Nutrition
Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai-12

A survey was conducted to study the on-going feeding practices of the dairy animals in Raigad
district of North Konkan Coastal zone of Maharashtra. Two talukas from this district viz., Mahad and
Khalapur; two villages from each of these talukas viz., Warandh, Phalkewadi and Khalapur, Narangi,
respectively and minimum of 9-12 farmers from each village were interviewed for the present study. Most
of the animal owners kept their animals in stall-fed condition either at home or at farm, while the few
farmers used to send their animals for 6 to 8 hrs grazing. Paddy straw was the most common dry rough-
age, as rice is the main crop of this region. In monsoon, some farmers also feed the animals crop residues
of Nachani and Warai (local millets). Cultivated fodders viz., cowpea, berseem, lucerne and maize etc.
was also fed to the animals by some farmers. The varieties of local grasses viz., Bhatani (Themeda sp.)
and Mirkati were also fed to the animals. It was seen that the proportion of farmers using paddy straw,
local dry grasses was 100, 85 and 50% in Raigad district, respectively. Total dry and green roughages fed
per animal by the farmers were 7.70 and 6.36 kg in Raigad district, respectively. Among concentrates,
majority of the farmers preferred groundnut cake followed by cottonseed, wheat bran, rice bran, tur
chuni, gram chuni and ground maize for feeding the animals. The farmers were also using the readymade
feed concentrates like Bypro Sugrass, while few farmers use poultry feed for feeding dairy animals. Feed-
ing homemade concentrate mixture was a common practice (80%). Average concentrate fed per animal
per day was highest in Khalapur taluka (4.40 kg) followed by Mahad (3.94 kg), while the district average
was 4.17 kg. The concentrate feed offered was not commensurate with the requirement and the animals
were mostly underfed. The average percentage of farmers using mineral mixture and salt regularly in the
diet of animals was 2.5 and 27.5 %, respectively in Raigad district.

FR 114
Study of nutritional status of dairy animals in
Raigad district of Maharashtra
M. R. Jawale, V. D. Kank, M. B. Patil, S. V. Chopde,
S. D. Jagadale and N. R. Karambele
Department of Animal Nutrition
Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai-12

A survey was conducted in four villages representing two talukas (Khalapur and Mahad) of Raigad
district of North Konkan Coastal zone of Maharashtra, to study the nutritional status of dairy animals. The
67
67
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

average DM intake of dairy animals in Raigad district was 10.97 kg/day/animal. It is seen that dry rough-
ages constituted highest percentage (56.56%) followed by concentrates 32.46% and green roughages
(10.96%), respectively, of DMI of animals in Raigad district. The average concentrate, dry and green
roughages fed per animal per day was 4.17, 7.70 and 6.36 kg, respectively, by the farmers. Higher
average DMI (kg/day) was recorded in khalapur (12.01) than Mahad taluka (11.16), however, the differ-
ence in this intake was non-significant. The average DCP intake in Raigad district was 478.5 g/day/animal,
and deficit of 8.46% was recorded than the requirement (ICAR, 1991). Concentrates constituted highest
percentage of DCP intake of the dairy animals viz., 89.55%, followed by green roughages (6.37%) and
dry roughages (4.07%) in Raigad district. The average TDN intake was 5.33 kg/day/animal in Raigad
district, which was 107.67% of requirement (ICAR, 1991), indicating that the animals were fed ad-
equately to meet their energy requirement. In talukas viz., Mahad and Khalapur of Raigad district the
TDN intake was 5.26 and 5.40 kg. It can be concluded that majority of the animals in the surveyed area
of Raigad district were being adequately fed in terms of energy, whereas, the protein intake was less as
compared to the requirements and supplementation with extra concentrate to meet the deficit amounts of
protein allowance may improve the production performance of animals. In addition, the performance of
animals can be further improved by supplementing the rations of animals with simple forms of mineral
mixtures and common salt as very few proportion of farmers were using these items in the diet of their
animals.

FR 115
Feeding practices and composition of feeds and fodder in
Surat district of South Gujarat
D. C.Patel, G. R. Patel, B. R. Devalia, S. G. Vahora and Subhash Parnerkar
Animal Nutrition Research Department,
Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110.

Animal Nutrition survey in Surat district including tribal segment Vyara, Songadh, Ucchal, Mahuva
and Mandvi was conducted in randomly selected 16 villages from eight tehsils during winter and summer.
The samples of feeds and fodder were collected for chemical composition. Livestock owners were feed-
ing common cultivated feeds and fodder like bajara, jowar, gajaraj, maize, N.B.-21, paragrass, sudan
grass along with uncultivated green grass like chill (Chenopodium album), phool (Themeda cymsania),
cereal straws like bajara, jowar, paddy, wheat, jowar hay, sugarcane tops, mature pasture grass, legume
gotars like kidney bean, tur, udid and groundnut were fed to animal as dry fodder. Bajara, jowar,
maize, paddy, wheat, gram, guar, tur and cotton seeds were fed either as such or after coarse grinding.
Rice polish, rice bran, wheat bran, tur, chuni, udid chuni and coconut cake were used as concentrates.
Cotton seed cake and Sumul dan (compound cattle feed manufactured by Sumul dairy) were the common
concentrates used. Some cattle owners prepared home made concentrate mixture by using bajara, maize,
guar, groundnut cake and Sumul dan. The quality of the compound cattle feed manufactured by private
sector same was found inferior (CP: 6.65 to 10.27 %; CF: 17.40 to 21.41%; and silica: 8.67 to 10.66
%). Rice polish and rice kuski were also found sub standard. The chemical composition of different green
and dry fodder was in normal range.

68
68
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 116
Pattern of feeding practices of cattle/buffalo in
Kolhapur district of Maharashtra
M. R. Jawale, V. D. Kank, M. B. Patil, S. V. Chopde, S. D. Jagadale,
S. S. Chavan and G. M. Gadegaonkar
Department of Animal Nutrition
Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai-12

The study was conducted in two talukas (Panhala and Gadhinglaj) of Kolhapur district (Transition
zone-1) of Maharashtra. From each taluka two villages and about 9 to 11 farmers of each village were
interviewed for collecting information on on-going feeding practices of cattle/ buffalo. The majority of
farmers were small farmers. Many farmers follow the stall-feeding practices and grazing pattern was rare
in Panhala area. But on the contrary, in Gadhinglaj taluka, many farmers followed the grazing of animals
for 6 to 8 hrs. The veterinary doctors from Warna sangh used to advice about scientific feeding of dairy
animals based on a) RBP (Ration Balancing Program) and b) TMR (Total Mix Ration) concepts. RBP is
commercial software, which helps in calculation of the quantity and proportion of various feed ingredients
in the ration of animals. In TMR system, instead of offering the different fodders separately, all the dry and
green roughages were mixed together in different proportions after chaffing and then offered to the animals
twice a day. Main fodder available was sugarcane as such, sugarcane tops, and sugarcane baggase to
some extent. They also cultivate some fodders viz., kadwal (tender cereal fodder), maize, napier (Co-1
variety), sunflower, groundnut, gram, etc. for the dairy animals. The paddy straw and jowar kadba (straw)
was used as dry roughages. Different types of grasses such as jungle grass, river grass, were available
during monsoon season. The concentrates used were mainly commercially available compound feeds in
pellet form, like Warna pellet, Deccan Pellet, Hindustan pellet etc. For high yielding animals bypass fat
e.g. Urja supplement was also fed by some progressive farmers in Panhala taluka. Feeding of mineral
mixture and salts were comparatively more in Panhala than Gadhinglaj taluka. Feeding mixture of home-
made and commercial concentrate feed was a common practice (55%) followed by practice of using only
commercial compound cattle feed (37.5%). The concentrate, green and dry roughages fed per animal by
the farmers were 4.05, 20.07 and 7.20 kg, respectively. Sugarcane tops were the major green roughage
(80%), followed by green maize (40%), while in case of dry roughage feeding, local grasses were the
major source (45%) followed by paddy straw (30%) in Kolhapur district. The number of farmers using
mineral mixture and salt in the diet of dairy animals was 37.5% and 25%, respectively in Kolhapur district.

FR 117
Nutritional status of dairy animals from Pune district of Maharashtra
M. R. Jawale, V. D. Kank, M. B. Patil, S. V. Chopde, S. D. Jagadale,
S. S. Chavan and N. R. Karambele
Department of Animal Nutrition
Bombay Veterinary College,Parel, Mumbai-12

To study the nutritional status of dairy animals, a survey was undertaken in four villages representing
two talukas (Mawal and Bhor) of Pune district of Transition zone- 1 of Maharashtra, The average DM
intake of dairy animals in Pune district was 13.31±0.24 kg/day/animal, respectively. The mean DMI of
dairy animals was higher in Bhor (13.37±0.31) than Mawal (13.26±0.37) taluka, however, the difference
69
69
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

in this intake was non-significant. It is seen that dry roughages constituted highest percentage (52 %)
followed by concentrates 32.45% and green roughages (15.55%), respectively, of DMI of animals in
Pune district. The average concentrate, dry and green roughages fed per animal per day was 4.32, 6.92
and 2.07 kg, respectively, by the farmers. The average DCP intake in Pune district was 686.10±10.18 g/
day/animal, which was marginally less (1.77 %) than the requirement (ICAR, 1991). It was observed that
concentrates constituted highest percentage of DCP intake of the dairy animals viz., 88.72 %, followed by
green roughages (7.26 %) and dry roughages (4.00%) in Pune district. The DCP intake (g/day/animal)
was recorded significantly higher (P<0.05) in Mawal taluka (728.00±9.91) than Bhor (644.00±11.90)
taluka. The average TDN intake was 7.27±0.10 in Pune district, which was higher (110.31 %) than the
requirement as per the standards. The TDN intake (g/day/animal) was recorded significantly higher (P<0.05)
in Mawal taluka (7.73±0.10) than Bhor (6.81±0.10) taluka. It is seen that dry roughages constituted
highest percentage among different categories of feedstuffs viz., 48.69 %, followed by concentrates (36.31%)
and green roughages (14.99%) of overall TDN intake of animals in Pune district. Thus, looking at the
adequate energy and marginal protein deficit in animals in relation to their production it appears that no
much of changes in protein and energy intake/sources in the ration of dairy animals in this region are
required.

FR 118
Adoption of buffalo feeding practices in the tribal belt of
Dungarpur district of Rajasthan
C. M. Yadav and B. S. Bhimawat
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dungarpur; Maharana Pratap University of
Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur

A field survey was conducted to acquire the first hand information on adoption of buffalo feeding
practices by the buffalo keepers of different size of land holding. The data was collected from 120 re-
spondents of 4 adopted villages of Sagwara block of Dungarpur district. These villages were adopted by
under Integrated Village Development Programme of KVK, Dungarpur. A perusal of data reveals that
about 70 percent of sampled household fed home prepared concentrate mixture such as coarse crushed
grains maize, wheat, barely and guar. Nearly 30 percent of the household fed ready made concentrate
mixtures purchased from local market. It was found that 60 and 20.6 percent of the households fed
concentrates to their buffaloes in boiled and soaked form, respectively while 19.4 percent fed as such. It
was also find did not follow the practices of feeding common salt and mineral mixture in the diet of
buffaloes. About 70 percent of the respondents followed grazing practices and only 15 percent prepared
hay from surplus fodder. However, none of of the respondents prepared silage. A vast majority (90
percent) were practicing special feeding during advanced stage of pregnancy. The number of respondents
offered first feed just after calving viz. dry coarse grain, gur and dry grasses were 100 percent, respec-
tively. The size land holding had highly significantly correlation with feeding practices. The quality and
quantity of ration was directly related to the economic status of the farmers.

70
70
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 119
Feeding practices and nutrient availability for dairy buffaloes in
rural households of Kanpur in central U.P.
S. P. Singh and Dhoom Singh
C.S.A.U.A.& T. Kanpur-2. U. P.

Dairy buffalo nutrition survey has been conducted in Kanpur district of central U.P. by door to door
visit to assess the nutrition level of the dairy buffalo maintained by the different groups of farmers namely
landless, marginal and small. Information on actual feeding to the lactating buffaloes have been collected
from a total 60 farmers. In this district, seventy percent farmers rear non-descript buffaloes. Only 30%
farmers rear Murrah buffaloes for higher milk production. Average milk production in buffaloes (kg/d) of
the landless, marginal and small farmers in the district was 4.50±0.15, 4.20±0.09 and 4.40±0.08 respec-
tively. Very few farmers under the three categories, around 3% feed branded concentrate mixture to their
buffaloes. Feeding of cultivated green fodder is common in all the categories of farmers but less than the
requirement of animals. Dry-matter availability was more than 2% of body weight for around 70% of the
farmers. No deficiency in DCP intake was observed in 5% buffaloes of the landless farmers, 7% buffaloes
of the marginal farmers and 9% buffaloes of the small farmers. DCP deficiency above 30% level was
found in 70% buffaloes of the landless, 72% buffaloes of the marginal and 68% of the small farmers.
Energy deficiency was less severe than DCP deficiency. It was concluded that protein percentage should
be increased in ration for optimum milk production.

FR 120
Nutritional status of dairy cows during dry pregnancy
period in Golpayegan area, Iran
H. Fazaeli1, M. Kouhi-Habibie2, A. Asadian3, A. Akhoundi2,
M. Salehi2 and F. Badiei-Moghaddam2
1
Animal Science Research Institute, P.O. Box 31585, 1483 Karaj, Iran
2
Agricultural Research Station Center of Golpayegan, Iran
3
Agricultural Research Center of Esfahan province, Iran

This study was conducted to monitor feeding management of dairy cows during dry period of preg-
nancy in small holders of Golpayegan area. Eighty pregnant lactating cows were identified according to
the stratified randomized sampling method in rural area. Individual identifications of the animals were
determined and parameters such as type of feeds and intake, live weight changes and gestation stage were
recorded 2 times per month. Using data of feed intake, chemical composition and energy values of the
feeds, the daily receiving of ME and nutrients were estimated and compared with the nutrient require-
ments, suggested by NRC Tables. Results showed that two feeding systems are common for dry cows as:
1) Fresh alfalfa during spring and summer (S) and 2) Wheat straw and alfalfa hay (82%) plus concentrate
(18%), basically wheat bran and barely, during the autumn and winter seasons (W). Regarding the nutrient
intake, there were a significantly (p<0/05) negative balance of protein for the dry cows during the winter
season but the energy consumption was enough to provide the requirements except for the case of close
up cows that was slightly lower. For the green alfalfa feeding system, the amount of CP intake was

71
71
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

significantly (p<0/05) higher than that of the requirements. The daily amount of Ca and K consumption
were significantly (p<0/05) higher than those of recommended in different seasons but the phosphorous
was significantly (p<0/05) in negative balance during the S feeding system. The balance of Na was posi-
tive in winter but optimum in summer feeding system. There were significantly (p<0/05) differences be-
tween two feeding systems for the amount of nutrients received by the dry cows. Regarding the reproduc-
tion performance, it was found that open days, insemination per conception and placenta retention as well
as the milk fever were higher during the S than the W. It is concluded that the dry cows are not in an
optimum nutritional status because of nutrients imbalances which are more serious during the spring and
summer seasons leads to metabolic disorders and lower milk production and reproduction performance
as well.

FR 121
Livestock and feed resources in Ethiopia: An insight
Vishnu Sharma, Sanjita Sharma and Kelay Belihu
Post Box No: 34, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
Addis Ababa University, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

Ethiopia’s ruminant livestock population is largest in Africa & forms an essential component of farm-
ing system. Ethiopia can be broadly divided into highlands and lowlands; consequent to that livestock
production and feed resources varies accordingly. More than 70 per cent of cattle and sheep are found in
highlands whereas majority of goats and camels are in abundance in lowlands. Majority of breeds are
local native breeds. Among distinct breeds are Fogera, Horro & Arsi are cattle breeds of highlands
whereas Boran is very popular & important beef producing breed of lowlands. Over 90 per cent of total
legal export of live animals is from lowland areas. In highlands, mixed crop livestock system prevails and
cereals like teff, wheat, barley, pulse & oil crops are predominant. The major feed resources are grazing
and crop residues. Savannah grasslands & humid temperate pastures are dominant grazing lands in high-
lands. Crop residues bear inherent low nutritive value; teff(Eragrostis abyssinica) straw being rich in
protein percent constitute 25 percent of total straw production. Low lands are characterized by variability
of rainfall & seasonal variability in vegetation & their vulnerability to draught and erosion is inevitable. In
lowlands pastoralism and semi nomadic pastoralism is main activity and pastoral livestock production is
almost totally depends on native pasture. Important feed resources are native grasses and browse. Few
important are cynodon, cenchrus, penicum, setaria along with Ziziphus, opuntia and acacia pods. Low
potential cereal production also exists in lowlands where there is better rainfall pattern and consequently
mixed crop-livestock system also exists in some regions where sorghum and maize are main crops.Pasture
legumes like vigna,cyamopsis, dolichus, cajanus, atylosia, stylosanthes are important pasture legumes which
can be promoted to a large extent to solve nutrient crisis. Looking to the livestock production relative to
geographic situation, there is great need to develop appropriate feeding systems which allows maximum
utilization of local resources and transform nutrients to desired livestock product to match human needs in
the respective region.

72
72
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 122
Constraints and opportunities of animal husbandry practices in
Diara land of Malda district of North Bengal
Avijit Dey
Malda Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya,
Block Seed Farm, Ratua, Malda- 732 205

The Diara tract consists of a strip of roughly eight miles in width along the western and southern sides
of the district. Its formation is the result of centuries of fluvial action by the river Ganges, old channels of
which can still be traced, beginning from the present course of the Bhagirathi river beside Gour and
extending westwards by successive stages. Mango gardens are common and some mulberry is grown.
The soil is of light texture with a sandy to loamy in appearance. English bazar, Kaliachak and Manikchak
P.S. are under Diara tract. Out of which, Bhootni Diara of Manikchak is situated as an island and most
backward among the other Diara. Transportation is the major constraint for all developmental works
including animal husbandry. Bullock Cart and Boat is only means of transportation. Literacy rate also
affects the care and management of animals. Thirty six per cent people are illiterate whereas 47% are
educated upto primary level. Due to low land, the area is flood prone and during rainy season flood
damages the crops. Sometimes water remains stagnant for a month or more and invites so many diseases
of humans as well as livestock. Due to poor communication, no veterinary health services rich to the
affected area. Thus, mortality rate is high particularly in rainy season. There is also lack of training facilities
which limits the dissemination of information related to improved technologies. They mostly maintain deshi
breeds of cattle. Awareness regarding cross breeding has still not developed. Fodder cultivation is very
limited (5% of cropped area) however, there is a scope of some fodders like Para grass, hybrid Napier
that can tolerate some kind of water lodging. Dissemination of improved package of practices by training,
crossbreeding of deshi breeds, care and management facilities of animals viz. vaccination, animal health
services may up grade the socio-economic conditions of poor livestock keepers of Diara land.

FR 123
Feeding practice and nutrient deficiency in rural dairy cattle
of old Alluvial zone in West Bengal
A. Chatterjee, R. B. Singh, R. C. Saha and P. K. Roy
Eastern Regional Station
National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani-741235, Nadia, West Bengal

Feeding practice for the dairy cattle by different groups of farmers (small, marginal and landless) and
the extent of energy and protein deficiency were studied in dairy cattle in the old alluvial zone of West
Bengal. Around 51 per cent of the total cattle population surveyed in this zone were crossbred. The
average body weight (kg) of the dairy cattle in the surveyed area was 265.4±7.6. The average milk yield
was 4.3±0.22. General feeding practices by different groups of farmers have been studied. The chemical
composition of commonly available feeds and fodder have been analysed. The actual intake of different
feeds and fodder were noted and the intake of DCP and TDN were calculated and compared with ICAR
feeding standard to find out the deficiency pattern. Overall more than half of the farmers under this survey
offered dry matter to their animals at the rate more than 2.5 kg per 100 kg body weight. No protein
deficiency was observed in 30%, 36% and 55% cows under the landless, marginal and small farmers,
73
73
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

respectively. Severe protein deficiency(above 30%) was observed in around 35%,24% and 10% cows in
the landless, marginal and small farmer groups, respectively. Around 26%, 43% and 40 % cows belonging
to the landless, marginal and small farmers, respectively did not suffer from any energy deficiency. Around
17 % of the landless farmer groups, 16 % of the marginal farmer groups and 10% of the small farmer
groups suffered from acute (above30 %) energy deficiency. Over all protein deficiency was more severe
than energy deficiency.

FR 124
Constraints of milk production in Andaman Nicobar islands and
opportunities for its augmentation through enhanced fodder availability
S. K. Verma, A. Kundu, M. S. Kundu, Subhash Chand, Jai Sunder,
S. Jeyakumar and S. P. Yadav
Central Agricultural Research Institute, Post Box No. 181, Port Blair-744 101

Andaman Nicobar group of Islands with a total geographical area of 824900 hectares lies in the Bay
of Bengal between 92012’ to 93057’ E longitude and 6045’ to 13041’ N latitude. According to 17th
Livestock Census (2003) of India, total population of cattle, buffalo, goat and pig in Andaman Nicobar
Islands was 62632, 16211, 64126 and 52201 respectively and the population of poultry was 930878.
The farm economy is mainly dependent upon plantation crops but livestock also play significant role in the
farm economy. After the havoc of Tsunami, these Islands have become hot spot for tourists. The popula-
tion of Andaman Nicobar Islands is more than 4 lakhs including about 30000 floating population. To cater
the needs of local public and tourists about 33000 MT milk is required while production of milk in 2003-
2004 was 25000 MT including reconstituted milk also which was reduced to 20000 MT including 975
MT reconstituted milk in 2005-2006 due to the shortage of feeds and fodder after the havoc of Tsunami.
The prime factor responsible for the shortage of dry fodder is reduction in the net area sown of rice by 25
percent after Tsunami, reducing the availability of paddy straw for livestock feeding. Beside this availability
of concentrate feeds is also less because these Islands are fully dependent on mainland for the supply of
concentrate feeds. Although about 86 percent area of total geographical area of Andaman Nicobar Is-
lands comes under forest but availability of fodder from the forest is almost nil due to present Forest
Policy. Beside this, out of 36 inhabited islands 11 islands have no cultivable land and 14 have less than 10
percent area under cultivation and only 22 hectare cultivable area is under fodder crops out of 36966
hectare net area sown. Therefore livestock mainly depend upon grazing alone on fallow land, wasteland,
community land or grazing lands and stall-feeding in not a general practice. Feeding of top feeds to
livestock is not in fashion and the farmers are not well aware about the fodder tree species. Very less
emphasis has been given on augmentation of fodder resource base in these Islands. Due to the shortage of
feeds and fodder, production potential of livestock is low in comparison to national production potential.
To increase the milk production, feed and fodder resource base has to be increased. Shortage of
fodder can be overcome by planting fodder trees and grasses in community controlled areas and by
enhancing the productivity of fodder grasses and fodder trees from private farms. Uncultivable community
and private lands, marginal lands, terrace risers should also be used for planting of fodder species (trees,
grasses and shrubs). Fodder supply can also be increased by utilizing intercropping spaces in Coconut
and areca nut plantations by planting Guinea grass. In low lying areas and inundated areas due to saline
water after Tsunami, sowing of Coix may be a better choice. On hilly slopes, Teosinte and Rice Bean may
be grown after making small terraces and on terrace riser plantation of Hybrid Napier can provide fodder
74
74
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

as well as can serve as soil and water conservation measures. Beside this, promotion of efficient use of
agricultural residues viz. ammonia (urea) treatment of crop residues and dry forest grasses as well as their
supplementation with urea- molasses mineral blocks may be advocated. Surplus crop residues produced
in North and Middle Andaman region may be used for creation of fodder banks to be utilized during
fodder scarcity and natural disasters.

FR 125
Time task analysis of rural women as cattle manager
Kavita Sharma and S. K. Upadhyay
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kangra-176001, India

Time is an intangible human resource and available in a limited but unspecified amount to everyone for
use during his / her life time. Rural women in our country share abundant responsibilities and perform a
wide spectrum of duties in the prevailing mixed farming system. Animal husbandry in rural areas is in
general considered as a job of farm women. In some places the entire management of livestock is in
women’s hand. Hence the present was conducted with an objective to examine the extent of participation
of women in cattle management and the factors affecting the time spent in various activities related to
cattle management. The study was conducted in two villages of Kangra District. Stratified random sam-
pling technique was adopted for selection of respondents. Proportionate sample of 200 women above the
age of 18 was selected for the present study. The results of the study revealed that the respondents spent
5 hours and 53 minutes on cattle management. Maximum time i.e. 3 hours and 25 minutes was spent on
fetching of fodder. Cleaning of cattle shed, chaffing fodder and milking of animals were the activities on
which the respondents spent 40, 32 and 30 minutes on an average respectively. Age, family size, number
of female members, number of children, herd size and number of milch animals were found to be positively
and negatively affecting the time spent on cattle management activities. Herd size, number of milch animals
were found to be positively affecting the time spent on cattle management activities whereas family size,
number of female members were found to be affecting the time spent negatively.

FR 126
Nutritional status of dairy animals in Surat district of South Gujarat
S. Parnerkar, D. C.Patel, M. A.Sheikh, D. N. Singh and G. R. Patel
Animal Nutrition Research Department,
Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110.

Animal Nutrition survey in Surat district including tribal segment Vyara, Songadh, Ucchal, Mahuva
and Mandvi was conducted in randomly selected 16 villages from eight tehsils during winter and summer.
Based on the information collected viz. amount of feeds and fodder offered to the animals, their nutritive
value and production level of animals; the plane of nutrition (ICAR, 1998) was calculated. The results
revealed that the lactating indigenous and crossbred cows and buffaloes received DCP 74.49, 84.37 and
71.68 % of requirement during summer and the same during monsoon was 95.05, 81.84 and 84.40 %,
respectively. The intake of TDN by lactating cows and buffaloes was more or less adequate during both
the seasons. The bullocks received 70.54 and 92.68 % DCP as compared to their requirement in summer
and monsoon, respectively. They were adequately fed with respect to TDN in both the seasons. The
lactating indigenous cows, crossbred cows and buffaloes were under fed for DCP at all production levels
75
75
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

i.e. 5-8, 8-12 and above 12kg. The lactating crossbred cows and buffaloes producing 12 kg milk were
under fed for TDN in both the seasons.

FR 127
Study on rumen ciliate population and biochemical attributes
in crossbred cattle reared on different feeding systems
at high altitude Kumaon hills
A. Sahoo and R. K. Mahapatra
Division of Temperate Animal Husbandry
Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Mukteswar Campus-263138 (Uttarakhand)

Two fistulated crossbred male cattle (18 mo and average body weight 193 kg) were exposed to five
different feeding systems in a switch over design in five consecutive periods, each period lasting for 17
days that ended with three days of collection of rumen contents at three different hours (0, 3 and 6 h post
feeding). The five different feeding systems were wheat straw (WS) + concentrate mixture (CM, 1% of
body weight), WS + CM (reduced by 0.5 kg) + local green grass (GG, 4-5 kg), WS + CM (reduced by
1.0 kg) + GG (8-10 kg), WS (1.0 kg) +GG (ad lib) and GG (ad lib) and were designated as FS 1 to 5.
The rumen contents were collected in separate containers and brought to the laboratory for immediate
recording of pH and sampling. The contents were squeezed through four layers of cheese cloth and the
strained liquor (1.0 ml) was stored with formalin having brilliant green indicator (1.0 ml) for counting of
different ciliate protozoa. A part of the liquor was acidified with few drops of sulphuric acid (10 N) and
stored for analysis of N fractions (ammonia N, total N, TCA precipitable N, non-protein N). The total
ciliate population was quite low (4.3-6.3 ×104/ml) in all the feeding systems, although it was higher in FS1
and decreased linearly in other feeding systems with increased levels of roughage. The population of
different types of protozoa remained similar during the post feeding hours. The population of holotrichs
was nearly one tenth of the population of entodiniomorphs in all the feeding systems. Amongst different
ciliate protozoa types, small entodiniomorphs predominated (3.4-5.1 ×104/ml) in the population. There
was linear increase in small and large entodiniomorphs and total ciliate population and a quadratic re-
sponse in large holotrichs with the graded level of replacement of concentrate with local green grass. The
pH of the rumen contents was near neutral (6.91-7.18) at 0 and 6 h, which showed a non-significant
decrease at 3h post feeding (6.83-7.02) in all the dietary groups and the extent of decline was more in
FS1 (7.12 to 6.83) compared to other groups. There was increase in concentration of all the N fractions
at 3h compared to 0h which remained non-significant at 6h post feeding. The overall mean ammonia-N
was higher in FS1 (11.5 mg/dl) and was low in FS4 (6.4 mg/dl). The TCA precipitable N was also low
in FS4 (24.6 mg/dl) and was non-significantly different in other dietary groups (32.1-36.7 mg/dl). The
feeding system based on 1.0 kg WS and ad lib GG was observed to be deficient in meeting the N
requirement for microbial multiplication although its influence on ciliate population was not seen. The ciliate
protozoa population of animals reared at high altitude observed to be one tenth of the population of cattle
reared at plains.

76
76
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 128
Explorative investigations into livestock feeding systems at
high altitude Kumaon Himalaya
A. Sahoo, H. R. Meena and R. K. Mahapatra
Division of Temperate Animal Husbandry
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar Campus-263138 (Uttarakhand)

A total of three hundred livestock farmers belonging to twenty villages at Kumaon hills nearby Mukteswar
were interviewed for collection of subjective data on different feeding practices prevalent in the region and
then the data were presented collectively to represent the study area. Uttaranchal, having a population
density of more than the double of the whole of Western Himalaya shares a meager 1.02% livestock
population of India, predominant being cattle followed by buffaloes, goat and sheep population. The
important livestock production is observed to be milk and draft power (particularly in hilly regions). On
the basis of data pertaining to field survey, most of the livestock farmers (>80%) practiced a dual system
of feeding that involves day grazing and stall feeding at night. During the available season the stall feeding
restricted to offer of a little amount of crop residues (straws, stovers, etc.) in the evening. Oak leaves (two
types, Quercus semicarpifolia, Q. leucotricophora) and unclassified grasses (self grown) constituted the
principal feed resources of this region. More than 80% of the respondents offered oak leaves round the
year. The feeding system involved grazing in the morning to afternoon (annual average approx. 6 h) and
stall feeding with offer of mostly tree forages (principally Oak, very few Quiral, Poplar, Bimal, etc.) and
available grass (fresh) during rainy seasons (June-September) and dry stored grass and other crop resi-
dues (corn stovers, wheat/rice/millet straws). Chaffing of grass or tree leaves was rarely practiced (<5.0%).
The fodder was usually conserved as hay and it constituted principally the mature dry grass and a very
less pea and potato plants. The practice of cultivable fodder is nearly 10% and the fodder crops involved
were barley, oat and maize. The practice of concentrate feeding was limited mostly to lactating animals
and working bullocks, which was also a low of 1/3rd (34%) of the total respondents investigated. The
practice of supplementing mineral mixture in the feed was only 24% and was limited to feeding with
concentrate mixture that was again confined to milch animals and working bullocks. Feeding of common
salt was limited to offer of warmed/boiled rice gruel mixed with kitchen residues, which was generally
offered to producing (lactating, pregnant and working) and sick animals. The bottlenecks in feed availabil-
ity were reported to be the scarcity during winter, which sometimes prolonged to more than four months
(December-March) period. Based on the survey data, both principal (availability of quality feed and
fodder, supplementation of concentrates and mineral mixture, adoption of other storage practices, e.g.
silage making of grasses and cultivated fodder) and critical (supplementation of deficit nutrients, viz. pro-
tein, energy, minerals and vitamins, practice of scientific and balance feeding) nutritional interventions is
warranted to augment livestock production of the region.

77
77
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 129
Household availability and consumption of feeds and fodder
under mixed farming system of Uttaranchal
N. Raghubanshi¹, O. P. Singh and A.Dey²
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying,
Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi, U.P.
1
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kallipur, Varanasi;
2
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Patna, Bihar

Household availability of feeds and fodder is an important criterion for raising animals economically.
Scanty information is available on the household availability of feeds in Uttaranchal. A study was under-
taken in two districts of Kumaon region of Uttaranchal namely Nainital and Almora. In each district two
blocks and in each block two villages were selected on the basis of total livestock density (number/km2)
and bovine livestock/ha of cultivated area. Thus, the block with a minimum of 30 percent of geographical
area under forest cover and having at least one bovine unit/ha of cultivated area was selected for the
study. Out of the total population in each village, 50% farmers of farm families were selected proportion-
ally in three size groups of land holding viz. small, medium and large. The average production of straw
(paddy, wheat, minor millets and pulses) in small, medium and large farmers was recorded at 7.95, 12.24
and 28.39 Q/household/year, respectively. This production was increased significantly with increase in
land holding of farmers. The household availability of hay collected from forest area or field bunds was
decreased with increase in land holdings with an average value of 21.13 Q/year. Similar trend was also
observed in case of collection of tree leaves from forest (1.19 Q/year). Average livestock unit per family
was recorded at 2.35±0.09. The average consumption of green fodder, dry fodder and concentrate were
24.83±7.33. 10.50±2.17 and 0.68±0.03 kg/day/herd, respectively. The proportion of green, dry and
concentrate offered to livestock varied according to months and seasons. The amount of green fodder
offered to livestock was proportionally higher during July to October months (rainy season) and lower in
months of February to May (summer season). However, the amount of dry fodder offered was propor-
tionally higher in the months of December to January (winter season) followed by other seasons. The
concentrate mixture offered was proportionally less in rainy season and high in winter season followed by
summer season. It may be concluded that farmers collect fodder from forest and field bunds to bridge the
gap between household availability of crop residues and requirement. It is also to be noted that household
availability of feeds determines the herd size.

FR 130
Studies on managemental practices and feeding pattern in
Ahmednagar and Satara district of Maharashtra
S. N. Kale, P. R. Nisal and V. C. Badve
BAIF Development Research Foundation, CRS,
Uruli Kanchan, Pune 412-202, India.

The studies on feeding and management practices of dairy animal in Ahmednagar and Satara districts
of Maharashtra state were undertaken. The Talukas Sangamner and Kopergaon were surveyed from
Ahmednagar district and Karad and Rethare from Satara district. Two villages from each Taluka and ten
78
78
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

farmers from each village were selected. The farmers selected were of the large, medium and small cat-
egory. A variation in the feeding practices was observed in both the districts surveyed. In both the districts
the cross bred cows are maintained for high milk production and buffalo is kept for the home consump-
tion, and remaining milk is mixed in the cow milk before sale. In Ahmednagar district people use mainly
the maize, Lucerne, and sugar cane tops as green fodder which may not be chaffed by farmer every day.
In Satara district forest grass, chandani grass, hatti grass, para grass and sugar cane leaves are chaffed
together, mixed and fed to the animals, so there is no chance of the selection .Ultimately utritionally poor
grasses are also easily consumed by the animals. Same practices like giving cholesturm to the calf was
observed in Karad taluka of the Satara district. As a dry fodder paddy straw, soya hulls, forest grass is
fed in Satara area. In some areas of Ahmednagar district mainly in sugarcane belt where sorghum is not
grown,wheat bhusa, maize crushed,wheat flour etc. are used as a dry source. The mineral mixture is given
to the pregnant animals in the both district but its regular use to all the animals is not observed.

FR 131
Feeding practices of high yielding dairy animals in Bihar
A. Dey, B. P. S. Yadav and S. K. Barari
Livestock and Fishery Improvement and Management Programme
ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, ICAR Parisar
P.O. Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-14, Bihar

Dairying is the primary source of income generation activity for small and marginal farmers in Bihar.
Among the dairy animals, buffalo has the highest contribution in milk production and having preferred by
farmers due to higher milk fat content. A study was undertaken in two villages each from Patna and
Bhojpur in South whereas Darbhanga and Muzaffarpur districts in North Bihar. Crossbred cattle and
buffalo having the production capacity more than 15 and 8 liters of milk per day respectively were se-
lected. Cattle and buffalo were offered mostly wheat straw in South Bihar and rice and maize straw in
North Bihar whereas pulse straws in all the districts as a source of dry fodder. Mustard oil cake and
linseed cake constituent the main source of oil cakes in South Bihar while in North Bihar mustard cake is
not fed to dairy animals. In North Bihar, grazing is practiced for 4-6 hours while in South Bihar it is rarely
practiced. Sorghum and Barseem are the only fodder cultivated for dairy animals in all the districts. In all
the districts balanced concentrate mixture is fed for high yielder, however, in North Bihar the quantity is
not followed as per standard. Mustard oil @ 250-500 ml is fed once in a week to all categories of high
yielder as energy supplement. The feeding schedule of different categories of dairy animals practiced in
village condition has been analyzed and DCP and TDN intake have been compared with Indian Standard.
Some indigenous technologies are also practiced just after calving to increase the milk production. It is
concluded that farmers are unaware of scientific feeding practices for high yielding dairy animals resulting
sub optimal DCP and TDN intake which in turn reducing the profit from dairy animals.

79
79
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 132
Nutritional status of animals of sub-mountainous
undulating zone of Punjab
J. S. Hundal*, J. Kaur, M. Wadhwa and M. P. S. Bakshi
Deptt. of Animal Nutrtion, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana;
*KVK, PAU, Langroya

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of animals with respect to macro
nutrients in the sbumountainous undulating zone (SMUZ) of Punjab. Nawanshar and Hoshiarpur districts
were selected in this zone. From each district 2 tehsils/blocks were selected. From each Tehsil, 2 villages
and from each village at least 10 farmers of different socio-economic status were selected. The feed
samples were collected from the farm of each farmer. Milk, faeces and spot urine samples were collected
from at least 2 lactating animals from each farm house. The feed stuff were analyzed for CP, NDF and fat
content, the milk samples were analyzed for urea, the urine samples for purine derivatives and creatinine.
The socio-economic status of farmers revealed that majority (65%) of the farmers belonged to small and
marginal category (land holding ≈1.63 ha), 19% of the farmers had land more than 5 ha (medium) and
only 2.2% of the selected farmers satisfied the criteria of being landlords (land holding ≈16 ha). 14% of
the farmers had no land in this zone. On an average the landlords, medium and small farmers were in the
proportion of 70:23:7%, respectively. Irrespective of the socio-economic status of the farmer the average
land holding in this zone was 2.99 ha. The relative proportion of buffalo was less in Hoshiarpur as com-
pared to those in Nawanshehar (66.1 vs 76.3 %) district. The area under cereal was (38.5 vs 27.0%),
vegetables (17.7% vs Nil), oilseeds (1.13% vs Nil), sugarcane (2.8 vs 0.7%) in Hoshiarpur and Nawanshehar
districts, respectively. However, reverse trend was observed in fodder production, which was signifi-
cantly higher in Nawanshehar than Hoshiarpur district (63.4% vs 28.0%). About forty seven percent of
irrigated area was under fodder production, but because of the very low water table and poor irrigation
facilities the fodder production is vary low. The farmers are feeding either 0.5 to 2.0 kg of commercial or
homemade concentrate mixture, supplemented with green fodder or wild grass. No straw is offered with
non-leguminous fodder. Some of the farmers were feeding only cotton seed cake supplemented with
green fodder, while landless farmers would simply leave the animals for grazing as they were unable to
offer any concentrate feed or green fodder. Irrespective of the socio-economic status of the farmers, the
concentrate mixture was offered only to lactating animals or to those which are in advanced stage of
pregnancy. Animals in 49% of the farmhouses were suffering from reproductive problems like repeat
breeding and anoestrus. The average body weights of the animals in the Kandi area of Hoshiarpur district
was less (P<0.05) than those in animals of Nawanshehar (447 vs 485 kg) and milk yield followed the
trend (4.9 vs 5.84 kg/d). The animals of Nawanshehar district consumed higher (P<0.05) DM as com-
pared the animals of Hoshiarpur district (13 vs 10 and 1.23 vs 0.94 kg/A/d). As per the nutrient require-
ments of dairy animals (NRC, 1989), the intake of DM and that of CP was approximately 10 and 17%
less in animals Nawanshehar district (SMUZ), while in animals Hoshiarpur district, the DMI was 5 %
higher and CPI was as per requirements. The level of roughage was significantly higher in the diet of
Hoshiarpur district as compared to that in the diet of animals of Nawanshehar district (84.6 s 79.9%).
Only 2% of the farmers were supplementing the diet with mineral mixture. The MUN concentration in
SMUZ was comparable in both Hoshiarpur and Nawashehar districts (7.5 vs 6.7 mM/l). The amount of
purines absorbed and supply of microbial nitrogen was 456 and 288 g/d in SMUZ. The results obtained
by these parameters indicate that diet of dairy animals is not properly balanced (even for macro-nutrients).
80
80
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FR 133
Nutritional status of animals of central plain zone of Punjab
S. Kaushal, R. K. Sharma*, K. Kaur, M. Wadhwa and M. P. S. Baskhi
Deptt. of Animal Nutrtion; *Deptt. of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension
Guru Angad Dev Veterniary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of animals with respect to macro
nutrients in the Central Plain Zone (CPZ) of Punjab. Ludhiana and Kapurthala districts were selected in
this zone. From each district 2 tehsils/blocks were selected. From each Tehsil, 2 villages and from each
village at least 10 farmers of different socio-economic status were selected. The feed samples were col-
lected from the farm of each farmer. Milk, faeces and spot urine samples were collected from at least 2
lactating animals from each farm house. The feed stuffs were analyzed for CP, NDF and fat content, the
milk samples for urea, the urine samples for purine derivatives and creatinine. The proportion of farmers
belonging to small, medium, landlords and that of landless farmers was 27, 42, 21 and 10%, respectively.
The average land holding in this region was 7.67 ha. Farmers of Ludhiana district had approximately 1.7
times more Adult cattle units (ACUs) than the farmers of Kapurthala district. The relative proportion of
buffaloes kept by farmers of Ludhiana district (65%) of CPZ was less than those kept by farmers of
Kapurthala district (79%). Farmers of Ludhiana district grow more of vegetables (6.1 vs 3.8% of irrigated
area ) and fodder (23.3 vs 13.3% of irrigated area) as compared to the farmers of Kapurthala district of
CPZ, while farmers of Kapurthala district showed preference for sugarcane in comparison to the farmers
of Ludhiana district as indicated by area covered (5.6 vs 0.9% of irrigated area). The animals are fed 1-
5 kg of either commercial or home made concentrate mixture, supplemented with 10-60 kg green fodder
and 2-12 kg wheat rice straw, depending upon the production status of animals. Most of the progressive
farmers were making their own balanced concentrate mixture duly supplemented with mineral mixture and
common salt. Some of the farmers did not offer any concentrate mixture or ingredient, only green fodder
and straw was fed, while others feed Phalaris minor (a weed prevalent in wheat-rice system). The other
combinations used by the farmers were berseem and wheat straw; berseem and rye grass, berseem and
oat or berseem and sugarcane (whole). The berseem-sugarcane in equal proportion boosted milk produc-
tion. Some of the farmers offer maize bran (a by product of starch industry procured from Phagwara)
supplemented with GF and straw. It also boosted milk production. The practice of offering concentrate
mixture to lactating animals or those, which are in advanced stage of pregnancy, was quite popular in this
rich, advanced zone. But, immediately after parturition the animals were offered boiled crushed wheat
supplemented with jaggary for 3-4 days. In this zone both mustard cake and cotton seed cake are used.
Some of the farmers, offer only rice straw to their animals. The CP content of the diet revealed that it was
higher in Kapurthala district as compared to that in the diet of Ludhiana district (13.4 vs 11.6%). The
NDF content in the complete feed was comparable. Animals of Kapurthala district of CPZ consumed
more (P<0.05) feed than the animals of Ludhiana district (13 vs 11 kg/A/d), so was the intake of CP (1.7
vs 1.3 kg/A/d). In the CPZ, the roughage in the diet was less (P<0.05) in Ludhiana as compared to that
in Kapurthala district (72.7 Vs 78.7%) and the green fodder availability was higher (P<0.05) in Kapurthala
than in Ludhiana district (43 vs 60%). The farmers of CPZ were quite aware about the importance of
mineral mixture, could be the influence of kisan melas held by GADVASU, as 25% of the farmers of
Ludhiana and 14.3% of Kapurthala district, supplemented mineral mixture in the diet of animals. The
average milk yield is only 6.49 kg/d/A. The Milk urea-N an indicator of nutritional status of animal was
highly variable in animals in the districts and it was 7.1 mM/l in Ludhiana as compared to 11.7 mM/l in

81
81
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Kapurthala district. By using these tools, we can ensure proper feeding for each one of the animals and
exploit their genetic potential to its’ capacity and create clean environment by avoiding over excretion of
UN by over-fed animals, as dairy animals are the major contributor of N loading.

FR 134
Nutritional status of animals of flood prone bait zone of Punjab
M. Wadhwa, P. Kataria, J. S. Hundal* and M. P. S. Bakshi
Deptt. of Animal Nutrtion, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana
*KVK, PAU, Langroya

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of animals with respect to macro
nutrients, in Flood Prone Bait Zone (FPBZ) of Punjab. Tarntaran and Jalandhar districts were selected. in
this zone. From each district 2 tehsils/blocks were selected. From each Tehsil, 2 villages and from each
village at least 10 farmers of different socio-economic status were selected. The feed samples were col-
lected from the farm of each farmer. Milk, faeces and spot urine samples were collected from at least 2
animals from each house-hold. The feed stuffs were analyzed for CP, NDF and fat content, the milk
samples for urea, the urine samples for purine derivatives and creatinine. The socio-economic status of
farmers revealed that the proportion of landlords (25.1 ha) was highest (24%) in the Punjab state. The
majority (62%) of the farmers belonged to small (2.6 ha) and medium (6.9 ha) category. The land holding
by landlords, medium, small and marginal farmers was in the proportion of 73:20:7 respectively. The
average land holding (9.6 ha) irrespective of the socioeconomic status of the farmers was highest in the
state. The body weight of the animals in two selected district was highly variable. The animals of Jalandhar
district of FPBZ were heavier than the animals of Taran taran district (455 vs 507 kg) and produced more
(P<0.05) milk (6.2 kg/d) than that produced (5.1 kg/d) by animals of Taran taran district. The CP content
of complete feed was high (P<0.05) and NDF content was low (P<0.05) in Jalandhar as compared to
that in diet of Tarn Tarn district. On average the CP and NDF content of complete feed was 9.6 and
68.5%. The DM intake was comparable in animals of both the districts, but CP intake was low (P<0.05)
in animals of Tarn Taran district as compared to that in animals of Jalandhar district. Only 5 % farmers of
Taran Taran and 28.8% farmers of Jalandhar district were feeding mineral mixture to their animals. MUN
was high (P<0.05) in Jalandhar as compared to that in Tarn Taran district. On an average, animals of
FPBZ excreted low amount of allantoin (3.5 m mol/l) and PD (4.3 m mol/l), which is depicted in low milk
production. The magnitude of reproductive problems faced by the animals of farmers of this zone was
quite low (only 28% of the selected households). The survey conducted conclusively revealed the varia-
tions in feeding practices and nutritional status of animals even within a zone, pointing towards the need for
balanced ration to exploit the genetic potential of dairy animals.

FR 135
Nutritional status of animals of undulating plain zone of Punjab
J. Kaur, M. Wadhwa, J. S. Hundal* and M. P. S. Bakshi
Deptt. of Animal Nutrtion, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana
*KVK, PAU, Langroya
The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of animals with respect to macro nutrients
in the Undulating Plaine Zone (UPZ) of Punjab. Hoshiarpur and Gurdaspur districts were selected in this zone.

82
82
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

From each district 2 tehsils/blocks were selected. From each Tehsil, 2 villages and from each village at least 10
farmers of different socio-economic status were selected. The feed samples were collected from the farm of
each farmer. Milk, faeces and spot urine samples were collected from at least 2 animals from each farm house.
The feed stuffs were analyzed for CP, NDF and fat content, the milk samples for urea, the urine samples for
purine derivatives and creatinine, On an average the landlords, medium and small farmers were in the propor-
tion of 68:24:8%, respectively. The average land holding in this region was 4.32 ha, Irrespective of the socio-
economic status of the farmers. The ACUs/farmer in this zone was only 5.4 and 77% were buffaloes. In UPZ,
the area under cereal crops was significantly higher in Gurdaspur district as compared to that in Hoshiarpur
(74.9 vs 60.6%) district, while in Hoshiarpur district more area was used for vegetables (0.6 vs 2.1%) and
sugarcane (1.5 vs 31 %) as compared to that in Gurdaspur district. In UPZ, the water table is high and zone
has good irrigation facilities. In winter/rabi season, berseem is the main fodder crop. The animals of this zone
were offered 1-4 kg of commercial feed/home made concentrate mixture, supplemented with 5-50 kg chaffed
green fodder mixed with 2-11 kg Wheat straw. Feeding practices indicate better socio-economic status of
farmers of this zone as compared to that of SMUZ. However, some of the farmers feed only berseem with
wheat straw or supplemented with either cotton seed or cotton seed cake or wheat bran or wheat, while others
supplemented commercial concentrate with either home made cereal mixture or wheat alone and offer with
green fodder and wheat straw. Dried chapattis were soaked in water overnight and fed to animals as the only
concentrate ingredient. In this zone also concentrate was offered to lactating animals prior to milking. The
average milk yield was only 5.1 kg/d/A. The CP (11.1-10.2%) and NDF (69.1-67.1%) content observed in
the diet of UPZ were statistically comparable in both Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts. The daily DMI as
percent of body weight was lowest in animal in UPZ of the state. The roughage level was higher (P<0.05) in
the diet of animals of Gurdaspur district as compared to that in Hoshiarpur district (91.2 Vs 82.3%). . In the
UPZ only 2% of farmers in Gurdaspur and 25% farmers in Hoshiarpur district were supplementing the diet
with mineral mixture. On an average 13.6 % of the farmers offer mineral mixture and 44.3% of the farmers
offer salt to their animals and 37.6% of the farmers selected complained about reproductive problems faced by
their animals. The MUN was higher (P<0.05) in Gurdaspur than in Hoshiarpur district (13.0 vs 5.1 mM/l),
indicating lots of variation in feeding practices and feeding regimes with in a zone. Based on the excretion of
purine derivative in urine, purines absorbed and microbial nitrogen supplied to animals was 501 and 351 g/d.
The study conclusively revealed that the diet of these animals had low CP and imbalanced as indicated by low
milk yield of animals.

FR 136
Nutritional status of animals of western plain zone of Punjab
M. P. S. Bakshi, K. Kaur, M. Wadhwa and J. Kaur
Deptt. of Animal Nutrtion, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of animals with respect to macro
nutrients in Western Plain Zone (WPZ) of Punjab. Ferozepur and Moga districts were selected in this
zone. From each District 2 Tehsils/blocks were selected. From each Tehsil, 2 villages and from each
village at least 10 farmers of different socio-economic status were selected. The feed samples, on the spot
milk, faeces and urine samples collected from at least 2 lactating animals from each farm house. The
samples of feed stuffs were analyzed for CP, NDF and fat content, the milk samples for urea, the urine
samples for purine derivatives and creatinine. The socio-economic status of farmers of WPZ revealed that

83
83
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

small (2.53 ha) and medium (7.15 ha) farmers were in majority (34% under each category) and 19% of
the farmers selected were landlords (19.1 ha). The farmers of Moga district of WPZ had approximately
1.6 times more ACUs than the farmers of Ferozepur district. The relative propotion of buffaloes was
higher in Ferozepur district than that in Moga district (74 vs 62%). The feeding practices followed in
WPZ are close to those followed in CPZ, as this region has highly fertile land with very good irrigation
facilities. The animals were fed either 0.5-8 kg of commercial or home made concentrate mixture supple-
mented with 20 to 55 kg green fodder and 0 to 8 kg wheat straw/animal/day. Some farmers, supple-
mented commercial feed either with mustard cake or cotton seed cake, green fodder, while others pre-
ferred to feed only green fodder or green fodder and wheat straw or green fodder and grass, or spent
brewer’s grains with green fodder and wheat straw. Bajra and chari were the predominant fodders
available in kharif season. The commercial feed/home made feed was offered only to the lactating animals.
The cake commonly used was mustard cake. The average milk yield of dairy animals was only 6kg/d/
animal. The CP and NDF content of diet of Ferozepur and Moga district (WPZ) were comparable, and
on an average the contents were 10.2 and 68.9%, respectively in WPZ. The animals of both the districts
of WPZ consumed higher DM (11%) and higher CP (12%) than the requirement of animals. The propor-
tion of the green fodder and that of straw was comparable in both Ferozepur and Moga (85.4 and
83.1%; 14.6 and 16.9%) district. In the WPZ, 2.5% of the farmers of Ferozepur and 9.6% of Moga
district were supplementing diet with mineral mixture. The animals, of 28.3% of the farmers selected, face
the reproductive problems. The MUN concentration was comparable in Ferozepur and Moga dilstricts
(5.4 vs 4.0 mM/l). The purine derivatives excreted in urine have been used as tools to assess the micro-
bial protein supply the rumen. On an average the absorption of purines and supply of microbial nitrogen
was low in the animals of WPZ. The animals of WPZ though consumed higher amount of DM & CP, the
absorption of purines and microbial nitrogen synthesis was low, indicating inefficient utilization of dietary
nutrients.

FR 137
Nutritional status of animals of western zone of Punjab
M. Wadhwa, R. K. Sharma*, S. Kaushal, and M. P. S. Baskhi
Deptt. of Animal Nutrtion, Guru Angad Dev Veterniary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana
*KVK, PAU, Bathinda

The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of animals with respect to macro
nutrients in Western Zone (WZ) of Punjab. Bathinda and Mansa districts were selected in this zone. From
each District 2 Tehsils/blocks were selected. From each Tehsil, 2 villages and from each village at least 10
farmers of different socio-economic status were selected. The feed samples were collected from the farm
of each farmer. Milk, faeces and spot urine samples were collected from at least 2 lactating animals from
each farm house. The samples of feed stuffs were analyzed for CP, NDF and fat content, the milk
samples for urea, the urine samples for purine derivatives and creatinine. The land lords, medium, small
and marginal farmers had 16.85, 6.32 and 2.42 ha of land respectively. The land holding by landlords,
medium, small and marginal farmers was in the proportion of 69:22:9, respectively. The cropping pattern
revealed that cotton crops predominated (61.96%) followed by cereals (18.81%) and fodder crops (14.46%).
The average land holding in this region was 7.2 ha. Mansa district had 84% buffaloes in comparison to
68% in Bathinda district. In Mansa district farmers had higher percent of lactating animals as compared to
that in Bathinda district. The farmers of this region prefer to feed home made cereal mixture a few com-
mercial concentrate mixture supplemented with 0 to 45 kg green fodder and 2-10 kg wheat straw was
84
84
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

offered depending upon the production status of the animal. Some farmers offered commercial feed
supplemented with wheat flour and wheat straw or grass and wheat straw to their animals. The most
popular feeding practice followed was to feed mustard cake supplemented with wheat, wheat straw with
or without green fodder. The quality of green fodder offered to the animals was highly variable. In
absence of green fodder, different feedstuffs were offered in the form of Sani. On an average the body
weight of animals was 518 kg and milk yield 6.9 kg/d/animal. NDF content in complete feed of Mansa
district was higher (P<0.05) than that of Bathinda district, while CP content was comparable. On an
average the CP and NDF content was 10.2 and 25.9%, respectively. The animals of Bathinda district
consumed higher (P<0.05) DM and CP as compared to the animals of Mansa district. The DM and CP
intake of animals of Bathinda district was approximately 7 and 10% higher while, that of Mansa district
DMI and CPI were 9 and 13% less than the requirement of animals. The proportion of green fodder used
was lower (P<0.05) in Mansa than that in Bathinda (12.6 Vs 62.6%) district, reverse but significant
(P<0.05) trend was observed in straw proportion (87.4 Vs 37.4%). In WZ 10.6% of the farmers of
Bathinda and only 2.5% farmers of Mansa district were supplementing the diet with mineral mixture. The
MUN concentration was low (P<0.05) in Bathinda than in Mansa district. The absorption of purines and
supply of microbial nitrogen results revealed that animals of WZ utilized the nutrients more efficiently, as
indicated by higher milk production. The survey of WZ revealed that animals of this region are fed bal-
anced ration and only 33% of the farmers selected complained about the reproductive problems faced by
their animals.

FR 138
Feeding strategies to enhance conjugated linoleic acid
content in milk of dairy animals
A. K. Tyagi, Neelam Kewalramani, T. R. Dhiman, Harjit Kaur and K. K. Singhal
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division NDRI, Karnal 132 001 Haryana ( India)

Ten cows and ten multiparous Murrah buffaloes (Bos Bubalis) in their early stage of lactation having
similar body weight and milk yield were selected from Institute herd. They were randomly divided in two
equal groups of 5 each (Groups1 and 2 for cows and groups 3 and 4 for buffaloes) on the basis of body
weight and milk yield. Groups 1 and 3 were offered ad lib. Berseem fodder and wheat straw, whereas,
groups 2 and 4 were offered concentrate mixture and wheat straw ad. libitum for 90 days of experimental
period and their nutritional requirements were fulfilled as per Kearl (1982). The ingredient composition of
the concentrate mixture was: maize 330, groundnut cake 210, mustard cake 120, wheat bran 210, rice
bran 100, mineral mixture 20 and common salt 10 g/kg. After an adaptation period of 45 days, feed
intake, orts and milk yield were recorded daily for 45 days. The buffaloes were milked twice at 600 and
1800 hrs where as cows were milked three times at 600, 1200 and 1800 hrs daily. The milk samples
were collected at fortnightly intervals and analyzed for milk fat, total solids and milk protein. Solid not fat
content in milk was calculated by subtracting fat percentage from total solids. Milk sample (100 ml) from
each buffalo was collected from the morning and evening milking at fortnightly interval and pooled for fatty
acid analysis including CLA. Ghee (clarified butter oil) was also prepared at fortnightly intervals by two
different methods i.e. indigenous and creamery (Commercial) from the total milk of each group on that
particular day. The average milk yield in four respective groups was 12.06, 11.93, 9.99 and 7.80 kg per
day showing a significant increase in buffaloes fed high fodder diet as compared to high concentrate diet,
while there was no effect in cows. Milk composition was not affected by dietary treatments in both cows

85
85
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and buffaloes. Total milk CLA content averaged 19.55, 6.44, 16.38 and 6.78 mg/g in four respective
groups showing significantly higher values due to high forage diet in both the species. CLA content was
almost doubled in ghee prepared by indigenous method in both the groups of cows i.e.10.40 vs 20.07
(group 1), 6.93 vs 12.13 (group 2). In buffaloes, CLA content in ghee was increased by 40-50% by
indigenous method as compared to creamery method (10.38 vs 16.87 in group 3 and 5.83 vs 7.59 mg/g
in group 4). Feeding of high forage diet along with indigenous method of ghee preparation resulted in
resulted in 310% increase in CLA content.

FR 139
Nutritional status vis-a-vis nutrient supply and reproduction of cross-bred
cows under field condition in Sonbhadra district of U.P.
Vidya Sagar, Udeybir Singh and D. N. Verma
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry
N.D.U.A. &T., Kumarganj. Faizabad- 224229

A survey was conducted to ascertain the nutritional status of milch cross-bred cows maintained by
different categories of farmers in Sonbhadra district. Samples of feeds and fodders were collected from
different categories of farmers and analyzed as per standard methods. More than 90 per cent of lactating
cross-bred cows were short in supply of DCP (11.20-41.10 %), TDN (1.40-17.60 %) and Phosphorus
(25.20-52 %). Nutrient deficiency leading to a problems of poor milk yield and long anoestrus period in
cross-bred cows. Supplementation of 30 g minerals mixture and 0.5 kg wheat bran per animal per day to
60 animals in selected groups for 6 months, showed increase in milk yield (1.25-1.75 kg/day/animal).
Seventy per cent of these animals came into heat and conceived within 2-3 months of minerals supple-
mentation.

FR 140
Extension approaches for livestock development in
rural areas of Prakasam district
M. V. A. N. Suryanarayana and K. Anand Rao
College of Veterinary Science, Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati-517502

A survey was conducted in 8 rural mandals of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh to assess the
constraints faced by the rural masses in developing more dairy which stands as a secondary source of
income in times of agriculture failure and also to assess the reasons for the low productivity of their
livestock products especially milk. Problems include ignorance of scientific knowledge of proper housing,
feed and water management, disease prevention and control, lack of exposure visits to the fields of the
farmers who are doing good in livestock sector, low promotion of value addition to the produce, farmers
lack the information about the mode of entering the market and it is only through vendors they enter the
market, price fluctuations in the milk, poor hospital facilities, scarcity for fodder, periodic drought, lack of
timely supply of fodder seed to the farmers, non-usage of agricultural by-products for economic rations,
lack of proper Artificial Insemination services, lack of good quality breeds or lack of sufficient information
for the up gradation of non-descript cattle for increasing the productivity. The constraints stated here
should be tackled in a war footed manner as there is every need to raise the economy of the rural masses.
86
86
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Many extension approaches are in vogue which include Technology assessment and refinement project,
Agriculture Technology Information Centre (ATIC) under National Agriculture Technology Project, Agri-
cultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA), Krishi Vignyana Kendra (KVK), District Agricultural
Advisory And Transfer of Technology Centre (DAATTC) etc and these can disseminate the technology to
the rural masses through various activities to rescue for the poor farmers. This comes to a reduction of
urbanization to some extent. This paradigm shift made to India stand in a lead place in terms of milk
production.

FR 141
Constraint analysis of rural dairy farms in Andeman and Nicobar islands
Subhash Chand1 , B. Ganesh Kumar2 , R. C. Srivastava3 , S. K. Verma4 Z. George5 and K. Roy
Social Science Section, NCAP, New Delhi

This study was conducted by CARI in rural areas of South Andaman district of Andaman and Nicobar
Islands, India. The cows and buffaloes are being maintained by different categories of farmers. They face
many constraints in rearing the livestock animals. This paper present the constraint faced by different
categories of farmers. Total 186 dairy farmers were contacted through personal interview method and
data on different livestock species maintained, feeding pattern of livestock, constraints faced in livestock
production and their Socio economic status etc. were collected. The information on constraints was re-
corded on 0-6 scale and Garret ranking method was used to rank the constraints. The study revealed that
among the economic constraints most crucial and foremost constraints were lack of marketing infrastruc-
ture and proper governmental policies. Inadequate pricing of milk followed by poor milk co-operative
societies as second constraint followed by non-availability of labour, lack of finance and loan, insufficient
land space for animal and non-availability of feed and concentrates in the city as well as in rural areas. The
constraints expressed by the farmers are really crucial and need immediate attention of policy makers and
state administration. This Island is far away from mainland and the input supplies are mainly dependent on
mainland which is most often uncertain. This to be made certain to increase the production and productiv-
ity of the animals. Technological constraints as expressed by the respondents have reflected that shortage
of fodder especially during summer season. Yet, these Islands receive more than 3000 mm rainfall / annum
mainly during rainy season. After Tsunami most of the valley lands used for grazing is inundated by sea and
hence, farmers are facing severe deficiency of fodder. Similarly during dry spell of summer farmer face
acute deficiency of fodder. During the study it was found that lack of technological knowledge, incidence
of diseases and poor infrastructure were the major technological constraints. These problems needs to be
addressed in future programme and officials / researchers should find the solution to minimize the con-
straints. However, these islands are having good potential to increase fodder production and productivity
and will lead higher live stock production.

FR 142
Common queries of dairy farmers in animal welfare days
Rajesh Kasrija, H. K. Verma, S. K. Kansal, M. P. Gupta and R. S. Sahota
Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension,
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana
Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal

87
87
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Sciences University, Ludhiana, is organizing animal welfare days in different parts of Punjab for dissemi-
nating the knowledge to the dairy farmers. In these welfare days, the farmers were apprised of the impor-
tance of balanced feeding, correct management practices and how to keep healthy animals through pro-
phylactic measures, importance of green fodder, and preservation of surplus fodder as hay and silage. A
study of 50 animal welfare days organized in the year 2005-2006, was done to assess the type of queries
raised by dairy farmers. It revealed that the majority of the queries of the dairy farmers were related to
reproduction and feeding of dairy animals. In reproductive problems, repeat breeding in cattle, anoestrus
in buffaloes, prepartum prolapse and abortion in both cattle and buffaloes were the common questions
raised by the participants. While in nutrition, the queries of the farmers were regarding feeding of green
fodder to dairy animal throughout the year, necessity of balanced feeding, mineral mixture and calcium
feeding, formulation of concentrate mixture at home, and the type, quality and brand of market feed to be
fed to dairy animals. Among the total participants, 35% participants queried about the how to cope up
with the menace of repeat breeding in crossbred cows, 20% asked about anoestrus in buffaloes and 20%
were enquiring about feeding of liquid calcium to the late pregnant animals. 40% of the farmers were not
feeding any concentrate to their growing heifer; while 25% farmers were feeding only wheat straw with
very little concentrate to growing heifer. There are different notions of the farmers regarding feeding of the
different categories of dairy animals. The different wrong notions of the farmers regarding feeding and
other managemental practices were suitably rectified. The farmers were also explained about importance
of energy and protein for development of genitalia and they were especially informed not to feed extra
calcium in last month of pregnancy. It was concluded that the main problems of dairy farmers were
regarding reproduction and nutrition. Extension has to play an important role in tackling these problems
and for dissemination of latest technology at the door step of the farmers. Thus, the training programmes
for farmers should be formulated, keeping in view the field problems.

FR 143
Assessment of the constraints and problems faced by dairy farmers
Baynazir, H. K. Verma, R. S. Sahota and Rajesh Kasrija
Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana.

Government is stressing on the diversification in agriculture, which can be done efficiently through
dairy farming. The global trend is depicting change in the livestock sector; the small dairy farmers are
shifting towards the commercial dairy farming. The dairy farming has obvious advantage as the consumer
sector is encouraging it day by day and is additionally supported by government/related agencies, which
provide the platform for the minimum price of the produce. A study was conducted in the four districts of
Punjab viz Amritsar, Bathinda, Ludhiana, and Mansa to know the constraints and the problems faced by
dairy farmers. The study consisted of a questionnaire and personal interviewing of the respondents, so that
the real problem can be assessed. Before the actual recording of the data, a suitable pre-testing was
done. The study consisted of twenty respondents from each of the four districts for assessing the dairy
problems. The majority of the dairy respondents detailed their constraints as poor availability of timely A.I
services, increasing trend of infertility, repeated disease outbreaks and poor health services. Further, the
scarcity of the green fodder, poor feed quality and poor knowledge level of the dairy farmer especially
about fodder preservation and silage making were reported. Over dependence of the dairy farmers on
labour, inadequate training of the dairy farmers, no incentives for good quality clean milk, poor marketing
and absence of cold chain for the storage of milk and no subsidy on the insurance scheme were also
88
88
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

enlisted. It was concluded that the problems and constraints faced by the dairy farmers are mainly related
to fodder, A.I, health aspect, poor price for clean and quality milk. Extension has to play an important role
for providing the much needed support, so that these problems and constraints can be tackled, which can
be executed through regular, repeated visits and training of the dairy farmers along with the literature in
local language.

FR 144
Knowledge level of dairy farmers about the various
management practices vis-a-vis disease incidence
H. K. Verma, Jaswinder Singh, A. K. Randhawa, R. Kasrija & R. S. Sahota
Department of Veterinary & Animal Husbandry Extension
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004

India ranks number one in milk production in the world but still the production level of the animals is
far below than the other developed countries. The obvious reason may be either lack of knowledge of
dairy farmers or poor adoption of management / health practices. A survey was conducted around Ludhina
district to study the same. A comprehensive questionnaire was prepared for conducting the survey. The
data was collected from one hundred farmers. It was found that 51% respondents were under matric, 3%
were landless and 46% were medium farmers having up to 10 acre of land. 12 % of the respondents were
rearing only buffaloes while other preferred to rear the cattle and buffaloes both. Only 9% farmers adopted
the dairy as their main enterprise. Nearly half of respondents (48%) were selling their milk through unor-
ganized sector i.e. through milkman/vendor. Only 23% were having the dairy training from various insti-
tutes viz University, State Animal Husbandry Department and Milkfed. Mineral mixture feeding practice
was adopted by 55 % of the livestock farmers and more than half (52%) of the respondents were pur-
chasing the concentrate feed from the market and small proportion (13 %) preferred to make it at the
home. Due to poor knowledge, most of the farmers (62%) were either not feeding or feeding very less
concentrate to their dry pregnant animal, keeping the notion of “No milk, No concentrate”. Shortage of
green fodder in May –June and November- December was reported by 37 % respondents and their
animals were forced to survive either only on wheat /paddy straw or with concentrate during this period.
Surprisingly 18 % of the farmers were well aware of the urea treatment of wheat straw but none was
practicing it in the scarcity period. Only 8% of the farmers were preparing the silage from their surplus
fodder. More than eighty farmers agreed to have the problem of anoestrus while 53 farmers reported the
occurrence of mastitis / repeat breeding in their herds. The high incidence of reproductive disorders and
mastitis may be attributed to the deficiency of essential minerals in their ration and irrational/poor feeding.
There was poor adoption of AI (22%) due to various wrong perceptions still existing in the livestock
owners. So it can be concluded that the poor knowledge level of dairy farmers about feeding, manage-
ment and health practices may be the main reason for low productivity and high disease incidence in their
animals. More emphasis should be given by the various agencies to disseminate the latest technologies of
dairying to every nook of the village to uplift the dairy practices.

FR 145
Concentration of different blood-biochemical metabolites in indigenous
and crossbred cattle reared at temperate Kumaon regions
R. K. Mahapatra and A. Sahoo
89
89
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Division of Temperate Animal Husbandry


Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar Campus-263138 (Uttarakhand)

Blood samples from crossbred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) and indigenous cows reared at Institute’s
Dairy Farm were collected at different periods, both during available and lean seasons and analysed for
haemato-biochemical parameters, e.g. haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total (TLC) and
differential leucocyte count, total protein and blood sugar as an index of metabolic profile. The milch cows
were selected from the mid-lactation group to minimize early lactation stress on these physiological pa-
rameters. The lean season extended from December to March, during which there was also adverse
winter with sub-zero atmospheric temperature and intermittent snowfall. There was shortage of feed and
fodder in terms of both quantity and quality and similar situation was also prevailed in Institute Dairy Farm
due to curtail in transportation and other unavoidable reasons. Therefore, the blood metabolic profile was
assessed in both available (periods first and last, i.e. period 1 and 3) and lean seasons (the middle period,
i.e. period 2). The results showed a relative decline in Hb (9.0 vs 10.5 and 9.4 mg/dl), PCV (37.7 vs
42.3 and 39.4 %), total protein (6.25 vs 7.07 and 6.65 g/dl) and glucose (40.4 vs 44.2 and 43.8 mg/dl)
concentration during lean season (period 2) compared to period 1 and 3, respectively. The trend revealed
a declining metabolite concentration during period 2 which showed recovery during period 3. There was
low eosinophil and high monocyte count, which corresponded with little higher neutrophil count during
period 3. While comparing the metabolite profile between the two breeds of cows the effect of season
had less influence in indigenous cows than the crossbred. The lean season that corresponded with the
extreme winter might have affected the nutritional input and the lower performance was thus attributed to
both nutritional and climatic stress. Further, the indigenous cows might have a better adaptability to such
periodic stresses than the crossbred cows.

FR 146
Studies on nutrient requirement of “phule triveni”
synthetic crossbred heifers
Y. G. Fulpagare, R. J. Desale, D. K. Deokar, S.V. Kale and S. P. Kalhapure
Research Cum Development Project on Cattle
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri -413 722, India.

Eighteen “Phule Triveni” crossbred heifers of about 6 months of age were fed with 3 different levels
of dry matter viz. 2.75% (T0), 3.0% (T1) of body weight and adlibitum (T2). The roughage sources were
jowar kadbi as dry fodder while lucerne and Maize as green fodder. The concentrate mixture prepared at
farm (20% CP) was used for feeding the heifers. The experiment was conducted from September 3 to
December 3, 2006. At the end of the experiment, the digestion trial of 07 days duration was conducted.
The average daily dry matter intake (kg)/100 kg body weight observed was 2.47, 2.48 and 2.62, in T0,
T1 and T2 treatment, respectively. The daily gain in body weight observed in T0, T1 and T2, was 0.401,
0.424 and 0.461 kg, respectively. However, differences were non-significant. For achieving the above
daily gain, the overall DM, CP, CF, EF and NFE required was 1.298, 0.165, 0.226, 0.031 and 0.645
kg/d, respectively. From the results it was also revealed that the percent digestibility of DM and proximate
nutrients increased significantly with increase in DM level. The feeding cost per kg gain in body weight
observed was Rs. 23.27, 23.73 and 23.81 in T0, T1 and T2, respectively. The results indicated that though
there was significant increase (P<0.05) in digestibility of the nutrients with increase in DM supply, even

90
90
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

then the increase in the gain in body weight was not observed. Therefore, feeding of “Phule Triveni”
crossbred heifers at 2.75 kg DM/100kg body weight (T0) was economical and could satisfy the nutrient
requirement of them for appropriate growth.

FR 147
Effect of degree of T. annulata infection on plane of nutrition in
crossbred calves during prefebrile period
R. Bhar, K. Lalu, D. Ray, A. Pathak and V.B. Chaturvedi
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, UP-243122

Eighteen cross bred calves of 87± 3.32 kg body weight were divided into three groups of six animals
each in a completely randomized design. They were randomly infected with ground up tick sporozoites of
Theileria annulata, equivalent to 0 tick (control), 2 tick (low dose), and 3 tick (high dose), respectively.
The calves in all the three groups were fed as per NRC (1989). One metabolism trial was conducted in all
the eighteen animals during the incubation period. Blood samples were collected before the onset of fever
and at day 14 post infection to study the haematological and blood biochemical profile. The body tem-
perature of infected calves increased (P< 0.00) at about day 10 post infection (PI), without any significant
difference between the calves suffering from low dose and high dose of infection. Lymph node swelling
and maximum macroschizont index (MSI) of infected calves was observed on 7.33±0.27and 8.48± 0.40
d PI in low dose and 6.67±0.28 and 7.80± 0.40 d PI in high dose, respectively, difference between the
two infected groups being non significant. The nutrient intake (g/d) with respect to DMI, CPI, TDNI and
N balance (g/d, % absorbed) did not differ significantly between the calves in control and infected groups.
However, the PCV (%) was reduced (P<0.05) from 37.66±1.16 in control to 26.75±1.25 (low dose)
and 21.33±2.02 (High dose) in infected calves on day 14 PI, without any significant difference between
the two infective groups. Similarly the haemoglobin (mg/dl) and serum glucose (mg/dl) level was reduced
(P<0.05) and serum triglyceride level was increased (P< 0.05) in infected calves at day 14 PI, without
any significant difference in total protein during early phase of infection. Thus, it could be concluded that T
annulata infection caused pathophysiological and haematological changes without any perceptible effect
on plane of nutrition and N balance during pre febrile period of the infection. However, the adverse effect
did not differ quantitatively between the low and high dose of infection.

FR 148
Analysis of natural levels of ethyl formate and its kinetics in
freshly harvested grains using gas chromatography
Pratima Kumar and T. R. Chauhan
Buffalo Nutrition Division, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Sirsa Road, Hisar-125001, India

The natural level of ethyl formate in freshly harvested grains of pearl millet, cotton, guar, groundnut,
mustard, paddy, wheat, sunflower and chickpea used as animal feed in one form or others were collected
from different farmer’s field were analysed on ‘Nucon’ type gas chromatography system equipped with
91
91
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

flame ionization detectors (FID) and DB FFAP capillary column after extraction with propanol and metha-
nol. Column conditions were isothermal for analysis of ethyl formate. The temperature was maintained at
70° C. Moisture content observed in various feed ingredients ranged between 8.5 to 14.5 %. The natural
levels of ethyl formate estimated with propanol ranged from 0.22 to 0.70 ppm and from 0.22 to 0.68 ppm
with methanol in whole commodities samples. Similarly, natural levels of ethyl formate estimated with
propanol ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 ppm and from 0.26 to 0.67 ppm with methanol in ground commodi-
ties samples. It was also observed that ground samples were better extracted than whole commodities by
virtue of it the ethyl formate content was found significantly higher (PO.05) in ground samples than whole
commodities. However, extraction with propanol showed better results than methanol. Ethyl formate was
present in grains at harvest and increased during the first month of storage, and then began to decline,
particularly at temperature higher than 25° C and time of storage. The natural level of ethyl formate should
be considered when establishing maximum residual limit (MRL).

FR 149
Effect of ethyl formate on growth of Aspergillus parasiticus
in animal feed
Pratima Kumar, T. R. Chauhan and R. Gera1
Buffalo Nutrition Division, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sirsa Road,
1
Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125001, India

Ethyl formate is a volatile compound available naturally in the grain, vegetables and fruits and is
supposed to be toxic to insects and microbes. Moisture level, physical conditions of grain storage prac-
tices and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility of grain feed stuff to Aspergillus parasiticus,
a common fungal infestation and hence drying to safe moisture contents is essential to prevent initiation of
fungal activity. There is a minimum concentration of ethyl formate which prevents feed stuff from the
microbial attack. Thus the minimum concentration of ethyl formate which inhibits the fungal growth was
determined under in vitro conditions. A method was standardized to determine the minimum concentra-
tion of ethyl formate required for inhibition of A. parasiticus by using solid as well in liquid potato dex-
trose agar medium. No inhibition of A. parasiticus was observed on potato dextrose agar petri plates
supplemented with different concentrations (200 to 2000 ppm) of the ethyl formate after incubation at
37°C for 48 to 72 hours because of the evaporation. There after the experiment was carried out in liquid
medium by putting the suba seals on the flask to prevent the evaporation and it was observed that there
was 21.1 and 90.2 % inhibition at 200 and 400 ppm concentration of ethyl formate, respectively, as
compared to control and no growth of fungus was observed after 600 ppm concluding that maximum
concentration of ethyl formate to inhibit A. parasiticus was 600 ppm.

92
92
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Animal nutrition education :


Session - II
Present status and future leads

Present scenario of animal science education and scope for


collaborative teaching: the Agris Mundus Master of Science on
sustainable development in agriculture
A. Prioloa*, L. Biondia, C. Rapisardab, D. Pillotc
a
University of Catania, Via Vadisavoia, 5-95123 Catania, Italy; bUniversity of Catania, Via S. Sofia,
100-95123 Catania, Italy; cMontpellier SuperAgro F34033 Montpellier, France

The Agris Mundus Master of Science in Sustainable Development in Agriculture was established in
2005. This course is a product of NATURA, the network of European Universities for Higher Education
tropically and subtropically oriented in agriculture. A total of 6 European Universities are involved (Wageningen
in The Netherlands; Copenhagen in Denmark; Cork in Ireland; Madrid in Spain; Montpellier in France;
Catania in Italy) . The Master is based on a two-year programme and each student attends the first year
(M1) in one University and the second year (M2) in a different University. Seven possible specialisations
are offered as follows: Agricultural systems research and development; Horticultural crops management;
Livestock production & systems; Tropical rural forestry; Land and water management; Human Nutrition
and Food Systems; Rural local development & food security. Outstanding students from non-European
countries are encouraged to apply, and scholarships for selected candidates are offered by the Erasmus
Program of the European Union. There are special windows for Asian students. Here we present the
Agris Mundus Master with particular emphasis on the Livestock production & systems track.

93
93
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Biotechnological innovations in animal


Session - III
nutrition for increasing animal productivity

BIOTEC 1
Study of bacterial diversity in rumen by cultural
independent molecular approach
P. R. Pandya, Nisha, Harshala Thube, S. Parnerkar,
U. V. Ramani, C. D. Bhong, and C G Joshi
Animal Nutrition Research Department, Veterinary College, AAU, Anand, Gujarat

Diversity of bacteria in rumen liquor in buffalo was studied by amplifying 16S rRNA gene. Rumen
liquor samples were collected from three buffaloes by stomach tubing, at 2, 4, 6 hrs. post feeding. Samples
were filtered through four layers of cheesecloth. The strained rumen liquor were used for the microbial
study. DNA was isolated from 5 ml ruminal fluid following proteinase K digestion and
phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol extraction. Pooled DNA was dissolved in 500µl of TE buffer (pH 8.0).
DNA concentration and purity was determined by absorbance at 260 and 280 nanometers. Universal
primers 27f and 1492r were used to amplify bacterial 16s rRNA gene. The PCR products (1346 bp)
were cloned in the TA cloning vector and transfected in to competent cells. Approximately 10 different
clones were selected for subsequent processing. The recombinant plasmids were extracted by the alkaline
lysis method. Cycle sequencing reaction was carried out using appropriate primer (Ml3). The sequencing
reaction products were resolved on ABI genetic analyzer 310. The obtained sequences, after curetting,
were queried online in the RDP-II and Genebank database. A Phylogenetic tree was constructed to
position different cloned sequences in the neighbor-joining trees with Phylip (ver 3.6). The study revealed
the DNA sequences in the present study matching with the Firmicutus and unidentified rumen bacteria.

BIOTEC 2
Optimization of rumen degradable nitrogen levels for
maximum microbial protein synthesis in sheep by estimating
purine derivatives in total urine collection method
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore- 560030

Studies were conducted to determine the effect of different RDN levels on microbial protein synthesis
in sheep. Thirty sheep were divided into five groups of 6 each based on live weight. Animals in all five
groups were fed Finger millet straw (FMS) as a basal diet and soybean extraction as a nitrogen source.
The animals in group I (control) were fed with ad lib of FMS. Animals in group II’, III, IV and V were
offered soybean extraction at 15, 22, 30 and 37g RDN level along with FMS as basal diet. The experi-
mental feeding was continued for 2 months followed by a metabolism trial for 7 days. Representative
samples of feed, left over residue and urine were preserved for further analysis. The purine derivatives
such as allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine were estimated in total urine collected and based
94
94
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

on this, microbial protein synthesis was estimated for all the 5 groups. The intakes and digestibilities of
nutrients were estimated for all the 5 groups. The microbial protein synthesis recorded was 15.20±2.20,
18.29±1.80, 15.65±1.11, 16.02±1.19 and 16.54±1.30, in group I, II’, III, IV and V, respectively. The
digestibility of the nutrients, the estimated microbial protein synthesis was comparable among the supple-
mented groups but higher than the control group indicating the optimum microbial protein synthesis at 15g
RDN level of supplementation on finger millet straw based ration in sheep.

BIOTEC 3
In vitro studies for optimization of RDN levels for enhancing
the fermentation or digestibility of ragi straw
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560030

In vitro studies have been carried out with certain commonly available concentrate ingredients to
optimize RDN levels for enhancing the fermentation of ragi straw. The ammonia nitrogen concentration
(NH3N), Total volatile fatty acid concentration (TVFA) and digestibility with different levels and sources
of Rumen degradable nitrogen (RDN) were studied. Finger millet straw (FMS) was supplemented with
ground nut cake (GNC), Soybean cake (SBE), wheat bran (WB), cotton seed cake (CSC) and Sun-
flower cake (SFC) at different RDN levels i.e at 15. 22 and 30g RDN /kg DOM . The rumen parameters
such as NH3N, TVFA and digestibilities were analyzed at different hours of time intervals i.e., at 0, 2, 4.
6 and 24 hours after incubation . The samples were incubated in triplicate for each level (0, 15, 22 and
30g) for each source (different supplements) and for each time interval (0,2,4,6 and 24 hours). The
NH3N (mg/dl) values recorded were ranged from 9 to 19 in GNC supplemented group, 11 to 20 in SBE
supplemented group, 11 to 22 in WB supplemented group, 8 to 15 in CSC supplemented group and 9 to
29 in SFC supplemented group, respectively. The corresponding values for TVFA (meg/100ml) were 8
to 15, 8 to 14, 8 to 12, 8 to 12 and 7 to 11, respectively. The Low ammonia-N slightly higher / compa-
rable TVFA levels were observed at 15g level of supplementation for ground nut cake, soybean cake and
cotton seed cake, 22g for sunflower cake and at 30g RDN for wheat bran. However a clear cut picture
will be obtained once they are all tested under in vivo conditions.

BIOTEC 4
Use of purine nitrogen index and nitrogen capture efficiency,
the new possible potential parameters in protein
nutrition of Indian ruminants
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560030

An experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of the purine nitrogen index (PNI) and nitrogen
capture efficiency (NCE) as a possible tools to measure efficiency of conversion of rumen degradable
nitrogen into microbial protein in sheep. Twenty-four sheep were divided into four groups of 6 animals
each based on live weight. The animals in all the four groups were fed finger millet strew (FMS) as a basal
diet and soybean extraction as nitrogen source. Diets were formulated with differing in rumen degradable
nitrogen (RDN) content and the animals in group I, II, III, and IV were offered soybean extraction at 15,
22, 30 and 37g RDN levels along with FMS as a basal diet. The total purine derivatives were estimated
95
95
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

by HPLC, there by microbial nitrogen synthesis in sheep. PNI and NCE were estimated from purine
derivatives nitrogen, microbial nitrogen supply, RDN intake and total urine nitrogen. The PNI and NCE
in sheep observed were 0.104±0.01 and 2.34±0.40; 0.099±0.001 and 1.55±0.17; 0.069±0.01 and
1.29±0.10 and 0.062±0.003 and 1.24±0.07 for group I, II, III and IV respectively. It was observed
from the data of PNI and NCE that efficiency of convention of rumen degradable nitrogen to microbial
protein synthesis is high in Group I i.e. at 15g RDN level of supplementation. Therefore, the results
indicated that the PNI and NCE can be used as potential parameters to measure efficiency of convention
of dietary nitrogen into microbial protein in sheep.

BIOTEC 5
In vitro gas production profile by anaerobic fungal cultures
isolated from sheep and goats
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560030

Studies were undertaken to determine the fiber-degrading ability of axenic cultures of anaerobic fungi
isolated from sheep and goat by gas production studies. Faecal samples were collected from various
geographical locations-Anagalpura, a village in rural Bangalore, CSWRI, Avikanagar in Rajasthan, West
Bengal and CIRB, Hisar. The fingi were isolated from these samples. The in vitro gas production studies
were done with pure cultures of these fungi that were morphologically identified. Paddy straw was used
along with the basal medium to estimate the gas production for this purpose. The pure cultures in mid log
phase were transferred from a defined media with sugars to the bottles for assessment of gas production.
Three fungal isolates obtained from goat faeces (CTS-110, CTS-111 and CTS- 112, morphologically
characterized as Anaeromyces, Orpinomyces and Orpinomyces respectively) were transferred into the
in vitro gas production assessment media. Three fungal isolates obtained from sheep faeces (CTS-64,
CTS-66 and CTS-71, morphologically characterized as Anaeromyces, Orpinomyces and Orpinomyces
respectively) were transferred into the in vitro gas production assessment media. Gas production was
measured in all these isolates and recorded for a period of 150 hours using a pressure transducer. Pres-
sure transducers offer a flexible and a precise way to measure gas volumes. The bottles were maintained
at 39°C in a Memmert cooled incubator and at the end of every two hours the gas production was
monitored. After measuring the gas volume, it was released, and the pressure zeroed before taking the
next reading. Small amount of gases were formed in all the isolates during 0-24 hours, which increased in
all the isolates upto 48 hours. The highest gas production was recorded in CTS-110 followed by CTS-
112. T he highest rate of gas production was observed in CTS-110. In this study it was found that the
fungal isolates from goat were better fermenters.

BIOTEC 6
Effect of anaerobic fungal cultures isolated from zoo ruminants
on in vitro fermentation of paddy straw
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560030

Studies were undertaken to determine the fiber-degrading ability of axenic cultures of anaerobic fungi
isolated from the zoo ruminants-spotted deer and black buck by gas production studies The faecal samples
96
96
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

used for the isolation of the fungi was collected from the Bannerghatta National Park. Paddy straw was
used as a substrate along with the basal medium to estimate the gas production for this purpose. The pure
cultures in mid log phase were transferred from a defined media with sugars to the bottles for assessment
of gas production. Three fungal isolates obtained from black buck faeces CTS-13, CTS-21 and CTS-
23, morphologically characterized as Unknown, Anaeromyces and, Anaeromyces respectively) were
transferred into the in vitro gas production assessment media.. Three fungal isolates obtained from
spotted deer faeces(CTS-24, CTS-25 and CTS-28, all three morphologically characterized as Anaeromyces)
were transferred into the in vitro gas production assessment media. The in vitro Gas production was
measured in all these isolates and recorded for a period of 150 hours using a pressure transducer. Pres-
sure transducers offer a flexible and a precise way to measure gas volumes. The bottles were maintained
at 39°C in a Memmert cooled incubator and at the end of every two hours the gas production was
monitored. After measuring the gas volume, it was released, and the pressure zeroed before taking the
next reading. Small amount of gases were formed in all the isolates during 0-24 hours, which increased in
all the isolates upto 48 hours. A gradual decrease was observed during 48-96 hours and thereafter de-
clined rapidly. The maximum gas production was observed in CTS -13, an isolate that could not be
identified based on morphology followed by CTS -26 an Anaeromyces isolate from spotted deer. The
highest rate of gas production was observed in CTS-13 during 72- 98 hours.

BIOTEC 7
Axenic cultures of anaerobic fungi isolated from large
herbivores-in vitro gas production studies
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560030

Studies were undertaken to determine the fiber-degrading ability of axenic cultures of anaerobic fungi
isolated from large herbivores in the zoo (elephant, hippopotamus, zebra and mithun) by gas production
studies Paddy straw was used along with the basal medium to estimate the gas production for this pur-
pose. The pure cultures in mid log phase were transferred from a defined media with sugars to the bottles
for assessment of gas production. Three fungal isolates obtained from elephant faeces CTS-52, CTS-55
and CTS- 56, morphologically characterized as Anaeromyces, Unknown, and Unknown respectively)
were transferred into the in vitro gas production assessment media.. Three fungal isolates obtained from
the faeces of mithun (CTS- 31, CTS-32 and CTS- 35, morphologically characterized as Unknown,
Unknown and Anaeromyces respectively) were transferred into the in vitro gas production assessment
media. Three fungal isolates obtained from zebra faeces(CTS- 40, CTS-41 and CTS- 42, all three mor-
phologically characterized as Piromyces) were transferred into the in vitro gas production assessment
media. Three fungal isolates obtained from the faeces of hippopotamus (CTS- 6, CTS-7 and CTS- 8,
morphologically characterized as Orpinomyces, Anaeromyces and Anaeromyces respectively) were trans-
ferred into the in vitro gas production assessment media. Gas production was measured in all these
isolates and recorded for a period of 150 hours using a pressure transducer. Pressure transducers offer a
flexible and a precise way to measure gas volumes. The bottles were maintained at 39°C in a Memmert
cooled incubator and at the end of every two hours the gas production was monitored. After measuring
the gas volume, it was released, and the pressure zeroed before taking the next reading. Small amount of
gases were formed in all the isolates during 0-24 hours, which increased in all the isolates upto 96 hours.
A gradual decrease was observed thereafter declined rapidly. After 144 hours, gas production was not

97
97
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

observed in all the isolates. The maximum gas production was observed in two isolates-CTS 56 from
elephant and CTS-8 from hippopotamus. The maximum gas production occurred during 72-96 hours in
CTS-56.

BIOTEC 8
Enzyme profile in culture supernatants of fungal isolates
from black buck and spotted deer
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore- 560030

Studies were conducted to estimate the supernatant enzyme activities in various fungal isolates, viz.,
isolates obtained from black buck faeces CTS- 13, CTS-21 and CTS- 23, morphologically characterized
as Unknown, Anaeromyces and, Anaeromyces respectively) were transferred into the in vitro gas
production assessment media.. Three fungal isolates obtained from spotted deer faeces(CTS- 24, CTS-
25 and CTS- 28, all three morphologically characterized as Anaeromyces). Endo glucanase and xylanase
activity were estimated with a reaction mixture comprising of: 1.0 ml phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, 0.1M),
0.5 ml of the substrate (1% carboxy methyl cellulose and 0.25 % xylan from oat spelt) and 0.5 ml of the
enzyme.; incubated the reaction mixture for a period of 1 hour for carboxyl methyl cellulose and 0.5 hour
for xylanase. Beta glucosidase activity was estimated using an assay mixture contained 0.1 ml of enzyme,
0.9 ml substrate (0.1% p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside dissolved in phosphate buffer 0.1M, pH 6.8) and
1.0 ml of phosphate buffer (0.1M pH .8. The reaction mixture was incubated for 10 minutes at 39°C and
the reaction was terminated by the addition of 2.0 ml of 2% sodium carbonate. Glucose and xylose
released during incubation were estimated. CTS-13 has the highest activity of carboxy methyl cellulase
(2.7±0.1 mmol glucose /min/ml) as compared to the other isolates. The activity of xylanase was high in all
the isolates. In CTS -13 and CTS -24, the activity of cellulase against filter paper were comparable. The
activity of beta glucosidase was the highest in CTS-25 (from spotted deer). From the activity of these
enzymes it is evident that fungi produce cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes and could play an important
role in ligno cellulose degradation

BIOTEC 9
Profile of carbohydrate active enzymes in fungal isolates
from mithun, zebra and elephant
M. Chandrasekharaiah, A. Thulasi and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore- 560030

Studies were conducted to estimate the supernatant enzyme activities in various fungal isolates, viz.,
isolates obtained from elephant faeces CTS-52, CTS-55 and CTS- 56, morphologically characterized as
Anaeromyces, Unknown, and Unknown respectively), isolates obtained from the faeces of mithun (CTS-
31, CTS-32 and CTS- 35, morphologically characterized as Unknown, Unknown and Anaeromyces
respectively) isolates obtained from zebra faeces(CTS- 40, CTS-41 and CTS- 42, all three morphologi-
cally characterized as Piromyces). Carboxyl methyl cellulase and xylanase activities were estimated using
a reaction mixture comprising of : 1.0 ml phosphate buffer (pH 6.8, 0.1M), 0.5 ml of the substrate (1%
carboxy methyl cellulose and 0.25 % xylan from oat spelt) and 0.5 ml of the enzyme.; incubated the
reaction mixture for a period of 1 hour for carboxyl methyl cellulose and 0.5 hour for xylanase. Beta
98
98
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

glucosidase activity was estimated using an assay mixture contained 0.1 ml of enzyme, 0.9 ml substrate
(0.1% p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside dissolved in phosphate buffer 0.1M, pH 6.8) and 1.0 ml of phos-
phate buffer (0.1M pH .8. The reaction mixture was incubated for 10 minutes at 39°C and the reaction
was terminated by the addition of 2.0 ml of 2% sodium carbonate. Glucose and xylose released during
incubation were estimated. The zebra isolate CTS -42 has the highest activity of carboxy methyl cellulase
(3.430±0.03 mmol glucose /min/ml) as compared to the other isolates. The activity of xylanase was high
in all the isolates. In CTS -40, the activity of cellulase against filter paper was significantly higher as
compared to the other isolates taken for the study. The activity of beta glucosidase was the highest in
CTS-56 (from elephant). From this study it is evident that in addition to the exo- and endo-type cellu-
lases, beta glucosidase necessary for the last step of the conversion of cellulose to glucose is also se-
creted.

BIOTEC 10
Effect of oral fungal inoculum on growth performance
of crossbred heifers
S. Anandan, Manpal Sridhar, A. Thulasi, M. Chandrasekharaiah,
C. S. Prasad and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Adugodi Bangalore

Fifteen crossberd heifers of 18-24 months age were divided into three groups of five each -control,
treatment 1 and treatment II. All the heifers were fed on limited concentrate mixture (1kg /day) and greens
(1kg fresh para grass/day) and ad lib finger millet straw for a period of twelve weeks and their body
weights were recorded at weekly intervals and the dry matter intake was recorded daily. The treatment
groups-T 1were drenched with two elite fungal cultures obtained from large ruminants (@ 100ml per
culture) while T2 consisted of two elite fungal cultures isolated from the small ruminants. The control
group received a placebo (media devoid of any fungal culture). Dosing of the fungal inoculmn was carried
out at weekly intervals. A digestibility trial was carried out towards the end of the experiment to assess the
nutrient digestibility. Rumen liqor was collected through stomach tube at pre feeding and 6hrs post feeding
to study the effect of fungal dosing on the rumen fermentation pattern. The dry matter intake as percent
body weight (2.2 to 2.3%) and DMI per unit metabolic body weight (81.7 to 89.2g)were insignificant
amongst the groups.The dry matter digestibility ranged from 53 to 56% and did not differ statistically. The
weight gain in the experimental groups ranged from 32.0 to 35.8 kg and the average daily gain from 405
to 453g and did not differ significantly. The results with regard to the weight gain and dry matter intake
suggests that oral fungal inoculum with elite fungal cultures did not have any significant positive effect.

BIOTEC 11
Effects of a probiotic anaerobic fungal culture (Neocallimastix Sp. Gr1)
administration on plane of nutrition in buffalo calves
Debanu Jit, Jatinder Paul Sehgal*, Anil Kumar Puniya# and Kishan Singh#
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, Dairy Microbiology Division,
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India

Abstract: To study the influence of Neocallimastix sp. culture administration on plane of nutrition,
twelve female Murrah buffalo calves (5-7 months of age, average body weight 122 kg) were divided into
99
99
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

two equal groups of six each. The buffalo calves in control group were fed a complete feed mixture
consisted of 50: 50 roughage and concentrate mixture along with 250 ml fungus free autoclaved broth
culture on every 4th day. The roughage portion consisted of wheat straw mainly along with two kg green
oats per animal per day. The second group, i.e. fungal culture administered calves were fed with control
diet along with 250 ml (106 TFU/ml) of fungal culture Neocallimastix sp. GR1 per calf on every 4th day
for three months. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and total digestible nutrient (TDN) intake were
determined and compared with Kearl requirements (1982) of growing buffalo calves for both the groups.
Neocallimastix sp administered calves more efficiently met their nutritional requirements than control
calves. Neocallimastix sp administered group was getting 110.25±4.60 percent TDN in comparison to
Kearl requirement (1982); whereas with same diet and similar dry matter intake (4.12±0.20 vs 4.14±0.17
kg/d) control group was getting 103.02±3.26 percent TDN. So, Neocallimastix sp may be a promising
rumen anaerobic fungus to improve the nutritive value of straw based diet.

BIOTEC 12
Fibrolytic rumen fungi from domestic ruminants
Ravinder Nagpal, A. K. Puniya, J. P. Sehgal1 and Kishan Singh
Dairy Microbiology Division, 1Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001, India

Anaerobic fungi, a highly significant constituent of rumen microbiota, produce a wide range of hydro-
lytic enzymes, especially cellulases and xylanases that degrade structural polysaccharides in plant cell-
walls, indicating their significant role in fibre digestion. Hence, in present investigation, rumen fungi were
isolated from cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats, and were classified according to the number of flagella on
zoospores and the types of thalli developed from the zoospore. In cattle and buffaloes, Orpinomyces sp.
was prevalent, while Neocallimastix sp. was prevalent in sheep and goats. The in-vitro hydrolytic en-
zyme activities of fungal isolates (mIU/ml) were in the range of 10.7-16.7 (Filter paperase), 7.1-13.7
(Carboxy methyl cellulase), 27.3-37.2 (cellobiase) and 17.5-26.1 (xylanase). Among all the isolates,
Orpinomyces sp. RB2 from buffalo rumen, that showed highest enzyme activities, was further tested for
in-vitro fibre digestibility. The percent in vitro dry matter digestibility increased from 43.1 to 45.8 %. The
cell-wall contents, in terms of NDF and ADF, decreased from 66.1 to 62.9% and from 34.8 to 30.9%,
respectively. These properties of Orpinomyces sp. RB2 suggest that such strains could be exploited as
direct-fed feed additives for improved animal performance after further in vivo studies.

BIOTEC 13
In vitro biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse based ration
using zoospores of different fungi
Shelke S. K., Aruna Chhabra., J. P. Sehgal, A. K. Puniya and Kishan Singh
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132001

The present study was designed to investigate the influence of administration of zoospores of anaero-
bic fungi Neocallimastix sp. GR1, Piromyces sp. WNG12 and Orpinomyces sp. C14 on in vitro di-
gestibility of sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane bagasse based ration comprising of wheat straw, sugarcane
bagasse and concentrate mixture in the ratio of 30:20:50 having CP 13% and TDN 55%. To get more
number of zoospores/ zoosporangium, ruminal fungal isolates i.e. Orpinomyces sp. C-14, Piromyces sp.
100
100
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

WNG-12 and Neocalamastix sp. GR1 were subjected to zoosporogenesis, either using media deficient
in essential nutrients like cellobiose or by using complex substrate like sugarcane bagasse instead of cello-
biose. However, after 96 h of incubation, normal media contained more number of zoospores (2 x 103
zoospores/ ml) of Neocallimastix sp. GR-1 and Piromyces sp. WNG-12 as compared to that of media
containing deficient/ complex substrates (0.8x 103 to 1.3x 103 zoospores/ ml) and Orpinomyces sp. C-14
(0.7 X 103 zoospores/ ml). Hence, the standard media was used for the growth of selected ruminal fungi
in order to obtain the maximum number of zoospores and for in vitro digestibility of sugarcane bagasse
(SB).
Administration of zoospores (2 x 103 zoospores/ml) of Neocallimastix GR1 and Piromyces WNG12,
increased in vitro digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF of SB and SB based rations significantly (P<0.01).
Neocallimastix GR1 and Piromyces WNG12 zoospores, also increased TVFA and hydrolytic enzymes
(CMCase, FPase and Xylanase) significantly (P<0.05) under in vitro studies of SB and SB based ration.
Based on results, it may be stated that the zoospores of anaerobic fungi, Neocallimastix GR1, may be
used as probiotic in ruminants to improve the nutritive value of high fibrous based diets, ultimately leading
to increased ruminant productivity.

BIOTEC 14
Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus from crossbred cattle
S. Senani, Manpal Sridhar
National Institute of Animal Nutrition & Physiology, Bangalore-30

This study was aimed at isolation, identification and characterization of lactate utilizing bacteria from
the rumen liquor and fecal samples of the crossbred cattle. Rumen liquor and fecal samples were collected
from crossbred cattle aseptically and processed. Different dilutions 10-1 and 10-2 were used for culture on
MRS Agar and after 48 hrs of growth colonies were segregated on the basis of morphology and pure
cultures were maintained. Total 11 strains from rumen liquor and 8 strains from rumen feaces were taken
for characterization for protein, reducing sugar, total sugar, motility, Grams staining, Catalase reaction,
starch hydrolysis, Indol test, Vogue Proskauer test and Methyl red test. Out of the 19 strains all strains
were non-motile cocci except F2C, which was non-motile bacilli. Catalase reaction was negative in all the
isolates from rumen liquor and fecal sample. Starch hydrolysis test was mostly negative except F2 X and
F2C isolate. All the strains showed a negative reaction to Vogue Proskauer Test except RL2E. However,
Indol reaction was positive to varying degree in all the isolates. Methyl red test was mostly negative
except in the case of F2X, F2C and F1F isolates. As expected all the stains were grams positive. The
protein, reducing sugar and total sugar content ranged 0.1081- 0.3986, 0.2530- 5.552 and 0.3220-
1.1075 respectively for the isolates

BIOTEC 15
Distribution of anaerobic fungi in Indian cattle and buffaloes
Manpal Sridhar, Deepak Kumar, S. Anandan, C. S. Prasad and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition & Physiology,
Adugodi, Bangalore-560030 Karnataka (India)

Over two thousand isolates of anaerobic fungi were obtained from dung samples of cows and buffa-
loes as well as rumen liquor over the period January 2004 to January 2007 of these nearly 785 isolates
101
101
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

could be isolated and characterized and biomass accumulated. The rumen liquor samples were restricted
to cannulated animals of the Institute while the dung samples were collected from various districts of
Karnataka as well as other states. The buffalo population was represented mainly by the native Murrah
breed, while cattle population consisted Anaerobic fungi were isolated from the rumen liquor/fecal samples
of cows and buffaloes from various parts of the country spread over a three year period to study the
distribution of different genera, morphological characteristics, fiber degradation capacities and the molecu-
lar characterization. The fungal cultures were initially isolated on roll tubes and they were repeatedly sub
cultured alternatively on roll tubes and broth to obtain pure cultures. The pure cultures of the polycentric
fungi were maintained in petriplates in the anaerobic chamber while the monocentric fungi were maintained
in roll tubes by repeated sub culturing. In this study we report on the distribution of the anaerobic fungi
isolated from cattle and buffaloes. An overall comparison of the fungal isolates obtained from cattle and
buffaloes showed a predominance of Caecomyces at 31.48 % followed by Anaeromyces at 23.81 %
while 14.29 % of the isolates were represented by Cyllamyces. Piromyces was isolated in relatively low
number comprising 8.99 % while only one or two isolates of Neocallimastix were obtained representing
0.26%. Some significant inferences with regard to type of pasture and habitat could also be drawn from
the distribution pattern of these fungi.

BIOTEC 16
Isolation, morphological and molecular characterization of
anaerobic fungi from sheep and goat
A. Thulasi, M. Chandrasekharaiah and K. T. Sampath
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Bangalore-560030, India

Studies were conducted to isolate anaerobic fungi from the faecal material of sheep and goats. Fae-
cal samples were collected from various geographical locations- Anagalpura, a village in rural Bangalore,
CSWRI, Avikanagar in Rajasthan, West Bengal and CIRB, Hisar. The faecal material was enriched in an
enrichment media for 7 days. This material was used as an inoculum for the isolation of anaerobic fungi.
Medium 10 was used for the isolation of fungi with the above inoculum using the roll tube technique of
Hungate. The isolates were obtained from the above sources and the fungi were designated to specific
genera based on morphological characteristics. Anaeromyces, Orpinomyces, Neocallimastix, Piromyces
and Caecomyces were designated based on the morphology. An endogenous thallus with a triangular
sporangium was observed microscopically and morphologically characterized as Neocallimastix. In one
of these isolates there were constrictions observed in the hypae that resulted in the formation of isthmus
like regions on the hypae. The mycelia were of indeterminate length and found sometimes to be inter-
twined under the microscope. None of the genera were found to predominate. Some of the isolates could
not be characterized based on the morphology. DNA has been extracted from the above sources and
amplified using ITS1 specific primers. Based on sequence analysis, one of the se isolates has been
characterized as Anaeromyces. In this isolate sporangia with a pointed apex on the sporangiophore was
characteristically observed. By integrating the molecular and the morphological data, the isolate was con-
firmed to belong to the genera Anaeromyces.

102
102
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Feed processing technologies for


Session - IV
enhancing animal productivity
FP 1
The changes of nutrient contents of palm kernel cake
after solid state fermentation
Khin Hnin Swe1, A. R. Alimon2
1
Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Veterinary Science, Yezin, Myanmar 2Department
of Animal Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 UPM Serdang, Selangor

Two experiments were conducted to study the changes of nutrient contents of Palm Kernel Cake
(PKC) through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus niger. In the first experiment, different
proportions of PKC (from 100 to 70%) and rice bran (from 0 to 30%) were used as substrate groups.
Both neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents were significantly (P<0.05)
decreased after 8 days fermentation for all treatments. The highest reduction percentages of NDF and
ADF (41.0% and 28.4%) were detected in treatment with PKC 100%. The crude protein contents of
substrates were increased (P<0.05) at 8 days fermentation. Ether extract contents of substrates were
decreased after fermentation and the highest reduction percentage (80.3%) was observed in treatment
with PKC 100%. The gross energy and true metabolizable energy (TME) values of fermented substrates
(FS) were also decreased. These values were 18.1 MJkg-1 and 5.9 MJkg-1 respectively in treatment with
PKC 100%. In the second experiment, 70% PKC and 30% rice bran substrate group was continued to
use. Ammonium sulphate 0% and 14% of substrate were added to the culture medium. Fermentation
times were reduced to 3 and 4 days. It was found that NDF content of FS could be decreased by 45.8%
and ADF 21.0% in treatment with 14% ammonium sulphate at 4 days fermentation. Gross energy and
TME values of FS were increased in the second experiment when compared with the first one due to
delaying sporulation. Aspergillus niger was found as suitable microbe to produce the fibre degrading
enzyme for PKC.

FP 2
Nutritional profile of ragi straw (Eleusine coracana)
fermented using brown rot fungi
Manpal Sridhar and S. Senani
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology,
Adugodi, Bangalore-560030 Karnataka (India)

In the present study three brown rot fungi Ceratocystis ulmi, Tyromyces palustris, Aspergillus
terrius were explored for their lignin break down potential through SSF. Dried straw was manually chaffed
into 2-3 cm bits and dried at 60±5oC for 12hr. Five-gram aliquots were weighed into conical flasks in
three replicates for each of the three treatments designated as untreated (UT), steamed for 20 min. and
designated as (ST) while the third was subjected to four percent urea treatment (UrT). Flasks were
103
103
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

autoclaved after adjusting moisture to 65% and pH to 7.0. All flasks were inoculated with a 2 ml spore
suspension and fermented in the slant position for 5 days when fungal growth was visible. Proximate
analysis was carried out after drying at 60±5 o C for 12 hr. Moisture content recorded a decrease of
around 12-15 % in all the three treatments of ragi straw upon with C. ulmi . A 9-10%decrease in
moisture content was recorded in all the three treatments upon fermentation with both A . terrius and T.
palustris . Untreated and steamed ragi straw fermented with C. ulmi recorded 12% increase in protein
content. while Urea treated ragi straw recorded very high enrichment of 41.75% from the initial values.
The protein increase in the case of Aspergillus terirus in all the three treatments averaged around 8% but
a very high increase in protein content of 21%was recorded in all the three treatments upon fermentation
with Tyromyces palustris The decrease in lipid content observed in the three treatments with both the
fungi was 1-2% in Aspergillus terrius and nearly 3% in the case of Tyromyces palustris. A decrease of
around 9%was recorded in the NDF content in case of urea treated fermented ragi straw. A 3% decrease
was recorded in the NDF content in the untreated and steamed ragi straw fermented with Aspergillus
terrus, while a slight increase in (P>0.05)was recorded in case of urea treated ragi straw. The same
pattern was elicited in the case of acid detergent fiber .Lignin content recorded a favorable decrease from
the initial value of 6.68to 3.68, 4.47and 4.97 in the untreated,steamed ureatreated ragi straw upon fer-
mented with C.ulmi. A comparison of the results of the proximate analysis of ragi straw upon fermentation
with the three brown rot fungi C. ulmi A. terrius and Tyromyces palustris,showed. C. ulmi to be the
most effective with regard to lignin breakdown followed by Tyromyces palustris while A terrius failed to
cause any major changes with regard to fiber breakdown.

FP 3
Effect of solid state fermentation with different strains of white rot fungi
on the in vitro digestibility of ragi straw (Eleusine coracana)
Manpal Sridhar, Raghavendra Bhatta and S. Senani
National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology,
Adugodi, Bangalore-560030 Karnataka

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of solid state fermentation (SSF) with 5
strains of white rot fungi viz., Pleurotus sajorcaju, Pleurotus ostreatus, Voriella volvoraceae,
Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes hirsuta on the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD)
of ragi straw (Eleusine Coracana). There were 3 treatments. The first was SSF of straw with 5 strains of
white rot fungi without any pre-treatment; the second was SSF after steaming the straw for 20 min (ST)
and the third was SSF after treating the straw with 4 % urea (UT). The dried straw was manually chaffed
into 2-3 cm long pieces and dried at 60±5oC for 12 hr. For each of the treatments 5-gram straw samples
were weighed into conical flasks in triplicates. After adjusting moisture to 65 % and pH to 12.0 the flasks
were autoclaved. All flasks were inoculated with 2 ml of spore suspension of the fungus culture and
fermented in the slant position. The fermentation was terminated after 5 days, when the fungus growth was
visible. The samples were then dried to constant weight and subjected to two stage in vitro digestion. The
rumen fluid was collected from a cannulated crossbred cattle fed for maintenance with concentrate mixture

104
104
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and green forage. The IVDMD (%) of the unfermented ragi straw was about 40.0. A linear increase in
IVDMD of the straw was recorded after SSF in all the five fungi studied. The lowest digestibility was
obtained in the case of Trametes hirsute where values of 53.3±2.11, 60.3±0.44 and 64.5± 0.52 were
recorded in UT, ST and UrT, respectively. The IVDMD were similar in case of Pleurotus sajorcaju,
Pleurotus ostreatus, Voriella volvoraceae for all the three treatments. The highest IVDMD of 76.1±3.86
for UT, 82.7± 0.45 for ST and 87.2± 2.02 for UrT was obtained with Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
From the results of this study it was concluded that Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain appears to be
quite promising in improving the digestibility of the poor quality roughage like ragi straw.

FP 4
Effect of Pleurotus florida on nutritive value of
wheat stubble and date palm leaf
Abdolmehdi Kabirifard, Farrokh Kafilzadeh* and Hassan Fazaeli**
Animal Science Division, Research Center of Agriculture and
Natural Resources of Boushehr Province, Iran

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Pleurotus florida on the voluntary feed intake
and digestibility of wheat stubble and date palm leaf. This experiment was tested in a complete random-
ized design with eight Shall male sheep (four replicate for each treatment), 41.5±1.5 initial live weight and
2 years of age. The treatments were: A)Untreated wheat stubble (UTWS); B)Mycelial treated wheat
stubble (MTWS); C)Fungal treated wheat stubble after the first harvesting of mushroom (FTWS1); D)Fungal
treated wheat stubble after the second harvesting of mushroom (FTWS2); E)Untreated date palm leaf
(UDPL); F)Mycelial treated date palm leaf (MTDPL); G)Fungal treated date palm leaf after the first
harvesting of mushroom (FTDPL1). The OMI and DOMI (g/kg MBW) of the MTWS were significantly
(P<0.05) increased in comparison with the UTWS. The DOMI (g/kg MBW) of the MTDPL was signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) in comparison with the UTDPL. The DMI and OMI (g/day) of the FTWS1 and FTDPL1
were not significantly (P>0.05) in comparison with UTWS, MTWS, UTDPL and MTDPL. The DMI and
OMI (g/kg MBW) of the FTWS1 and FTDPL1 were not significantly (P>0.05) in comparison with the
UTWS, MTWS, UTDPL and MTDPL. The DOMI (g/day or g/kg MBW) of the FTWS2 was signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) decreased in comparison with the MTWS. The total tract digestibility of DM and OM in
the MTDPL was significantly (P<0.05) increased in comparison with UTDPL. The DOM of the MTWS
was significantly (P<0.05) increased in comparison with the UTWS. The DDM and DOM of the FTDPL1
were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in comparison with the MTDPL, But were not significantly (P>0.05)
decreased in comparison with the UTDPL. The DDM and DOM of the FTWS2 were significantly (P<0.05)
decreased in comparison with the MTWS and FTWS1. The DDM and DOM of the FTWS1 were not
significantly (P>0.05) decreased in comparison with the MTWS. The results indicated that the voluntary
feed intake (VFI), DDM and DOM of the MTWS and MTDPL were significantly (P<0.05) increased in
comparison with the UTWS and UTDPL, while the VFI, DDM and DOM of the FTWS1 and FTDPL1
were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in comparison with the MTWS and MTDPL.

105
105
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FP 5
Development, standardization and evaluation of scraped
surface heat exchanger for production of bypass fat using acid
oil through double decomposition method
A. Nagal, R. K. Kohli, S. K. Sirohi, S. S. Thakur
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001

Scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE) was fabricated and conditions were optimized for produc-
tion of Bypass fat by double decomposition method using acid oil. SSHE was used successfully up to the
first stage i.e saponification of oil with sodium hydroxide (NaOH).In second stage calcium salts of fatty
acid was prepared manually by adding saturated solution of calcium chloride and precipitate filtered through
cheese cloth and dried in hot air oven at 50-60o C. Dried material grinded in hammer mill to the bypass
fat in powder form. Total 18 trials were conducted and the process parameters such as feed rate, steam
pressure and speed of scraper blade were optimized. Solution of acid oil and NaOH was fed into SSHE
through feed rate control system via rotameter. The feed rate kept 10, 15,20 l/h. Steam pressure were
applied 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 kg/sq. cm and speed of scraper blade studied were 125, 175 rpm. On the basis of
FFA, total yield and Ca content these parameters optimized. In case of FFA, it was found that minimum
free fatty were available in the product at feed rate of 15 l/h, which showed that the optimum reaction
took place at this feed rate. Steam pressure of 2.0 kg/sq. cm resulted into a minimum FFA due to high
heating temperature which favored the increase in the saponification reaction. Minimum FFA was obtained
when speed of rotor was kept 175 rpm. When the feed rate and steam pressure were kept at 15 l/hr with
2.0 kg/sq. cm, it gave minimum FFA in the product. Maximum yield was obtained when the reaction
between acid oil and NaOH occurred at higher degree and precipitation with calcium chloride solution
was maximum. So, maximum yield (w/v) was obtained at feed rate of 15 l/h, steam pressure of 2.0 kg/sq.
cm and speed of rotor 175 rpm. The maximum yield was obtained when feed rate of 15 l/hr with steam
pressure of 2.0 Kg/sq. cm was maintained at same optimum parameters as in case of FFA and yield.
Minimum FFA and maximum yield showed maximum calcium content in the bypass fat due to best saponi-
fication reaction. The feed rate of 15 l/h, steam pressure of 2.0 kg/sq. cm and rotor speed of 175 rpm and
combination of feed rate and steam pressure 15 l/hr and 2.0 kg/sq. cm respectively showed maximum
calcium content in the product.

FP 6
Evaluation of detoxified Leucaena leucocephala seed based diets on
growth, nutrient digestibility, rumen and blood profile in crossbred heifers
V. N. Khune* and D.W. Khire**
*Deptt. of Ani. Prod., College of Agri. & Res. Station, Jagdalpur–Bastar 494005, India.
Email: doc_vik@rediffmail.com; **Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, India

Concentrate mixture (16% DCP and 71.5% TDN) diets made by replacing either 45% or 60% DCP
through untreated-control (T1 and T4 groups), Heat treated (1000C for 1 hr. in hot air oven) (T2 and T5
groups) and Ferrous sulphate (1% Solu.) treated (T3 and T6 groups) Leucaena seeds were fed to 18
cross-bred (Jersey x Sahiwal) heifers (3 in each group on body wt. basis) which were of 22-39 months

106
106
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

age in a CRD design for 60 days. The chemical composition and mimosine reduction of Leucaena seeds
and fortnightly rumen profile, blood profile, live weight and feed consumption were used to evaluate the 6
diets in CB heifers. On DM basis Leucaena seeds contained DM 93.03%, CP 29.18%, CF 8.84%, EE
6.87%, NFE 50.50%, ash 4.17% and mimosine 3.89%. The mimosine content was reduced to 1.14% by
dry heat treatment (55.4% reduction) and 1.34% by FeSO4 treatment (62.52% reduction). The avg. daily
intakes of mimosine (g/Kg b. wt.) ranged 0.03 to 0.16 g. There is no significant effect of dietary treat-
ments on daily gain in wt. (348 to 486 g), feed consumption and feed efficiency. Rumen fermentation
pattern like ruminal pH, total protozoal count, ammonia nitrogen, total N and total VFA and blood glucose
and serum total protein were not significantly affected among dietary treatments indicating that feeding of
Leucaena seeds has no adverse effect on these parameters. Cost/Kg gain was 23.10% lower in heat-
treated group than in untreated group. Heat treatment appears to be most practical and cheaper method
for mimosine reduction hence recommended.

FP 7
Amino acids nitrogen and N-fractions in duodenal
digesta as affected by feeding processed soybean cake
S. R. Bhagwat1 and Arun Srivastava
Department Of Animal Nutrition
College Of Veterinary Science & A.H.,Sdau, Sardarkrushinagar -385506

One crossbred male calf fitted with duodenal fistula was selected from the herd at National Dairy
Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana) and fed a concentrate mixture containing soybean cake either un-
treated (T1)or treated with heat(T2), formaldehyde(T3) and tannic acid(T4), respectively. Switch over
design was followed. After a preliminary feeding of 10 days on experimental diets, samples of duodenal
digesta were drawn at 0,1,3,5,7 and 10 h after feeding of concentrates. TN was determined by conven-
tional microkjeldahl. NPN was determined by precipitating 5 ml duodenal digesta with 5 ml of 10 %
TCA. After 4 hours samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes. Nitrogen in supernatants of
above were determined by conventional microkjeldahl,s method. TCA-N is calculated by subtracting
NPN from TN. Ammonia nitrogen was determined by micro diffusion technique of Conway. Amino acids
nitrogen was estimated using DNFB as per Goodwin. Mean TN (mg/100ml) was 91.27± 9.92, 91.27
±9.92, 94.66±10.12 and 92.58±9.44, TCA-N (mg/100ml) was 65.19±7.94, 64.93±7.80, 68.59±8.20
and 65.98±7.98, NPN(mg/100ml) was 26.08±2.47, 26.34±2.19, 26.08±2.52 and 26.60±2.09, Ammo-
nia nitrogen (mg/100ml) was 12.31±0.25, 11.94±0.20, 12.05±0.28 and 11.72±0.22, Amino acids
nitrogen(moles/ml) was 2.07±0.42, 3.94±0.36, 2.38±0.19 and 2.26±0.40, respectively in untreated, heat,
formaldehyde and tannic acid treated groups, respectively.

FP 8
Effect of feeding urea treated roughages based complete rations
on performance of cross bred cows
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and S. B. Subhedar
Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, Parbhani. Maharashtra

A feeding trial of 100 days duration was carried out to assess the effect of feeding roughage based
complete rations on performance of crossbred (HF x Deoni) cows, maintained under four different feed-
107
107
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

ing regimens and two different methods using homogenously mixed un-treated and urea treated sugarcane
by-products with various crop residues and balanced concentrate mixture in the ratio of either 70:30 or
60:40.
One balanced concentrate mixture using locally available raw feed ingredients was manufactured.
Twenty four lactating crossbred (HF X Deoni) cows in first, second or third lactation (359.58 ±8.85 kg
body weight) were selected and randomly distributed into four groups of six calves each. The cross bred
cows were added in each group immediately after parturition and maintained for 100 days. The cows in
control group (C) were offered roughages on the farm (dry and green) ad-libitum with measured quantity
of balanced concentrate mixture separately as per conventional / traditional method of feeding. The cows
in experimental group T1, T2 and T3 were offered ad-libitum balanced Complete Rations CR1, CR2 and
CR3 ad-libitum respectively. The voluntary feed intake of cows recorded in terms of average total dry
matter intake(kg), average daily dry matter intake (kg), dry matter intake (kg) per 100 kg body weight
(P<0.01) and dry matter intake g/per kg metabolic weight (W 0.75) body weight was significantly (P<
0.01) higher in experimental calves in T1, T2 and T3, the values being 941.16,9.41,2.46 and
108.19;941.66,9.41, 2.43 and 11.16; 952.5, 9.52, 2.57 and 112.86 respectively. The corresponding
values for the cows in control group(C) were found to be 785.00, 7.85, 2.08 and 91.53 respectively. The
lactating cows in experimental group T1,T2 and T3 fed complete ration CR1,CR2 and CR3 respectively
recorded significantly (P< 0.01) higher average total milk yield (kg) and average daily milk yield (kg),feed
efficiency(kg dry matter per kg milk produced) and feed cost per kg milk produced. The values being
926.66, 9.26, 0.99 and 2.75; 946.66, 9.46, 0.99 and 2.71; 986.66, 9.86, 0.97 and 2.56 respectively.
The corresponding values for cows in control group (C) were found to 5554.16, 5.43, 1.46 and 4.05 The
average total gain in body weight was also significantly (P<0.01) higher in cows in T1, T2 and T3 fed
complete rations CR-1, CR-2 and CR-3 respectively with the values of 23.5, 22.5 and 21.5 respectively.
Digestion trial of six days duration was conducted at the end of feeding ‘experiment, per cent digestibility
of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, ADF and NDF were significantly (P< 0.01) higher for experimental ration CR-
1, CR-2 and CR-3 as compared to control ration (C). The corresponding values being 67.63, 57.21,
59.12, 62.43, 63.19, 63.57, 61.90, 62.86; 60.71, 61.79, 63.33, 62.01, 62.07, 66.84, 61.24, 62.02;
60.51, 61.80, 62.44, 63.66, 62.08, 65.33, 64.42 and 63.23 respectively. The corresponding values for
control ration C were found to be 49.53, 48.76, 50.03, 48.54, 61.86, 55.27, 50.19 and 50.71. The
nutritive value (%) of control ration C and experimental rations CR1,CR2 and CR3 (Urea treated rough-
ages plus concentrate mixture) estimated in terms of DCP and TDN were found to be 6.87, 47.45; 8.74,
59.15;10.12, 54.83 and 9.86 and 58.47 respectively, the difference being significant (P< 0.01). The
results of the studies indicated that the use of urea treated poor quality roughages is quite beneficial when
fed in the form of complete rations compared to conventional / traditional method of feeding to lactating
cows.

FP 9
Investigation of effect of different levels of urea and molasses and
duration of treatment on chemical composition of date palm leaves
M. H. Sadeghi, A. M. Kabirifard, M. Dashtizadeh
The Center for Research in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bushehr, Iran

In order to study of effect of different levels of urea and molasses and duration of treatment on
chemical composition of date palm leaves an experiment was done on the completely randomized design
108
108
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

with factorial arrangement contain 3 levels of molasses (0, 5 and 10%) and 4 levels of urea (0, 2, 4 and
6%) in 2 duration of treatment (21 and 24 day) with 3 replication. The results indicated that increasing
duration of treatment from 21 to 24 day increased DM, ash, NDF, ADF, ADL, pH and decreased CP.
Increase in levels of molasses to 10%, decreased Ash, CF, NDF, pH and increased CP. Increase in levels
of urea, increased CP, pH and decreased ash CF, NDF (P<0/05). The use of 4 or 6% urea. 10%
molasses and 21 day duration of treatment improved chemical composition of date palm leaves.

FP 10
Feeding of urea enriched wheat and paddy straw to dairy cattle
and buffaloes for better productivity
D. S. Sohi, Shiv Prasad, Sohan Vir Singh, Gopal Sankhala and Narendra Singh
ACTIC, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001

In order to improve the nutritive values of low grade roughages viz. wheat and paddy straw, this is
available abundantly in paddy wheat production system under irrigated agro-eco-zone. These roughages
were treated with 4% urea under farmer’s field conditions mainly during lean period (May-June and Oct.–
Nov.) of green fodder availability. To see the effect of feeding the urea enriched straw on milk productivity
and health status of animals. Field trials on feeding this enriched wheat and paddy straw was conducted
on 50 each of cattle and buffaloes in adopted villages around Karnal district of Haryana. Initially these
animals were monitored for 3 weeks on the untreated straw as fed by the farmer as a control. Subse-
quently switch over to the feeding of 4% urea treated enriched straw and fed for 8 weeks continuously.
The results of the study revealed an increase in milk production of 0.80 and 0.60 litre/day in cattle and
buffaloes respectively by feeding the wheat enriched straw. The corresponding increase in milk production
was 0.75 and 0.60 litre/day in cattle and buffaloes after feeding the enriched paddy straw. It was also
noticed that urea enrichment of straws could to save the farmers an equivalent of about 0.8-1.0 Kg
concentrate per day per animal besides improved health and other benefits. In spite of the technology is
proven one but adoption levels are poor. In the present research paper, benefits and constraints in adop-
tion of technology will be discussed.

FP 11
Fermented rice straw as a source of nutrients for livestock
K. Kaur, J. Kaur, M. Wadhwa and M. P. S. Bakshi
Department of Animal Nutrition
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, India

The study was undertaken to assess the effect of fermented (FRS) and unfermented rice straw (UFRS)
on availability of nutrients and on the microbial changes in the rumen of male buffaloes, as rumen microbial
fermentation pattern is the key to utilization of nutrients and in turn the productive performance of dairy
cattle. Two trials were conducted on three rumen fistulated male buffaloes. A digestibility trial was con-
ducted for 7 days on 4 animals in each group after feeding diet for 21 days. Simultaneously, the animals
were fed either unfermented rice straw supplemented with concentration of high CP content (21.24%) or
fermented rice straw supplemented concentrate mixture of low CP (17.14%) for 21 days. The rumen
liquor was collected for 3 consecutive days and pooled rumen liquor was analysed for microbial popula-
tion and rumen metabolite profile. The significantly higher activity of microbial population in the rumen of
109
109
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

animals fed FRS was observed as compared to those fed UFRS. Bacteria and protozoa population in
animals fed FRS was higher than that observed in rumen of animals fed UFRS. The microbial population
(bacteria and protozoa) increased from 4.39 x 109/ml to 1.06 x 1010 and 3.90 x 104 to 5.12 x 104/ml
after feeding UFRS and FRS, respectively. The biochemical changes in the rumen of buffalo calves re-
vealed significant (P<0.05) improvement in TVFA production when the diet was offered as FRS as com-
pared to UFRS, indicating efficient utilization of nutrients from fermented rice straw. The NPN concentra-
tion in the rumen liquor was observed higher (P<0.05) in animals fed UFRS, as compared to those fed
FRS, resulting in considerably higher TCA precipitable N concentration in FRS as compared to UFRS,
which may result in higher synthesis of microbial protein. The total nitrogen excretion as percent of total
nitrogen intake was low in buffalo calves fed UFRS as compared to those fed FRS, resulting in consider-
ably higher N retention & apparent biological value. The digestibility of NDF and that of cellulose and
hemicellulose was low in animals fed unfermented rice straw as compared to animals fed fermented rice
straw. The study conclusively revealed that burning of rice straw should be avoided to prevent global
warming and should be fed after urea fermentation, to bridge the gap between demand and supply of feed
resources.

FP 12
Effect of feeding urea-treated and urea ammoniated sorghum
stover based rations by growing buffaloes
P. C. Dangi and A. L Taparia
RCA, Maharana Pratap university of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur-313001

Nine male growing Surti buffaloes were utilized in a 3x3 Latin square design replicated thrice with
three period of 32 days each to compare the effect of feeding, ad lib 4% urea treated sorghum stover at
40% moisture level (T3) and 1 % fresh urea solution sprayed stover (T2) and untreated sorghum stover
(T1). Animals were fed concentrate mixture as per requirement. The digestibility coefficients of DM and
nutrients of T3 were higher than T2 and T1 and that of T2 also higher than T1 (P<0.01). The TDN and
DCP value of ration for treatments T1, T2 and T3 were 47.79 and 3.72; 53.98 and 6.53; 64.72 and 9.96
respectively. The absolute Dry Matter Intake (Kg.), when expressed on body weight basis (%BW) and
on metabolic body size basis (g/kgW0.75) of Urea-ammoniated ration (T3) and 1% fresh urea solution
sprayed stover (T2) were higher then the control ration (T1) and that of T3 also higher than the T2 (P<0.01).
Nitrogen balance of animals of T3 and T2 was higher than that the T1 and that of T3 also higher than T2
(P0.01) Urea and Urea-ammonia treated sorghum stover fed groups animals had higher (P0.01) weight
gain as compared to the control. Feeding of treated sorghum stover rations reduced the feeding cost / kg
live weight gain. Low crude protein and high crude fiber content characterize sorghum stover. It has low
digestibility and relatively low level of intake. It can not support maintenance requirement of animals and
hence its utilization value needs to be improved. Urea treatment / Urea ammoniation of low grade rough-
age are suitable measures for improving utilization of such feeds and attracting sufficient interest of re-
searchers. Improvement in digestibility of DM and nutrients, feed intake, N status and live weight gains of
animals fed urea ammonia treated Dry grass / Maize stover based rations have been observed by Singh
and Taparia (1992, 1997). The processing cost of the roughages is low and technique simple (Natrajan
et.al., 1994). Little work has been done to compare the effect of fresh urea treatment and ammoniation
on utilization of sorghum stover based ration.

110
110
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FP 13
Detoxification of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) meal by
various physical and chemical methods
S. K. Saha, Shrikant Katole and V. R. B. Sastry
Animal Nutrition Division
Indian veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India

Jatropha meal is a protein rich agro forest based feed ingredient available in India. Recently, due to
importance of biodiesel production from jatropha oil, the cultivation of jatropha plant is being popularized
in India. There is a scope to get the meal in sufficient quantities at a very cheaper rate, which can be
utilized as an animal feed as a protein source. Despite rich in protein (CP, 30-60%), jatropha meal is
seldom used as an animal feed due to presence of incriminating factors such as lectin, phorbol ester,
trypsin inhibitor and phytate. An attempt was made to reduce the lectin content, which possess haemaglutinating
and proteolytic activities, by means of different physical and chemical means. Physical treatments such as
boiling (30 min), pressure cooking, water washing(12, 24 and 48 h), roasting (50°C and 100°C for 20,
30 and 40 min) and the chemical treatments such as sodium chloride(l,2,3 %,w/w). Sodium hydroxide
(0.25, 0.5 and 1%), calcium hydroxide(0.25,0.5 and 1%) and urea ammoniation (1, 2, 3 %, w/w) were
tried for detoxification. Among various methods of processing tried on laboratory scale, moist heating and
pressure cooking were found promising in reducing toxicity among the physical methods and treatment
with 1% NaCI, 0.25% lime and 1% NaOH among the chemical methods were found promising for
detoxification based on the reduction of haemagglutination activity of sheep and goat RBC.

FP 14
Effect of inclusion of processed jatropha (Jatropha curcas) meal at graded
level in concentrate mixture on in vitro rumen fermentation
Shrikant Katole, S. K. Saha and V. R. B. Sastry
Animal Nutrition Division
Indian veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122, India

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of variously processed jatropha meal in
he concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradahility (DMD) and rumen fermentation. Thirteen iso-
nitrogenous and iso-caloric concentrate mixture, including a control, were formulated by incorporating
raw and variously processed jatropha meal [1% NaCI and 0.5% lime treated] at four levels (25, 50, 75
and 100%). In vitro DMD was carried out as per the method of Tilley and Tarry (1963). Dry matter
degradability was significantly (P<0.01) lowered when processed jatropha meal was incorporated in the
concentrate mixture as compared to the control. However, no significant (P<0.05) difference was ob-
served due to different levels of incorporation of chemically treated jatropha meal in the concentrate
mixture. Significant (P<0.05) reduction in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration was observed due
to inclusion of processed jatropha meal in the concentrate mixture when compared to control. The con-
centration of NH3-N (mg/100 ml) was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the experimental groups than con-
trol. However, among processed cakes, common salt and lime treatment improved DMD and TVFA
production as compared to raw jatropha meal incorporated concentrate mixture, Hence, it may be con-
cluded that jatropha meal could be included in concentrate mixtures after treatments to partially replace
costly and scarce oil cakes in the livestock diets.
111
111
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FP 15
Ensiling rice straw with supplementation of aquatic plants and
urea for enrichment of nutritive value
M. J. Khan, M. A. Malek and K. M. S. Islam
Department of Animal Nutrition, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh

A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of ensiling rice straw with urea (4 per cent),
molasses (2per cent), soybean meal (4per cent) and supplementation with aquatic plants viz. water hya-
cinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Azolla (Azolla pinneta) and two varieties of duck weeds (LT-Lemna trisulaca
& LP-Lemna perpusila) on nutritive value. Chemical composition, NH3–N production, energy value, or-
ganic matter digestibility (OMD) and in situ disappearance of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP)
were studied. Crude protein, organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), metabolizable energy (ME) and in
sacco degradability of DM and CP increased progressively with increased level of aquatic plant supple-
mentation. Ensiling straw with supplementation of 25per cent water hyacinth (WH) or azolla (AZ) or duck
weeds results an increase in CP content from 12.2 to 18.7, OM 88.3 to 89.5, EE 3.1 to 4.1, NFE 38.2
to 44.3, ash 10.5 to 11.7 and decreased CF content from 29.7 to 27.4per cent. Supplementation of
35per cent AZ and LP improved (P<0.01) in sacco disappearence of both DM and CP. The CP disapperence
showed significant (P<0.01) difference both for source and level of aquatic plants used. Use of both
species of duck weed significantly (P<0.01) improved the (OMD). Nutritional value of rice straw can be
improved by ensiling with the addition of urea, molasses, soybean seed meal (SSM) and aquatic plants.

FP 16
Associative effect of calcium hydroxide and polyethylene glycol
treatment on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility
of nutrients of Acacia nilotica pods
Merga, Bayassa and S.N. Rai
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal -132 001

Ground babul (Acacia nilotica) pods (18.37% tannins) were treated with calcium hydroxide (3%,
w/w) followed by different levels of PEG-4000 @ 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 PEG: tannin ratios with
reaction period of 24 h in polythene bags at room temperature, The Chemical composition of treated
Babul pods (Acacia nilotica) revealed that OM content ranged from 88.83% in 0.25 level to 91.03% in
0.05 level of PEG. In present study, OM, CP, NDF, ADF reduced significantly (P<0.05) with increasing
level of PEG, from 0.05 to 0.25 PEG: tannin ratio. Crude Protein contents of treated babul pods were
14.68, 14.47, 14.42, 14.87, 14.22 and 13 86 % respectively, for 3% calcium hydroxide with different
levels of PEG and remained similar in different groups. Similarly, NDF, ADF and Ash contents were also
not affected by the levels of treatments. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) in treated Babul pods
ranged from 62.08 per cent in calcium hydroxide treated samples to 69.89 per cent in calcium hydroxide
plus PEG at 0.25 level Increasing level of treatment resulted in respective increase in dry matter digestibil-
ity. Similar trend was observed for IVOMD which increased from 69.08% in calcium hydroxide treated
babul pods to 74.15% in calcium hydroxide with o.25 level of PEG. The IVCPD also increased from
55.42% in calcium hydroxide treated babul pods to 67.65% in calcium plus PEG treated with 0.25 levels
respectively. It is concluded that additional solubilization effect of PEG over calcium hydroxide treatment

112
112
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

of babul pods was observed in this experiment which increased the digestibility of different nutrients. The
best treatment effect was notices at 3 per cent Ca (OH)2 plus 0.25 level of PEG: tannins ratio.

FR 17
In vitro studies of TMR containing different levels of babul pods treated
either with calcium hydroxide or polyethylene glycol-4000
Deepak Kumar Dubey and S. N. Rai
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001

In vitro study was conducted to see the efficacy of chemical treatments to nullify harmful effects of
tannins on nutrients digestibility. Different levels of babul pods in TMR, equivalent to 4, 5, 6 and 7 per
cent tannins either treated with calcium hydroxide or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-4000 were compared
with total mixed ration devoid of babul pods. In calcium hydroxide treated group, babul pods were
treated with 3 per cent calcium hydroxide along with 20 per cent moisture, however, in polyethylene
glycol treated (PEG) group, PEG-4000 with the ratio of 0.5:1.0 of PEG-4000: Tannins were used. The
OM, CP, NDF and ADF contents of without babul pods containing TMR were 90.72, 13.77, 48.01 and
31.99 per cent respectively. The average OM, CP, NDF and ADF contents of calcium hydroxide treated
different levels of babul pods containing TMR were 88.72, 13.26, 47.94 and 31.37 per cent respectively.
The average OM, CP, NDF and ADF contents of polyethylene glycol-4000 treated different levels of
babul pods containing TMR were 89.96, 13.38, 47.14 and 30.62 per cent respectively. The comparison
of in- vitro nutrient digestibility in terms of IVDMD, IVOMD, IVCPD and IVGP was done among all the
treatment groups. The significantly higher (P<0.01) IVDMD and IVGP were found in 6 per cent babul
pods tannins containing TMR, treated with calcium hydroxide or 5 per cent babul pods tannins containing
TMR treated with polyethylene glycol as compared to without babul pods containing TMR. The signifi-
cantly (P<0.01) higher IVOMD and IVCPD were found in 5 per cent babul pods tannins containing
TMR treated either with calcium hydroxide or polyethylene glycol as compared to without babul pods
containing TMR. It was concluded from the study that inclusion of babul pods in TMR equivalent to 5 per
cent tannins either treated with calcium hydroxide or polyethylene glycol-4000 may be used to nullify the
harmful effects of tannins.

FP 18
Synergistic effect of calcium hydroxide and polyethylene
glycol treatment on tannin degradation and in vitro
gas production of Acacia nilotica pods
Merga, Bayassa and S. N. Rai
Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal -132 001

Ground babul (Acacia nilotica) pods (18.37% tannins) were treated with calcium hydroxide fol-
lowed by different levels of PEG-4000 @ 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 PEG: tannin ratios with reaction
period of 24 h in polythene bags at room temperature to study the tannin degradation and in vitro gas
production. The results revealed that different components of tannins such as total tannin, condensed
tannin, hydrolysable tannins and total phenol contents were non-significantly lower than the calcium hy-

113
113
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

droxide treated babul pods but decreased significantly when compared with native babul pods. In 3% Ca
(OH)2 treated samples, degradation was 81.93 % over untreated. The degradation of tannin was higher
(P<0.05) in PEG with calcium hydroxide treated babul pods. This increased from 87.15 to 93.20 % as
the level of treatment increased from 0.05 to 0.25 level of PEG with calcium hydroxide as compared to
native babul pods. In 3 % Ca (OH)2 with PEG treatments of babul pods increased the IVGP from
161.74±9.34 ml/g substrate in 0.05 level to 175.46±11.20 in 0.10 level of PEG and then reduced to
128.57±8.13 ml/g substrate in 0.25 level of PEG with 3 % Ca(OH)2 treatment. In 3% Ca (OH)2 treated
babul pods IVGP increased significantly (P<0.05) to 131.42±8.45 ml/g as compared to native babul
pods (81.18 ml/g substrate).The trend of gas production kinetic showed that each treatment (ml/g) was
significantly (P<0.05) increased in the 1st stage kinetics (0-24 h incubation) compared to second stage
kinetics (24-48h incubation.) IVGP ml/g/hr also followed similar trend. The highest gas production (ml/g)
was observed in 3 % Ca (OH)2 with PEG combination at 0.25 level (70 ml/g) in the first stage kinetics at
12 h incubation. But overall gas production was highest (175 ml/g) at 0.10 level of PEG with 3 % Ca
(OH)2 treatment. In the first stage kinetics (0-24 hrs) IVGP (ml/g) was lower in untreated Babul pods
while, in second stage kinetics, the gas production remained higher due to slow release of bound organic
matter in fermenting bottles as compared to the treated groups. It is concluded that the treatment of babul
pods with calcium hydroxide (3%, w/w) followed by PEG at 0.10 levels: tannin ratio was best in enhanc-
ing the degradation of tannins which also increased the rate of IVGP.

FP 19
Effect of feed particle size and mixing time on the mixing
efficiency of animal feeds
Zile S. Sihag, Nand Kishore and R. S. Berwal
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

The feed ingredients were ground through a country made hammer mill using five different screens
having hole sizes viz. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6mm. The feed ingredients were mixed in a batch type vertical mixer
for 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Samples were analyzed for total ash, salt and number of whole maize grains in
each sample. Co-efficient of variance was determined for each parameter. The co-efficient of variance
decreased with increase of mixing time. The co-efficient of variance ranged from 9.30 to 32.85%. Twenty
minutes mixing time was best among the three time periods tried (having less than 10% CV) for the grains
ground through 3, 4 and 5mm sieves. However, with 2 and 6mm screen size satisfactory mixing could not
be attained even at 20 minutes of mixing time.

FP 20
Effect of compaction of mustard (Brassica cmpestris) straw based
complete feed on rumen fermentation pattern in sheep
R. K. Dhuria, T. Sharma, G. R. Purohit, Deepika Dhuria and R. S. Arya
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of compaction of mustard straw in complete feed
on rumen fermentation pattern in Magra sheep. The complete feed diet consisting of mustard straw 60
114
114
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

parts, groundnut cake 15 parts, de oiled rice bran 5 parts, barley 5 parts, guar korma 12 parts, mineral
mixture 2 parts and common salt 1 part each was prepared in loose and compressed form to study the
effect of compaction on rumen parameters. The complete feed in loose (T1) and compressed form (T2)
were prepared by applying compaction of 4000 PSI and fed to eight Magra sheep divided in two equal
groups for 120 days. Rumen parameters viz., pH, Total volatile fatty acid, rumen ammonium nitrogen and
total protozoal count were estimated at 0, 3 and 6 hours post feeding. There were no significant differ-
ences in pH, total volatile fatty acid and total protozoal count values among mash and compressed form of
complete feed fed groups, but the time of sampling post feeding had significant effect on all the param-
eters. Rumen pH was 6.93±0.08 and 6.84±0.04 and total volatile fatty acid were 74.91± 2.26 and
76.87± 2.71mEq/L in mash and compressed feed fed groups. Total protozoal count (X105/ ml) were
4.05± 0.25 and 3.85±0.13 for T1 and T2 treatment groups There was a significant difference in rumen
ammonia nitrogen concentration among the groups. The rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration (mg/dl)
was significantly higher (14.41±0.51) in group T1 than in group T2 (12.48±0.43). The results of the study
indicated that mustard straw can be used as a sole roughage source in complete feed for sheep and the
compaction of complete feed improved the nutrient utilization by improving rumen fermentation pattern in
sheep.

FP 21
Process and machines for crop residue based feed block production
Amar Singh1, S. K. Jha2, Adarsh Kumar3 and J. S. Panwar4
1,3,4
Division of Agricultural Engineering, 2Division of Post Harvest Technology
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012

In its natural form, most biomass is difficult to utilize as it is bulky, wet and dispersed. Disadvantages
of biomass include inefficient transportation, and large volumes required for storage. To solve these prob-
lems, biomass densification holds extreme importance. Biomass densification is defined as compression of
biomass to remove inter and intra-particle voids. Livestock population in India is huge; the problem of
production, distribution and management of the animal fodders is, accordingly, of very high magnitude.
The animal feed in the country is based on major constituents of dry roughage from crops. However, due
to inherent low density of dry roughages, their transportation and storage is a big problem. Consequently,
these roughages have often been burnt in the surplus areas. But now-a-days, stringent legal laws are being
implemented to ban the burning of straws. Therefore, there has been constant search for economic use of
these materials. It has been reported that the crop residues that are enriched and densified in the form of
blocks, pellets, briquettes etc. can economically be transported at lower cost from the surplus to deficit
regions. Feed block technology has especially been recommended strongly by animal nutrition experts in
our country due to its various distinct advantages like low energy consumption in processing, easy incor-
poration of ingredients, no rise in temperature during processing etc. But the lack of suitable machines
remained a problem in popularisation of this technology. Production of feed blocks requires several unit
operations like chopping, grinding, crushing, mixing, conveying, and densification. Depending upon the
crop residue, either all or some of these operations are carried out for production of feed blocks. All these
operations are time consuming, drudgerous and labour intensive, if carried out manually. Therefore, it is
very important to develop appropriate machines for each of these operations.

115
115
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FP 22
Densification of crop residues
S. K. Jha1, Amar Singh2 and Adarsh Kumar3
1
Division of Post Harvest Technology, 2,3Division of Agricultural Engineering,
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012

Crop production in the country has achieved new feats. This has simultaneously led to increased
production of crop residues, which are usually considered as waste despite their huge potential for utiliza-
tion as fuel, feed and chemicals. India produces 540 million tonnes of crop residues at present. A good
alternative use for these residues is to produce cattle feed after the harvest season. The major problem
associated with these residues is their low bulk density, which causes serious problem in their transporta-
tion, storage and handling. This leads to problem in the disposal of these residues during the harvest
season. Consequently, most farmers prefer to burn them in the field itself, which leads to environmental
pollution and loss of income, which could otherwise be realized through their potential use. In order to
solve these problems, the densification process to economical level is proposed as a solution. Densifica-
tion means the use of some form of mechanical pressure to reduce the volume of residues and the conver-
sion of this material to a solid form, which is easier to handle, transport and store than the original material.
There are various methods of achieving densification using commercial machines: baling, cubing, pelleting,
and briquetting, by means of piston presses, extrusion screws or by roll presses. The roll press has been
used mainly for metallic and mineral dust compaction. Briquetting by means of piston presses and screw
extruders has been used in preparing solid fuel materials. Cubing, pelleting and baling have been frequently
used for animal feeds. One of the requirements to design, construct or improve designs in densification
systems is based mainly of the knowledge on suitable levels of process variables (die geometry, relaxation
time, die and material temperature and pressure) and of material variables (content and distribution of
moisture, size and shape of particles, size distribution of particles, biochemical and mechanical character-
istics). These variables can then be adjusted to achieve the highest density, the largest output, the best
consistency (density) and the lowest power consumption. In summary, an optimization process is required
to obtain the greatest benefit with minimum costs of processing. Such information may even result in the
proposal of new designs. The main objective of this work was to determine the optimal working param-
eters for the densification process for selected pulse straws.

FP 23
Performance of lactating murrah buffaloes on complete
diets vis-a-vis conventional ration
D. B. V. Ramana*, G. V. Krishna Reddy, G. V. Narasa Reddy,
K. Sudhakar and Y. Ramana Reddy
Department of LPM, College of Veterinary Science, R’nagar, Hyderabad-30

Complete diets were formulated using palm press fibre (20%), groundnut haulms (20%) and locally
available concentrate ingredients (60%) and processed into mash (R II) and expander-extruder (R III)
processing. These two diets were compared with conventional ration (R I) on intake, nutrient digestibility
and quantity, quality and cost of milk production in lactating graded Murrah buffaloes. The dry matter
intake was significantly (P<0.01) higher on complete diet mash (R II) when compared to expander ex-

116
116
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

truder processed complete diet (R III) and conventional ration (R I). Dry matter digestibility was signifi-
cantly (P<0.01) different among three experimental diets (R I, R II and R III) and higher on R III. The
digestibility coefficients of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) and nitrogen
free extract (NFE) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher, where as crude fibre (CF), neutral detergent fibre
(NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and cellulose were lower on complete diets (RII and R III) when
compared with conventional ration (R I). Similarly, the average milk yields were significantly (P < 0.01)
higher on complete diets (R II and R III). However, butter fat, solids not fat (SNF) and total solids (TS)
percentages were comparable among the experimental rations. The average butter fat yields were 0.54,
0.60 and 0.61 kg on R I, R II and R III, respectively. The complete diets (R II and R III) produced
significantly (P < 0.01) higher 6 per cent fat corrected milk (6% FCM) yield compared to conventional
ration (R I). Dry matter intake (DMI) per kg 6% FCM yield was significantly (P < 0.01) lower on
expander-extruder processed complete diet (R III) when compared to rations R I and R II. Cost of feed
per kg milk and 6% FCM yields were significantly (P < 0.01) lower on expander-extruder processed
complete diet (R III) and conventional ration (R I) than complete diet mash (R II). The present study
indicated that fibrous by-products like palm press fibre and crop residues like groundnut haulms can be
better utilized by incorporating in complete diets of lactating Murrah buffaloes. Further, processing of the
complete diet mash by expander-extruder processing would improve the nutritive value and nutrient utili-
zation there by resulted in higher quantity and quality of milk yield and decreased cost of feed per kg milk
production.

FP 24
Potential of maize stover from a dual-purpose hybrid in substituting
for sorghum stover in a commercial feed block
K. V. S. V. Prasad1, M. Gupta2, L. Shah3 and M. Blümmel1
1
International Livestock Research Institute, Patancheru - 502 324; 2Sehgal Foundation; 3Miracle
Fodder & Feeds, Shamshabad - 501218 AP

Sorghum stover is the single most important ingredient (53%) of a commercial feed block (CFB) for
dairy animals designed and marketed by Miracle Fodder & Feed Manufacturer in Hyderabad. However,
decreasing availability, increasing transport distances and raising costs now associated with sorghum sto-
ver urge the search for alternative stover sources. In laboratory trials at ILRI stover from maize hybrid
GTCH-3064 had similar fodder quality than the sorghum stover used for the CFB. An ad libitum feeding
trial with bulls (c. 180 kg LW) was designed at ILRI to investigate if maize stover based feed block would
promote comparable levels of livestock productivity than the CFB. Stover from GTCH-3064 was sourced
from the Sehgal Foundation at ICRISAT. Possible variation in maize stover fodder quality was introduced
by using stover from black and red soils. After grain harvest, the maize stover was chopped and trans-
ported to the CFB manufacturer who produced two experimental feed blocks (EFB) by substituting
sorghum stover with maize stover from the black (EFBMblack) and red soil (EFBMblac). Five bulls, balanced
according to LW, were allocated to a treatment. Daily intake was 35, 33 and 30 g/kg LW (P < 0.05) in
BRLS, EFBMblac and EFBMblac blocks, respectively. Daily weight gains were 1.02 kg on EFBMblac, 0.98 on
CFB and 0.79 on EFBMred (P>0.05). We conclude that quality maize stover can substitute for sorghum
stover in CFB. This offers additional income for maize grower since the feed block manufacturer currently
purchases sorghum stover for 2.4 Indian Rupees per kg.

117
117
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FP 25
Effect of feeding complete feed blocks on dry matter intake,
digestibility and milk composition
P. C. Lailer; S. S. Dahiya, D. Lal and T. R. Chauhan
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes Hisar (Haryana)-125001

15 lactating buffaloes were divided into three groups of five each on the basis of milk yield and similar
period of calving. The study was conducted till the completion of lactation. Buffaloes were divided in three
feeding groups namely WSB group (wheat straw blocks fed group) having wheat straw and concentrate
in ratio of 60:40; BKB group (bajra kadabi blocks fed group) having bajra kadabi and concentrate in
ratio of 60: 40 and Control group buffaloes were fed according to conventional feeding schedule follow
on the farm. Buffaloes in all the groups were given green fodder as per availability. Cotton seed could not
be grinded and incorporated in the concentrate ration and blocks so it was fed separately. The ingredients
composition of concentrate mixture was maize 40; wheat bran 10; deoiled rice bran 11; GN cake 12;
mustard seed cake 12; sunflower cake 12; mineral mixture 2 and salt 1 kg per 100 kg of concentrate
mixture. Dry matter intake (kg/d) was 13.09, 13.27 and 12.59 in control, WSB and BKB fed group
respectively. Dry matter intake was maximum in WSB fed group where as it was minimum in BSB fed
group. The dry matter digestibility was maximum in WSB group fed group (61.92 %) followed by BKB
fed group (60.97 %) and was minimum in control group (59.04 %). Percent dry matter intake from dry
fodder (wheat straw and bajra kadabi) was significantly (<0.05) higher in WSB and BKB groups (4.48
and 4.75 kg/d) in comparison to the control group (3.56kg/d). The dry matter intake from wheat straw in
WSB fed group and bajra kadabi in BKB fed group was respectively 25.84 % and 34.55% more in
comparison to the dry matter intake from wheat straw in control group. The total solid in milk was 18.72,
19.20 and 18.47 % in WSB; BKB and control group respectively. The total solids was higher in those
groups having wheat straw as a basal part of their diet. Milk fat percentage was 9.17, 9.70 and 8.57 and
SNF percentage was 9.70, 9.50 and 9.90 in WSB, BKB and Control group respectively. Fat percent
was higher in those groups having wheat straw as a basal part of their diet. However the reverse trend
was observed for SNF percentage.

FP 26
Effect of different grains and byproducts on the hardness and
chemical composition of lick blocks
Zile S. Sihag, Nand Kishore and R. S. Berwal
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

The feed ingredients viz. oil seeds (til seed, sunflower seed, lin seed, mustard seed and cotton seed),
oil seed cakes/meals (cotton seed cake, ground nut cake, mustard cake, deoiled ground nut cake and
soyabean meal), cereals (barley, oat, wheat, maize, bajra and jawar), cereal byproducts (wheat bran, rice
polish and deoiled rice bran), and pulses (bakla, rice bean, gram, methi, masoor, urd, moong & guar)

118
118
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

were ground through a hammer mill fitted with 4mm sieve. The blocks were prepared by using the cold
process. The level of molasses (40), urea (12), CaO (6), mineral mixture (6), phosphoric acid (1) and
each feed ingredient (35) were kept constant. The hardness of blocks was measured by using a pen-
etrometer. The hardness of the blocks was significantly (P<0.05) higher with cereal byproducts followed
by oilseed cakes, pulses, cereals and oil seed. The hardness of the blocks was maximum (16.37 Kg/cm2)
with wheat bran but the problem of cracks in the blocks was observed. The CP content of cakes/meal
based blocks was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other categories of feed ingredients and lowest in
cereal based blocks. There was a negative correlation between the hardness and fat content of blocks.
The hardness of the blocks was minimum (0.71 Kg/cm2) with oil seeds based blocks. It was concluded
that the blocks of desired hardness can be formulated by altering the ingredients composition and CP
content of the blocks was also affected by the individual feed ingredient.

FP 27
Influence of feeding urea molasses mineral blocks (UMMB) on
blood biochemical parameters of buffaloes
Z. S. Sihag*, B. S.Punia, Inderjeet Singh and R. S. Berwal*
*CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, 125004, India
Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sirsa Road, Hisar, 125001, India

Four types of urea molasses mineral blocks (B1, B2, B3 and B4) were manufactured using cold
process. B1 and B2 contained 17% deoiled rice bran (DORB) whereas B3 and B4 contained 17% wheat
barn (WB). Further, 10% mustard cake (MC) in B1 and B3 was replaced with 10% deoiled sunflower
cake (SFC). Other feed ingredients (in percentages: molasses 55; urea 8; calcium oxide 4; guar gum 2;
dicalcium phosphate 1; trace mineral mixture 1 and common salt 1) were similar in all groups. These
blocks were offered adlib to four rumen fistulated Murrah buffalo steers (84 mo., 500 kg BW) along with
adlib wheat straw for 21 days each in a 4x4 Latin-square switch over design. Peripheral blood samples
were collected once daily over terminal three days of UMMB feeding to obtain mean values of each
group. Samples were also obtained from one non fistulated animal managed as per farm’s conventional
feeding and managemental practices (control). Daily mean dry matter intake through wheat straw (kg/
day) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatment B1 (6.52), B3 (6.51) and B4 (6.59) than B2 (5.56),
while dry matter intake through UMMB was comparatively more in B2. Blood glucose levels were with in
the normal range for adult ruminants in all groups. Marginally higher plasma protein concentration may
indicate greater availability of amino acids in UMMB fed steers. All animals, including the control were
provided with balanced ration including mineral supplementation, hence calcium and phosphorous varied
with in the normal range. BUN values were comparatively higher in B2 than other groups which may be
related to lower water excretions and comparatively more nitrogen intake due to higher UMMB con-
sumptions in this group. Activities of SGOT and SGPT were comparatively lower in the steers kept on
B4. In comparison, activity of alkaline phosphatase, released in response to damage to liver and intestinal
epithelium was greatly increased in B2. In conclusion, long term adlib feeding of UMMB does not have
any adverse effect on biochemical parameters in buffaloes.

119
119
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

FP 28
Preparation of stylo meal and its quality evaluation under
different storage conditions
P. N.Dwivedi* and P. K. Pathak
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi, India-284003
*Animal Nutrition, FM&PHT Division

The technology was developed for stylo harvesting, collection and processing as leaf meal. One
hectare field of Stylosanthes hamata was harvested every year and meal prepared. The size of leaf meal
was standardized on the basis of In Sacco DM digestibility of Stylo cut in different sizes. Small cut size
(0.5mm) shown better digestibility and the digestibility percent decreased with increase in cut size. In
Sacco CP digestibility of Stylo cut in different sizes was also higher in small cut size treatments.
The prepared meal were stored for one year in locally made structures of about 25 m3 capacity and
in gunny bags and in polythene packets for storage study. The meal had 12.91% CP initially at the time of
storage. CP content of stored stylo meal reduced from 12.90 to 11.30% in local structure, 11.41% in
gunny bags and loss was minimum in polythene bags (11.70 percent). Thus, stylo meal is a good source of
leaf protein and can be stored safely up to one year to feed the livestock during lean period or throughout
the year.

FP 29
Effect of storage of maize cobs based complete diet
on its nutritional quality
D. Nagalakshmi, P. Pavani and M. Rajendra Prasad
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science,
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500 030

The effect of storage period, storage structure and preservative on keeping quality of maize cobs
based complete diet was studied for a period of 6 months. The samples collected at the monthly intervals
were assessed for nutrient composition, microbial load and aflatoxin. Storing of complete diet in HDPE
bags with no preservative had higher (P<0.01) OM, CP, NFE and cell contents and lower (P<0.01) CF,
NDF, ash and aflatoxin level compared to gunny bags stored feed. Combination of 2% neem oil and 0.5
% calcium propionate added to gunny bag stored feed increased (P<0.01) the OM, CP, NFE and cell
content and decreased the fungal and aflatoxin concentration. Addition of single preservatives or combina-
tion had no effect on nutrients when stored in HDPE bags. Aflatoxin level reduced (P<0.01) by adding
calcium propionate or in combination with neem oil, irrespective of storage structure. The period of stor-
age affected (P<0.01) all the nutrients. The DM, OM, CP, EE, NFE and cellulose content gradually
decreased (P<0.01), while the CF, ash, NDF and ADF increased (P<0.01) gradually with increase in
storage time. The bacterial and fungal count (log cfu/g feed) and aflatoxin (ppb) level from 0-6 months
increased significantly (P<0.01) from 4.60, 3.59 and 7.90 to 6.23, 5.55 and 88.40, respectively. The
aflatoxin level in HDPE stored feed, irrespective of preservatives was comparable between 0-2 months
and increased thereafter. Similar trend was observed for gunny bag stored complete feed containing com-
bination of preservatives, while in other gunny bag stored feeds, the aflatoxin level increased by the end of
1 month. The study indicated that nutrient quality was affected by end of 1st month itself. It is advantages

120
120
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

to store maize cobs based complete diet in HDPE woven bags than gunny bags. The combination of
herbal and chemical preservatives was effective in reducing the aflatoxin and fungal load.

FP 30
Effect of ensiling maize fodder with dried
sorghum straw on the performance of animals-methodology
and milk production performance
B. G. Hol, M. B. Patil*, R. R. Shelar, U. V. Dhande and B. R. Kadam
KNP College of Veterinary Sciences, Shirwal-412 801
* Department of Animal Nutrition, Bombay Veterinary College, Parel, Mumbai-12

The research trial involved study of methodology used for ensiling, characteristic aspects of silage and
milk production performance under two different situations viz., on college farm of KNPVC, Shirwal with
9 Pundarpuri buffaloes (510- 560 kg) and the dairy unit of farmer with 8 milking crossbred cows (490-
530 kg) situated away from college campus. Green maize was harvested at about 63-69 days after
sowing with moisture content ranging from 76-82 per cent when the crop was in silk stage, transported
immediately to animal shed and chaffed to1.5 cm size. Dried sorghum straw from sorghum grain harvest
with moisture content ranging from 9.3 to 10.7 per cent was chaffed to same size taking about 22-24 kg
straw simultaneously for every 100 kg fresh green maize fodder chaffed (DM ratio of about 20:20) to get
fair mixture of two chaffed materials filled in college silo. Farmer’s silage was made up of only fresh-
chaffed maize fodder. While chaffing was progressing, chaffed material was filled manually in silo structure
of college made up of cement and brick material of size 10.0 x 7.5x13.5 ft above ground with sidewalls
1.5 ft thick and in silo belonging to farmer having size of 8.33 x7.33x5.33 ft. Additives consisting of 8.0 g
jagery, 2.0 g fertilizer grade urea, 4.0 g common salt, 4.0 g min. mixture of standard make, 0.5 g fresh
prepared curd all were dissolved in 100 ml water and used per kg of material filled by uniform sprinkling
on filled material in silo of college. These additives were used without water in silage of farmer. Non-stop
slow filling of material was done so as to give at the end, the material filled 2.0 feet above the top level of
silo and enough manual trampling to compact the material in silo. The silos were covered from top with
polythene sheet with load of 23-25 sand filled bags. Silos were opened 62 days post filling and silage
feeding done to animals. Silage was fed at the rate of about 8-9 kg for a period of for 55 days to
buffaloes and for 105 days to cows. Feeding of concentrate mixture, limited quantity of green lucerne
fodder and adlib. dry fodder from available agril. crop residue 30 days before silage feeding and during
the period of silage feeding was kept similar and continued as per standard feeding practice taking into
consideration daily milk production and other performance of animals. Samples of ensiled material on
0,15 and 60 days of ensiling were collected for DM and CP estimation. On opening of silo, pH, physical
and palatability characters of silage were studied. Individual milk production was recorded during silage
feeding period. DM and CP content of the silage was 21.66 and 8.90 and 16.32 and 9.13 for 0 day
sample, 21.20 and 8.10 and 19.84 and 8.30 for 15 day sample and 24.85 and 7.95 and 22.63 and 7.90
per cent for college and farmers silage, respectively. On opening the silo on 62nd day, silage was having
sweet alcoholic smell in both cases, material was compact without air pockets or apparent fungal growth.
Color was light green for silage from college and dark green for silage in silo of farmer. pH was recorded
using pH papers and values for samples collected on 0, 15 and 60 days of ensiling were 7&7, 4.5&4.5
and 3.5 to 4.0 & 4.0 for silage from college and farmer, respectively. Palatability of the silage was very
good in buffaloes and cows. Average daily milk production was 5.90 and 6.57 l (about 11 per cent
121
121
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

increase over that belonging to period before silage feeding) in buffalo and 9.80 and 10.70 l (about 9 per
cent increase) for period 10 days before and 10 days after start of feeding silage, respectively.

FP 31
Studies on drying rate for making berseem hay inside the poly-house
P. K. Sahoo, T. K. Dutta and R. P. Misra
Central Institute for Research on Goats
Makhdoom, Farah-281 122, Mathura, India

Availability of feed and fodder, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, is recognized as one of the
major constraints for sustainable growth in livestock sector in India. The scarcity results into malnutrition
both in terms of contents and quantity, and a cause of low animal productivity. Aspects like improving
utilization of available feed resources, overcoming scarcity situations in cost effective manner needs ap-
propriate solutions. The conservation of surplus fodder in the form of hay and silage is the best solution for
use in lean season. Drying of high moisture content fodders to an optimal moisture level is the pre-requisite
for safe storage. In Indian plains, sun drying has been observed to be more economical and less energy
intensive compared to the mechanical drying systems using commercial energy. The chemical treatments
and the mechanical conditioning techniques are rarely used for hay making. To achieve faster drying rate
the poly-house with natural ventilation has been used for hay making. Triangular hay rack was fabricated
from M.S. pipes and wire mesh. The truss was fastened to the stand by nuts and bolts. The slope of the
truss was kept at 30° so that fodder spread over will get maximum solar radiation. The wire mesh of 1" x
1" was spread over the structure and fastened by the nuts and bolts. The flexible hay rack was kept inside
the green house to study the drying rate of fodder. It was observed that the inside temperature of the
poly-house was usually 20° higher than that of the ambient temperature. The experiment was conducted
to observe the drying rate of berseem fodder in the poly-house and in ambient conditions. The swath
thickness was 2" and 4" and the average initial moisture content varies from 78% to 85% of the freshly cut
fodder as per the stage of harvesting and ambient conditions. The moisture content was reduced to less
than 10% within 32 hours of drying for 2" & 4" swath thickness inside the poly-house. For ambient solar
drying the drying duration was recorded as high as 56 hours. The drying rates were found higher inside
the poly-house than the ambient solar drying. The values were 2.35, and 2.33 for 2", and 4" swath
thickness inside the poly-house and 1.29 and 1.19 for 2" and 4" swath thickness under ambient condition.
Therefore, it may be concluded that poly-house may be used for making good quality hay due to higher
drying rate and less exposure. Using the poly-house for haymaking is having another of advantage of
prevention of charring by direct sunlight and leaching of nutrients by un-seasonal rain during hay making.

122
122
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Newer concepts in aquatic, pig and poultry


Session - V nutrition with economic implications
MG 1
Chemical analysis of oil sardine fish for feeding broilers
P. Tamilmani, B. Mohan and D. Chandrasekaran
Department of Animal Nutrition
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal

A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritive value of oil sardine fish meal for broilers and its
influence on fatty acid composition and keeping quality of broiler meat. The oil sardine fish meal (mean of
ten samples) contained 87.31% dry matter, 48.32% crude protein, 25.91% ether extract, 22.09% total
ash, 15.40% acid insoluble ash and 0.4% chitin. The calcium, phosphorus, sodium chloride, iron, copper,
manganese, lysine (g/16g N) and methionine (g/16g N) content in oil sardine fish meal were 4.78%,
3.09%, 1.26%, 689.69 ppm, 9.64 ppm, 60.75 ppm, 0.87 and 2.58 respectively. The true and apparent
metabolizable energy in the oil sardine fish meal samples were 3656.7 and 3385 kcal/kg, respectively. Oil
sardine fish oil contained 47.42% saturated fatty acids and 45.05% total unsaturated fatty acids. The
predominant saturated fatty acids were palmitic acid (26.14%) and myristic acid (16.22%). Among the
unsaturated fatty acids palmitoelic acid (12.91%) content was maximum followed by eicosapentaenoic
acid (EPA) (9.32%), oleic acid (8.48%), linoleic acid (6.26%) and docosohexaenoic acid (DHA)(6.05%).
The concentration of monounsaturated fatty acid (21.39%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (23.66%) was
almost equal. Sardine fish oil in total contained 17.40% n-3 fatty acids and 6.26% n-6 fatty acids. The
mean thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) of oil sardine fish meal samples stored at room temperature on 0,
7th, 42nd day of storage was found to be 3.98, 3.61 and 7.18 mg malondialdehyde/kg, respectively.

MG 2
Feeding value of oil sardine fish for broilers
P. Tamilmani, B. Mohan and D.Chandrasekaran
Department of Animal Nutrition
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, India

A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritive value of oil sardine fish meal for broilers and its
influence on fatty acid composition and keeping quality of broiler meat. In a broiler trial, oil sardine fish
meal was included at 0 (T1), 2.5 (T2), 5.0 (T3), 7.5 (T4), 10.0 (T5), 12.5 (T6), and 15% (T7), levels in a
maize soyabean meal ration. At the end of sixth week, the mean weight gain and feed efficiency were
1801, 1762, 1733, 1812, 1816, 1752 and 1767g and 1.81, 1.72, 1.81, 1.75, 1.75, 1.75 and 1.83
respectively. The dressing percentage was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T6 group and weights of liver,
heart, spleen, abdominal fat, and feathers were not affected in oil sardine fish meal fed birds. The skin
weight was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T4. The tibial weight and its calcium and phosphorus contents
were found to be better when level of inclusion of oil sardine fish meal increased in the ration. The fatty
acid composition of thigh meat of broiler fed oil sardine fish meal at 0-15% inclusion level clearly indicates
123
123
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

an increased concentration of saturated fatty acids (28.9 to 33.4%) and an reduction in the content of
unsaturated fatty acid (67.7 to 64%). As the level of oil sardine fish meal increased from 0-15% in the
broiler ration, there was a definite increase in EPA (0.7 to 1.8%) and DHA (1.1 to 1.8%) content of the
thigh muscles of broilers. The overall acceptability of the broiler breast meat was noticed in birds fed up to
12.5% oil sardine fish meal. Maximum profit of Rs. 1.78 /kg live weight was obtained in 15% oil sardine
fish meal group. The keeping quality of broiler meat stored in deep freezer at-10° C were evaluated based
on its pH, extract release volume (ERV), tyrosine value and thiobarbituric acid value (TBA). In all the oil
sardine fish meal groups the pH of breast muscle significantly (P<0.01) increased (5.74 vs 6.08) on the
day of slaughter to (6.23 vs 6.31) on the 55th day compared to control group. The ERV values indicated
that spoilage of meat was minimum up to 7th day of the storage. But thereafter, spoilage increased in the
same meat stored up to 21st day. The results of tyrosine value also indicated proteolysis in the thigh meat
stored beyond 14 days. TBA value clearly indicated there was less oxidation of meat in T3, T2, T1 and T6
groups stored up to 21 days, but thigh meat of broilers fed 7.5%, 10%, 15% oil sardine fish meal had
TBA value above 1.5 which indicated meat has been oxidized.

MG 3
The effects of sources of dietary fats on antibody production, bursal le-
sions and fatty acid profiles of bursa of fabricius in broiler chicks against
infectious bursal disease virus under heated and non-heated conditions
Nwe Nwe Htin1, Zulkifli Idrus2, Abd. Razak Alimon3, Mohd. Hair- Bejo and Loh Teck Chwen
1
Department of Animal Husbandry, University of Veterinary Science, Yezin, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar;
2, 3
Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia

A total of 216-day-old broiler chicks (Cobb) were brooded in an environmentally controlled cham-
ber. From day 21 onwards equal numbers of chicks were provided one of the three finisher diets contain-
ing either 8% palm oil (PO, neither rich in n-3 nor n-6 fatty acid), 8% soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 fatty
acid), 8% flaxseed oil (FXO, rich in n-3 fatty acid). The diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous and
formulated to meet the minimum requirement of NRC (1994). To prevent from oxidation the diets con-
tains 0.03% antioxidant and were mixed as needed. From day 36 to day 50, equal numbers of the birds
from all dietary groups were exposed to 38±1°C and 80% relative humidity for 2h/day. The remaining
birds were kept under non-heated condition (24±1°C). Feed and water were not provided throughout
heat challenge period. On day 37, all chicks were intranasally challenged with IBD live vaccine virus
(Infectious Bursal Disease Vaccine V877 strain, Malaysia Vaccine and Pharmaceuticals Sdn Bhd, Kuala
Lumpar, Malaysia). On day 0, 7 and 14 day post-challenge, five birds per Groups were sacrificed for
sample collections. Blood samples were collected before necropsy for antibody determination by enzyme-
linked immunosorbent assays. Upon necropsy, the fresh bursal tissue-samples were fixed in 10% buffered
formalin for lesion scoring according to the modified criteria described by Hair-Bejo et al. (2000). On
day 0 and day 14 post-challenge, the other halves of the fresh bursal tissue samples were immediately
packed in two layers of aluminium foil and were stored at –80 ºC before fatty acid analysis, which was
carried out by gas liquid chromatography according to Folch et al. (1957) modified by Rajion (1985).
Data were subjected to ANOVA using General Linear Model procedure of SAS® (SAS® institute Inc.,
1991). Antibody responses of broiler fed high dietary fat vary to the type of antigens. Significantly higher
lesion scores of bursa of Fabricius on day 7 and day 14 post-infection suggested that the chicks were
infected by IBD V877 vaccine virus. However, the effects of diet on bursal lesion scores and the effects
124
124
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

of ambient temperature on antibody production and bursal lesion scores were not significant. The pre-
dominant fatty acid profiles of the bursal tissue reflected that of the dietary sources. Significant alterations
of bursal fatty acid compositions were observed prior to and post-infection. The increased amount of
oleic acid was observed in all treatment groups possibly due to induced IBDV infection.

MG 4
Effect of replacing maize with graded levels of pigment extracted
annatto (Bixa orallena) seed meal on the performance of broilers
P. Senthilkumar, Y. Ramana Reddy, S. Ramesh, S. Gobinath,
V. Ravinder Reddy and D. V. G. Krishna Mohan
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India

The effect of quantitatively replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of dietary maize with pigment ex-
tracted annatto (Bixa orellana) seed meal (ASM) was investigated in broiler starter and finisher. Each
one of the 5 diets was offered as mash ad lib to 4 replicates of 32 chicks each, from 0-42 days of age.
Replacement of maize with ASM up to 25 per cent level did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the body
weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and visceral organs weight while pigmenta-
tion of shank and skin colour was significantly (P<0.05) lower compared to control. There was no mor-
tality in all the dietary treatments through out the experiment. Replacing the maize with ASM more than
25% in the diet decreased the growth performance, dressing percentage and increased the visceral organ
and intestine weights and length. The study indicates that maize could be replaced with ASM up to 25 per
cent level without affecting the performance and return over feed cost in broiler starter and finisher rations.

MG 5
Associative efficiency of dietary cereals and oilseed
byproducts for broiler performance
R. A. Patil, V. S. Jadhav, S. G. Narwade and R. K. Gaikwad
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying
Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani-431 402, India

To explore the possibility of utilization locally available feed material like sorghum, bajra and saf-
flower cake, an experiment was conducted on 240 day-old Vencob broiler chicks for 6 weeks by distrib-
uting them randomly in eight uniform groups with three replications of ten chicks each. The maize of
control diet was replaced by equal proportion of jowar and bajra each at 33 per cent levels. The soybean
meal and GNC were replaced at 3.5 and 7.0 per cent and at 5.0 and 8.0 per cent level, respectively by
safflower cake. The iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous starter and finisher rations were formulated as per
BIS (1992) standards. The weekly body weights and feed consumption by the birds fed with replacement
of maize by jowar and bajra each at 33% levels and SBM as sole protein source were significantly more
(P < 0.05) than other treatments including control. However, feed efficiency ratio was not efficient with
sole GNC and without maize feeding. The proximate composition revealed that CP was more in sorghum
and bajra than maize diets whereas CF, NFE and ME were higher in maize. It was concluded that use of
local cereals grains of jowar in starter and finisher rations did not adversely affect the total body weight
and weight grains in broilers.
125
125
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 6
Effect of copper sulphate treatment of mustard oil cake on
the growth perormance of broiler chickens
Gloria Ngullie, H. F. Ahmed, K. D. Baruah and N. C. Nath
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, AAU,
Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, India

Day old Vencobb broiler chicks (280) were randomly distributed in to seven treatment groups of 40
chicks having two replicates of 20 chicks each. Two isonitrogenous and isocaloric mash diets were pre-
pared as per BIS (1992) specification for nutrient composition for starter (0-28 days) and finisher (29-42
days) broilers. Maize, rice polish, de-oiled ground nut cake and fish meal with mineral mixture and com-
mon salt were used in the control diet (T1). Mustard oil cake (MOC) was incorporated at 10 and 15
percent levels to have T2 and T5 diets respectively. MOC was treated by mixing one kg of the cake with
aqueous copper sulphate (8g in 500 ml water) and incubated for 24 hours. The mixture was then sun
dried to its original weight and used at 10 percent (T4) and 15 percent (T7) level diets. T2 and T5 diets
were supplemented with Iodine (6.67 g Potassium iodide per kg MOC) to have T3 and T6 diets respec-
tively. Chicks were reared in battery brooder for the first 21 days and then shifted to deep litter for the
rest of the trial. All the standard feeding and management practices and heath care measures were adopted
during the trial . At the end of the feeding trial a three day metabolism trial was conducted and a few
randomly selected birds were slaughtered for study of carcass traits. Significantly (P<0.05) higher live
weight gain was achieved with T4 (10% treated MOC) diet compared to other diets. Feed intake, feed
conversion ratio, digestibility of organic nutrients and retention of nitrogen, Ca and P and carcass yields
were not significantly (P>0.05) affected either by copper sulphate treatment of MOC or by iodine supple-
mentation. Inclusion of MOC in experimental diets replacing parts of de-oiled GNC of control diet re-
sulted in lower cost of feeding per kg live weight gain in all the experimental diets compared to the control
diet mainly because MOC was about 40% cheaper than DOGNEC. On the basis of growth performance,
it was concluded that MOC treated with copper sulphate could be incorporated in broiler diets with
considerable economic advantage upto 15 percent level. However, Iodine supplementation did not seem
to have any additional benefit on broiler performance.

MG 7
Effect of orange pomace on performance of broiler
by partial replacement of maize
S. B. Patel, A. A. Zanzad, B. N. Ramteke and G. B. Deshmukh
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur 440006, India

An experiment was conducted to study effect of orange pomace on performance of broiler by


partial replacement of maize. One hundred day-old broiler chicks were distributed into 5 equal groups in
which control group was fed with standard broiler diet while in the remaining groups maize was replaced
by 5% (T1), 10% (T2), 15% (T3) and 20% (T4) orange pomace. The experimental diets were isocaloric
and isonitrogenous for all the experimental groups. Live body weight and weekly gain in weight was
increased significantly in 5% orange pomace group. No significant difference was observed in feed intake

126
126
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and feed efficiency among the treatment groups. The nitrogen retention and dressing percent was not
affected by replacement of maize with orange pomace. It was concluded that replacement of maize with
orange pomace upto 20% could be economical without affecting growth of broilers.

MG 8
Effect of locally available cereals and protein
sources on broiler production
A. A. Shah, V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and V. D. Patil
Department of Animal Nutrition, Veterinary College, Parbhani, India

The 180 straight run, day old commercial broiler chicks of “Vencob-300” were distributed into six
dietary treatments of 30 chicks with three replicates of 10 chicks each on equal body weight basis. The
experimental chicks were reared as per standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed form 0 to 6
weeks. The starter diet fed during 0-4 weeks containing 22.19 to 23.04 per cent crude protein and
2777.75 to 2901.9 Kcal / kg ME and finisher diet during 5 and 6 weeks containing 19.28 to 20.36 per
cent crude protein and 2856 to 3021.25 Kcal / kg ME. Six iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter and
finisher diets were prepared by replacing 50 per cent maize by pearl millet, combination of bajra and
jowar and using various levels of protein sources viz., soybean meal, groundnut cake and cotton seed
cake. The control diet T1 was prepared with maize as energy source and soybean meal as a sole veg-
etable protein source. In T2, T3 and T4 diet, 50 per cent of maize was replaced by bajra. In T5 and T6
diets, 50 maize was replaced by using bajra and jowar in equal proportions. The soybean meal was the
sole protein source in T2 while in T3 SBM and 5 per cent cotton seed meal was used as protein source.
In T4 SBM and 9 per cent cotton seed cake were sole protein sources. In T5 diet GNC and 5 per cent
cotton seed meal and in T6 diet GNC and 9 per cent cotton seed meal were the protein sources.
At the end of 6the week, average weekly cumulative body weights (g) in treatment T1, T2, T3, T4, T5
and T6 were 1566.76, 1548.15, 1529.81, 1447.43, 1221.8 and 1237.2 g, respectively. The broilers in
T1 (control) and T2 were different form each others with non-significant variation, had significantly (P<0.01)
superior body weight gain as compared to other treatment groups. The average feed consumption per
bird per day (g) was 67.4, 66.61, 68.03, 64.15, 55.46 and 55.83 g. The broilers in T3 consumed signifi-
cantly (P<0.01) superior in T2 (1.77) and T1 (1.78) as compared to T3 (1.81), T6 (1.86)and T5 (1.88).
The average body weight was the highest in birds fed diet T1 (control) (1566g) at end of 6th weeks
whereas average total feed consumption was the highest in T3 (2857.62g) at the end of 6th week, while
the feed required per kg live weight was the lowest in T1(1806.8g). Nevertheless on the basis of cost of
feed required to produce one kg live weight gain, treatment T2 (Rs.12.76) was superior amongst all,
followed by T5 (Rs.13.03), T3 (13.09), T1 (Rs.13.35) and T4 (Rs.13.55). Maize in control diet replaced
approximately by 50 per cent bajra and soybean meal as a sole protein source is economical in terms of
cost of feed per kg live weight gain. And taking into consideration the feed conversion ratio, it may be
seen that approximately 50 per cent bajra in place of maize (T2) was superior. It was concluded that the
maize in control diet can be replaced safely by 50 percent bajra and SBM as a sole protein source to
formulate economic ration for the broilers.

127
127
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 9
Replacement of groundnut cake by soybean meal in broiler ration
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and V. N. Ghadge
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

Two hundred, day old “Vencobb” broiler chicks were distributed into control and four dietary treat-
ments with two replicates of 20 chicks each on equal body weight basis. The experimental chicks were
reared as per standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed from 0-6 weeks of their age. The
experimental diet fed during 0-6 weeks containing 21.80 to 22.62 per cent crude protein and 2920.67 to
2978 Kcal / kg ME. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter diets were prepared by inclusion of
soybean meal in place of groundnut as T0 (control), T1 (25 per cent soybean meal), T2 (50 per cent
soybean meal) T3 (75 per cent soybean meal), T4 (100 per cent soybean meal). These diets were fed to
respective groups up to 6 weeks of age. The soybean meal contain dry matter 91.13 per cent, crude
protein 46.22 per cent, crude fibre 5.89 per cent, ether extract 19.91 per cent, total ash 6.89 per cent,
acid insoluble ash 3.01 per cent and nitrogen free extract 21.09 per cent on DMB. The average feed
intake per bird per day (g) in control group (T0) and treatment group T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 73.10,
75.78, 79.52 and 77.11 g respectively. The broilers in T3 group consumed significantly (P<0.01) more
feed than T4, T2, T1 and T0 but statistically at par with T4, T2 and T1. At the end of 6th week, average
weekly cumulative body weight (g) in control T0 and treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 1392.80, 1485.50,
1531.20, 1665.00 and 1651.60 respectively. The chicks under T3 and T4 group grew significantly
(P<0.01) faster as compared to all other treatment groups followed by T2, T1 and T0. However, T3 and T4
was significantly (P<0.01) superior in weight gain over T2, T1 and T0 groups. At the end of 6th week,
average weight gain (g) in birds in treatments T3, T4, T2, T1 and T0 were 269.60, 267.35, 247.11, 239.60
and 224.22 g respectively. The broilers in T3 and T4 did not differ from each other with non significant
variation and had significantly (P< 0.01) superior body weight gain than T1, T2 and T0 treatments groups.
The feed efficiency ratio was significantly (P< 0.01) superior in T4 (1.177) as compared to T3 (1.81), T2
(1.86), T1 (1.93) and T0 (2.00).The average body weight was the highest in birds fed diet T3 (1665 g) at
the end of 6th weeks. However, birds in treatments T4 and T2 has comparable body weight with T3 i.e.
1651.60 g and 1531.20 g, respectively. Average total feed intake was highest in T3 (2862.92 g) at the
end of 6th week. While the feed required per kg live weight was lowest in T0 (2631.65 g), nevertheless,
on the basis of cost of feed required to produce one kg weight gain in T3 (Rs.14.45) was superior
amongst all followed by T4 (Rs. 14.66), T2(Rs. 15.70), T1 (Rs.15.94)and T0 (16.39). The highest net
profit per bird was obtained in T3 (Rs.22.84) followed by T4 (Rs. 22.53), T2 (Rs. 16.76) and T0 (Rs.
13.69). The overall result of the experiment indicated that the ground nut cake in control diet can be
replaced safely up to 25 per cent level by soybean meal to formulate economic ration for the broilers.

128
128
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 10
Effect of replacement of maize by pearlmillet at different
levels on the performance of broiler (Vanaraja)
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and S. L. Salunke
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

One hundred fifty straight run, day old ‘Vanaraja’ chicks were distributed into control and four di-
etary treatments with three replicates of 10 chicks each on equal body weight basis. The experimental
chicks were reared as pr standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed form 0-8 weeks. The
starter diet fed during 0-6 weeks containing 22.84 to 23.16 per cent crude protein and 2852.5 to 2898.3
Kcal/kg ME and finisher diet fed during 7th and 8th weeks were containing 19.10 to 19.75 per cent crude
protein and 2843.5 to 2944 Kcal/kg ME. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric starter and finisher diets
were prepared by inclusion of pearl millet in place of maize as T0 (control), T1 (25 per cent pearl millet),
T2 (50 per cent pearl millet), T3 (75 per cent pearl millet) and T4 (100 per cent pearl millet). These diets
were fed to respective groups up to 8 weeks of age. The pearl millet grains contained dry matter 90.02
per cent, crude protein 10.98 per cent, crude fibre 2.76 per cent, ether extract 3.94 per cent, total ash
1.88 per cent, acid insoluble ash 1.13 per cent and nitrogen free extract 80.44 per cent on DMB. At the
end of 8th week, average weekly cumulative body weight (g) in control (T0) and treatments T1, T2, T3
were 1173.8, 1142.52, 1093.86, 974.25 and 915.92, respectively. The chicks under control group T0
grew significantly (P< 0.01) faster as compared to all other treatment groups followed by T1, T2, T3, and
T4, however, T1 and T2 groups were comparable in weight gains with T0. Group T0, T1 and T2 were
significantly (P< 0.01) superior in weight gain over T3 and T4 groups. At the end of 8th week, average
daily weight gain (g) in birds in treatment T0 (control), T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 17.68, 17.15, 16.43, 14.55
and 13.63 g. respectively. The broilers in T0 (control), T1, T2 did not differ form each other with non
significant variation and had significantly (P< 0.01) superior body weight gain than T3 and T4 treatment
groups. The average feed consumption per bird per day (g) in control group (T0) and treatment group T1,
T2, T3 and T4 was 39.36, 39.34, 35.64, 31.22 and 32.95 g, respectively. The broilers in T0 consumed
significantly (P< 0.01) more feed than T2, T3 and T4 but statistically at par with T1. The feed conversion
ratio was significantly (P<0.01) superior in T3 (2.18) as compared to T2 (2.30), T1 (2.32) and T4 (2,41).
The average body. The average body weight was the highest in birds fed diet T0 (control) 1173.8 g at the
end of 8th weeks, however, birds in treatment T1 and T2 were comparable body weight with T0 i.e.
1142.52 and 1093.86 g respectively. Average total feed consumption was highest in T0 (2519 g) at the
end of 8th week, while the feed required per kg live weight was lowest in T3 (2051.24 g). Nevertheless,
on the basis of cost of feed required to produce one kg live weight gain in T3 (Rs. 17.53) was superior
amongst all, followed by T2 (Rs. 17.73), T1 (Rs.18.44), T0 (Rs.18.46) and T4 (Rs. 18.97). The highest
net profit per bird was obtained in the T0 (Rs.23.99) followed by T1(Rs.23.04), T3(Rs.2229.) and com-
parably less for T3(Rs.18.62) and T4 (Rs. 15.39). The overall result of the experiment indicated that the
maize in control diet can be replaced safely up to 50 per cent level by pearl millet to formula.

129
129
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 11
Economic level of inclusion of mango seed kernel
in the broiler starter ration
Dharmendra Kumar, Ayodhya Prasad and Chandramoni
Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-800 014, India

An experiment was conducted on 200 broiler chicks at poultry farm of Bihar Veterinary College,
Patna to find out the economic level of inclusion of mango seed kernel in the broiler ration. The five rations
containing 0 % (T1), 2.5 % (T2), 5 % (T3), 7.5 % (T4) and 10 % (T5) mango seed kernel were fed to
broiler starters from 0-4 weeks of age. The cost of feed per kg was calculated by adding price of
different feed ingredients used in different treatments and it was Rs. 9.46, 9.32, 9.17, 9.03 and 8.88,
respectively. The price of the feed per kg was reduced as the level of mango seed kernel was increased
in the feed and was minimum in 10 % inclusion with no adverse effect on performance and carcass quality.
The net profit per bird was calculated by subtracting total input per bird from total output per bird and it
was observed that Rs. 16.05, 15.96, 16.11, 16.36 and 16.42, respectively and percent net profit (%)
45.29, 45.34, 46.01, 47.05 and 47.23, respectively. Treatment T4 and T5 gave higher net profit suggest-
ing that mango seed kernel can be economically incorporated up to 10 % levels in broiler starter ration.

MG 12
Effect of inclusion of mango seed kernel in ration on the
carcass quality of broiler starter
Dharmendra Kumar, Ayodhya Prasad and Chandramoni
Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-800 014, India

An experiment was conducted on 200 broiler chicks at poultry farm of Bihar Veterinary College,
Patna to find out effect of inclusion of mango seed kernel in ration on the carcass quality of broiler starter.
The five rations containing 0% (T1), 2.5% (T2), 5% (T3), 7.5% (T4) and 10% (T5) mango seed kernel
were fed to broiler starters from 0-4 weeks of age. The average (arc sin transformed values) dressing
weight percentage were 57.56±0.18, 57.64±0.10, 57.64±0.13, 57.57±0.09 and 57.59±0.02, eviscer-
ated percentage 51.39±0.95, 51.39 ±0.1, 51.33±0.2, 51.34±0.07 and 51.41±0.08, ready to cook chicken
weight percentage 54.54±0.14, 54.5±0.13, 54.54±0.19, 54.59±0.07 and 54.63±0.12, liver weight
8.69±0.03, 8.56±0.08, 8.72±0.06, 8.66±0.04 and 8.66±0.04, gizzard weight 8.84±0.04, 8.79±0.04,
8.85±0.04, 8.85±0.03 and 8.79±0.04, heart weight 3.85±0.07, 3.89±0.03, 3.88±0.04, 3.88±0.03 and
3.89±0.04 and spleen weight 2.30±0.04, 2.37±0.05, 2.28±0.06, 2.33±0.07 and 2.27±0.04 under T1,
T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively did not differ significantly among various levels of inclusions. It was con-
cluded that mango seed kernel can be incorporated up to 10 % level with no adverse effect on perfor-
mance and carcass quality of broiler starter.

130
130
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 13
Growth performance of broilers fed sugarcane
press residue incorporated diets
B. N. Suresh, B. S. V. Reddy, R. G. Gloridoss, T. M. Prabhu and K. C. Singh
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College, KVAFSU (Bidar), Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India

To find out the feasibility of inclusion of sugarcane press residue (SPR) in the diets of broilers, day
old straight-run commercial broiler chicks (n=360) were assigned to twelve dietary treatments. Three
isonitorgenous and iso-caloric experimental diets containing 0, 5 and 10 per cent SPR replacing the
relevant organic nutrients as well as mineral sources. Further, each diet was supplemented with lipid
utilizing agents (lipase and lecithin) or NSP degrading enzymes or their combination to result in another 8
test diets. Each such diet prepared for starter (0-14 days), grower (15-28 days) and finisher (29-42days)
phases were offered to triplicate groups of 10 chicks each. The results revealed a significant (P<0.01)
difference among various treatments in body weight gain during all the phases as well as cumulatively
(1738 to 2081 g/bird); in feed consumption during starter phase (396 to 453 g/bird); in feed efficiency
ratio during starter (1.53 to 1.76) and finisher phase (1.79 to 2.34 unit-feed/unit-gain). The net returns,
performance index and economic index scores were significantly (P<0.05) different among groups. With
regards to the main factors, SPR level (0, 5 and 10%) showed significant differences among treatments
for all the growth performance parameters studied while the biotechnological approaches showed non-
significant (P>0.05) differences. In general, as the level of SPR increased in diets, there was a decreased
performance of broilers and none of the biotechnological approaches proved to be effective in improving
the nutritive value of SPR.

MG 14
Effect of dietary concentrations of lysine and methionine
on performance of Vanaraja breeder chicks
A. K. Panda, S. V. Rama Rao, M. V. L. N. Raju, G. Shyam Sunder,
M. R. Reddy and R. P. Sharma
Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30, India

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary concentrations of lysine (Lys) and me-
thionine (Met) on performance of Vanaraja breeder (female parent line) chicks during juvenile stage. Four
hundred thirty two, day-old chicks (Vanaraja female line) were distributed randomly into 9 treatment
groups with 8 replicates of 6 chicks each. The chicks were reared on raised wire floor battery brooders
under optimum managemental conditions. A basal diet was formulated to contain 2600kcal/kg ME, 20%
CP, 0.9% lysine and 0.36% methionine. Subsequently nine test diets were formulated to contain 3 differ-
ent concentrations of Lys (0.9, 1.0 and 1.1%) and Met (0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) each in factorial manner.
Each experimental diet was fed ad libitum to eight replicates of six chicks each during 0-6 weeks of age.
The interaction between Lys and Met for body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, antibody titre to SRBC,
cell mediated immune response in response to PHA-P inoculation, slaughter traits (dressing weight, giblet
and abdominal fat content) and weight of immune organs (spleen, bursa and thymus) were found to be
non significant. However, body weight gain was influenced independently by the main factor Lys and Met.

131
131
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Birds fed diet containing 1.0% Lys gained significantly (P<0.05) higher weight as compared to that of 0.9
or 1.1% Lys. Body weight gain increased non-significantly by enhancing the level of Met from 0.4 to
0.5%, however, further increasing the level to 0.6% reduced the weight gain. Neither Lys nor Met levels
in diet influenced feed conversion ratio, humoral, and cell mediated immune response, slaughter traits and
weight of immune organs like bursa and spleen. Thymus weight, though influenced by the levels of Lys in
the diet, no definite trend could be observed. Thymus weight increased significantly by enhancing the
levels of Met to 0.6%, however, no difference in immune response could be observed. The findings of the
present study suggested that Vanaraja breeder (female parent line) chicks require 1% lysine (Lys: CP-
0.05) and 0.4% methionine (Met: CP-0.02) in diet for realizing optimum performance during 0 to 6
weeks of age.

MG 15
Effect of supplementation of diammonium phosphate as
a phosphorous source on the performance of broilers
Lakshmi Kant, Chandramoni, Ayodhya Prasad, Deepak Chaurasia
Department of Animal Nutrition, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-14, India

An experiment was conducted to study the possible beneficial effects of supplementation of DAP as
an alternative phosphorous source. Day-old broiler chicks (200 in number) were distributed randomly into
5 groups (2 replicates of 20 Chicks each). Each group were offered starter diets (0-4 weeks) and finisher
diets (4-6 weeks) ad lib. Mineral mixture was formulated in which Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was main
source of phosphorous (T1). For formulating other mineral mixture DCP was replaced with DAP @25%
(T2), 50 % (T3), 75% (T4) and 100% (T5) for different groups. Performance of broilers was measured in
term of body weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and performance Index (P.I.) during 0-
4 weeks and 4-6 weeks. Body weight gain of broilers ranged at the end of 6 weeks from 1714.95±1.06
gm to 1915.05±1.35 gm. There was a significant (P<0.05) effect of treatment on body weight gain during
0-6 weeks. Broilers fed mineral mixture containing 50% DAP had gained highest body weight. Feed
intake of broilers ranged at the end of 6 weeks from 3576.00±0.20 gm to 3857.00±0.80 gm. FER of
broilers ranged at the end of 6 weeks from 0.472±0.0005 to 0.496±0.0005. There was significant (P<0.005)
effect of treatment on FER. P.I. of broilers at the end of 6 weeks ranged from 809.40±1.40 to 949.80±1.75.
There was significant (P<0.05) effect of treatment on P.I. Use of DAP instead of DCP in broilers diet was
found to be beneficial. Even complete replacement of DCP with DAP was found to be economical and
showed no adverse effect in their growth.

MG 16
Studies on feeding different calcium source on the performance
of commercial broiler chicken
Deepak Chaurasia, Chandramoni, Ayodhya Prasad, Lakshmi Kant
Department of Animal Nutrition, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-14, India

An experiment was conducted on day old chicks to study the effect of feeding different Calcium
sources on the performance of commercial broiler chicken. Study was carried out on 100 birds for 42
days. Birds were divided into four groups randomly and were supplemented with four different calcium
source. In the four group T1, T2, T3 and T4 the source of calcium was limestone, oyster shell, calcium
132
132
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

carbonate and marble powder, respectively. No significant effect of different calcium source supplementa-
tion on the growth performance, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR). Performance index (P.I.) and
carcass characteristics was found. Although total body weight of broiler at 6th week of age was observed
highest in oyster shell supplemented group followed by calcium carbonate, limestone and marble powder
fed group. Same trend was seen in feed intake, FCR and P.I. Different calcium supplementation did not
influence carcass characteristics in terms of dressing%, eviscerated% and meat : bone ratio. The tibial
bone ash percent was significantly (P<0.05) higher in oyster shell group. The observation of bone calcium
percent in bird were also in the same trend. The bone phosphorous level were also in positive correlation
with that of bone calcium content. The observation of metabolic trial showed that nitrogen utilization in
birds showed no variation due to variation in calcium source although highest value was observed in
oyster shell group. Study revealed that the highest calcium and phosphorous utilization percent was ob-
served in oyster shell followed by calcium carbonate, limestone and marble powder group.

MG 17
Influence of varied protein and critical amino acids in diet on
multicolored commercial broiler chicks
M. V. L. N. Raju, S. V. Rama Rao, A. K. Panda, G. Shyam Sunder and B. L. N. Reddy
Project Directorate on Poultry
Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500 030, India

A study was conducted for evaluating the response of multicoloured commercial broiler chicks (Krishibro)
to varied dietary concentration of protein and critical amino acids. A total of 360 day-old broiler chicks
were divided into a total of 9 groups with 8 replicates of 5 chicks each. Nine experimental diets were
compounded to contain protein and critical amino acids (lysine and total sulfur amino acids-TSA) as per
NRC or reduced by 10 and 20% either independently or jointly during starter and finisher phases and fed
from 0 to 42 days of age. Body weight at 2 wks was comparable in the groups fed control, low (-10 &
-20%) protein with normal amino acid levels and low (-10%) protein with low (-10%) level of either of
the amino acids tested. But with advancement of age, diet with marginally low (-10%) level of protein and
TSA gave the highest body weight, which was better than the control at 6 weeks. Similar growth was seen
in the group fed low (-10%) level of protein but with normal amino acids.
Feed intake of chicks was not affected, while feed conversion efficiency at 3 weeks was better in the
group fed 20% less protein with normal levels of lysine and TSA as compared to control. However, at 6
weeks of age, no differences were recorded. Serum biochemical profile (protein, triglycerides and choles-
terol concentration) was not affected. Ready to cook weight, giblet, bursa, thymus, and spleen weights
were not affected. However, abdominal fat deposition was higher in all the groups where protein and
critical amino acid levels were reduced except in the groups fed 20% less protein with normal amino acid
levels and 10% less protein and lysine with normal TSA. The highest amount of fat deposition was seen in
the group fed 20% less protein and lysine with normal TSA. Humoral immune response was not affected.
Based on the overall findings, it is concluded that marginal reduction of protein (-10 to -20%) with normal
levels of lysine and TSA or 10% reduction in TSA was optimum for coloured broiler chicks during 0-6
weeks of age.

133
133
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 18
Effect of feeding different levels of essential amino acids
with vegetable protein on performance of broiler
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and P. V. Patil
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

Two hundred, day old straight run broiler chicks of “Vencob-300” strain were distributed into 5 equal
groups with tow replications of 20 chicks. The experimental chicks were reared as per standard on deep
litter system in well ventilated shed form 0-6 weeks. The starter diet was fed during 0-4 weeks containing
23.16 per cent crude protein and 2876.75 Kcal/kg ME and finisher diet was offered during 5-6 weeks
containing 20.12 per cent crude protein and 2951.34 Kcal/kg ME. An essential amino acid mixture was
added in experimental maize-soybean based ration at four levels @0.010 per cent, 0.030 per cent and
0.040 per cent to form treatments T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Group T0 was without essential amino
acid mixture served as control group. At the end of 6th week average cumulative body weights (g) inT0,
T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 1770.98, 1863.16, 1847.5,1822 and 1840 respectively. The daily weight gain (g)
at the end of 6th week was 41.15, 43.33, 42.92, 42.30 and 42.72 for T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4 in that order.
The broiler chicks in T1, T2 and T4 treatment groups grew significantly (P< 0.01) faster as compared to
those in control group. The growth of broiler chicks in T3 group was statistically at par with that of control
(T0). Average weight gains in T1, T2, T3 and T4 did not differ significantly from each other. The average
feed consumption per bird (g) was 81.92, 84.20, 83.04, 82.00 in T0, T1, T2 and T4 groups, respectively
in that order. The broilers in T1 group consumed significantly (P<0.01) more feed as compared to those in
T1, T2, T3 and T4. The broilers in T2 and T4 group consumed significantly (P<0.01) more feed as com-
pared to T0 and T3. Feed consumption of broiler chicks in T0 and T3 was statistically at par. No significant
difference in feed consumption was recorded for chicks in treatment group T0 and T3. The feed conver-
sion ratio at the end of 6th week was 1.9242, 1.9408, 2.018, 1.9267 and 1.86 was recorded for T0, T1,
T2, T3 and T4 groups respectively. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (P<0.01) better in T4
over T2 group. FCR in T0, T1, T3 and T4 did not differ statistically. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain
was highest for T4 (Rs. 17.13) group followed by T0 (Rs.17.11), T1 (Rs.17.07), T3 (Rs.16.99) and the
lowest for T2 (Rs. 16.86) group. The live body weight was highest in treatment group T1 (1863.16 g)
followed by T2 (1847.5 g), T4 (1840 g), T3 (1822 g) and the lowest in T0 (1770.98 g) control group. The
net profit per bird was highest in T1 (Rs.15.38) followed by T2 (Rs.15.07), T4 (Rs.14.46), T3 (Rs.14.41)
and the lowest for T0 (Rs.13.39) control group. The overall result of the experiment indicated that T1 was
economical for broiler production as compared to T0, T2, T3 and T4 groups. The treatment groups T2, T3
and T4 were economically better than control but they did not show any advantage over T1 group. From
the overall observation of the study it can be inferred that the inclusion of essential amino acid mixture at
0.010 per cent level seems to be beneficial as compared to the inclusion of higher levels in broiler ration
containing soybean oil meal as principal source of vegetable protein.

134
134
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 19
Efect of feeding different levels of spirulina on
the performance of broilers
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and B.B. Waghmode
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

Two hundred, day old, commercial straight run broiler chicks of ‘vencob’ strain were distributed into
four equal groups with two replication of 25 chicks. The experimental broiler chicks were reared as per
standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed from 0-6 weeks. The starter ration contained 22.50
per cent crude protein and Finisher ration contained 20.42 per cent crude protein and metabolizable
energy contents were 2803.80 kcal/kg and 2841.20 kcal/kg during 0-6 weeks for starter and finisher
rations respectively. The spirulina was added in experimental ration at three different levels @ 0.05 per
cent, 0.075 per cent and 0.1 per cent to from treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Group T0 was without
spirulina and served as control group. At the end of 6th week average cumulative body weights (g) in T0,
T1, T2 and T3 were 1649.30, 1888.60, 1725.00 and 1778.50 respectively. The daily weight gains (g) at
the end of 6th week were 38.18, 45.58, 39.99, and 41.26 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively. The
broiler chicks under group T1 grew significantly (P<0.01) faster as compared to those in T0 (control)
group. The chicks in treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 grew significantly (P<0.01) faster than control T0
group. The birds under T2 and T3 grew significantly (P<0.01) faster than T0 control group. No statistical
difference was observed in growth rate of chicken in T2 and T3 group. The average feed consumption per
bird per day (g) was 74.69, 74.61, 72.76 and 75.52 for chicks in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively.
The birds in T2 group consumed significantly (P<0.01) lower feed as compared to T0, T1 and T3. Feed
consumption by chicks in control group T0, T1 and T3 did not differ significantly. The feed conversion ratio
at the end of 6th week was 1.96, 1.76, 1.84 and 1.83 for treatment group T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively.
The feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.01) better in all spirulina fed groups T1, T2 and T3 as
compared to control T0 group. However, feed conversion ratio among T1, T2 and T3 group did not differ
significantly. The cost (Rs.) per kg live weight gain was highest for T0 (19.019) control group followed by
T3 (18.95), T2 (18.45) and lowest for T1 (16.92) group. The live body weight was highest in treatment T1
(1888.60g), followed by T3 (1778.5g), T2 (1725g) and T0 (1649g) control group. The net profit per bird
was highest in T1 (Rs.30.8562) followed by T3 (Rs.24.48), T2 (Rs.24.12) and lowest in T0 control (21.4018).
Nevertheless, on the basis of cost of feed required for one kg live weight in treatment T1 was economical
for broiler production as compared to other treatments and control group. The treatment group T2 and T3
were economically better over control but did not show any advantage over T1.From the over all obser-
vations of the study it can inferred that, the inclusion of spirulina at 0.05 per cent level seems to be
beneficial as compared to the inclusion of higher (0.075 per cent and 0.1 per cent) levels in broiler diets.

135
135
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 20
Ameliorating effects of a natural clay to counteract
aflatoxicosis in broilers
Milad Manafi, B. Umakantha and A. Shrivastava
Department of Poultry Science, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore, 560 024, India

In an in vivo study, dietary levels of aflatoxin (AF) (0.5 ppm) and High-grade bentonite (HGB) (0.5,
0.75 and 1.0%) were tested forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates on a total of
336, one day-old commercial broilers. Results of feeding up to fifth week of HGB and AF incorporation
in standard broiler ration showed that chicks receiving AF contaminated feed had suppressed body weight
which significantly (P<0.05) improved with inclusion of 0.75 and 1.0 per cent HGB. Feed consumption
was significantly (P<0.05) reduced at 0.5 ppm AF inclusion compared to control diets. HGB supplemen-
tation at 0.75 and 1.0 per cent to the diets containing AF significantly (P<0.05) (9.97 and 9.15%, respec-
tively) improved the feed consumption and it remained non significant with control diet. Efficiency of feed
utilization decreased significantly (P<0.05) with addition of 0.5 ppm AF, whereas improved with inclusion
of 0.75 and 1.0 per cent HGB. High mortality rate of 14.20 per cent was observed in group fed with diet
containing 0.5 ppm AF. Mortality rate was reduced considerably in control as well as in the groups
supplemented with 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 per cent HGB. The relative thymus (38.99%) and bursal weights
(31.36%) were significantly (P<0.05) lower at 0.5 ppm inclusion of AF group compared to control diet.
The thymus and bursal weights were not altered by supplementation of varying levels of HGB compared
to control diets. Compared with control, relative weight of spleen was not affected either in AF fed group
or HGB supplemented groups. The Serum antibody titres against ND and IBD vaccination were signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) depressed by AF, and restored to control level with the inclusion of 1.0 per cent HGB.

MG 21
Binding ability of high grade bentonite to overcome mycotoxicosis
of performance, relative organ weights and immune
status of commercial broilers
Milad Manafi, B. Umakantha1 and N. Pirany2
1
Department of Poultry Science, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore, 560 024, India;
2
Department of Animal Science, Agriculture Faculty, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

In an in vivo trial, dietary levels of ochratoxin A (OA) (1.0 ppm), T-2 toxin (T-2) (2 ppm) and High-
grade bentonite (HGB) at 1.0 per cent were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a
total of 8 dietary treatments, each with three replicates, total of 336, day-old commercial broilers, in a
replicated manner till five weeks of age. Body weight of birds were significantly (P<0.05) depressed by
OA (57.40%), T-2 (2.87%) and OA plus T-2 (62.65%) toxin treatments. Body weight was highly de-
pressed with combined feeding of OA plusT-2. Supplementation of 1.0 per cent HGB to OA, and OA
plus T-2 containing diets did not show significant improvement in body weight at all ages, but with T-2
alone fed group showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in body weight till fourth week of age. Feed
intake was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in all toxin fed groups at fifth week of age. The reduction in feed
intake was severe in combined toxin (OA + T-2) fed group (48.55 %), followed by OA (46.69%) and T-
2 (33.10%) alone fed group. Supplementation of 1.0 per cent HGB to OA, T-2 alone and OA plus T-2

136
136
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

combination containing diets did not improve cumulative feed consumption as compared to toxin fed
group. Cumulative FCR was significantly (P<0.05) affected by OA, T-2 and OA plus T-2 combination
treatments. Poorest efficiency of feed utilization was recorded in OA plusT-2 combination treated group.
Supplementation of 1.0 per cent HGB to OA, T-2 alone and OA plusT-2 combination containing diets did
not improve feed conversion ratio values as compared to their respective toxin fed groups. The relative
weight of bursa was significantly (P<0.05) depressed in the OA plus T-2 combination fed group (58.35%),
followed by OA (42.0%) and T-2 (33.50%) alone fed groups, while that of thymus weight was signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) reduced in the groups fed OA plus T-2 combination (50.0%), followed by T-2 (50.0%)
and OA (40.98%) alone fed group as compared to control group at fifth week of age. The supplementa-
tion of 1.0 per cent HGB did not improve relative weights of bursa and thymus as compared to toxin fed
groups. Compared with control, relative weight of spleen was not affected either in toxin fed group or
control, HGB supplemented groups. Serum antibody titres against ND and IBD vaccines were signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) depressed at fifth week of age in toxin fed groups. The depression was greatest in OA
plus T-2 combination group, followed by OA and T-2 alone fed groups. HGB supplementation to toxin
containing and control diets did not show significant improvement in antibody titres against ND and IBD
vaccines at fifth week of age.

MG 22
Effect of virginiamycin on broilers fed two different levels of protein
M. C. Shivakumar, M. Manafi, Ramachandra and B. Umakantha
Department of Poultry Science, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore, 560 024, India

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance promoting ability of antibiotic virginiamycin.
Three hundred and fifty two day-old chicks were randomly divided into four treatments of four replica-
tion. Birds were reared up to 6 weeks on standard management condition. The dietary treatments were
comprised of two levels of protein (20 and 21% during starter and 20 and 19 in finisher stage) with and
without virginiamycin (@20 ppm during starter and 10 ppm during finisher phase). The basal ratio had
2900 kcal/kg and 2950 kcal/kg of energy during starter and finisher phase respectively. Weekly data on
body weight, feed efficiency and viability was recorded. Biweekly intestinal bacterial load was estimated
and litter quality judged at the end of trial. Non-significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight was ob-
served in virginiamycin supplemented groups as compared to unsupplemented groups. Improvement of 41
gms of body weight in normal protein with virginiamycin and extra 11 gms in suboptimal protein with
virginiamycin diets over their respective controls were recorded. Significantly better feed efficiency was
recorded in both supplemented groups over their respective controls. Better body weight with lower feed
consumption was recorded in birds fed normal protein with virginiamycin diet and suboptimal protein with
virginiamycin diet. In both the antibiotic supplemented groups, 100 per cent livability was noticed where
as 98.75 per cent and 96.25 per cent livability was recorded in unsupplemented groups of normal protein
and suboptimal protein diets respectively. Litter score and litter moisture (p<0.05) differed significantly
among the groups. Litter score and moisture was lower in supplemented groups. Litter moisture in normal
protein with and with out virginiamycin did not differ significantly. There was drastic reduction in total
viable bacterial count (CFU/g) and total cocci count (CFU/g) of intestinal content in antibiotic supple-
mented groups. It differed significantly (P<0.05) among unsupplemented groups. Cost benefit analysis
yielded grater return in virginiamycin supplemented groups. In conclusion antibiotic virginiamycin improved
the overall performance of bird both in normal protein and also in suboptimal protein.

137
137
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 23
Effects of supplemental chromium picolinate on growth
performance and nutrient utilization in broilers
Atul Patil1, Jyoti Palod1, D. P. Tiwari1, Ashok Kumar2
1
Department of Animal Nutrition; 2Department of Livestock Production & Management;
G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, India

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium supplementation on growth
performance, nutrient utilization in broilers. Day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed in com-
pletely randomized design into 4 treatment groups each with 2 replicates of 14 chicks. The whole trial was
replicated once more and the data of both the trials were pooled for analysis and inference purpose. The
broilers of treatment group T1 (control) were provided water without chromium while those of T2, T3 and
T4 were provided water containing 200, 400 and 600 ppb chromium (as chromium picolinate)/litre, re-
spectively. The results of both the experiments indicated that there was significant (P<0.05) impact of
dietary treatments on the weight gain, FCR and performance index of broilers. A reduction in feed intake
was observed during the finisher as well as experimental period, however improvements in FCR and
performance index was noted only during the starter phase by supplementation of chromium. The nutrient
utilization in terms of crude protein, crude fat, total ash, calcium and phosphorous were significantly (P<0.05)
improved in broilers of the chromium supplemented groups. It is concluded that supplemental chromium
may be used as a tool to impart positive influence on the overall performance of broilers.

MG 24
Effect of supplementation of Vitamin D3 at varying Ca:tP ratios
on the growth performance of broiler chicks
Jaswinder Singh* and S. S. Sikka
Department of Animal Nutrition; *Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension
GADVASU, Ludhiana-141004, India

A feeding trial using broiler chicks was conducted to see the effect of supplementation of vitamin D3
at varying Ca:tP ratios. A total of 192 chicks of one week age were randomly distributed in sixteen groups
of twelve chicks in each. Four wheat based diets with Ca:tP ratio of 1:1,1.2:1,1.4:1 and 2:1 were formu-
lated by varying deoiled rice bran and lime stone powder. Eight experimental diets with or without vitamin
D3 (600 IU) were constituted and randomly allocated to a duplicate group of chicks. The findings indi-
cated that supplementation of vitamin D3 at different Ca:tP ratios significantly (P<0.01) affected body
weight, weight gain, FCR, PCR and CCR (1-3rd and 1-5th week) and weight gain and feed intake (4-5th
week). Widening of Ca:tP ratio irrespective of vitamin D3 significantly (P<0.01) affected the feed lot
performance of the birds (1-3rd week). However irrespective of Ca:tP ratios, supplementation of vitamin
D3 significantly (P<0.01) affected feed consumption during 1-3,4-5 and entire growth period of 1-5 weeks
of age.

138
138
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 25
Effect of dietary supplementation of organic acids on performance of
broiler chicken on Salmonella gallinarum contaminated broiler feed
R. K. Swain, D. Thirumeignanam and D. Chhotaray
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, India

Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of dietary organic acids (Acifed-FS) on the
performance of broiler birds fed with Salmonella gallinarum contaminated broiler diets. In experiment
one the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of artificially contaminated (1.50x106 cfu/kg) broiler diets at
0,1,3,5 and 7 days after treatment with 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% Acifed-FS was studied in vitro. Various
Acifed-FS levels in vitro showed a reduction in the pH of the diet depending upon the concentration of
Acifed-FS resulting in the significant (P<0.05) reduction of Salmonella colonization for all treatments with
time after treatment. In experiment two, day-old, straight-run Cobb broiler chicks (375) randomly distrib-
uted into five groups (three replicates of 25 chicks each) were offered either basal diet without S. gallinarum
challenge (negative control; NC), NC challenge with Salmonella gallinarum @ 1.50x106 cfu/kg (C), C
supplemented with organic acids (Acifed-FS) @ 0.5kg/ton (AS1), @ 1 kg/ton (AS2) and @ 1.5 kg/ton
(AS3). The average pH and Salmonella load of crop, gizzard, duodenal and caecal contents collected on
15th, 30th and 42nd day of experimental period were significantly reduced (P<0.01) in AS2 and AS3 com-
pared to AS1, NC and C. Mortality rate was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in AS1, AS2 and AS3 compared
to NC and C. The body weight of broilers at 6th week of age was significantly higher (P<0.01) in AS2 and
AS3 as compared to other groups. Feed conversion efficiency was better in AS2 as compared to other
groups. The ileal digestibility of nutrients and retentions of N, Ca and P were higher in AS2 and AS3
compared to other groups. The results indicate that addition of Acifed-FS in a total concentration of 1%
to the diet of broiler chicks significantly decreased the contamination of diet with S. gallinarum and
improved the nutrient utilization and production performances.

MG 26
Effect of selenium and /or turmeric powder on growth performance
of broiler chickens reared under heat stress condition
Zeinali1, A. Riasi1, H. Kermanshahi2, H. Farhangfar1, and H. Ziaie1
1
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran; 2Department of
Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

An experiment was conducted using 180 (Ross x Ross) broiler chickens to evaluate the effect of
different levels of sodium selenite (Se) and turmeric powder (TP) on growth performance of broilers. One
day old chickens were randomly allocated to 6 treatments (T1=control, T2= control + 5 g TP /kg, T3=
control+10 g TP /kg, T4=control+0.3 mg Se /kg, T5=control + 0.3 mg Se + 5 g TP /kg, and T6=
control+0.3 mg Se+10 g TP /kg), 3 replicates and 10 birds each. The air temperature was increased (32-
35°C) from day 28 to day 42. Feed intake, daily gain and feed conversion rate (FCR) was recorded
weekly until the end of experiment. The results showed final body weight and weight gain was the highest
for T3 (P<0.05). At the end of experiment FCR in T4 (1.88) was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those

139
139
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

the others. Interactions between Se and TP was significant (P<0.05) for body weight, weight gain, and
FCR at the different weeks. Concluded that supplementation the broiler chicken diets with selenium and
turmeric powder is important for heat stress suppression.

MG 27
Economics of broiler chicken as attributed by
probiotic feeding in Nagaland
Akangnungla, V. K. Vidyarthi, V. B. Sharma and Nizamuddin
Department of Animal Production & Management
Nagaland University, SASRD, Medziphema-797106, Nagaland, India

Commercial broiler chicks of Hubbard strain (120 nos.) were randomly distributed into four treat-
ment groups of 30 chick each. The chicks in group 1 (T1, control) were fed standard basal diet (broiler
starter and finisher) upto 42 days of age. The chicks of group 2, 3 and 4 were also fed the same basal
diet as in T1 along with commercial probiotics, namely Promix-Y forte at the rate of 200 g (T2), 400 g (T3)
and 600 g (T4) per tonne of feed. The overall cost of production was 75.84, 75.94, 75.52 and 77.56
rupees | bird in the groups T1,T2,T3 and T4, respectively which were 42.79, 47.10, 44.94 and 46.67
rupees / kg live weight of bird, respectively. The gross income was 113.47, 112.86, 117.62 rupees | bird
in the respectively groups of birds. Net profit was 37.63, 36.91, 42.10 and 38.76 rupees | birds in the
groups T1,T2,T3 and T4, respectively and when the profit was calculated on the basis of per kg live weight,
the values were 23.22, 22.89,25.05 and 23.32 rupees | kg live weight of bird in the T1,T2,T3 and T4
groups, respectively. It was also evident that out of the total expenditure, the share of feed cost was about
64 percent, while the share of chick cost was around 23 percent each and the remaining was miscella-
neous cost inclusive of labour charges and cost of probiotics. It was concluded that feeding of probiotic
(Promix-Y forte) at 400 g level to hubbard strain of broiler chicken is beneficial in terms of net return on
per kg live weight in Nagaland condition.

MG 28
Application of useful bacterial cultures in the feeding system of poultry
K. S. Sharma, B. S. Katoch, M. Kumari, Shivani Katoch, A. Sharma
Department of Animal Nutrition
COVAS, CSKHPKV, Palampur, India

The Biological evaluation of the various strains of microbes i.e 13, 14 & 19 Lactobacilli, Strepto-
cocci, and yeasts was respectively done on poultry broiler and layer chicks to study their effect on meat
and egg production. 15 growth and digestibility studies were done on one week old broiler chicks to test
the biological response of the different strains of microbes. Two short term and long term studies were
done on layers for egg production. 4 studies were done to test the strain specificity of the broiler stocks
to the response of the useful microbial combinations. The over all results revealed that the response of the
useful bacterial cultures was variable with the strains of the microbes or their mixtures and that of the
poultry stock on which they have been used. The compatibility of different microbes in a combination for

140
140
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

producing desirable response seemed to be specific. The positive response of the microbial cultures was
shown by growth or feed conversion efficiency or control of chick mortality or by the combined effects of
these various parameters. The long term use of microbial cultures on laying stock has shown highly benefi-
cial effects as compared to the short term trials. Under field conditions, the promising microbes alone or
in combinations have shown the good responses especially in broilers based on the basis of field studies
done at 22 rural farms. It was also observed that the microbial culture (Lactobacilli, Streptococci and
Yeast) to be used as Probiotics, can be safely preserved in a cheaper medium for a period of 2 weeks at
ambient temperature ranging from 22 to 37 degree centigrade with 40 and 20% relative humidity respec-
tively.

MG 29
Effect of probiotic supplementation to diets on the
performance of broiler chicken
Akangnungla, V. K. Vidyarthi, V. B. Sharma and Nizamuddin
Department of Animal Production and Management
Nagaland University, SASRD, Medziphema-797106, Nagaland, India

One hundred twenty (120) day old mixed sex commercial broiler chicks of Hubbard strain was
distributed randomly into four treatment groups of 30 chicks each with 3 replication of 10 each on the
weight basis (mean weight, 32.50 g). The chicks of group 1 (T1, control) were provided standard broiler
starter and finisher ration upto 42 days as per BIS (1992). The chicks of the other three groups were also
provided the same basal diet as in T1 but supplemented with commercial Promix-Y Forte, a probiotic
preparation at the rate of 200 g (T2), 400 g (T3) and 600 g (T4) per tonne of feed. All birds were reared
under strict hygienic condition on deep litter system in 4 x 3 different compartment with a floor space of
1 square feet / bird. The overall body weight of birds at the end of sixth week of age was 1620.90,
1612.40, 1680.40 and 1661.80 g /bird in groups T1 -T4, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher body
weight was observed in T3 group of birds followed by T4-T1 and the least in T2 group. The average gain
in weight was 264.77,263.28, 274.62 and 271.57 g/bird/week in T1, T2,T3 and T4 groups, respectively.
Gain in body weight of broiler was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 followed by T4, T1 and the least in T2
group ; however, there was non-significant difference between T1 and T2 group ; even though, probiotic,
irrespective of levels, had positive impact on gain in body weight of the broilers. Total feed consumption
was significantly (P<0.05) the lowest (3.497 kg) in T3 group followed by T2, T1 and the highest (3.627 kg)
in T4 group. The overall feed conversion efficiency of broiler birds as 2.13, 2,13, 1.99 and 2.13 in T1,
T2,T3,T4 groups, respectively; however, the values were non-significant to each other. The livability per-
centage were almost cent-percent except in T1 which were also in normal standard range. The perfor-
mance index of broiler birds was the highest in T3 followed by T4, T2 and the last in T1 . The dressing
percentage, carcass weight and organ weight were numerically the highest in T4 ; however, the values were
comparable with T3. It was evident that use of commercial probiotic at the rate of 400 g per tones of feed
is beneficial in term of body weight, gain in weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and overall
performance of Hubbard strain of broiler chicken in Nagaland condition.

141
141
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 30
Efficiency evaluation of antibiotic alternatives growth
promoters on Iranian Ross broiler performance
H. Ziaie, M. Bashtani, H. Naeemipour, H. Farhangfar, A. Zeinali
Birjand University, Iran

An experiment was conducted on 240 one-day old male Ross chicken to evaluate efficiency of
antibiotic alternatives growth promoters on broiler performance. Chicks fed in a block completely ran-
domized design with 4 replicate pens (15 birds per pen). Four dietary treatment used: A) control B)
essential oil extract (commercial mixture, Digestarom) 450g/ton diet C) probiotic (commercial mixture of
lactobacillus, Protexin) 150g/ton diet and D) antibiotic (Virginiamycin) 15 ppm. Weekly body weights
(WBW), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured for individual chicks.
Broilers fed with the virginiamycin and protexin had significantly (p<0.05) greater WBW, ADG and FCR
as compared with those observed for other diets during the first 3 weeks. There was no significant differ-
ence (p>0.05) in WBW, ADG and FCR between treatments A and B and between treatments C and D.
During weeks 3 to 6, the WBW, ADG and FCR were significantly (p<0.05) greater for treatments B, C
and D than that of control treatment. Overall, supplementation with Virginiamycin, Protexin and Digestarom
significantly (p<0.05) improved WBW, ADG and FCR performance of Ross broiler during the first 42
days. For the traits under consideration, non-significant difference (p>0.05) was found between treat-
ments C and D suggesting that diet supplementation with Protexin could be used instead of Virginiamycin.

MG 31
Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Lactobacillus on
hematological and immunological parameters in broilers
H. S. Palve, B. R. Kolte, S. S. Chopade and J. M. Chahande
Department of Livestock Production and Management
Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, India

A 42 day trial was conducted on 80 broilers at Poultry Farm, Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur
(India) during hot summer months. Birds were under standard managemental practice. 40 birds under
treatment group were supplemented with combination of Saccharomyces boulardii and Lactic Acid Bacil-
lus @ 250 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg feed respectively. Data was analyzed using standard statistical proce-
dures. Significant effect of treatment on hematological parameters viz. Hb, TEC, TLC, Heteroplil, Lym-
phocytes and monocytes (P>0.05) was observed whereas effect on eosinophil and basophil was non-
significant at both 21st and 42 day age. Weekly investigation of heamagglutination inhibition titre showed
highly significant effect of treatment (P>0.01) in the form of improvement of HI titre from 2nd to 6th week
post vaccination. This study concludes that the above supplementation has beneficial and economical
effect on broiler production.

142
142
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 32
Comparative performance of commercial broilers fed on diets
supplemented with ginger (Zingiber officinalis) powder and zinc bacitracin
Shaveta Sood, D. Wadhwa, Meena Kumari, V. K. Sharma and J. S. Chauhan
Department of Animal Nutrition, CSK HPKV, Palampur-176062, India

In a randomized block design using 150, day-old broiler chicks, the effect of supplementation of
ginger powder @ 250 g/q (G1), 500g/q (G2) and 750g/q (G3) and, zinc bacitracin @ 133 g/q (positive
control; PC) and a non-supplemented group (NC), was studied with the objective to determine the
replaceability of antibiotic growth promoter with ginger powder. The gain in weight from 0 to 4 weeks of
age ranged from 660.5 (G3) to 712.4 (G2), which differed significantly (P<0.05) from each other. The
overall gain in weight ranged from 1221.1g (G3) to 1280.0 g (NC). The overall feed intake ranged from
3514.6 g (NC) to 3615.4 g (G1). The feed consumption of PC was significantly (P<0.05) lower than the
rest of treatments. The supplementation of ginger, at all the dose levels, resulted in significantly (P<0.05)
higher feed consumption as compared to both the controls. The overall feed conversion ratio ranged from
2.77 (NC) to 2.99 (G3) and was statistically comparable. The FCR of G1 and G3 were significantly
(P<0.05) higher compared to the NC. It was concluded that the supplementation of ginger powder at
these dose rates, did not produce remarkable effects for clear comparisons with positive and negative
controls, so more work is needed to be done with a wide range of doses, to determine the replaceability.

MG 33
Rose pomace as a source of protein in poultry diets
Meena Kumari, D. Wadhwa, Shaveta Sood, J. S. Chauhan and K. S. Sharma
Department of Animal Nutrition, CSK HPKV, Palampur-176062, India

In a randomized block design, using 180, day-old broiler chicks, the effect of replacement of 5, 10
and 15%, protein leve of feed by rose pomace was studied. At starter phase (1-4 weeks of age) the gain
in weight(GIW) was found to be 629g, 606g, 551g& 428g, FCR was 2.41, 2.48, 2.71 &2.69 in control
5%, 10% and 15% replacement, levels respectively. At finisher phase(4-6weeks of age) GIW was 496g,
474g 447g &391g, FCR was 3.26, 3.18. 3.24 &3.47, respectively in control 5%, 10% and 15% re-
placement, levels respectively.The overall gain in weight from first to 6th week of age was 1125g, 1080g,
998g &819g different. It was 1152, 969, 1165 and 1013 gram in control, 5%, 10% and 15% replace-
ment leve, FCR was 2.64, 2.51, 2.74 & 3.06, in control 5%, 10% and 15% replacement, levels respec-
tively. At starter phase, the rate of mortality was nil in control, 5%,&10%, while it was found to be 10%
in 15% level, at finisher phase, it was again nil in control & 5% level and 10% in 10%& 15% levels.The
reduction in the cost of feed per quintal was Rupees 109.35/-, 214.05/- and 322.40/-, respectively in
5%, 10% and 15% level of substitution.The cost of rearing per Kg of live weight of broiler was Rupees
40.23/-, 37.72/-, 39.74 & 45.91/-, respectively in control 5%, 10% and 15% replacement, levels re-
spectively. The above data revealed that 5% level of protein substitution in broiler feed was comparatively
better as compared to the control , 10% & 15% levels. Thus, it was concluded from the findings that
rose pomace could be used to replace 5% protein obtained from conventional sources such as maize &
de-oiled rice bran to make the poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur and save the valuable ingre-
dients for human as well as for other live stocks.

143
143
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 34
Effect of feeding probiotics on performance of broilers
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede and A. B. Mane
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

One hundred twenty, day old, commercial straight run broiler chicks of Vencob-300 strain were
distributed into four equal groups with two replicates of 15 chicks. The experimental broiler chicks were
reared as per standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed from 0-6 weeks. The diet fed during
0-6 weeks containing 21.41 per cent crude protein and 2965 Kcal/kg ME. A multi strain probiotic was
added in experimental ration at three different levels @0.025 per cent, 0.050 per cent and 0.075 per cent
to form treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Group T0 was without probiotic and served as control
group.. At the end of 6th week average cumulative body weights (g) in T0, T1, T2 and T3 were 1591.9,
1852.30, 1716.0 and 1778.6, respectively. The daily weight gain (g) at the end of 6th weeks was 36.78,
46.96, 39.72 and 41.20 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 in that order. The broiler chicks under group T1 grew
significantly (P< 0.01) faster as compared to control T0 and T2 groups. The chicks under group T2 grew
significantly (P< 0.01) faster than control (T0) but statistically at par with T3. The average feed consump-
tion per bird per day (g) was 72.3, 72.63, 71.29 and 74.89 in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively.
The broiler in T3 group consumed significantly (P<0.05) more feed as compared to T0,T1 and T3
which were statically at par. The average feed conversion ratio at the end of 6th week was 1.966, 1.743,
1.853, and 1.824 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively. The FCR was significantly (P<0.01) better in
T1, T2 and T3 groups than control. FCR in T1, T2 and T3 did not differ statistically. The cost per kg live
weight gain was highest for T0 (Rs.18.18) control group followed by T3 (Rs.17.99), T2 (17.38) and the
lowest for T1 (Rs.16.05) groups. The live body weight was highest in treatment group T1 (1852.3 g)
followed by T3 (1778.6 g) and the lowest in T0 (1591.9 g) control group. The net profit per bird was
highest in T1 (24.67) followed by T3 (Rs. 19.59), T2 (Rs.19.38) and the lowest for T0 (Rs. 15.55) control
group. Nevertheless, on the basis of cost of feed required to produce one kg live weight gain and live
body weight T1 was economical for broiler production as compared to T0, T2 and T3. The treatment
group T2 and T3 were economically better than control but did not show any advantage over T1. From the
overall observations of the study it can inferred that the inclusion of multi-strain probiotic at @ 0.025 per
cent level seems to be beneficial as compared to the inclusion of higher (0.050 and 0.075 per cent) levels.

MG 35
Production and biological evaluation of microbial biomass by
fermentation of melon-peels with Aspergillus niger
Saima, M. A. Jabbar, T. N. Pasha and M. Z. U. Khan
Department of Animal Nutrition,
University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

There is tremendous progress in poultry industry for the last few decades but most of the area under
cultivation is used for growing cash crops for ever increasing human population. The fluctuating prices of
feed ingredients and quality of animal and vegetable proteins is adversely affecting the development of this
industry. The present experiment was conducted to introduce a new protein source for poultry birds and

144
144
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

to reduce pollution problems caused by peels. For this purpose, melon peels were collected from different
places of local fruit markets. In phase-I, raw peels were chemically analyzed for proximate composition
which revealed that it continued 14.22% crude protein. Then various conditions like substrate: water ratio,
carbon : nitrogen ratio, temperature, addition of molasses, pH and incubation period were optimized for
fermentation of melon peels by Aspergillus niger. The results of growth condition revealed that maximum
crude protein contents were observed at 6 g substrate, 7:1 carbon to nitrogen ratio, 25 C, 1% molasses,
4.5 pH and total incubation time was 72 hours for fermentation. Fermentation melon peels contained 35%
crude protein. In phase-II, a ten days trial was conducting to evaluate protein quality of biomass in terms
of protein efficiency ratio (PER) and Net protein utilization (NPU) which were 35.71 and 50.41, respec-
tively.

MG 36
The effect of different levels of probiotic (primalac) on carcass properties,
internal organs size and abdominal fat in broiler chickens
Mehdi Nayebpor, Parviz Farhoomand, Ali Hashemi
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Uremia University, Iran

This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different levels of probiotic (Primalac) on
carcass properties, abdominal fat deposition and weight of organs of broilers slaughtered at 28 and 42
days of ages. One hundred and twenty 7-d- old chicks (Cobb 500) were assigned at random to 3 dietary
treatments with 4 replication: basal diet (control), basal diet + 0.1% and basal diet+ 0.15% probiotic. The
chicks had ad libitum access to feed and water. All data were analyzed by SAS (1999) software. The
results of this study were showed that addition of probiotic to broiler diets reduced the abdominal fat
deposition and improved carcass properties at(28 and 42 days) of ages(P<0.05). Carcass properties in
probiotic treatments was significantly (P<0.05) higher than control treatment, and the birds fed the treat-
ment with 0.1% probiotic containing diet produced the highest carcass weight, breast and leg meat at
different slaughter ages (28 and 42 d).There were no significant difference among treatments for gizzard,
liver and heart of broiler chickens. Spleen weight of birds fed with probiotic supplemented diets was
significantly (P<0.05) higher than birds fed the control diets. The borsa fabricius weight was effected
significantly (P<0.05) by probiotic supplementation at (28 d) but, was not effected 42 days of age.

MG 37
Study of various probiotics on growth performance of broilers
A. A. Zanzad, Shanu J. Markand, Ramteke and R. D. Lanjewar
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur-440 006, India

Eighty, day old broilers were distributed to 4 groups of 20 each. One group acted as control and
remaining 3 were supplemented with three different probiotics. Better feed conversion efficiency was
observed on all probiotics supplemented groups. Amongst three probiotics viz. Sacchraromyces cervice,
Lactobacillus sporogenus and Sacchraromyces boulardi second group resulted in better growth of 14.0%
due to superior utilization and assimilation of nutrients.

145
145
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 38
Effect of different probiotics on the performance of broilers
H. K. Das, A. K. Medhi*, M. K.Ghosh and P. Konwar
National Research Centre on Yak (ICAR), Dirang-790 101
West Kameng District; *College of Vety. Sci., AAU, Khanapara, Assam, India

The dietary use of probiotic feeding is gaining momentum in broilers to counteract the stresses due to
their beneficial effects on live weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen retention, and reduced
mortality. However, a number of studies have shown that probiotics feeding could not augment any appre-
ciable changes on broilers. Therefore, a study was taken up to observe the effect of probiotics on growth,
feed consumption, feed conversion efficiency, mortality and cost of feeding per kg live weight gain in
broilers. Two hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups of fifty
birds each. Three different probiotic preparations viz. Bacticide, G-Probiotics and Improval were used in
the experiment in which Bacticide were offered in drinking water at the rate of 15 g /50 birds while the G-
Probiotics and Improval were incorporated in the feed at the rate of 50 g /100 kg each. The overall final
body weight at the end of the 6th weeks were recorded as 1334.06±12.09, 1412.13±14.97, 1439.27±14.41
and 1492.18±10.73 for T0, TB, TG and TI groups respectively. The total gains in body weight during the
experimental period were 1293.42±37.08, 1371.21±39.71, 1398.85±40.16 and 1452.04±40.73 for T0,
TB, TG and TI groups respectively. Addition of probiotic significantly (P<0.05) increased the body weight
and gain in body weight, however, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ
significantly (P>0.05) among all the experimental groups. The mortality percent of the experimental birds
were within the standard limit. The cost of feeding per kg gain in body weight was reduced in Improval
supplemented group (Rs. 18.04) as compared to control group (Rs. 20.12). Dietary retention of nitrogen,
calcium and phosphours were similar in all the experimental groups. From the experiment, it could be
concluded that addition of probiotics in broiler feed has improved the growth rate with great economic
advantage.

MG 39
Growth performance and immune response of broilers
fed diets containing herbal antimicrobial growth promoter
as an organic alternative to antibiotics
1 2
Asma Khan, S. S. Nagra, P. N. Dwivedi and S. Sodhi
Livestock Production and Management; 1Deptt. of Veterinary Microbiology; 2Deptt. of Veterinary
Biochemistry; Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141001, India

Ninety six, day old sexed Cob broiler chicks distributed into three treatment groups comprising 16
birds each in 2 replications and offered either control corn-soya diet (T0), T0 supplemented with AGP
(lincomycin) @ 25g/qtl (T1) or HGP (Herbiotic-FS™) @ 25g/qtl (T2). The body weights of broilers at 42
d of age were significantly higher (P<0.05) in treatment group compared to control. Better feed conver-
sion efficiency was observed in T2 as compared to other groups. Significantly high titre against NDV &
IBD was observed in T2 compare to T1 and control. Serum AKP and AST were within the normal range
while ALT level was significantly higher in control. The percent difference of margin of receipt over the
control per unit live weight basis was 0.22% (T1) and 0.88% (T2).

146
146
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 40
Response of herb jiwanti (Leptidinia reticulata) on the growth
performance and nutrient utilization in commercial broilers
Ritu Grover, A. P. S. Sethi and S. S. Sikka
Department of Animal Nutrition
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004

An experiment was carried out on broilers to study the effect of inclusion of the herb Jiwanti on the
growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass traits. One hundred and forty four broilers of one
week age were distributed to twelve groups. A standard broiler starter and finisher diets were formulated
and supplemented with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50g /qtl. of herb Jiwanti. Each diet was fed to a duplicate
group of chicks. The starter diets were fed upto 3 weeks of age and then birds were shifted to finisher
diets Final body weight, gain in weight and feed consumption were significantly (P=0.05) higher than
control with the supplementation of Jiwanti during the starter, finisher phases and the entire growth period.
However feed conversion ratio was not affected significantly by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of
ether extract was significantly (P=0.05) higher with 50g Jiwanti whereas digestibility of crude fibre and
percent nitrogen retention were not significantly (P=0.05) affected as compared to control. No significant
differences were obtained for meat:bone ratio, carcass fat, gizzard weight and heart weight. From the data
it was concluded that supplementation of herb Jiwanti @ 40g/ qtl in broilers diets improved the growth
performance.

MG 41
Effect of feeding prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic
on the performance of broilers
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede, I. H. Pathan and M. A. Khan
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

Two hundred day old, commercial straight run broiler chicks of ‘Vencob’ strain were distributed into
four equal groups with two replicates of 25 chicks. The experimental broiler chicks were reared as per
standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed from 0-6 weeks. The starter diet fed during 0-3
weeks containing 23.39 per cent crude protein and 2800.01 Kcal/kg ME. The finisher diet fed during 3-
6 weeks containing 20.19 per cent crude protein and 2901.6 Kcal/kg ME Different growth promoters
were added in experimental rations as 0.050 per cent probiotic, 0.010 per cent probiotic and 0.010 per
cent symbiotic to form treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Group T0 was without growth pro-
moter and served as control group. At the end of 6th week average cumulative weight (g) in group T0, T1,
T2 and T3 were 1712.0 g, 1821.2 g, 1871.2 g and 1903.8 g, respectively. The daily weight gain (g) at the
end of 6th week was 40.76, 43.36, 44.56 and 45.32 for T0, T1, T2, and T3 in that order. The broiler
chicks under treatment group T3, grew significantly (P< 0.01) faster than control (T0). However, the
performance of chicks in T3 group was statistically at par with those in T2.The average feed consumption
per bird per day (g) was 81.77, 82.16, 82.97 and 82.50 in T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. Feed
consumption by chicks did not differ significantly in treatment groups T1, T2, T3 and in control group T0.
The average feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the end of 6th week was 1.960, 1.8163, 1.7733 and 1.7354
for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups. The FCR was significantly (P< 0.01) better in T1, T2 and T3 treatment
147
147
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

groups as compared to control group (T0). FCR in T2 and T3 did not differ significantly. The feed cost per
kg live weight gain was highest for T0(Rs.20.06) control group, followed by T1 (Rs.18.61), T2 (Rs.18.39)
and lowest for T3 (Rs.18.05) treatment groups. The live body weight was highest in treatment group
T3(1903.8 g) followed by T2(1861.90 g), T1(1821.0 g) and the lowest in T0 (1712.0 g) control group.
The net profit per bird obtained was highest in T3 (Rs.28.52) followed by T2(Rs.26.85), T1(Rs.24.85)
and the lowest in T0 (Rs.21.27) control group. Nevertheless, on the basis of feed required to produce one
kg of live weight gain and live body weight, treatment group T3 was economical for broiler production as
compared to T0, T1, and T2. The treatment group T1 and T2 were economically better than control but did
not show any advantage over T3. From overall observation of the study it can be inferred that the inclusion
of symbiotic, probiotic seems to be beneficial as compared to the control group (without feed additive)

MG 42
Effect of feeding different levels of prebiotic on the
performance of broilers
V. H. Kalbande, S. M. Wankhede, S. M. Balsaraf and M. A. Khan
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and animal Sciences,
MAFSU, Parbhani, India

Two hundred, day old commercial straight run broiler chicks of Vencob strain were distributed into
four equal groups with two replicates of 25 chicks. The experimental broiler chicks were reared as per
standard on deep litter system in well ventilated shed form 0-6 weeks of age. The diets were fed to
broilers during 0-6 weeks experimental period, containing 23.35 and 20.76 per cent crude protein in
starter and finisher ration respectively. The ME content of ration were 2802.2 and 2903.3 Kcal/kg for
starter and finisher, respectively. The probiotic (Ecomos) was added in experimental ration at three differ-
ent levels @ 0.025 per cent, 0.050 per cent and 0.075 per cent to form treatment groups T1, T2 and T3
respectively. Group T0 was without probiotic and served as control group. At the end of 6th week,
average cumulative body weight (g) in T0, T1, T2, and T3 were 7121.50, 1881.80, 1790.30 and 1750.50
g respectively. The daily weight gain (g) at the end of 6th week was 46.70, 51.16, 48.62 and 48.20 g for
T0, T1, T2 and T3 in that order. The broiler chicks under group T1 grew significantly (P< 0.01) faster as
compared to T0, T2 and T3 groups. The chicks under T2 and T3 grew significantly (P<0.01) faster than
control but their growth rate was statistically at par with each other. The average feed consumption per
bird per day (g) was 92.53, 92.81, 90.64 and 90.69 for T0, T1, T2, and T3 groups respectively, form 0-
6 weeks of age. There were no significant differences in feed consumption among the various treatments
(T1, T2 and T3) groups and control (T0) group. The average feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the end of 6th
weeks was 1.856, 1.701, 1.745 and 1.761 for T0, T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively. The FCR was
significantly (P< 0.01) better in T1, T2 and T3 groups than control group T0. FCR in T1, group was
significantly (P< 0.01) better than T0 and T3. The FCR in T2 was statistically at par with T1 and T3 but it
was significantly (P<0.01) better than T0 control. The cost per kg live weight gain was highest for T0
(Rs.‘9.35) control group followed by T2(Rs18.55), T3(Rs.18.87) and it was lowest for T1(Rs.17.90). The
live body weight was highest in treatment T1(1881.80 g) followed by T2(1790.30 g), T3(1775.50 g) and
the lowest for T0(1721.50 g) control group. The net profit per bird was highest in T1(Rs.28.82) followed
by T2(Rs.25.47), T3(Rs.24.54) and the lowest for T0(Rs.22.49) control group. Nevertheless on the basis
of cost of feed required to produce one kg live weight gain and live body weight, treatment T1 was
economical for broiler production as compared to T0, T2 and T3. The treatment group T2 and T3 were

148
148
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

economically better than control but did not show any advantage over T1. From the overall observations
of the study it can be inferred that the inclusion of probiotic at low level of 0.025 per cent seems to be
beneficial as compared to the higher levels inclusions.

MG 43
Effect of probiotic supplementation at varying levels in
broiler chicks diet on growth performance
Sunil Kumar Singh, Udeybir, P.S. Niranjan, S. Koley, Shiva Pratap Singh and D. N. Verma
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry,
N.D.U.A. & T, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, India

An experiment of 42 days was conducted with one hundred eighty day old broiler chicks which were
divided into three treatments (Control, T1 and T2) each having sixty chicks and three replicates of twenty
chicks in each treatments to study the effect of probiotic supplementation at 0, 0.02 and 0.03 percent
level in respective treatments broilers diet on average body weight, average body weight gain, average
feed intake, feed conversion ratio, performance index, protein efficiency. A metabolic trial of seven days
including three days adaptation and four-day collection period was also conducted at the end of the
experiment to evaluate digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen retention. Chicks led with varying level of
probiotic supplementation have 3.28-4.03 percent higher body weight than control. Probiotic supplemen-
tations in broilers diet had positive effect on growth performance and showed significant (P<0.05) effect
on body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio at 0-2, 2-4 and 0-6 weeks, performance index
and protein efficiency as compared to control. The digestibility coefficients of DM and nitrogen retention
were significantly (P<0.05) higher in treatments than control and their values were 68.90±0.52, 71.43±0.2.3,
71.63±0.26 and 59.65±0.58, 61.65±0.28 and 61.54±0.22%, respectively in control, T1 and T2. It is
therefore concluded that probiotic supplementation was beneficial for better growth performances of broilers.

MG 44
Effect of varying level of probiotic supplementation in broiler chicks diet
on carcass traits and haematobiochemical parameters
Sunil Kumar Singh, Udeybir, P. S. Niranjan, Jaswant Singh and D.N. Verma
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry,
N.D.U.A. & T., Kumarganj,Faizabad- 224 229, India

An experiment of 42 days was conducted with one hundred eighty day old broiler chicks which were
divided into three treatments (Control, T1and T2) randomly each having sixty chicks and three replicates
of twenty chicks in each treatments to study the effect of probiotic supplementation at 0, 0.02 and 0.03
percent level in respective treatments broilers diet on carcass traits (carcass yield, giblet yield, thigh and
breast muscle composition) and haemato-biochemical parameters. At the end of 42 days blood samples in
two sets one with anticoagulant for haematology (Hb and PCV) and other without anticoagulant for serum
separation were collected to analyze biochemical parameters (serum glucose, cholesterol and total pro-
tein) were collected from two birds in each replicate after slaughtering the birds. Broilers diet with probiotic
did not have significant effect on carcass characteristics except ether extract content in thigh muscle com-
position which was higher in probiotic supplemented groups and haematobiochemical parameters in treat-
ment and control except serum cholesterol level which was significantly lower (P<0.05) in probiotic supple-
149
149
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

mented groups T2 (156.94±0.42), T1 (158.15±0.51) than control (174.78±0.57). So it was concluded


that probiotic supplementation at varying levels did not had any significant effect on carcass traits and
haematobiochemical parameters.

MG 45
Effect of exogenous enzyme supplementation on the
economics of broiler chicken in Nagaland
V. K. Vidyarthi, R. Zuyie, N. Savino, C. Rutsa Nizamuddin, and V. B. Sharma
Department of Animal Production & Management
Nagaland University, SASRD, Medziphema- 797106, Nagaland

Vencob strain of broiler chicks 96 Nos. at day old stage was randomly distributed into four treatment
groups of 24 chicks each. The chicks of group 1 (T1, control) were provided standard broiler starter and
finisher ration (basal diet) upto 42 days of age. The chicks in other three groups were also provided the
same basal diet as in T1 (control) groups ; however supplemented with commercial Alvyzyme, an enzyme
mixture preparation at the rate of 200 g (T2), 400 g (T3) and 600 g (T4) per tonne of feed. The overall
cost of production of Vencob broiler birds was 94.06, 89.35, 85.11 and 94.51 rupees | birds in the
groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The cost of rearing in terms of per kg live weight was 46.73, 43.04,
37.02 and 44.60 rupees | kg live weight in the respective groups. The gross income was 140.91, 145.32,
160.93 and 148.33 rupees | bird-in the four groups, respectively. Net profit was 46.35, 55.97, 75.82 and
53.82 rupees | bird in the four groups, respectively. The net profit, when calculated in terms of per kg live
weight, was 23.27, 26.96, 32.98 and 25.40 rupees | kg live weight of broiler in T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups,
respectively. From the experiment, it was also revealed that the share of feed cost out of total cost of
production was 66.94, 64.72, 62.54 and 65.65 percent in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively; while the cost
of birds became 21.26, 22.38, 23.50 and 21.16 percent in the four groups, respectively; and the remain-
ing being the cost of enzyme, labour charges and miscellaneous expenditure. From the above results, it
was concluded that feeding of enzyme (Alvyzyme) at the level of 400 g | tonne to Vencob strain of broiler
chicken is beneficial in terms of net profit per kg live weight under Nagaland condition.

MG 46
Performance of broiler chicken as influenced by the
diet supplemented with enzyme
V. K. Vidyarthi, R. Zuyie, N. Savino, Nizamuddin, C. Rutsa and V. B. Sharma
Department of Animal Production & Management
Nagaland University, SASRD, Medziphema- 797106, Nagaland, India

Ninety six (96) day old mixed sex commercial broiler chicks of Vencob strain was randomly distrib-
uted into four treatment groups of 24 chicks each with six replications of four chicks each on the weight
basis (mean weight, 47.0 g). The chicks of group 1 (T1, control) were provided standard broiler starter
and finisher ration upto 42 days as per BIS (1992). The chicks of other three groups were also provided
the same basal diet as in T1 but supplemented with commercial Alvyzyme, an enzyme mixture preparation
at the rate of 200 g (T2), 400 g (T3)and 600 g (T4) per tonne of feed. All birds were reared under strict
hygienic condition under cage system into 6 x 4 different compartment with a space provision of 1 square
feet / bird. The overall body weight of birds at the end of sixth week of age was 2.013,2.076, 2.299 and
150
150
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

2.119 kg | bird in groups T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher body weight was
observed in T3 group of birds followed by T4,T2 and the least in T1, group ; however, there was non
significant variation in T1 and T2 ; and T2 and T4. The mean gain in weight was 0.328, 0.339, 0.375 and
0.346 kg / bird / week in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. Gain in body weight of broiler chicken was
significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 group followed by T4, T2 and the least in T1 group; however, there was
non-significant variation in gain in body weight between T1, T2 groups and T2 and T4 groups. Total feed
consumed by birds did not vary significantly amongst the four groups and it ranged between 3.725 to
4.406 kg | bird for the whole period of experiment. The overall feed conversion efficiency (FCE) was
0.460, 0.517, 0.625 and 0.512 kg weight | kg feed consumed by the birds of groups T1, T2, T3 and T4,
respectively. The values of FCE significantly (P<0.05) higher in T3 ; however, there was no variation
amongst T1, T2, T3 and T4, groups. There was no mortality and 100 percent birds survived till the comple-
tion of experiment. The performance index of broiler birds ranged between 220.46 to 342.11 and was the
highest in T3 and the lowest in T1 group. The dressing percentage and giblet weight were also numerically
better in T3 groups. From the results it was concluded that use of commercial enzyme at the rate of 400 g
per tonne of feed is beneficial in terms of body weight, gain in weight, feed intake, feed conversion
efficiency and overall performance of Vencob strain of broiler chicken in the Nagaland condition.

MG 47
Effect of feeding tea waste (Camellia assamica) on the growth
performance of broiler with or without supplementation of enzymes
Jubee Phukan, Bhaskar Phukan, B. N. Saikia and K. K. Baruah
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, India

Vencob broiler chicks (336; 47.62±0.03g BW) were equally divided into 8 groups following 2x4
factorial design. Eight concentrate mixtures were prepared as per BIS (1992). The rations were formu-
lated by replacement of wheat bran by factory tea waste at 0,5,10 and 15 percent level W/W with or
without enzyme supplementation. The mean total body weights and total body weight gain were signifi-
cantly lower at 15 percent incorporation of tea waste in place of wheat bran. The feed conversion
efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of the birds were not significantly affected either by level of tea
waste or by enzyme supplementation. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, NFE and retention of
nitrogen was significantly lower in T4 groups, but crude fibre and ether extract digestibility was compa-
rable between T3 and T4 groups. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein fibre and per cent nitrogen
retention were affected by levels of enzymes in the ration. The carcass yield i.e. dressing percentage was
not significantly affected by level of factory tea waste or by enzyme supplementation, but the giblet yields
were affected significantly by the levels of tea waste and enzymes. The blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen
(BUN), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase
(SGOT) were not significantly affected either by level of tea waste of by enzyme supplementation. The
cost of feeding per kg. live weight gain was found to be lowest with the diets in which 10 percent of
wheat bran was replaced by Factory tea waste and was supplemented with enzymes. However, 10 per-
cent wheat bran replacement by Factory tea waste with or without enzyme also showed lower cost of
production than the conventional diet. Thus it could be inferred from the findings of present experiment
that 10 percent factory tea waste with enzyme supplementation could safely be used in broiler diets with
distinct economic advantage.

151
151
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 48
Effect on nutrient metabolizability and carcass quality of
broilers fed pearl millet with enzyme supplementation
Nisha Jha, N. Kumar and R. S. Thakur
National Dairy research Institute, Karnal, 132001, India

An experiment of six weeks duration was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effect of
pearl millet based diet with commercially available enzymes supplement replacing maize. Two hundred
and forty day-old broiler chicks were distributed into six treatment groups having two replicates each.
Maize and soybean meal based diets as per BIS(1992) requirement was formulated as control (T1).Other
rations were T2 (control + multi enzyme), T3 (50% maize replaced with pearl millet), T4 (T3 + multi
enzyme), T5 (100% maize replaced with pearl millet) and T6 (T5 +multi enzyme).A metabolism trial was
conducted during last week of growth period to determine the nutrient metabolisability and four birds per
dietary treatment were sacrificed at the end of the experiment to study the carcass traits and carcass
composition. The body weight gain and FCR of birds were statistically similar among all the dietary
treatment but numerically it was improved with the supplementation of enzyme. The metabolisability of
nutrients i.e dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy were significantly (P =0.05) reduced in T3 and T5 as
compare to T1. However these parameters increased with the supplementation of enzyme. There was no
significant difference observed in dressed, eviscerated, giblet and drawn yield (% of live weight), and
composition of thigh and breast muscle (%moisture,%crude protein <and 5 ether extract) among all the
dietary treatments. From this study it can be inferred that pearl millet can be a substitute for maize and
supplementation of enzyme is further beneficial.

MG 49
Effect on nutrient metabolisability and carcass quality of broilers fed
different levels of sunflower meal with enzyme supplementation
Nisha Jha, N. Kumar and R. S. Thakur
National Dairy research Institute, Karnal-132001, India

A six week growth trial was conducted on broilers to find out the effect of replacing soybean meal
(SBM) with different levels of sunflower meal (SFM) without and with multi-enzyme supplementation.
Two hundred and forty day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into six treatment groups with
two replicates of twenty birds each. Maize and SBM containing ration as per BIS (1992) requirements
was formulated as control (T1). Other rations were as T2 (T1 + enzyme), T3 (10% SBM replaced with
SFM), T4 (T3 + enzyme), T5 (20% SBM replaced with SFM), T6 (T5 +enzyme). To determine the
nutrient metabolisability,a metabolism trial was conducted at the sixth week of growth period and to
assess the carcass quality,four birds per dietary treatment were slaughtered. The body weight gain was
reduced and FCR increased significantly (p = 0.05) in birds fed 20% SFM containing diets (T5 and T6).
Dry matter metabolisability was reduced in T5 only but nitrogen and gross energy metabolisability was
reduced in T3 and T5. With the supplementation of enzyme only nitrogen retention was improved. Dressed,
eviscerated, giblet and drawn yield (% of live weight) and thigh and breast muscle composition (% mois-
ture,% crude protein and % ether extract) were statistically similar among all the dietary treatments. From
the above observation it can be inferred that SBM can be safely replaced with 10% level of SFM and

152
152
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

supplementation of enzyme is not beneficial at all.

MG 50
Comparative efficiency of different xylanase preparations in
broiler diets incorporated with sunflower cake meal
G. Shyam Sunder, Arun Kumar, S. Suresh Kumar*, Rani Gupta*, A. K.Panda,
M. V. L. N Raju, S. V. S Rama Rao and Vijaya Kumar
Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030; * Department of Microbiology,
University of Delhi South Campus, Lodhi road, New Delhi, India

Four xylanase preparations, one from Delhi University (A) and three from commercial sources (B,C
and D) were compared for their relative efficiency in broiler chickens fed diets with 10 or 20% sunflower
cake meal (SFC). Apart from these diets, two SFC diets without xylanase and one without SFC and
enzyme were included in the experiment to constitute 11 experimental diets. They were tested on 385
Cobb broilers from day-old to 5 weeks of age in cages. SFC used in this trial contained 26.2% protein,
30.8% fiber, 33.6% NSP and 11.5% pentosans. All diets were isonitrogenous (22.0/19.0%) and isoca-
loric (2850/3000 kcal ME/kg) in both starter and finisher periods. Xylanase was added to SFC diets at
4500u/kg. Results at the end of 5th week showed that growth, FCR, meat yield, measurements of small
intestine, tibia mophometry,its mineralization, Ca and P content, composition of muscle and liver, apparent
digestibility of nutrients (except fat), and NSP content in small intestine segments were significantly af-
fected in groups fed diet with 20% SFC. Supplementation of xylanase in the diet with 10% SFC cor-
rected depression in performance and was comparable to control group. Among the four sources of
xylanase, the one from Delhi University (A) was more efficient than C and D sources, and was at par or
better than B for the parameters studied. The results suggest that xylanase supplementation improved the
feeding value of SFC included at 10% level without compromising on the performance of broiler chicken
at 5 weeks of age. Effectiveness of xylanase varied in relative terms.

MG 51
Carcass yield of broilers as affected by crude fibre levels
and multi-enzyme supplementation
R. S. Berwal, O. P. Lohan and Nand Kishore
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

Three hundred twenty, day old commercial chicks were divided in 8 groups having 40 birds in each
group. Each group consisted of two replicates having twenty birds in each subgroup. Four different crude
fibre (5, 7,9and 11 percent) levels of rations were achieved by inclusion of sunflower cake and deoiled
rice bran in the diets. The treatments were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. All the four treatments were
supplemented with commercially available multi-enzyme mixture (containing amylase, xylanase, cellulase,
pectinase and phytase) at the rate of 100g/quintal of feed and designated as T5, T6, T7 and T8. For
carcass evaluations four birds per dietary treatment (two from each replicate) were selected randomly at
the end of the experiment of 6 weeks. The dressed yield was highest in T7 and lowest in T5. No definite
trend was observed for dressed yield in enzyme supplemented or unsupplemented diets at various crude

153
153
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

fibre levels. The values being 70.79±0.22,70.90±0.71, 70.77±0.23, 71.49± 0.65, 70.66± 0.25, 71.41±0.38,
72.21±0.31 and 71.12±0.54 inT1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8, respectively. Similarly no definite
trend was observed for eviscerated yield and drawn yield in different treatment groups. Giblets yield
ranged from 4.67± 0.23(T8) g/100g live weight to 5.14± 0.09(T1) g/100g live weight, the results being
statistically similar. From this study it could be concluded that carcass yield was not affected by crude
fibre levels used in the study and enzyme supplementation.

MG 52
Influence of crude fibre levels and multi-enzyme
supplementation on relative weight of giblets in broilers
R. S. Berwal, O. P. Lohan and Nand Kishore
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

An experiment was conducted on 320, day-old broiler chicks for 6 weeks. The birds were randomly
divided in eight treatments having two replicates in each treatment. Crude fibre levels in the diets T1, T2,
T3 and T4 was kept as 5, 7, 9 and 11%, respectively. The T1, T2, T3 and T4diets were supplemented
with multi-enzyme mixture and designated as T5, T6, T7 andT8, respectively. For carcass evaluations four
birds per dietary treatment (two from each replicate) were selected randomly at the end of the experi-
ment. The relative weight of heart was highest in T6 and lowest in T3. No definite trend was observed for
relative weight of heart in enzyme supplemented or unsupplemented diets at various crude fibre levels. The
values being 0.64±0.04,0.56±0.03,0.54±0.02,0.57±0.02,0.65±0.04, 0.69± 0.05,0.58± 0.04 and 0.56±0.04
forT1,T2,T3,T4,T5,T6,T7and T8,respectively.The relative weight of liver and gizzard was non-signifi-
cantly different from each other at all the crude fibre levels and enzyme supplementation. From this study
it could be inferred that relative weight of giblets were not affected significantly (P<0.05) due to crude
fibre levels used in the study and enzyme supplementation.

MG 53
Studies on the relative weight of pancreas as affected by crude
fibre levels and multienzyme supplementation in broilers
R. S. Berwal, O. P. Lohan and Nand Kishore
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

The present study was conducted on 320 day-old broiler chicks divided randomly into eight groups
of 40 birds each. Each group consisted of two replicates having twenty birds in each subgroup. Four
different crude fibre (5, 7, 9 and 11 %) levels of rations were achieved by inclusion of sunflower cake and
deoiled-rice bran in the diets. The treatments were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. All the four treat-
ments were supplemented with commercially available multi-enzyme mixture (containing amylase, xylanase,
cellulase, pectinase and phytase) at the rate of 100 g/ quintal of feed and designated as T5, T6, T7 and
T8. At the end of a growth trial of 6 weeks four birds per dietary treatment (two from each replicate)
were slaughtered randomly for carcass evaluations. The relative weight of pancreas (g/100 g of live weight)
was 0.27±0.01, 0.32±0.01, 0.31±0.02 and 0.35±0.02 in T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively. There was a

154
154
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

significant (P<0.05) increase in relative weight of pancreas in T2 and T4 as compared to T1. The enzyme
supplementation resulted in significant (P<0.05) reduction in relative weight of pancreas at higher (7, 9
and 11%) crude fibre levels. The values being 0.26±0.01, 0.20±0.00, 0.25±0.01 and 0.26±0.02 g/100g
live weight in T5, T6, T7 and T8, respectively. From this study it could be inferred that higher crude fibre
resulted in increased weight of pancreas which was reduced with the inclusion of enzymes.

MG 54
Mortality of the broilers as affected by dietary crude fibre
levels and multi-enzyme supplementation
R. S. Berwal, O. P. Lohan and Z. S. Sihag
Department of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, Haryana

An experiment of six weeks duration was conducted on three hundred twenty day-old broilers. The
birds were randomly divided in eight treatments having two replicates in each treatment. Crude fibre levels
in the diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 was kept as 5, 7, 9 and 11%, respectively. The crude fibre levels were
achieved by inclusion of sunflower cake and deoiled-rice bran in the diets. All the four treatments were
supplemented with commercially available multi-enzyme mixture (containing amylase, xylanase, cellulase,
pectinase and phytase) at the rate of 100 g/ quintal of feed and designated as T5, T6, T7 and T8. During
the six weeks study daily mortality records were maintained and dead birds were sent to the department
of Veterinary Pathology College of Veterinary Sciences, CCSHAU, Hisar for post-mortem examination to
ascertain the cause of death. Out of three hundred and twenty, seven birds died during the study the total
mortality being 2.18%. The percent mortality was 5.0, 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 2.5, 2.5, 0.0 and 0.0 in T1, T2, T3,
T4, T5, T6, T7 and T8, respectively. The post-mortem reports of died experimental birds revealed that
death was not related to any dietary treatment.

MG 55
Effect of dietary supplementation of phytase on biochemical
and hematological parameters in broilers
Archana Jain
Department of Veterinary Physiology
College of Veterinary Science & A.H., Mhow-453446, India

A six-week duration feeding trial was conducted on 60 one-day-old broiler chicks of Arbor Acre
breed raised in battery brooders. Biochemical and Hematological parameters were studied on supplemen-
tation of phytase in feed and water. The chicks were divided into four groups of 15 chicks in each (Group
I control, Group II Phytase 500 IU / L, Group III Phytase 1000 IU / L of water, and Group IV Phytase
125 IU / kg of feed). The biochemical parameters viz. serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline and acid
phosphatases (ALP and ACP) levels were significantly (P<0.01) altered in the treatment groups as com-
pared to control. The serum calcium level which was 8.18±0.76 mg / dl in control group, significantly
(P<0.01) increased to 13.60±1.02, 12.68±1.12 and 12.37±1.01mg/dl in Groups II, III and IV, respec-
tively. Similarly serum phosphorus levels were also increased significantly in treatment groups (9.13±0.77,
9.59±0.86 and 9.52±0.98 mg/dl, respectively in Groups II, III and IV) as compared to control (4.73±0.68

155
155
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

mg/dl). The serum ALP level which was 43.86±1.87 units in control group significantly (P<0.01) reduced
to 22 to23 units where as serum ACP levels were significantly (P<0.01) reduced 3.0-3.5 units in phytase
supplemented groups as compared to control (7.80 units). There was no significant effect of phytase
supplementation on hematological parameters such as PCV%, hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and
differential leukocyte count.

MG 56
Effects of feeding processed wheat replacing maize in diets
for cost-effective broiler chicken production
S. J. Manwar* and A. B. Mandal
Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar- 243 122;
*Faculty of Vety. Sciences & A.H., SKUAST, Jammu- 181102, India

An experiment was carried out to examine the influence of reconstituted wheat inclusion and enzyme
supplementation on the performance and feed cost of broilers fed on reconstituted wheat-based diets.
Cereal grains were reconstituted by adding water to whole grain to raise the moisture level to about 30%
(DM 70 %), followed by storage in sealed plastic buckets with 0.5 g mixed enzyme preparation/kg diet
(Ambiozyme) or without feed enzymes for 21 days at room temperature (25°C). Subsequently, the grains
were sun-dried to 10 % moisture level on plastic sheet to avoid mould growth, if any. Day-old chicks
(n=520) were randomly selected, weighed and distributed into 52 groups of 10 chicks each. They were
offered thirteen dietary treatments; each to four subgroups (replicates) i.e. 40 chicks. A basal ration ad-
equate in all nutrients was formulated based on maize as a major source of energy and twelve dietary (iso-
caloric and iso-nitrogenous) treatments were formulated with three levels (50, 75 and 100%, replacing
maize) of wheat and its processed forms i.e. raw, raw supplemented with enzymes, reconstituted and
reconstituted with enzymes. The birds fed on diets containing reconstituted wheat grew significantly (P<0.01)
more as compared to birds fed raw wheat containing diets. In raw wheat groups, the weight gain reduced
(P<0.01) with increased level of wheat, during starter phase (0-3 wk). However, statistically higher body
weight gain to that of untreated wheat fed groups was observed in diets containing reconstituted wheat
replacing maize at any level. The chicks fed enzyme reconstituted wheat at 50% replacement level of
maize in diet recorded highest body weight gain. When different types of wheat grains were compared,
the higher (P<0.01) bogy weight gain was recorded either due to reconstitution or enzyme supplementa-
tion. However, feed intake did not differ significantly (P>0.05) up to 75% replacement level. In reconsti-
tuted groups, however, feed intake was lower (P<0.01) at higher levels of reconstituted wheat in compari-
son to its lower levels. The addition of enzymes or reconstitution of wheat with or without enzymes
significantly improved (P<0.05) the FCR over the raw wheat based diets. Similar and significant (P<0.01)
trends were observed in both the protein and energy conversion efficiencies as in FCR. Reconstitution
with or without enzymes decreased the cost of feed per unit gain or meat yield in comparison to 100 %
raw wheat fed groups which was comparable to control group. The processed wheat or supplemented
with enzymes can be economically added in diets replacing maize to an extent of 75 and 100 % for
optimum production in broiler chickens.

156
156
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 57
Effect of supplementary enzymes on nutrient utilization
and growth performance of Ven Cobb broiler
A. Sharma, S. P. Tiwari, M. K. Gendley and K. Kumari
College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

The effect of phytase and cocktail enzyme individually or in combination replacing the dietary avail-
able P and dietary energy in the diet of 150 day-old Ven Cobb broiler chicken on the growth performance
and nutrient utilization, was studied. The starter (0-14d) diets were formulated to contain 23% CP with
0.45, 0.35, 0.35, 0.45 and 0.35% available P and 3000 kcal ME in T1 and 2900 Kcal/Kg feed in T2-T5.
The diets were supplemented with phytase (250g/tonn) and cocktail enzyme (500g/tonn feed) consisting
of amylase, cellulase, hemicellulase, xylanase, b-mannase, b-glucanase, protease and lipase. Phytase was
supplemented in T3, cocktail enzyme in T4 and phytase+CE in T5. Grower’s diet contained 21.5% CP and
two levels of energy (3150 kcal in T1 and 3050 Kcal/Kg in T2 to T5). In the finisher stage the diets were
constituted with two levels of energy (3250 kcal in T1 and 3150 Kcal ME/Kg in T2- T5) with 20% CP and
same level of enzymes and available P as in starter or grower. The data were recorded for weekly DM
intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics up to 6 weeks of age. 3 days
metabolism trial was also conducted.
During 29-35 days the highest weekly weight gain was recorded in T3 (573 g) and T5 (571g) and the
lowest in T1 (514 g). At 42 days broiler chicken attained highest total body weight of 2409g in T3,
followed by T4 (2324g). The feed conversion ratio was highest in T2, followed by T1 and T3 and lowest in
T5 and T4. Despite of relatively lower body weight T5 and T4 ranked the best for the FCR. Nitrogen
retention was highest (79.76 %) in T5 and lowest (76.82 %) in T2. No significant difference could be
obtained amongst groups in Ca and P balance. There was no significant difference amongst groups in
biochemical as well as haematological parameters except serum P was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T5
group. Supplementation of exogenous enzyme had no significant effect on immunological response espe-
cially serum HI titers against Newcastle disease virus and weight of different lymphoid organs and liver.
Tibia ash, Ca and P were significantly (P<0.05) increased in T3. Enzyme supplementation significantly
increased Zn, Mn, Fe and Co levels in tibia and toe and Cu in tibia bone. Toe ash, Ca and P were also
significantly increased in phytase group.

MG 58
Effect of substitution of pearl millet and enzyme
supplementation in broilers pelleted diet
Udeybir*, K. R. Yadav, B. S. Tewatia and Mahesh Ahlawat
Department of Animal Nutrition, CCS HAU, Hisar;
*C.V.Sc. & A.H. N.D.U.A.& T. Kumarganj- Faizabad 224229, India

An experiment (42 days) was conducted on broiler chicks to study their performance in terms of
average body wt. gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency and performance index by
feeding without or with enzyme supplemented pearl millet based diets. Day old broiler chicks (n = 240)
were randomly distributed into six treatments having two replicates each. Control T1 (Maize-soyabean
based diet) was as per BIS (1992) whereas T2-T1 + multienzyme, T3- 66% maize replaced with pearl

157
157
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

millet, T4- 100% maize replaced with pearl millet, T5-T3 + multienzyme, T6-T4 + multienzyme. The starter
ration (0-4 weeks) and finisher ration (4-6weeks) were formulated in pelleted form. Significantly higher
body wt. gain, improved feed conversion ratio, improved protein efficiency and improved performance
index were observed (P<0.05) at 66 percent pearl millet with or without enzyme supplementation. It was
concluded that pearl millet can replace maize on weight by weight basis completely but enzyme supple-
mentation did not improve the broiler performance in pelleted diet.

MG 59
Effect of post-hatch feed deprivation on yolk-sac utilization,
gastrointestinal tract development and performance of broiler chickens
A. K. Panda, M. V. L. N. Raju, G. Shyam Sunder, S. V. Rama Rao,
M. R. Reddy and R. P. Sharma
Project Directorate on Poultry, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-30

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of post-hatch feed deprivation on yolk sac
utilization, performance and gastrointestinal tract development of broiler chickens. One hundred and twenty,
male broiler chicks immediately after hatching were equally distributed into 3 groups of 40 each and
reared in battery brooder pens. The treatment consists of free access to feed after 0h, 24h or 48h after
placement in the brooder pens. The diet used in the study was based on maize and soybean meal with
2900 kcal ME/kg and 22% CP. All the chicks were received clean drinking water immediately after
housing. The body weights of chicks were recorded individually at 48h intervals upto 6 days of age. At 72
h, three chicks from each group were sacrificed to record the residual unabsorbed yolksac. After 96h of
experimental period, 3 chicks from each group were slaughtered and the weights of yolksac, liver,
proventiculus and gizzard, pancreas and small intestine was recorded and expressed as % live weight. The
results of the present study indicated that the residual yolk is used up more quickly by chickens that have
access to feed immediately after hatch than those fasted for 48 h. Chicks with early access to feed gained
significantly more weight compared to those deprived of feed for 48h during the first week of age. How-
ever, no difference in body weight could be found between chicks fed either immediately after hatch or
24h post hatch. The weight of liver, pancreas, jejunum and ileum increased significantly in the birds ac-
cessed to feed at 0 or 24h as compared to those deprived of feed during initial 48h. However, no
difference could be noticed between those fed immediately or fed after 24h of hatch. Thus, early feeding
has a greater effect in triggering the right momentum of growth in broiler hatchlings. Early nutrient intake
not only utilizes the residual yolk faster but also increases the body weight gain and enhances the gas-
trointestinal tract development in neonatal broiler chicks.

MG 60
Effect of wet feeding on the compensatory growth of broiler chickens
A. Khatibjoo, F. Shariatmadari1, A. A. Saki2 and H. Aliarabi3
1
Department of Animal Science, Tarbiate Modarres University, Iran; 2, 3Department of Animal
Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Iran

Wetting cereal based feeds caused significant improvement in feed intake, weight gain and feed con-
version efficiency of broiler chickens. Feed restriction reduces metabolic disorders, abdominal fat and
energy needs for body maintenance and improves feed efficiency. This study was investigated to deter-
158
158
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

mine effect of wetting feed on compensatory growth of broilers. The experiment was conducted as a 2×4
factorial arrangement with two levels of feed form (wet or dry) and four levels of feed restriction (0, 10,
20 and 40 percent). 160 chicks at one week of age were divided into 8 groups of 5 replicates and 20
birds. Birds were restricted from 18-24 days of age and at the end of restriction period 4 groups of birds
were allowed to eat wet and the rest were allowed to eat dry feed until 42 days of age. Then one bird
from each replicate was killed and the breast meat, drumstick and abdominal fat were recorded, and
carcass protein, fat and ash were determined. Results of this study showed that wet feeding increased
feed intake, body weight gain, final body weight and relative growth rate but did not affect feed conver-
sion efficiency (P<0.05). However feed restriction in all the restriction levels significantly decreased body
weight gain (P<0.05) but differences between two forms of feed were not significant. Wetting of diet had
no significant effect on carcass and breast weights, carcass dry matter, ash, fat and protein percentages
but abdominal fat percentage in wet feeding was significantly (p<0.05) higher than dry feeding in all of
feed restriction levels. Feed restriction decreased carcass fat and dry matter percentages in both forms of
feed. There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between form of feed and feed restriction for carcass
dry matter, fat, ash and protein percentages.

MG 61
Performance of broiler chickens under various stress conditions
V. S. Jadhav, R. A. Patil, S. G. Narwade and D. T. Samale
Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairy Science,
Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, India

The performance of birds reared under recommended management (T1 and T2 controls) was com-
pared with those reared under stress of poor feeding (T3), overcrowding (T4) high light intensity (T5) or
poor litter with poor sanitary condition (T6). The chicks were brooded under hovers with necessary light
and ventilation and later reared on deep litter system. Common 4 day feeding of crushed maize crumbles
was followed by respective treatments. The data on various parameters were analyzed in Completely
Randomized Design (CRD). At the end of period, the chicks under respective treatments, attained mean
live weights of under T1 through T6, respectively. Stress of overcrowding and poor litter conditions
affected body weight gains during latter weeks of age from 4th week. Feed intake was significantly af-
fected by overcrowding from 4th week onwards, by high light intensity from 2nd week onwards and poor
litter condition from 4th week onwards as compared to control birds. Stress of poor feeding did not have
any effect on feed intake during entire experimental period as compared with control birds. Feed Conver-
sion Ratio (FCR) under stress of poor feeding was significantly inferior from 2nd week onwards as com-
pared to control but overcrowding improved it significantly during 7th week of age as compared to con-
trol. FCR was not affected significantly either by high light intensity or by poor litter conditions.

MG 62
Nutritional evaluation of sugarcane press residue in layers
N. Suma, B. S. V. Reddy, K. Rajeswara Rao1, K. C. Singh and R. G. Gloridoss
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College, KVA FSU, Bangalore; 1CPDO, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore- 560 024, India

By-product of sugarcane industry i.e., the Sugarcane Press Residue (SPR) also known as Filter cake
159
159
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

or Pressmud was evaluated for its nutritional worth in 32-week-old white leghorn laying hens. Eight prac-
tical types of isonitrogenous rations were prepared by incorporating SPR at 0, 5, 10 and 15 per cent
either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets in that order. The trial lasted for 84 days
and towards the end of the experimental period, (on days 82, 83 and 84) a three-day metabolic trial was
carried out by adopting total collection method. The average dry matter metabolisability values ranged
significantly (P<0.05) from 52.71 (T1) to 55.46 (T3) per cent. Similarly organic matter metabolisability
was maximum (P<0.05) in T5 (63.29%) and least in T7 (58.91%) groups. The statistically non significant
(P>0.05) metabolisability coefficients of CP ranged from 70.10 (T1) to 73.72 (T7). However, ether ex-
tract metabolisability values ranged (P<0.05) from 69.01 (T4) to 75.14 (T5) and the crude fibre metabolisability
was maximum (P<0.05) in 5 per cent SPR included fish diet (71.35%) and least in 10 per cent SPR
included soya diet (62.27%). Although there was a significant variation in metabolisabilities of various
proximate principles between SPR supplemented and control groups, birds could still tolerate SPR in the
diets.

MG 63
Utilization of sugarcane press residue in laying hens
N. Suma, B. S. V. Reddy, K. Rajeswara Rao1, K. C. Singh and R. G. Gloridoss
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College, KVA FSU, Bangalore; 1CPDO, Hesaraghatta, Bangalore-560 024, India

A biological trial on 160 white leghorn layers (32 week old) using Sugarcane Press Residue at 3
different levels (5%, 10%, 15) vis-à-vis in combination with two different protein sources (soya based:
T2–T4 or fish based: T6– T8) including control (Soya:T1 and fish based: T5) was carried out for 84 days.
The experiment was equally divided into 3-periods and gross efficiency of protein utilization as well as
gross efficiency of energy utilization was calculated. The treatment wise results revealed that the per cent
EPU was significant (P<0.05) during first period in that it ranged from as low as 26.74 (T8) to 30.34 (T6).
But however, this pattern of significance did not persist during the subsequent periods. The values ranged
non significantly (P>0.05) from 25.35 (T8) to 29.74 (T1) during Period II and from 25.39 (T3) to 29.21
(T4) per cent during Period III. As that of efficiency of protein utilization, the efficiency of energy utilization
was found to be significant (P<0.05) only during Period I while, during Period II and III, the values were
found to be non significant (P>0.05). The value during Period I ranged significantly (P<0.05) from 25.60
(T8) to 29.22 (T6) per cent during Period I. Non significant values ranged from 24.27 (T8) to 28.54 (T1)
during Period II and from 24.40 (T3) to 28.10 (T4) during Period III. Thus, the inclusion of SPR up to 15
per cent in the diets did not affect the ability of birds to transfer dietary protein and energy to the egg not
withstanding the apparently low nutritive value of SPR.

MG 64
Metabolizability of energy content of sugarcane
press residue in broilers and layers
B. N. Suresh, B. S. V. Reddy and C. Basavantha Kumar
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College, KVAFSU (Bidar), Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India

Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a byproduct from sugar industry was evaluated for it’s energetic
160
160
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

worth in broilers and layers. In metabolism trial involving broiler birds, a practical type broiler starter diet
using conventional energy and protein sources to serve as basal mixture (control) and three test diets by
incorporating sun dried SPR at 10, 20 and 30% replacing the corresponding proportion of basal mixture
were prepared. Further, another 12 diets were prepared by supplementing control and test diets with lipid
utilizers (lipase and lecithin) or NSPases or their combinations. Each of such diet was offered to duplicate
groups of 10 chicks (Hubbard strain, unsexed) each, for a period of 14 days including terminal 3 days
collection period. In an another metabolism trial involving layers, another set of 16 diets (layer type) were
was prepared by incorporating 0, 10, 20 and 30% SPR in combination with or without lipid utilizers
(lipase and lecithin) or NSPases. Each diet was offered to triplicate groups of 3 laying hens(BV-300
hens), for a period of 14 days including terminal 3 days collection period. The results revealed that the
average ME of SPR at 10, 20 and 30% inclusion level were 1036, 842 and 1437 kcal/kg, respectively in
broilers and 845, 937 and 1031 kcal/kg, respectively in layers. The inclusion of biotechnological agents
namely lipid utilizers or NSPases or their combination failed to improve the ME content of SPR. The
established ME content of SPR can be used to formulate economic rations for poultry, as the SPR is
cheaply and abundantly available in sugarcane growing regions of India.

MG 65
Egg production performance of layers fed diets
containing sugarcane press residue
B. N. Suresh, B. S. V. Reddy, N. K. S.Gowda1, N. Suma and P. C. Bolka
Department of Animal Nutrition,
1
Veterinary College, KVAFSU (Bidar), Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024; NIANP, Bangalore, India

To find out the optimum level of inclusion of sugarcane press residue (SPR) in the diets of layers, 42-
wks old BV-300 laying hens (n=144) were assigned to twelve dietary treatments. Three isonitorgenous
and isocaloric experimental diets by incorporating 0, 5 and 10 per cent SPR to cater the organic nutrients
as well as mineral sources. Further, each diet was supplemented with lipid utilizing agents (lipase and
lecithin) or NSP degrading enzymes or their combination to result in another set of 8 test diets. Each such
diet was offered to triplicate groups of 4 laying birds each. The feeding trial was carried for 84 days,
which was divided into three periods of 28-day interval each. The results revealed that a significant (P£0.05)
difference in cumulative egg production (77.1 to 84.5 %), feed consumption (116.2 to 118.5 g/bird) and
egg weight (58.51 to 60.07 g) however, body weight changes were non-significantly varied among various
treatments. With regards to the main factors, SPR level (0, 5 and 10%) showed a significant differences
(P<0.01) among treatments for all the production parameters studied excepting egg weight. There was no
significant differences (P>0.05) in egg quality parameters viz., Haugh unit score, albumen index, yolk
index, yolk colour, shell thickness and yolk colour score among different treatments. In general, as the
level of SPR increased in diets, there was a decreased performance of layers and none of the biotechno-
logical approaches proved to be effective in improving the nutritive value of SPR.

161
161
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 66
Influence of dietary enzymes on the performance of
layers at different ages
Parminder Singh and M. L. Kansal
Department of Vet. and Animal Husbandry Extn.
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141001

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary enzymes on the economic parameters of
layers using 3 x 4 x 3 (enzyme source x dose x age) factorial in randomized block design. The experiment
was conducted simultaneously in three sheds of Kansal and Kansal Poultry Farm, Panipat having layers of
different age groups i.e. 40, 61 and 91 weeks of age. Three types of enzymes (A, B and C) were
procured from the market and were added in 12 bajra based diets @ four different doses i.e. control,
25% less than recommended, recommended and 25% more than recommended by the respective manu-
facturers in each age group. Each diet was fed to duplicate group of layers having 72 layers in each group.
The birds were reared in cages having 3 x 3 California type of rearing system. All the management
practices viz. lighting, ventilation etc. were performed as recommended. After one week of adaption
period data was recorded fro next four weeks. The results of experiment revealed that irrespective of age
of birds and dose of enzymes, supplementation of enzymes significantly (P £ 0.05) increased the hen day
egg production from 88.75 to 90.45 per cent. Feed conversion ratio did not improve significantly. Instead
weight of the egg supplemented with enzymes was reduced non-significantly. All the other parameters like
eggshell thickness, yolk and albumen qualities differed insignificantly. Birds supplemented with enzyme C
performed significant (P £ 0.05) better than the enzymes A and B. Irrespective of types of enzyme and age
of bird, dose 25% less than the recommended by manufacturer gave better results than the other doses.
Feed intake and hen day egg production was depressed significantly (P £ 0.05) when the brides were
given enzymes @ 25% more than recommended. Response of 40 week layer to enzyme supplementation
was significantly (P £ 0.05) better than the other age groups. In 91 week layers, there was no effect on
feed intake but egg production improved non significantly. So, it was concluded that performance of 40
weeks old layers supplemented with enzyme C @ 150 g/100 kg feed was significantly (P £ 0.05) better
than the other treatments. Type of enzyme and its dose influence the response particularly in younger
layers. Taking into consideration the increase in egg production, reduction in feed intake and cost of
enzymes there was a net saving of Rs. 7500/10000 layers per month at the above said farm.

MG 67
Effect of different levels of fibre with and without enzyme
on the production performance of layers
A. P. S. Sethi and S. S. Sikka
Department of Animal Nutrition
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India

An experiment was conducted to see the response of commercial enzymes supplementation at differ-
ent dietary fibre levels on the egg laying performance and egg cholesterol levels. Three hundred and
twenty laying birds of 22 weeks age were randomly distributed in 16 groups. Each group contained 20
birds. The average weight of the birds in all the groups was same. Eight diets containing 8, 9, 10 and 11
per cent crude fibre without and with commercial enzyme were formulated. Each diet was offered to a
162
162
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

duplicate group of birds. The data on the effect of different dietary treatments revealed a significant effect
on percent egg production and per day feed consumption. Supplementation of enzyme at 8 and 9 per cent
crude fibre levels significantly (P<0.05) increased the egg production and feed consumption, but at higher
dietary crude fibre levels, enzyme supplementation reduced the percent egg production. Increase in the
crude fibre level irrespective of enzyme supplementation from 8 to 10 per cent, increased the egg produc-
tion non significantly. The total cholesterol per egg reduced by supplementing the enzyme at all dietary
fibre levels except at 9 per cent. On per gram yolk basis the cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05)
affected by the dietary treatments. The data indicated that supplementation of enzyme at 10 and 11 per
cent dietary crude fibre decreased the cholesterol per gram of yolk. The cumulative effect of dietary crude
fibre irrespective of enzyme supplementation did not show any significant (P<0.05) effect On the other
hand, supplementation of enzyme irrespective of dietary crude fibre level decreased the total cholesterol
level and the cholesterol per gram of egg yolk.

MG 68
Performance of starter chicks fed different levels of enzyme
phytase at different levels of non phytate phosphorus
S. S. Sikka and A. P. S. Sethi
Department of Animal Nutrition
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004

An experiment using 3x3 factorial design was conducted on week old egg type starter chicks to see
the effect of different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) at different levels of enzyme phytase.
Eighteen groups of thirty chicks in each were constituted. The average weight between and among the
different groups was kept similar. Nine experimental diets with 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 % NPP levels at 400,
500, 600 units of phytase / Kg diets were formulated. Each diet was randomly allocated to a duplicate
group of chicks. The feeding was done adlib up to eight weeks of age. The different levels of dietary NPP
significantly (P<0.01) affected the body weight, gain in weight, feed consumption and feed conversion
ratio. However the level of enzyme did not significantly (P<0.01) affect the body weight and weight gain
but both the feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the
different level of enzyme irrespective of dietary NPP levels. Increase in enzyme level at 0.2% NPP level
significantly (P<0.05) reduced the body weight, weight gain and feed consumption with deterioration in
FCR. However at 0.3%NPP level, increase in enzyme level significantly (P<0.05) improved weight gain
and feed consumption. On the other hand at each level of enzyme, increase in dietary NPP level signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) improved the body weight and gain in weight with increase in feed consumption. The data
revealed that the highest body weight and gain in weight were achieved at 0.3% NPP with 500 units of
phytase followed by the diet with 0.4% NPP with 400 unit of phytase.

MG 69
Performance and egg quality of laying hens affected
by different sources of phytase
S. A. Hosseini Siyar, A. Ahmadi, H. Aliarabi, A. Saki, M. M. Tabatabaie
Animal Science Department, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

Ninety hens were divided into six groups as a 2x3 factorial design and fed diets containing wheat
163
163
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

bran (WB) at two levels of zero and five percent and the enzyme phytase at three levels of 0, 150 and
300 FTU kg-1. Egg weight, egg production, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were deter-
mined. Eggs were collected on two consecutive days at fortnightly intervals to measure egg size and egg
component weights. Shell thickness was measured. Egg production, egg weight, FCR and feed intake
were not affected by WB. Egg production, egg weight and feed intake were significantly higher in phytase-
supplemented groups than unsupplemented groups. FCR differed significantly between dietary treatments
as phytase supplementation significantly decreased FCR. Inclusion of WB to the diets had no effect on
egg size and albumen weight. Phytase supplementation did not affect yolk weight, although albumen and
shell weight were significantly affected.

MG 70
Effect of dietary supplementation of tulsi leaf powder (Ocimum sanctum)
on egg yolk cholesterol and serum lipid profile in commercial layers
R. R. Deshpande, A. A. Zanzad, B. N. Ramteke and G. B. Deshmukh
Department Of Animal Nutrition,
Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur 440006, India

The Experiment Was Conducted On Layers From 24 Weeks Old To The Age Of 32 Weeks To
Investigate The Effect Of Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum) On The Performance Of Layers. Forty-Five Experi-
mental Pullets Were Randomly Divided Into Three Experimental Groups Of 15 Pullets In Each. Control
(T0) Received Standard Layer Diet, Group T1 Received Standard Layer Diet With Tulsi (0.5%), Group
T2 Received Standard Layer Diet With Tulsi (1%). It Was Concluded That Supplementation Of Tulsi Leaf
Powder @ 0.5% Or 1% In Layer Diet Did Not Affect Body Weight, Egg Production, Egg Weight, Feed
Consumption And Feed Efficiency. The Average Egg Yolk Cholesterol Was Reduced Significantly From
45th Day Onward In Group T2 Supplemented With Tulsi Leaf Powder At The Rate Of 1% Of The Diet.
The Average Serum Total Cholesterol Was Reduced Significantly From 45th Day Onward In Group T2
Supplemented With Tulsi Leaf Powder At The Rate Of 1% Of The Diet. The Average Serum Hdl Choles-
terol Was Increased Significantly On 60th Day In Group T2 Supplemented With Tulsi Leaves/Leaf Powder
At The Rate Of 1% Of The Diet The Average Serum Triglycerides Were Numerically Reduced On 60th
Day In Group T2 Followed By Group T1 Supplemented With Tulsi Leaves At The Rate Of 1% And 0.5%
Of The Diet. The Average Serum Ldl Cholesterol Was Reduced Significantly On Day 60th In Group T2
Followed By Group T1 Supplemented With Tulsi Leaves At The Rate Of 1% And 0.5% Of The Diet. As
The Effect Of Tulsi Leaves Was Gradual, Long Term Feeding Of It In Laying Hens Diet At The Rate Of
1% Of The Diet, May Be Helpful In Lowering Egg And Blood Cholesterol.

MG 71
Productivity and economic feasibility of rearing indigenous laying birds on
conventional rations under intensive system of management in Assam
R. Buragohain , B. N. Saikia and K. K. Baruah
College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry
Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022

A study was undertaken to elucidate productivity and economic feasibility of indigenous laying birds
on conventional rations under intensive system of rearing in Assam. Eighty female birds at the point of lay
164
164
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

were taken for the study and assigned four experimental rations dividing them randomly into four groups
with two replicates in each. One out of the four rations contained 18% CP and 2600 Kcal ME/kg (as per
BIS, 1992) and served as control (RC). The rest contained 16% CP with 2600 Kcal ME/Kg (R1), 16%
CP with 2800 Kcal ME/Kg (R2) and 18% CP with 2800 Kcal ME/Kg (R3), respectively. The cost
incurred per kg of ration formulated were Rs.7.99, 7.72, 8.78 and 7.85 for RC, R1, R2 and R3 respectively
as per the market price of the feed ingredients. Egg production (Hen-days basis) was found to be higher
in RC (36.40±3.28) followed by R1 (33.35±2.48), R3 (31.99±2.45) and R2 (29.49±2.81). Performance
Efficiency Index (PEI) was also observed to be superior in RC (12.62±1.05) followed by R3 (11.71±0.67),
R1 (11.48±0.81) and R2 (11.10±0.96) respectively. The total feed (kg) per dozen of eggs produced
ranged from 4.75 to 5.76 involving the lowest cost of production in control (Rs.32.53) and highest in
group with 18% CP and 2800 Kcal ME/kg ration (Rs.50.60). Considering the market price of eggs (@
Rs.3/egg) excluding other operational cost except feed, there may only be a meagre profit of Rs.3.47 in
case of control group, but losses in all the other groups. The findings of the present study thus adequately
justify the unfeasibility of the use of the conventional feed ingredients unless productivity can be improved
and the incorporation of low cost unconventional feeds and scavengeable feed resources (SFR) may be
suggested in the ration of indigenous laying birds to achieve economic viability under intensive system of
rearing in Assam.

MG 72
Energy requirements and energetic efficiency in
White Leg Horn chicks
S. K. Singh and B. R. Patle
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition
College of Vety. Sci. & A.H., Jabalpur 482001, India

One hundred forty four energy balances studies were worked out on WLH male chicks at three ages,
two seasons, two diets and four level of feeding using comparative slaughter technique to estimate energy
requirement and energetic efficiency. Fasting heat production (FHP) were calculated by regression of log
heat production over ME intake. Anti log of the intersept gave the FHP (NE for maintenance). The values
for FHP of chicks at 8-28, 28-42 and 42-56 d age were 76.28, 78.07 and 99.43 during winter season
and 70.00, 77.68 and 91.60 Kcal / Kgw0.75/d during summer season, respectively. The change in body
energy was regressed on body weight gain with adequate fits obtained using the simple linear equations.
The slopes of regression lines indicated the NE requirement for gain (NEg). The NE requirement for gain
at 8-28, 28-42 and 42-56 d age were 3.24, 3.01 and 3.59 during winter and 2.53, 2.54 and 2.63 kcal/
g gain over Kgw0.75/d during summer season for the respective ages. The ME requirements for mainte-
nance (MEm) were calculated by regression of energy balance over ME intake with adequate fits ob-
tained using the simple linear regression equations. Maintenance ME requirements were estimated from
the fitted regression equation (Y= a + bx) as -a/b, which represents energy intake at zero body energy
gain. The values of MEm for chicks in winter season at 8-28, 28-42, and 42-56 d age were 96.72,
107.54 and 123.68 and in summer season 91.36, 108.47 and 117.70 kcal / kg w0.75/d, respectively. The
ME requirement to gain one g body weight was estimated by regression of ME intake over body weight
gain with adequate fits obtained using the simple linear equations. The ME required per g weight gain
(MEg) were 5.73, 4.50 and 4.30 in winter season and 3.50, 4.08 and 3.13 kcal / Kgw0.75/d in summer
season for 8-28, 28-42 and 42-56d age, respectively. The change in body energy was regressed on ME

165
165
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

intake with adequate fits obtained using the simple linear regression equations. The slopes of the regres-
sion lines × 100 indicated the partial efficiency in percentage with which dietary ME, above that required
for maintenance, was utilized for body energy gain. The partial efficiency of ME utilization for body energy
gain in chicks for 8-28, 28-42 and 42-56d age during winter and summer season were 55%, 53%, 77%
and 67%, 60%, 73% for the corresponding age groups and seasons.

MG 73
Studies on the use of rock phosphate with and without aluminium
sulphate on the nutrient utilization in starting chicks
S. Nayak and R. P. S. Baghel
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur, India

Raw rock phosphate (RRP) is comparatively much cheaper source of phosphorus in comparison to
dicalcium phosphate (DCP) for poultry. But its optimum level of incorporation in poultry diet is not con-
firmed. Further, it contains high level of fluorine which is detrimental to their health. Hence, to minimize the
effect of fluorine toxicity attempts were made to use aluminium sulphate which has property of forming
complex with fluorine. However, to what extent it works within the biological system is obscure. There-
fore, an experiment was conducted to see the effect of aluminum sulphate supplementation with raw rock
phosphate on the performance of starting chicks. WLH chicks (405; Babcock BV-300) of identical weights
were randomly distributed to 27 replicates of 15 chicks each. Starter diets were formulated using maize,
deoiled rice polish, soybean meal, minerals and vitamins supplements as per ICAR (1998) specifications.
There was variation only in the phosphorus supplement used in the mineral mixture of various diets. Total
nine diets were tested in the experiment. Diet 1 (T1) in which dicalcium phosphate (DCP) was exclusively
used as phosphorus supplement, was used as control. Whereas, in other four diets, DCP of control diet
was replaced by raw rock phosphate (RRP) @ 40, 60, 80 and 100% (T2, T4, T6, T8). To see the effect
of aluminium supplementation with RRP, it was added @ 486ppm, 729ppm, 972ppm and 1215ppm in
T2, T4, T6 and T8 diets, respectively and these diets were designated as T3, T5, T7 and T9. The
metabolic trial on total collection basis was conducted at 6 weeks of age replicate wise. Based on the
total dry matter consumed, excreta voided and their chemical composition nutrient retention was calculated.The
nutrient utilization in terms of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract and
calcium and phosphorus was studied. Studies indicated that feed utilization and retention of nutrients was
maximum in chicks assigned T1 diet. Use of RRP instead of DCP tend to reduce the nutrient utilization
significantly (P<0.05). Gradual increase in the level of RRP replacing DCP, reduced the utilization of dry
matter as well as retention of nutrients. Significant reduction was noted in dry matter utilization and reten-
tion of crude fibre and calcium. Up to 40% RRP instead of DCP, had no significant effect on retention of
crude protein, ether extract, NFE and phosphorus but it reduced the retention of crude fibre and calcium
significantly. Increase in the level of RRP to 60% of DCP, did not influence the dry matter utilization and
retention of protein, ether extract and NFE. But further increase in the its level to 80% and 100%,
reduced the retention of various nutrients signiifcantly. Use of aluminium sulphate with RRP did not have
beneficial effect on the retention of nutrients. Conversely, there was reduction in the retention of various
nutrients. Use of aluminium sulphate with 40% RRP or even at higher levels did not have any beneficial
effect on the utilization of nutrients. Use of aluminium sulphate with higher levels of RRP, only improved
the utilization of calcium and phosphorus significantly. Thus studies indicated that use of RRP instead of
166
166
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

DCP had reducing effect on the retention of nutrients and use of aluminium sulphate did not have much
beneficial effect on the retention of nutrients in starter chicks.

MG 74
Studies on the use of rock phosphate with and without aluminium
sulphate on the nutrient utilization in growing birds
Sunil Nayak and R. P. S. Baghel
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science and Animal husbandry, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India

The experiment was conducted using three hundred and seventy eight, White leghorn (WLH Babcock
BV-300) growing birds randomly allotted to 27 replicates. Grower diets were formulated as per ICAR
(1998) specifications using maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean meal, minerals and vitamins supplements.
Diets varied as regard to their phosphorus supplements with or without aluminium sulphate. Total nine
diets were used in the study. Each diet was randomly allotted to three replicates of 15 birds each. Diet 1
(T1) in which DCP was used as a sole source of phosphorus, acted as control. Whereas, in other eight
diets, DCP of control diet was replaced using RRP @ 40, 60, 80 and 100% without (T2, T3, T4 and T5)
or with aluminum sulphate (T6, T7, T8, T9). The metabolic trial was conducted at 17th weeks of age
replicate wise on total collection basis. Based on the total dry matter consumed, excreta voided and their
chemical composition nutrient retention was calculated. The nutrient utilization in birds was studied in
terms of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, nitrogen free extract and calcium and phos-
phorus. Studies indicated that inclusion of RRP instead of DCP at higher levels caused reduction in the
utilization of dry matter as well as retention of nutrients. Significant reduction in the utilization of dry matter,
crude protein, crude fibre NFE and calcium and phosphorus was noted. Only in case of ether extract
better utilization was recorded. Use of RRP above 60% level instead of DCP also caused significant
reduction in the utilization of ether extract. Use of aluminium sulphate with RRP had no beneficial effect on
the utilization of dry matter as well as protein and ether extract except at 40% level of inclusion where
significant increase in the utilization of crude protein and ether extract was noted. While utilization of crude
fibre was better with aluminium sulphate supplemented diets. The NFE retention was not influenced due to
use of aluminium sulphate. While the retention of calcium and phosphorus increased due to use of alu-
minium sulphate but significant increase was noted only with calcium when DCP was completely replaced
with RRP. It was concluded that use of RRP in growing birds caused reduction in the utilization of nutri-
ents except ether extract and use of aluminium sulphate with RRP was beneficial only at 40% level of
replacement as regards protein and fibre was concern while for calcium retention it was most beneficial
when DCP was completely replaced.

MG 75
Use of raw rock phosphate without and with aluminum sulphate
on the performance and nutrient utilization in layers
Sunil Nayak and R. P. S. Baghel
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India

The studies were undertaken to see the effect of use of Raw rock phosphate (RRP) with and without
167
167
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

aluminium sulphate instead of dicalcium phosphate on the performance and nutrient utilization in layers.
The experiment was conducted using two hundred and seventy, White leghorn (WLH Babcock BV-300)
pullets of 20 weeks age randomly allotted to 27 replicates. Layer ration was prepared as per ICAR
(1998) specifications using maize, deoiled rice polish, soybean meal, minerals and vitamins supplements.
Total nine types of diet were used. Each diet was randomly allotted to three replicates of 10 birds each.
In diet 1 (T1) DCP was used as a sole source of phosphorus. Whereas, in other eight diets, DCP was
replaced using RRP @ 40, 60, 80 and 100% without (T2, T4, T6 and T8) or with aluminum sulphate
(T3, T5, T7, T9). The metabolic trial was conducted at 33rd weeks of age replicate wise on total collec-
tion basis. Based on the total dry matter consumed, excreta voided and their chemical composition nutri-
ent retention was calculated. The performance of birds as well as their nutrient utilization was studied. The
serum samples were also analyzed for enzyme study. Studies revealed that use of RRP instead of DCP
reduced the feed intake. It was significantly lower in groups assigned 40% and 60% RRP instead of DCP.
The percent hen day production was maximum in birds assigned control diet. It reduced significantly due
to use of RRP instead of DCP. Use of RRP instead of DCP did not influence the egg weight. The average
egg weight was about 50g in different groups. As a result of it, feed conversion ratio per dozen as well as
per kg eggs was maximum and significantly higher in T5 groups followed by those allotted T4, T3, T2 and
T1 diet. Replacement of DCP up to 80% had no significant effect on FCR of birds. Feed cost per dozen
egg as well as per kg egg was maximum and significantly higher in birds assigned T5 diet followed by
those allotted T4, T1, T2 and T3 diet. Lowest feed cost was registered in birds assigned T3 diet. How-
ever, it was statistically similar to those assigned T1 and T2 diet. Use of aluminium sulphate along with
RRP tend to improve the feed intake and egg production except at 40% level of RRP (T6) where signifi-
cant reduction was noticed. The egg weight was statistically similar in all the groups. The feed conversion
ratio (FCR) per dozen egg as well as per kg egg increased significantly due to use of aluminium sulphate
with 40% RRP. While, with higher levels of RRP, its supplementation led to reduction in their FCR. Use of
aluminum sulphate caused significant increase in the cost of egg production either per dozen or per kg
eggs. Maximum cost of egg production was noted in birds assigned diet containing 100% RRP instead of
DCP supplemented with aluminium sulphate. The higher cost of egg production due to aluminium sulphate
supplementation was due to its much higher cost. Studies indicated that dry matter utilization did not differ
significantly due to use of RRP instead of DCP up to 60% level of inclusion but further increase in the level
of RRP led to significant reduction in the utilization of dry matter in layers. While, retention of most of the
nutrients under study except nitrogen free extract, there was significant reduction due to inclusion of higher
levels of RRP instead of DCP. Minimum retention was noted in birds assigned diet containing RRP com-
pletely instead of DCP. The retention of NFE was maximum in birds assigned diet containing 40-60% of
RRP instead of DCP. Supplementation of aluminium sulphate along with RRP, did not improve the nutrient
utilization in birds. Retention of most of the nutrients reduced due to inclusion of aluminium sulpahte. There
was exception only with the retention of NFE which increased significantly when RRP was used to replace
the DCP completely. The analysis of serum samples indicated that use of RRP led to significant increase
ein the ALT while AST and ALPlevel were not influenced due to incorporation of RRP up to 60%.
However, further increase in the level of RRP increased the levels of AST as well as ALP. Due to use of
aluminum sulphate there was decrease in the level of ALT and AST but level of ALP was not effected
significantly. Thus, considering the total egg production and their cost of production, it is concluded that

168
168
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

60% RRP can be used economically instead of DCP in the mineral mixture of layers. Although use of
aluminium sulphate increased the egg production and reduced the feed intake but its higher cost led to
uneconomical egg production. While, use of RRP above 60% led to decrease in the retention of nutrients
and use of aluminum sulphate did not improve the nutrient utilization.

MG 76
Effect of organic vs inorganic zinc on egg quality and
laying hens performance
H. Aliarabi , A. Ahmadi , S. A. Hosseini Siyar , M. M. Tabatabaie, A. Saki,
Animal Science Department, University of Bu-Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran

Eighty layer hens were assigned in a completely randomized design to four dietary treatments con-
taining zinc sulphate or organic zinc as Albino-Zn in two levels of 25 or 50 ppm. Feed intake was ex-
pressed on a per hen basis. Daily egg collection was expressed on a hen-day basis. Eggs were weighed
to calculate egg mass production. Feed conversion ratio was calculated as feed consumed per egg mass.
Also all eggs produced on days 14, 28 and 42 were collected and used for egg quality parameters.
Albumen height was measured and Haugh Unit Index (HU) was calculated. The yolk and dried shell were
weighed and albumen weight was calculated. Comparison between mean values was done using the Duncan
Multiple Range Test method. There was no effect of zinc source or zinc level on egg production, egg
weight or feed conversion ratio, however, feed intake of the hens was significantly affected by dietary
treatment. No significant differences were observed for weight of egg components or shell thickness
between treatments, however in the second fortnight, HU differed significantly.

MG 77
Use of methionine and combination of methionine-betaine
compound to combat the residual arsenic concentration in eggs
and meat of layer chicken treated with sodium arsenate
G. Halder and Barun Roy
Department of Animal Nutrition
WB University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700 037, India

An experiment was conducted to find out the residual concentration of total arsenic (As) in eggs and
meat of layer chicken treated with arsenic as sodium arsenate via drinking water. 120 Rhode Island Red,
16 week -old, were allocated into four groups having three replicates with nine hens and one cock in each
replicate. The experimental groups were C (control group fed with basal diet only), T1 (fed control diet
with 5.5 ppm As through water), T2 (fed control diet with 5.5 ppm As through water + 50 g methionine
per 100kg of feed) and T3 (fed same as T2 but 50% of the excess methionine supplement was replaced
with betaine). The birds were maintained in deep litter system of housing. All the components of egg from
treatment groups showed higher concentration of As (P<0.01) than control. The ratio of arsenic content in
yolk and albumen was found to be almost 3:1. Results also indicated that supplementation of methionine
or methionine-betaine combination reduced the residual concentration of As in eggs and meat of the
treatment groups (T2 and T3). It may be concluded that supplementation of either methionine or methion-
ine - betaine combination may protect the chronic arsenic toxicity during exposure of As in laying hen.

169
169
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 78
Pathological studies on intestine, heart, lungs and ovaries
of layer chicken induced chronic arsenic toxicity
G. Halder, B. Roy, S. Mondal and S. Koley
Department of Animal Nutrition, F/O- Veterinary and Animal Sciences
WB University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata- 700 037, India

An experimental trial was carried out for pathological studies on intestine, heart, lungs and ovaries of
Rhode Island Red laying hen induced chronic arsenic toxicity. 16 week old pullets (n=40) of Rhode
Island Red (RIR) were randomly assigned into four dietary treatments replicated three times with 10
birds/ replicate. The groups were control (C) - provided basal diet to meet all the nutrients requirement,
treatment (T) - birds were offered control diet with 5.5 ppm arsenic (As) through water. The birds were
maintained replicate wise in deep litter system of housing with a common system of management. Intestine,
heart, lungs and ovaries of the birds in the control group did not show any pathological changes.
Hislopathological observation showed sloughing off the tip of the villi with congestion and haemorrhage in
intestine, degeneration of myocardial fibres with extensive haemorrhage, whereas emphysema and thick-
ening of intra-alveolar septa with severe haemorrhage was observed in lungs of as intoxicated birds. Birds
of treatment group showed decreased number of follicles with thickening of stroma in ovaries. So it can
be inferred that As caused a marked pathological changes in intestine, heart, lungs and ovaries of laying
hen.

MG 79
Toxicopathological effect of arsenic on liver and
kidney in layer chicken
G. Halder, B. Roy and L. Biswas1
Department of Animal Nutrition, 1Department of Veterinary Pathology
WB University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata- 700 037, India

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of chronic arsenic toxicity on pathological changes
in liver and kidney of layer chicken. Forty Rhode Island Red, 16 weeks old, were randomly distributed
into two experimental groups, each having two replicates with 10 birds (9 hens, 1 cock) per replicate.
The experimental groups were Control (C) provided basal diet to meet all the nutrient requirements.
Treatment (T) -birds were offered basal diet with 1/20th LD50of arsenic (As) i.e. 5.5 ppm As through
water. The birds were maintained replicate wise in deep litter system of housing with a common system of
management. No pathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of control birds. But arsenic
treated birds i.e. T group showed coagulative necrosis, extensive haemorrhage, fatty changes in focal
areas and degenerative changes as well as bile duct proliferation in liver. Cellular infiltration and fibrosis in
liver also observed in liver. The section of kidney showed renal medullary necrosis, marked haemorrhage
in the inter tubular space and connective tissue proliferation between tubules, liquifactive necrosis, tubular
haemorrhage with hyaline cast in tubules and swelling of the epithelium in convoluted tubules. Therefore it
can be concluded that arsenic toxicity caused severe damage of the liver and kidney tissue in laying
chicken.

170
170
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 80
The concept of digestible amino acid profile in poultry diet formulation
P. Vasan2, Narayan Dutta1, A. B. Mandal3and K. Sharma1
1
Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar
2
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Livestock Research Station, TANUVAS
3
Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology, CARI, Izatnagar, India

The present study was designed to assess the digestible amino acid profile of cereals and vegetable
protein meals and its applicability in practical dietary formulation. White Leghorn cockerels (n=60), about
30 weeks of age were selected from a single hatched flock. Half the numbers of birds (n=30) were
caecectomized as per standard technique with slight modifications. The birds were subjected to experi-
ment 30 days after surgery. Prior to experimental feeding, all the birds were starved for 48 h. Then the
test ingredients viz., maize, jowar and soybean meal were fed ad libitum for one hour to six caecectomized
as well as six normal birds (Farrell’s rapid ME method) each. The fourth and fifth group of birds of both
the treatments were precision fed with 50 g of sunflower meal and nitrogen free diet (Sibbald’s TME
method) respectively. Caecectomy had no influence on the true digestibilities of amino acids of maize, but
higher digestibilities were observed for most of the amino acids of jowar in caecectomized cockerels. The
intact cockerels underestimated the amino acid digestibilities of jowar. On the other hand the intact cock-
erels overestimated the digestibility of most of the amino acids of soybean and sunflower meal. A biologi-
cal trial was carried out to evaluate the practical applicability of digestible amino acid values in broiler feed
formulation. The total amino acid based (TAAB) diet was formulated as per NRC standards. The digest-
ible amino acid based (DAAB) diet was formulated based on the NRC recommendations that the digest-
ible amino acid requirements were 8-10% lower than the total amino acid requirements. Day old (n=80),
colour broiler chicks were wing banded individually, weighed and distributed randomly into two treat-
ments comprising of 8 replicates of 10 chicks each. The chicks were reared in electrically operated
battery brooders for 42 d. Throughout the experiment, similar management practices like vaccination,
lighting and watering were followed in all the test groups. The birds were provided with weighed quantity
of experimental diet ad libitum. No significant difference in feed intake (2643 vs 2756g), live weight gain
(1364 vs 1395g), FCR (1.94 vs 1.98) and immunocompetence were observed between the two treat-
ment groups. The protein efficiency (0.41 vs 0.39) and nitrogen retention (54.31 vs 51.62%) were similar
between the treatments. Even though there was no significant difference in feed cost per kg live weight
gain (Rs. 18.45 vs 18.01), but still the diet formulated on digestible amino acid basis was lesser by 44
paise per kg live weight gain as compared to total amino acid based diet. These results suggested that the
amino acid digestibility values of feedstuffs determined using caecectomized cockerels might be appropri-
ate, cost effective and reliable for poultry diet formulations.

MG 81
Ecofriendly dietary management systems vis-a-vis a novel approach
P. Vasan2, Narayan Dutta1, A. B. Mandal3and K. Sharma1
1
Division of Animal Nutrition, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar
2
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Livestock Research Station, TANUVAS
3
Avian Nutrition and Feed Technology, CARI, Izatnagar, India

The present study was carried out to determine the bioavailability of minerals such as calcium, phos-
171
171
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

phorus, copper, magnesium and manganese from common vegetable and animal protein feedstuffs and to
assess the role of caeca in the utilization of minerals. The feedstuffs evaluated were soybean, sunflower
(undecorticated), rapeseed, sesame, fish meal and meat cum bone meal. About 60 adult cockerels (30
weeks of age) were used in this experiment. Half the number (n=30) was caecectomized as per standard
technique. Each feedstuff was fed to six caecectomized as well as six intact cockerels (six replicates).
Prior to experimental feeding, all the birds were starved for 48 h to make the gastrointestinal tract free
from the previous feed residue. Then the test feedstuff viz., soybean meal (50 g), sunflower meal (35g),
rapeseed meal (50g) and sesame meal (50g) were precision fed (Sibbald’s TME method) to the birds of
both the treatments. The fifth group of birds (intact as well as caecectomized) was force fed with 50g of
mineral free diet to determine the endogenous mineral excretion. The excreta voided for the following 48
hours were collected individually, weighed, oven dried at 80°C for 24 h and stored at -20°C until further
analysis. The mineral aliquots of all the test ingredients as well as individual excreta samples were pre-
pared as per AOAC (1995) method from their respective total ash and analyzed for the above mentioned
five minerals. The availability of copper from soybean meal (21.61 vs 13.93 %) and meat cum bone meal
(54.97 vs 36.05 %) were significantly higher (P< 0.05 to 0.001) in caecectomized cockerels. On the
contrary the bioavailability of manganese from all the test ingredients (except soybean meal) were mark-
edly higher (P< 0.01 to 0.001) in intact cockerels as compared to their caecectomized counterparts. The
retention of phosphorus from sesame meal (30.19 vs 18.87 %) and fish meal (34.33 vs 25.34 %) were
significantly (P< 0.01 to 0.001) higher in caecectomized as compared to intact cockerels. The present
observations revealed that the intact cockerels underestimated the bioavailability of copper from soybean
and meat cum bone meal and phosphorus from sesame and fish meal respectively. On the other hand the
intact cockerels overestimated the bioavailability of manganese from sunflower, sesame, rapeseed, fish
meal and meat cum bone meal. It is evident from the present study that caeca plays a pivotal role in
resorption of manganese. However, further research is required to study the possible role of caeca in the
absorption of minerals at different physiological stages of bird’s life. It can therefore be concluded that the
mineral digestibility values of vegetable and animal protein feedstuffs determined with intact cockerels
does not support its application in formulating practical feed.

MG 82
Chemical composition and metabolizable energy value of
soya lecithin and rice bran oil
S. Saritha, B. Mohan and D. Chandrasekaran
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India

Eight samples of each soya lecithin and rice bran oil were analyzed for its chemical composition. The
mean per cent moisture, total ash and acid insoluble ash in soya lecithin samples were 0.77, 10.70 and
3.69 %, respectively. While the mean hexane insoluble matter, acetone insoluble matter and benzene
insoluble matter in the soya lecithin samples were 1.65, 67.09 and 0.53, respectively. The chemical char-
acterization viz free fatty acid, acid value, iodine number, saponification value and ester value of the soya
lecithin were found to be 13.49 %, 26.84, 63.79, 162.91 and 136.07, respectively. The fatty acids profile
of the soya lecithin samples were found to be 22.44 % saturated fatty acids, which was dominated by
palmitic (19.63 %) and stearic (2.81 %). The total unsaturated fatty acids were 77.31 % of which 21.55
% was MUFA (palmitoleic-0.47 % and oleic-21.08 %) and 55.76 % was PUFA (linoleic acid-50.42 %

172
172
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

and linolenic-5.34 %). In comparison the chemical characterization viz free fatty acid, acid value, iodine
number, saponification value and ester value of eight samples of rice bran oil were found to be 12.86 %,
25.58, 90.77, 185.92 and 160.34, respectively. The fatty acids profile of rice bran oil was found to
contain 21.94 % saturated fatty acids, which was dominated by palmitic (20.10 %) and stearic (1.84 %).
The total unsaturated fatty acid content was 74.09 % of which 40.05 % was MUFA (oleic - 40.05 %)
and 34.04 % was PUFA (linoleic-32.03 %, linolenic-1.48 % and arachidic-0.53 %). The gross energy
content of soya lecithin was estimated as 7883 kcal/kg, whereas the true metabolizable energy and appar-
ent metabolizable energy were found to be 7518 and 6421 kcal/kg.Soya lecithin with 55.76 % PUFA and
ME 7518 kcal/kg is a potential energy supplement for broiler ducks.

MG 83
Feeding value of soya lecithin for broiler ducks
S. Saritha, B. Mohan and D. Chandrasekaran
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College and Research Institute, Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India

A study was undertaken to evaluate the feeding value of soya lecithin (SL) replacing rice bran oil in
broiler duck ration and its influence on the keeping quality of broiler duck meat. At the end of six weeks,
the mean weight gain and feed efficiency in T1 (0 % SL), T2 (1 % SL), T3 (2 % SL), T4 (3 % SL), T5 (4 %
SL), T6 (4.5 % SL) and T7 (5 % SL) were 1874, 1863, 1814, 1823, 1860, 1845 and 1845g and 2.43,
2.45, 2.53, 2.47, 2.45, 2.47 and 2.48, respectively and did not differ significantly among the treatment
group. The mean cholesterol levels at the end of six weeks of age ranged from 144.44 (T7 -5 % SL) to
163.49 mg %.(T1 -0 % SL).The weights (% body weight) of liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and pancreas at
the end of six weeks ranged from 1.87 to 2.22 g %, 0.50 to 0.56 g %, 2.72 to 3.24 g %, 0.06 to 0.08
g % and 0.33 to 0.38 g %, respectively. The mean values of dressing percentage, weights of blood and
feather (% body weight) ranged from 62.86 to 66.17, 5.16 to 6.35 and 6.63 to 9.64 per cent respec-
tively. The data on sixth week intestinal morphometry values viz., intestinal weight, duodenal length, jejunal
length, ileal length and large intestinal length ranged from 63.5 to 76.5 g, 27.33 to 29.67 cm, 65.17 to
73.67 cm, 67.17 to 73.17 cm and 41.0 to 49.0 cm respectively. The keeping quality of broiler duck thigh
meat stored at-10° C were evaluated based on its thiobarbituric acid value (TBA). TBA value clearly
indicated there was less oxidation of meat in 0.95 (T4), 1.01 (T7), 1.02 (T6) and 1.05 (T1) groups stored
upto 21 days. The TBA value of thigh meat of broilers fed soya lecithin, were between 0.5 to 1.5 mg
malondialdehyde / kg, which indicated the meat has been somewhat oxidized, but acceptable for con-
sumption. The overall acceptability of the broiler duck thigh meat was noticed in birds fed up to 5 % soya
lecithin. Maximum profit of Rs. 0.84 /kg live weight was obtained in 5 % soya lecithin group. The overall
data revealed that inclusion of soya lecithin at 5 % level in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous broiler duck
diet was advantageous.

173
173
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 84
Carcass quality and value added products of spent ducks
fed different forms of trace minerals
T. K. Ghoshal, G. Halder and G. Samanta
Department of Animal Nutrition
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata- 700 037

An experiment was carried out to find the effect of different forms of trace minerals on carcass traits,
meat quality and value added meat products of ducks. Sixty female laying ducks (20 weeks age) of Khaki
Campbell were randomly distributed into three experimental groups replicated two times with 10 birds per
replicate. The groups were control (C) -provided basal diet with inorganic mineral mixture, treatment 1
(T1) birds were provided basal diet with inorganic chelated minerals and treatment 2 (T2) - provided basal
diet with organic chelaled minerals of copper, manganese and zinc. Statistical analysis revealed that car-
cass traits such as live weight, eviscerated carcass percentage along with different percentages of cut-up
parts did not differ significantly among the groups due to dietary treatments. It was also found that meat
quality, nutritive value of duck meat and duck meat products and their sensory evaluation did not varied
due to supplementations of inorganic or organic chelated minerals when compared to traditional inorganic
minerals supplemented group. So it can be concluded that inorganic chelated minerals (T1 group) or
organic chelaled minerals (T2) had little effect on carcass traits, meat quality, nutritive value as well as
sensory evaluation of duck meat products compared to traditional inorganic minerals (To group).

MG 85
Performance of white pekin ducks on cassava tuber meal based ration
S. K. Sahoo, S. K. Naskar, B. K. Panda and M. K. Padhi
Regional Centre, Central Avian Research Institute
Infront of Kalinga Studio, Bhubaneswar-751 03, Orissa.

An experiment was conducted to study the performance of white Pekin ducks with different levels of
cassava tuber meals. The cassava tuber meal was prepared by chopping, drying and grinding the freshly
harvested cassava tubers. For this experiment 60 day old straight run white Pekin ducklings were taken
and randomly divided into five equal groups namely T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. All the ducklings were reared
under similar managemental conditions except different dietary treatments. The T1 ducklings were pro-
vided with conventional control ration without any cassava tuber meals. In groups T2, T3, T4 & T5 the
maize was replaced by cassava tuber meals at 40, 60, 80 & 100 % level, respectively. The experimental
ration was offered upto 6 weeks of age. Weekly body weight and daily feed consumption was recorded.
Blood samples were collected from three ducks from each group at 21st and 42nd day. After the end of
42nd day of experimental feeding a metabolism trial of five days collection period was conducted. At the
6th week of age, the average body weight was 2195.67±51.26, 2215.42±30.17,2219.50±61.98,
2175.67±56.71 and 2168.83±53.71 and FCR was 2.68±0.06,2.71±0.05, 2.72±0.07, 2.73±0.08 &
2.76±0.07 in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the
groups. The apparent metabolizability of DM, OM & CP was 75.56±0.72, 72.56±0.59, 73.33±0.49,

174
174
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

70.35±0.44 & 70.37,0.40; 78.13±0.65, 75.56±0.73, 76.49±0.32, 74.06±0.43 & 74.67±0.47 and
74.43±0.69, 75.28±1.82, 72.78±1.66, 72.94±1.47 & 71.80±1.45 in T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively.
Significantly (p=0.05) higher DM, OM & CP metabolizability was observed in T1 than T2, T3, T4, T5 and
T2 & T3 than T4 & T5. No significant difference was observed in apparent CF & EE metabolizability. To
study the carcass characteristics in different groups, 4ducks (2 male & 2 female) from each group was
sacrificed on the 43rd day of experiment. Significantly (p=0.05) higher dressing percentage was observed
in T2 & T3 than T1 & T5 but not from T4. No significant difference was observed in leg, back, neck and
wings percentages. The blood samples collected on 21st and 42nd day were analysed for SGOT, SGPT,
Glucose, Protein, Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol, Calcium & Phosphorus contents. No significant
difference was observed between the groups on 21st day. However, on 42nd day significantly (p=0.05)
higher SGPT activity was observed in T5 than T1, T2 & T3 and significantly (p=0.05) lower activity was
observed in T1 than T4 & T5. The cost per kg gain was Rs. 33.31, 32.42, 31.82, 31.53 & 30.94 in T1,
T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. From this experiment it was concluded that cassava tuber meal can be
used to replace maize completely in the ration of white Pekin ducks without affecting their performances.

MG 86
Evaluation of energy and protein levels of turkeys in hot
and humid condition
N. Panda, G. Dutta, P. K. Mishra, S. C. Mishra, B. K Sahu and P. K. Dehury
PG Department of Poultry Science
Orissa Veterinary College, OUAT, Bhubaneswar-751003, India
One hundred and sixty two Beltsville Small White turkeys of 12 weeks old were reared on floor
system of management in nine groups with three replications in each having 6 turkeys per replication. Nine
dietary treatments, containing three energy levels (2500, 2700 and 2900 K.cal/Kg) and three crude protein
levels (18, 16 and 14%) in a 3 x 3 factorial design during growing period (12 to 24 weeks) were tried. Weekly
body weight, body weight gain and feed consumption were recorded and feed efficiency was calculated. Upto
16th week no significant difference of body weight was found in the turkeys but from 17 to 24 weeks, the body
weight gain and cumulative body weight gain of T7 (CP 18%, ME 2900 K cal/Kg) and T8 (CP 16%, ME
2900 Kcal/Kg) groups were significantly higher than all other groups. Lowest body weight was observed in T1
group (CP 18%, ME 2500 K cal/Kg) from 17th to 24th week. The cumulative feed consumption of the
turkeys during the growing period receiving ME 2500 K cal/kg was highest followed by medium energy group
(ME 2700 K cal/kg). Irrespective of protein content of the feed with the increase in energy content the intake
of feed decreases and highest intake were recorded in group receiving ME 2500 K cal/kg. The best cumula-
tive feed efficiency was noticed in the turkeys of T7 and the poorest being the T2 (CP 16%, ME 2500 K cal/
Kg). From the economic point of view lowest feed cost per production per Kg live weight gain was obtained
as Rs.43.50/ in T8 group (CP 16%, ME 2900 K cal/Kg). It concluded that the Belts Ville Small White grower
turkeys at the age of 12-24 weeks perform better at the energy level of 2900 K cal/Kg of feed with the CP
content of 16% in the diet in hot and humid climate.

175
175
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 87

Effect of energy and protein levels on carcass characteristics


of turkeys in hot and humid condition
N. Panda, G. Dutta, P. K. Pati, P. K. Mishra, S .C. Mishra , S. K. Das and P. C.Behera
PG Department of Poultry Science
Orissa Veterinary College, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, India

One hundred and sixty two Beltsville Small White turkeys of 12 weeks old were divided into nine
groups with three replications in each having 6 turkeys per replication. Nine dietary treatments, containing
three energy levels (2500, 2700 and 2900 K. cal/Kg) and three crude protein levels (18, 16 and 14%) in
a 3 x 3 factorial design during growing period (12 to 24 weeks) were tried. Weekly body weight, body
weight gain, economics of production and carcass characteristics were calculated. At 24th week 2 birds (1
male and 1 female) from each replicate were sacrificed to evaluate carcass yield traits. No significant
difference of body weight was found in the turkeys upto 16th weeks but from 17 to 24 weeks, the body
weight gain and cumulative body weight gain of T7 (CP 18%, ME 2900 K cal/Kg) and T8 (CP 16%, ME
2900 Kcal/Kg) groups were significantly higher than all other groups. Irrespective of the protein content
the groups receiving lower energy (ME 2500 K cal/kg) the cumulative feed consumption of the turkeys
was was highest. No significant difference among different treatment groups for dressed yield, eviscerated
yield, neck yield, wing yield, back yield and giblet yield of the turkeys were found. But significant (P<0.01)
difference among for live or pre-slaughter weight, breast yield, thigh yield, drumstick yield and abdominal
fat yield were recorded. It was observed that with increase in energy level of the ration BMY% de-
creased, but thigh and drumstick yield% increased. Though the differences were very narrow among
different treatments still significant difference existed for BMY, thigh and drumstick yield%. A significant
increasing trend in abdominal fat yield% was found with high-energy diet.

MG 88
Influence of phytase on growth performance and nutrient
utilization in Japanese quails
S. K. Shukla, S. P. Tiwari, M. K. Gendley and K. Kumari
College of Veterinary Science and A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

The experiment was conducted on 150, day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicken
to study the effect of phytase on growth performance and nutrient utilization. Five experimental diets (T1-
T5) were formulated for starter (0-21d), grower (22-42d) and layer (43-77d) to contain 0, 125, 250,
375 and 500g phytase/tonn feed. The available phosphorus was kept as 0.5% in T1 (control) and 0.4% in
T2 to T5. The starter ration contained 2900Kcal ME/kg feed and 27% CP. Diets were made isocaloric by
adding vegetable oil (Soybean). The grower’s mash contained 2800Kcal ME/kg and 24% CP. The data
were recorded for weekly feed intake, body weight gain, FCR, carcass characteristics and biochemical
and haematological parameters upto 6 weeks. A metabolism trial was of 3 days was also conducted.
Daily eggs were recorded for five weeks (6-11weeks). The highest mean cumulative feed intake upto 6
weeks was recorded in T1 (806.02g) than any other groups. During 15-21 days the maximum weekly
weight gains (33.67g) was recorded in T4 and minimum in T1 (29.31g). The maximum mean weight gain at

176
176
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

6th week was recorded in T3 (17.39g) as compared to other groups. During 0-21 days the highest cumu-
lative body weight was recorded in T4 (104g) and the lowest in control. The higher cumulative body
weight at 42 days was recorded in T4 (172.04g) than any other groups. At 42 days best FCR was found
in T4 (4.28) and minimum in control (5.20).Balance studies revealed that nitrogen, calcium and phospho-
rus retention were positive in all the groups. The maximum N retention (0.576g) was recorded in T4 and
the minimum (0.521g) in T1 which accounted to 66.24% and 62.28% respectively. Ca balance was found
highest (0.074g) in T4 and lowest (0.066g) in T1. The per cent Ca retained was maximum (32.53%) in T4
and minimum (29.09%) in T1. Phosphorus balance was found highest (0.034g) in T1 and lowest in T4 and
T5. However its per cent retention was highest (34.12%) in T4. The net profit for raising Japanese quail
chicken upto 42d was highest i.e. Rs 3.40 in T4 as against Rs 3.37 in T5 and Rs 2.80 in control. It could
be inferred from the present study that supplementation of phytase in a low available phosphorus diet has
a positive, economical and growth boosting effect on the productivity of meat and eggs.

MG 89
Influence of phytase on haemato-biochemical profiles and
carcass characteristic in Japanese quails
S. K. Shukla, S. P. Tiwari, M. K. Gendley and M. Dubey
College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

The experiment was conducted on 150, day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicken
to study the effect of phytase on growth performance, nutrient utilization, carcass characteristics, bio-
chemical constituents, haematological profiles and laying performance. Five experimental diets (T1-T5)
were formulated for starter (0-21d), grower (22-42d) and layer (43-77d) to contain 0, 125, 250, 375
and 500g phytase/tonn feed. The available phosphorus was kept as 0.5% in T1 (control) and 0.4% in T2
to T5. The starter ration contained 2900Kcal ME/kg feed and 27% CP. Diets were made isocaloric by
adding vegetable oil (Soybean). The grower’s mash contained 2800Kcal ME/kg and 24% CP. The data
were recorded for carcass characteristics and biochemical and haematological parameters upto 6 weeks.
The highest dressing per cent (66.41) was recorded in T4 as compared to other groups. The highest giblet
yield (8.87 %) was found in T4. The maximum duodenum length (6.76cm/100g) was recorded in T4 and
minimum (5.62cm/100g) in T1. The length of Jejunum, ileum and colorectum did not differ significantly.
The maximum right (3.92cm/100g) and left (3.84cm/100g) caecum length was recorded in T4 whereas
minimum in T1. No significant difference could be obtained amongst groups with regards to haematological
and biochemical parameters (ALP, AST, ALT activity, plasma total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/
globulin ratio, cholesterol and plasma glucose). However plasma Ca and P concentrations were signifi-
cantly (P<0.05) increased. The plasma calcium (14.76mg/dl) and P (7.7mg/dl) were highest in T4 as
compared to other groups. Maximum tibia ash (61.34%), tibia calcium (29.93%) and tibia phosphorus
(15.96%) were recorded in T4 whereas lowest tibia ash (47.86%), tibia calcium (29.85%) and tibia phos-
phorus (14.54%) were observed in T1. Results revealed no correlation between the percent mortality and
the levels of phytase supplementation in the diet.

177
177
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 90
Influence of phytase on laying performance in Japanese quails
S. K. Shukla, S. P. Tiwari and M. K. Gendley
College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

The experiment was conducted on 150, day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicken
to study the effect of phytase on nutrient utilization and laying performance. Five experimental diets (T1-
T5) were formulated for starter (0-21d), grower (22-42d) and layer (43-77d) to contain 0, 125, 250,
375 and 500g phytase/tonn feed. The available phosphorus was kept as 0.5% in T1 (control) and 0.4% in
T2 to T5. The starter ration contained 2900Kcal ME/kg feed and 27% CP. Diets were made isocaloric by
adding vegetable oil (Soybean). The grower’s mash contained 2800Kcal ME/kg and 24% CP. The layer’s
diet was constituted with 2700Kcal ME/kg and 22% CP. The data were recorded for FCR parameters
upto 6 weeks. A metabolism trial of 3 days was also conducted. Daily eggs were recorded for five weeks
(6-11weeks). During laying period highest feed intake (1010.39g) and low FCR (465.08) was recorded
in T1 whereas the lowest intake (931.76g) and best FCR was obtained in T4 (297). The highest feed/egg
ratio was recorded in T1 (38.76) and the lowest in T4 (24.75). The maximum egg numbers per quail was
recorded in T4 (39) and the minimum in control. There was no significant (P<0.05) difference amongst
groups with regards to egg quality traits. The highest hen day egg production during 6 to 11 weeks was
recorded in T4 whereas the lowest was in T1.

MG 91
Effect of dietary calcium concentration on performance
of laying Japanese quails
G. P. Mandal1, Y. Damodar Singh2, A. K Samanta1, R. J. Kukde1
1
Department of Animal Nutrition, 2Department of Veterinary Pathology
College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry
2
Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl-796014 (Mizoram)

To ascertain the effect of low dietary calcium in diet on performance of laying Japanese quails, 30
quails (b. wt. 213.2± 5.6 g) were divided into two groups of 15 each with 3 replicates of 5 birds in each
group. The birds of control group were fed on a basal diet (CP: 21.8%, ME: 2800 Kcal/kg DM, Ca:
1.16%), whereas birds in treatment group were fed on same basal diet with supplementation of limestone
to obtain 2.7% Ca. The study was conducted for a period of 30 days. At the end of feeding trial tibia-
tarsus bone from both the groups was collected after slaughter. Body weight and feed intake of quail did
not differ between groups, but egg production (henday egg production) was reduced (p< 0.001) drasti-
cally in control group (17.92 vs. 62.44 %). During the course of study 5 birds in control group exhibited
sign of typical cage-layer fatigue and subsequently died. Postmortem of birds reveled the sign of os-
teoporosis with enlarged joints and beaded ribs. Total ash (47.66 vs. 64.06 %), Ca (16.21 vs. 22.02 %)
and P (7.76 vs. 10.53 %) content of tibia-tarsus bone were lowered (p<0.01) in control group as com-
pared to treatment group. It was, therefore, concluded that a dietary concentration of about 1.2 % Ca in
laying quails resulted in reduced egg production and osteoporosis whereas 2.7 % Ca in diet was found
adequate in this study.

178
178
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 92
Utilization of niger seed cake with or without supplementation
of non-starch polysaccharides degrading enzymes in quail ration
M. R. Sinha, R. Bhakt, S. Thakur and A. K. Sinha
Ranchi Veterinary College,
Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi-834006, India

200 days old Japanese quail chicks were divided randomly in 5 equal groups (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5)
Group T1 was fed control ration consisting of Maize, Ground nut cake (GNC), fish meal, mineral mixture
and common salt. In the ration of group T2 and T4 GNC Nitrogen of control was replaced with Niger
seed cake by 50 and 100%, respectively. The ingredient composition of rations of group T3 and T5 were
same as that of T2 and T4, respectively but supplemented with Nutrizyme sp. @ 10g/100kg. After a
feeding period of 6 weeks a metabolic trial was conducted on 5 birds of each group with 3 days collec-
tion period. The average daily feed consumption did not differ significantly among the groups. The average
body weight (g) of quails of group T5 was significantly higher (159.68) than those of group T1 (142.43), T2
(144.00), T3 (149.73) and T4 (150.81). The mean body weight of quails of group T3 and T4 were signifi-
cantly higher than those of the quails of the group T1 and T2 but did not differ among themselves. Similarly,
the mean body weight of quails of groups T1 and T2 did not differ significantly. Quails of all the groups
were in positive balance for N, Ca and P. All carcass and organoleptic characters did not differ signifi-
cantly among quails of various groups. The ration of T5 showed the best FCR and T4 was the cheapest. It
was concluded that inclusion of non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme in Niger seed cake feeding
improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio in Japanese quail ration.

MG 93
Studies on present status of fish production by the farmers
of Malda district of West Bengal
Adwaita Mondal, S. Barat1, S. K. Das2 and P. K. Gangopadhyay
Malda Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Block Seed Farm, Ratua, Malda-732205; 1Deptt. of Zoology, NBU, Darjeeling;
2
Deptt. of Aquaculture, F.F.Sc., WBUAFS, Kolkata, India
A survey was conducted to study the existing feeding and management practices of different fish-
ponds of six villages viz. Purba Rukundipur, Paschim Rukundipur, Faridpur, Carbona, Bhaluara and Chandmuni
of Malda District of West Bengal. Fifteen fish farmers from each village were randomly selected to collect
information related to existing practices of fish production. The current farming practice was characterized
by large number of fish fingerlings stocking (15,000- 20,000 fingerlings/ha) with minimum/no use supple-
mentary fish feed, leading to low productivity levels (1.9 tons/ha). The multistock and multiharvest pro-
duction system throughout the year is also a major cause of lowered productivity. The different feeding
and management practices were noticed among the various of fish farmers. Thirty per cent fish farmers did
not use any type fish feed/fertilizer whereas, 65% fish farmers irregularly used inorganic fertilizer i.e. urea
and single super phosphate as supplement to the pond and only 5% fish farmers used organic fertilizer i.e.
raw cow-dung and commercial fish feed. Apart from the high stocking density, they are not releasing
fingerlings in a proper ratio (Catla catla: Hypopthalmichthys molitrix: Labeo rohita: Ctenopharyngodon
idella: Cirrhinus mrigala: Cyprinus carpio = 2:2:2:1:1.5:1.5) during stocking. Management of ponds is
179
179
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

not in practice by the maximum fish farmers. However, application of lime was done by very few (8 per
cent) fish farmers only those who produce fingerlings. Due to use of only inorganic fertilizers, dense
macrovegetation occur which causes asphyxia in the fish pond. As a result malnutrition of fishes occurs
and sometimes mass mortality causes huge loss in fish production.

MG 94
Evaluation of fish feed supplementation on production performance
of fish in Malda district of West Bengal
Adwaita Mondal
Malda Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya
Block Seed Farm, Ratua, Malda- 732 205, India

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish feed supplementation on the performance
of fish production at different fish ponds of six villages viz. Faridpur, Carbona, Paschim Rukundipur,
Purba Rukundipur, Bhaluara and Chandmuni of Malda districts of West Bengal, India. The current farming
practice was characterized by multistock and multiharvest production system without any feeding manage-
ment and scientific stocking rate which leads to low production (1.9 ton/ha) in fish. In the present study
locally available feed ingredients i.e. rice bran and mustard oil cake in 1:1 ratio applied into the fish pond
@ 2% of the body weight of fishes per day. Although the culture procedure was multistock and multiharvest,
the stocking rate of 7500-10000 fingerlings/ha was maintained through out the experiment. Total yield and
growth rate was recorded in each harvesting. The fishes were also observed for any disease conditions.
After final harvesting, the total yield was calculated and it was observed that the total production was
increased by 67% (3.17 ton/ha vs. 1.9 ton/ha). There was significant enhancement in growth rate in the
group supplemented fish feed (356.5%) as compared to that of non-supplemented group (240.8%). The
harvested fishes were also healthy without any sign of disease. Although total input cost was increased due
to supplementation of fish feed to the ponds, the relative profit was higher because of increased yield. The
study indicated that the supplementation of fish feed to the pond could augment fish production and
thereby economics of poor fish farmers.

MG 95
Carbohydrate requirement of Labeo bata
B. N. Paul, A. K.Data, S. S. Giri1 and S. N. Mohanty1
Wastewater Aquaculture Division
Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, P.O. Rahara, Kolkata-700 118
1
Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar-751002, India

A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the carbohydrate requirement of Labeo bata early
fingerling (Av. wt. 2.53g). Five different purified diets were prepared having carbohydrate levels of 12%
(Feed-1), 18% (Feed-2), 24% (Feed-3) and 30% (Feed-4) and fed to L. bata. The diets consisted of
casein, gelatin, carboxymethyl cellulose, minerals, vitamins and vegetable oil along with dextrin as the
carbohydrate source. The experiment was conducted in Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) tanks hiving flow
through system. Significantly higher weight gain was observed in fish fed diet containing 24% carbohy-
drate in the present experiment. The carcass composition of fish reared on different diets was also ana-

180
180
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

lyzed. The experimental data reveal that L. bata has a requirement of 24% carbohydrate in diet for
optimum growth.

MG 96
Effect of mustard oil cake based diets on the performance of
common carp (Cyprinus carpio communis) fry
T. H. Bhat, M. T. Banday1 and M. H. Balkhi1
Department of Applied Aquaculture
Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026; 1S.K.U.A.S.T. Srinagar-19006, India

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of graded levels (0, 25, 50, & 75%) of mustard
cake in soybean meal based formulated diet(40% protein) fed to Cyprinus carpio communis fry for 42
days. The experimental diets were fed to ten fishes in duplicate groups. The average live weight gain and
specific growth rate were significantly (P<0.05) higher in fishes fed diets containing mustard oil cake when
compared with soybean meal based diet. The feed cost (Rs/kg) for different diets were Rs.12.00, Rs.10.00,
Rs.9.25, Rs.8.50 respectively for diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50 and 75% (w/w) mustard cake. The
survival rate for fishes fed different diets was cent percent. The study indicates that the mustard cake can
be efficiently incorporated in the diet of Cyprinus carpio communis fry as protein supplement with out
any adverse effect.

MG 97
Efficacy of ascorbic acid (Vitamin-C) on biochemical changes of Indian
river prawn, (Macrobrachium malcolmsonii) under yard condition
S. N. Sethi1, B. K. Das2, S. C. Mukherjee* and S. Sethi1
1
Central Agricultural Research Institute, CARI, Port Blair
2
Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, CIFA, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
* Central Institute of Fisheries Education, CIFE, Versova, Mumbai-61, India

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Vitamin-C on biochemical changes at different
doses viz.0, 125,250 &500 mg/kg diet). The juveniles of Macrobrachium malcolmsonii of average
body weight of 1.38±0.27 g. were used for laboratory experiment. The experimental prawns were di-
vided into four groups for administration of vitamin C and were fed once daily for the period of 90 days.
Throughout the experimental period the water quality was maintained at optimal level. Monitoring of the
biochemical parameters (Glucose, Total protein, ACP & ALP,) was carried out after every four weeks
interval upto 90 days. At the end of this trial period of 90days, the prawns in each group were redivided
for challenge with 1.6 x 108 cfu ml-1 of A. hydrophila. The haemolymph glucose and total protein values
were found significantly different (P< 0.05) over all the exposure period while compared to control group,
The lowest haemolymph glucose was found in medium (250mg) dose at 90 days of experiment (40.28±2.09
mg/dl).similarly lowest total protein value was found in control (6.89±0.06 mg/dl) at 60 days of trial. The
haemolymph ACP activity of juvenile prawns was found significantly different (P<0.05) from control group
under yard condition over all the exposure period. The highest activity of ACP was found at 30 days of
trial in control (53.92±1.98 U/l) than other treatment groups. No significant changes were observed be-
tween control and treatments in haemolymph alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In overall performance, vitamin

181
181
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

C at medium dose had shown the best response in terms of increased biochemical parameters. The
present study suggests that vitamin C at medium dose (250mg) can be introduced into the diet of M.
malcolmsonii, which could increase their resistance to infectious disease minimising the mortality rate and
offer economic profits by way of better growth.

MG 98
Scope of the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds
P. Sardar, B. K. Mahapatra, A. Sinha And S. Datta
Central Institute of Fisheries Education
32 GN Block, Sector-V, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 091, India

Intensification of aquaculture production depends upon the identification and standardization of sus-
tainable protein sources to replace more costly protein ingredients in aqua feeds. Various plant feedstuffs,
which may be incorporated into aqua feeds to support the sustainable production of various fish species in
aquaculture. Plant feedstuffs such as oilseeds, legumes and cereal grains, which traditionally have been
used as protein or energy concentrates in aqua feeds. The presence of anti-nutritional factors in these
feedstuffs t may negatively affect the target organisms. Novel products using these feedstuffs may be
developed through various processing technologies. Lipid composition of these feedstuffs is not specially
considered although it is recognized that incorporating lipid supplements in aqua feeds to achieve proper
fatty acid profiles to meet the metabolic requirements of fish and maximize human health benefits are
important aspects. Specific strategies and techniques to optimize the nutritional composition of plant feedstuffs
and limit potentially adverse effects anti-nutritional bioactive compounds may be the future approach to
develop cheaper aqua feeds for sustainable aquaculture production. Such information may provide a
foundation for developing strategic research plans for increasing the use of plant feedstuffs in aqua feeds
to reduce dependence of animal feedstuffs and thereby enhance the sustainability of aquaculture.

MG 99
Effect of different pelleted feeds and feeding methods on
performance of carps and freshwater prawn under polyculture
P. Sardar, S. Datta, A. Sinha, R. C. Das and P. K. Patra
Central Institute of Fisheries Education
32 GN Block, Sector-V, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 091, India

Polyculture, the art of growing two or more compatible aquatic species together in a single pond, has
the objective of maximizing production using fish species with different spatial distribution of feeding.
Recently, Indian major carps and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) based polyculture is
gaining popularity at different parts in India. But using traditional mixture of rice bran and oil cakes as
artificial supplementary feed in this system fails to meet optimum nutritional requirement and feed intake of
fish and prawn resulting reduced production and increased aquatic pollution. To overcome this problem, a
sixteen-week feeding trial was conducted by taking care of optimum measures of pond preparation and
manuring in earthen ponds of 0.1 ha each to examine the effects of slow sinking extruded pellets and rapid
sinking steam compressed pellets on growth, feed utilization and carcass compositions in carps, catla,
Catla catla, rohu, Labeo rohita, silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala
(average weight of advanced fingerlings 20.77 ± 0.02 g, 20.53 ± 0.06 g, 20.83 ± 0.18 g and 20.77 ± 0.02
182
182
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

g respectivly) and freshwater prawn (average weight of PL-20 0.02 ± 0.01 g). Two kinds experimental
diets DI (slow sinking extruded pellets of 2-5 cm/min sinking rate and 0.5-2 mm particle size) and DII
(rapid sinking steam compressed pellets of 5 cm/sec sinking rate and 0.5-2 mm particle size) were fed to
triplicate groups of fish and prawn of two treatments (SSP-25 and RSPI-25 for diet DI and DII respec-
tively). Diet DI was applied by manual broadcasting @ 1% of BW for first month and @ 3% of BW
thereafter, Diet DII was applied by tray system of feeding method @ 2% of BW for first month and @
5% of BW thereafter. Triplicate groups of fish and prawn of RSPII-25 fed diet DII at the same rate of
RSPI-25 by manual broadcasting. Significant higher weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), protein
efficiency ratio (PER) whole carcass protein and ash and lower FCR, whole body moisture and lipid
content were observed in fish and prawn fed slow sinking extruded pellets than that of fish and prawn of
other dietary groups at the end of 16 weeks feeding trial resulting higher cost benefit ratio in earlier group.
Fish and prawn fed rapid sinking steam compressed pellets through tray system of feeding method showed
significantly better growth performances, feed utilization and carcass composition than that of fish and
prawn fed rapid sinking steam compressed pellets through manual broadcasting method. The results of the
present study suggest that slow sinking extruded pellets is the desirable supplementary artificial feed for
optimum performance of carps and prawn under polyculture to maximize the production and economic
return.

MG 100
Relative efficiency of formulated feeds and commercial feed with
different protein levels on water quality and body composition
of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi)
Khalid Bashir, S. Patil, A. M. Ganai1
Department of Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University, Bhopal;
1
Division of Animal Nutrition, FVSc & AH, Shuhama, Srinagar, SKUAST-K, India

The young stages of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) of average weight (2.66 0.02g) and
body length (4.2 0 0.02cm) were chosen for indoor experiment for a period of 60 days and were
assigned five different dietary treatments viz. A, B, C, D and E with crude protein percentage of 30.30,
24.40, 35.24, 43.00 and 27.23 respectively. The feed was dispensed @ 4% of body weight. The water
quality parameters viz; temperature, pH, alkalinity, dissolved O2, free CO2 and total ammonia did not
showed any significant difference between the treatments. All the water parameters were within normal
range. The leaching of nutrients into the water was 35.5%, 33.0%, 25.13%, 25.0% and 16.88% in
treatments E, B, D, C and A respectively. The body composition showed significant difference (P<0.05)
in protein, lipid and gross energy content of the body, with highest protein and lipid content in treatment
D (64.84 & 23.97) and treatment E (64.09 & 21.86). The gross energy (Kj/g) content of the body
showed the same trend. It was concluded that for growing stages of koi carp a crude protein level from
35.44 to 43.00 percent was better for water quality, body composition and nutrient utilization.

183
183
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 101
Relative efficiency of formulated feeds with different protein levels on
growth and nutrient utilization of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi)
Khalid Bashir, S. Patil, A. M. Ganai1
Department of Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah university Bhopal (M.P); 2Division of Animal
Nutrition, FVSc & AH, Shuhama, Srinagar, SKUAST-K, India

Koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi) were reared for 60 days in the laboratory under five different
dietary treatments (A, B, C, D and E) with varying crude protein levels. A was commercial pelleted feed
(CP 30.30%) B, C, D and E feeds were formulated from locally available feed ingredients having CP
percentage of 24.4, 35.24, 43.00 and 27.23 respectively. The rearing of koi carp showed significant
(P<0.05) difference in body weight gain with 27.55±0.03g, 30.7±0.2g, 33.62±0.5g, 38.0±0.04g and
28.72±0.06g in treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively. The highest body weight gain was observed in
treatment D (38.02±0.04) and lowest in treatment A (27.55±0.32g). The dietary utilization in terms of
feed conversion ratio (FCR), Protein efficiency ratio (PER), Protein retention efficiency (PRE) and Energy
retention efficiency (ERE) showed significantly (P<0.05) better performance in treatment D. Commercial
peletted feed (treatment A) was cost intensive compared to other four formulated feeds. The water quality
parameters (temperature, pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, free CO2 and total ammonia) were within
normal range. It was concluded that for growing stages of Koi Carp a crude protein level of 43.00
percent was better for growth and nutrient utilization.

MG 102
Effect of replacement of conventional protein source with
Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal in Mugil parsia
Debasis De and T. K.Ghoshal
Kakdwip Research Centre of CIBA, Kakdwip, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal 743347, India

To study the effect of replacement of conventional protein with Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal
(LLM) on feed intake, growth and digestibility, four groups of Mugil parsia fry were taken with three
replicates in each group. Twenty five fishes of average wt. ranging from 1.51 to 1.79 g were stocked per
replicate in fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) tanks containing 400 litre strained clear brackish water. Pellet
feeds (iso-nitrogenous) with four different levels of LLM, 0% (LLM0), 10%(LLM10)), 20% (LLM20)
and 30% (LLM30) were formulated and prepared using locally available feed ingredients and fed to fishes
of group I, II, III and IV, respectively. In every morning leftover feed was siphoned out and 50% of water
of rearing tank was exchanged. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and alkalinity of the water of
different tanks were measured on weekly interval and the range were 31.5-33.5 oC, 7.2-8.8 ppm, 7.95-
7.97, 3.0-6.5 ppt and 96-128 ppm, respectively. After 154 days of experiment it was found that average
daily weight gain(ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and specific growth
rate (SGR) did not differ significantly among the groups. Nutrient (organic matter, crude protein, ether
extract) digestibility did not differ significantly among the groups. Body composition of fishes of four
groups also did not differ. So, Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal (CP-22.68%) can be incorporated up
to 30% in diet of Mugil parsia without any adverse effect on growth.

184
184
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 103
Incorporation of non-conventional feed resources in fish diet
Asha Dhawan, Vaneet Inder Kaur and Meera D. Ansal
Fisheries Unit
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Science University, Ludhiana-141004, India

Indian aquaculture is mostly pond based and semi-intensive in nature. It has reached the status of an
industry due to scientific interventions, government policies and extension net work. Fish productivity can
be increased by stocking quality seed in recommended ratio and rate, by managing water quality and fish
health, by feeding nutritionally balanced supplementary feed etc. Among these, supplementary feed and
feeding strategies play a significant role in achieving higher fish production. Dietary requirement of fish
depends upon the species, feeding habits, size, water temperature, diet composition, quality and biological
value of the protein source used, the source of non-protein energy etc and the expenditure on supplemen-
tary feed (from conventional feed resources) is more than 50% of the total input cost. So there is great
need to cut short this expenditure either by replacing costly conventional feed ingredients with non-con-
ventional resources and/or by manipulating feeding strategies (feeding rate, feeding schedule, feeding methods
etc). Replacement of conventional feed ingredients (rice bran, mustard meal, soybean meal, fish meal etc)
with non conventional resources (agro-industrial by-products, animal products/by-products, plants prod-
ucts/byproducts etc), having high biological value, will not only cut short the expenditure on supplementary
feed but will also serve as a means for eco-friendly disposal of these resources. The paper deals with the
studies conducted to replace (partially or wholly) these ingredients with some commonly available low
cost non-conventional resources like molasses, press-mud, maize gluten, brewery waste, poultry hatchery
waste, slaughter house waste, meat cum bone meal and aquatic plants like Azolla and Spirodella.

MG 104
The protein sparing effect of dietary lipids in carps
reared in polyculture system
Indu M. Kutty and K. Kaur
Fisheries Unit
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004

Development of cost-effective nutritionally balanced diet for fish is the main factor affecting the aquaculture
profitability. Nutrients and energy are needed in the diet for growth and maintenance. Since protein sources
are among the most expensive feed ingredients, it is economically desirable to minimize the protein level in
the diet while keeping it high enough to sustain good growth. The present studies were conducted to study
the effect of four isocaloric diets having increasing lipid levels and decreasing protein levels, i.e. D1 (P30L3),
D2 (P25L6), D3 (P22L8) and D4 (P17L10) with protein/energy ratio of 1: 0.11, 1: 0.13, 1: 0.15 and 1: 0.19
respectively, on proteins utilization and biochemical composition of carps [Catla catla (Hamilton), Labeo
rohita (Hamilton), Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) and Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus)] in semi-intensive
polyculture system. Fishes were fed @ 2 % BW. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) as well as apparent
net protein utilization (ANPU) increased with increase in dietary lipids and decrease in dietary proteins. A
positive correlation between increase in dietary lipid content and protein utilization suggested that the
dietary proteins are spared for growth by inclusion of lipids in the fish diet. The protein sparing effect of
lipids is also confirmed by the insignificant differences in the flesh protein content of fishes fed on diets D1,
185
185
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

D2 and D3 having decreasing protein level. A drastic decrease in fish flesh protein content observed in
fishes fed on diet D4 (P17L10) indicated that when the protein decreased beyond 22 %, the increase in
lipid content was unable to compensate for the decrease in protein level. Thus protein sparing effect of
lipids was found to be effective only up to 8 % dietary lipid. It was concluded that the dietary protein of
the carps can be decreased from 30 to 22% by an increase in dietary lipids from 3 to 8% as the inclusion
of dietary lipids spare proteins for growth.

MG 105
Effect of manuring and supplementary diet on growth of
fingerlings of Clarias batrachus
Asha Dhawan and Vaneet Inder Kaur
Fisheries Unit
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana-141004, India

The Indian magur (Clarias batrachus) is the most preferred food fish for the consumers of Asian
countries because of its good taste, less bones and medicinal qualities. It require supplementary feed to
fed at higher feeding rate (20% fish body weight) when reared indoor (without natural food i.e. plankton).
Feeding of magur at higher feeding rate of 20% adds to the operational cost of its culture. Here, manuring
with organic manures is a good option, if it reduces the expenditure on feed (hence of culture operation).
To cut short this high feeding rate in indoor rearing of Clarias batrachus, the present experiment was
conducted to observe if the manuring (for the production of natural food) along with feeding (at the same
level and at the lower level) can lower the normal feeding rate (20% of fish body weight). Experiment was
conducted with three treatments i.e. T1 (feeding at 20% fish body weight, control), T2 (20% feeding and
manuring @ 10t/ha/yr) and T3 (10% feeding and manuring @ 20t/ha/yr). The dry feed used include rice
bran 1: mustard cake 1: meat cum bone meal 1: soybean meal 1 and manure used was cow dung and
poultry droppings in the same proportion. The effect was studied on water quality parameters, zooplank-
ton production and growth of fish. Experiment was conducted for 60 days, in plastic pools (3’X2’6”X2’6”)
of 480 liters capacity. Ten fingerlings were stocked in each pool having average length and weight of
15.98 cm and 36.05 g respectively at the time of stocking. Percent increase in length and weight was
maximum in T2 (9.30, 23.06) followed by T3 (8.37, 16.53) and T1 (4.07, 14.60). SGR and PER also
showed the same trend. No significant differences were observed for water quality parameters whereas,
zooplankton population differ significantly among the three diets (T3>T2=T1). The study revealed positive
effect of manuring on growth of C. batracus, as manuring (10 t/ha/yr) along with supplementary feeding
(@ 20% fish body weight) resulted in significantly higher growth of fish than when manuring was done at
20t/ha/yr and supplementary feeding was reduced to 10% fish body weight and /or when fish were fed
only with supplementary feed (@ 20% fish body weight). Further, there were no significant differences in
the later two treatments. The study suggested that no doubt 10 t/ha/yr manuring along with feeding @
20% FBW is best but to reduce the cost, fish can be fed at 10% fish body weight along with 10 t/ha/yr
manuring.

186
186
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 106
Performance of crossbred pigs fed on raw and boiled sweet
potato tuber at various levels at different stages of growth
J. J. Gupta, P. B. Reddy, R. K. Bordoloi and K. M. Bujarbaruah
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya - 793103, India

Feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the utilization of sweet potato tubers (SPT) in the rations
of crossbred (Hampshire X Khasi local) pigs. Experiments were conducted in two phases by feeding raw
sweet potato tuber (RSPT) based diets in the first phase and boiled sweet potato tuber (BSPT) based
diets in the second phase. In first phase, two experiments were conducted. First experiment was with pigs
of 10kg body weight and the second was with pigs of 15 kg body weight. The experimental diets con-
tained RSPT at 0 (T1), 40 (T2) and 60 (T3) percent levels on DM basis. In the second phase, first
experiment was conducted to study the performance of pigs by feeding ration either without (T 1) or with
BSPT at 40% level (T2). In the second experiment, B8PT was included in diets at 0 (T1), 40 (T2) and
60 (T3) percent levels on DM basis. Irrespective of whether SPT was offered in raw or boiled form, the
overall dry matter intake (DMI) increased with inclusion of SPT at 40% level but then it decreased at
60% level. In RSPT based diets, DM digestibility (DMD) decreased (P<O.OI) at 60% level but CP
digestibility (CPD) decreased even at 40% level of inclusion. In B8PT based diets, DMD increased at
40% level and was on par with control at 60% level where as CPD was maintained up to 40% level and
then decreased at 60% level. Inclusion of RSPT in the diet decreased the average daily weight gain
(ADG) with the effect being significant at 60% level where as boiling of SPT increased (P<0.05) the
weight gain up to 40% level of inclusion and was on par at 60% level. It is therefore concluded that RSPT
can be included up to a maximum of 40% level where as boiling of 8PT increased its nutritive value and
BSPT can safely be incorporated up to 60% level on DM basis in swine diets.

MG 107
Effect of marua (Eleusine coracana) based diet and added level of
zinc on prevention of skin lesion and diarrhoea in indigenous pigs
K. Kumari, P. K. Mishra, S. P. Tiwari, M. K. Gendley and S. T. Thakur
College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

The studies were conducted on 30 indigenous weaned growing piglets of 2-2.5 months of age, di-
vided into three equal groups following CRD design to assess the effect of marua based diet and added
zinc on prevention of skin lesion and diarrhoea in pigs. The 3 groups were maintained in 3 different
experimental rations. The concentrate ration for control group (T1) contained maize (60%), wheat bran
(16%), GNC (16%), fish meal (16%), commercial mineral mixture (1.5%), common salt (0.5%) and zinc
(4.48 g) as per NRC (1988) requirement of nutrient for growing pigs. In T2 group maize was completely
replaced by marua and in T3 group extra amount of zinc was added to make it 1.5 times more than the
NRC recommendation for zinc. The experiment was conducted for 13 weeks. The incidence of diarrhoea
was recorded on the basis of indexing according to its severity in the individual pigs. The average index
value of incidence of diarrhoea in three groups were 2.61±0.47, 1.77±0.69 and 2.38±0.67 in T1, T2 and
T3 groups respectively. The effect of the experimental ration on incidence of diarrhoea were non-significant

187
187
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

(P>0.05) among the groups. The average index value of skin lesions on the basis of its severity were
3.08±0.64, 3.00±1.07 and 2.77±0.65 in T1, T2 and T3 groups respectively. The values did not differ
significantly (P>0.05) among the groups. The addition of zinc upto 1.5times of the NRC recommended
level had no significant effect on biological performance of animals, skin lesions and incidence of diar-
rhoea.

MG 108
Effect of marua (Eleusine coracana) based diet and added level of
zinc on nutrient utilization and balance of nutrient in indigenous pigs
K. Kumari, P. K. Mishra, S. P. Tiwari and M. K. Gendley
College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

An experiment was conducted on 30 indigenous weaned growing piglets of 2-2.5 months of age,
divided into three equal groups following CRD design to assess the effect of marua based diet and added
zinc on prevention of skin lesion and diarrhoea in pigs. The 3 groups were maintained in 3 different
experimental rations. The concentrate ration for control group (T1) contained maize (60%), wheat bran
(16%), GNC (16%), fish meal (16%), commercial mineral mixture (1.5%), common salt (0.5%) and zinc
(4.48 g) as per NRC (1988) requirement of nutrient for growing pigs. In T2 group maize was completely
replaced by marua and in T3 group extra amount of zinc was added to make it 1.5 times more than the
NRC recommendation for zinc. The experiment was conducted for 13 weeks. The metabolic trial was
conducted at the end of feeding trial. The digestibility of DM, CP, CF, EE, and NFE for T1, T2 and T3
groups were 74.91±0.57, 75.85±0.70 and 75.01±0.64, 72.63±0.93, 74.10±1.56 and 73.46±1.13,
53.28±1.12, 55.27±1.16 and 54.06±1.15, 78.57±1.34, 80.69±0.87 and 78.98±1.37, 79.45±0.55,
80.00±0.80 and 79.06±0.83 percent respectively. The average daily retention of N, P and Ca were
19.38±0.36, 19.81±0.94 and 19.67±0.87, 5.34±0.61, 7.98±0.35 and 5.42±0.28, 7.02±0.22, 6.03±0.22
and 7.12±0.34 g in T1, T2 and T3 groups, respectively. The retention values of Ca, P were significantly
(P<0.05) different, whereas N retention values were non significant (P>0.05) among the groups. The
values of retention of Ca and P in T2 group were significantly (P<0.05) lower from that of T1 and T3
groups respectively.

MG 109
Effect of marua (Eleusine coracana) based diet and added level
of zinc on economics of feeding in indigenous pigs
K. Kumari, P. K. Mishra, S. P. Tiwari, A.K. Sinha and M. K. Gendley
College of Veterinary Science & A. H. Anjora, Durg -491001, India

Thirty indigenous weaned growing piglets of 2-2.5 months of age, divided into three equal groups
following CRD design to assess the effect of marua based diet and added zinc on prevention of skin lesion
and diarrhoea in pigs. The 3 groups were maintained in 3 different experimental rations. The concentrate
ration for control group (T1) contained maize (60%), wheat bran (16%), GNC (16%), fish meal (16%),
commercial mineral mixture (1.5%), common salt (0.5%) and zinc (4.48 g) as per NRC (1988) require-
ment of nutrient for growing pigs. In T2 group maize was completely replaced by marua and in T3 group
extra amount of zinc was added to make it 1.5 times more than the NRC recommendation for zinc. The
experiment was conducted for 13 weeks. Significantly lowest cost for one kg gain was recorded in T2
188
188
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

(Rs.39.32) than T3 (Rs. 51.42) and T1 (Rs. 55.00), however the difference between T1 and T3 was non
significant . The DMI as percent of body weight was significantly higher in T3 group compared to T1 and
T2 groups. The feed efficiency was more in respect of T2 followed by T3 and T1 groups, however, the
differences were statistically non- significant. The cost per kg gain in live weight was lowest for T2 group
followed by T3 and highest for T1 group. Complete replacement of maize grain with marua millet gave best
economical returns.

MG 110
Effect of feeding colocasia corm meal (Colocasia esculenta)
on the performance of growing piglets
R. Bhuyan and D. M. Medhi
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, India

An experiment was conducted on 24 growing Hampshire X Assam local piglets (male) of about 2
months of age with an average body weight 13.55 kg. The animals were divided into 4 groups of six each.
Four different complete feeds were prepared where colocasia corm meal (Colocasia esculenta) was
incorporated at 0,10,20,and 30 percent level and fed to the experimental groups of T1, T2, T3 and T4
respectively. T1 was considered as control group. All the rations were prepared on isonitrogenous and
isocaloric basis. The experiment continued for a period of 120 days. The average gain in live weight (kg)
and rate of mean daily gain in live wt. (g) was 45.00,43.25 42.35 and 42.00 kg and 375.00, 360.42,
352.92 and 350.00 g respectively for groups T1 to T4 (P>0.05). The average feed conversion efficiency
ranged from 4.35 to 5.05. The cost per kg body wt. gain was found to be lower in groups fed diet
containing colocasia meal and the cost progressively decreased as the level of colocasia increased. The
cost of production per kg live wt. gain was Rs. 42.13, 41.33, 40.17 and 39.34 for groups T1 to T4
respectively. However the difference among the groups were non significant. It was thus concluded that
colocasia corm meal can safely be incorporated in the pig grower ration upto the level of 30 percent with
distinct economic advantage.

MG 111
Feeding value of colocasia (Colocasia esculenta) corm meal
as an ingredient for pig grower ration
R. Bhuyan and D. M. Medhi
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, India

The feeding value of processed colocasia (Colocasia esculenta) in which tubers were dried in the
sun, milled and used to formulate isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets for growing piglets was studied. Diets
containing 0,10,20 and 30 percent colocasia meal were fed to 2 months old growing piglets in 4 groups
viz T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively for a period of 120 days. After 120 days of ad-lib feeding,a digestion
trial was conducted. DM intake/100 kg body wt. and DM digestibility were 3.51, 3.55, 3.45, 3.57 and
68.78, 67.50, 66.85 and 65.65 percent (p>0.05) in groups T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. The digestibil-
ity coefficient of CP was comparatively higher in control group T1 compared to group T4 but did not differ

189
189
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

significantly from groups T2 to T4. However, digestibility coefficient of CF, EE, NFE and OM did not
significantly among the 4 groups. It was thus concluded that colocasia (Colocasia esculenta) corm meal
can successfully be incorporated upto 30 percent in pig grower ration.

MG 112
Nutritional composition of banana (Musa cavendishii)
as swine feed in Aizawl district of Mizoram
R. Buragohain , G. Kalita and K. Sarma
College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry
Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram

The Banana (Musa cavendishii) is a versatile plant grown abundantly in Aizawl district of Mizoram.
It serves as one of the important alternative feed resources for pig particularly during the feed scare winter
months of the year. Limited availability and/or high cost of conventional grains for transportation burden
due to remoteness compels the farmers the uses of local feed resources among which the banana be-
comes the staple feed during this period in the district. The fresh green leaves and pseudo-stem in general
and roots of banana to a limited extent are used to compensate the nutritional needs of animals by pig
rearing communities. The samples of banana collected from different parts of the district were found to
contain dry matter (DM) 17.74±0.19% for fresh green leaves, 3.77±0.03% for pseudo-stem, 7.49±0.11%
for banana roots, 22.68±0.18% for ripe banana fruit and 20.57±0.11% for green banana fruit. Fresh
leaves of banana contained on average 11.19±0.27% crude protein (CP), 2.58±0.02% Ether extract
(EE), 34.19±0.15% crude fibre (CF), 9.52±0.10% total ash (TA), 0.20±0.02% acid insoluble ash (AIA),
42.51±0.39% nitrogen free extract (NFE), 0.89±0.01% calcium (Ca) and 0.19±0.01% phosphorous (P)
on DM basis. In pseudo-stem, the uses of which are very particular with rice polish/wheat bran in this
region, the average CP, EE, CF, NFE, TA, AIA, Ca and P were 5.39±0.27, 2.16±0.02, 28.22±0.14,
45.83±0.45, 18.40±0.14, 0.51±0.03, 0.77±0.01 and 0.82±0.02 per cent respectively. The banana root
was comparatively lower in nutrient composition containing high CF (21.51±0.24%) with 3.18±0.15 %
CP, 1.08±0.01% EE, 12.57±0.12% TA, 0.29±0.01% AIA, 61.65±0.32% NFE, 0.66±0.01% Ca and
0.18±0.01% P on DM Basis. The nutrient composition of both ripe and green banana fruits were compa-
rable with CP ranging from 4.78-6.32%, 1.75-3.65% EE, 2.30-8.10% CF, 75.79-80.71% NFE, 0.35-
0.42% Ca and 0.03-0.20% P on DM basis. The extensive uses of this particular plant adequately justify
its importance and considering the nutrient composition the appropriate level of inclusion may balance the
shortage and economize the swine feeding in Aizawl district of Mizoram.

MG 113
Cuttle fish waste silage as an alternate feed source for pigs
P. C. Sakthivel, A. D. Mercy and T. V. Viswanathan
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Mannuthy, Thrissur, India

An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dried cuttle fish waste silage, on growth, feed
conversion efficiency, digestibility of nutrients, carcass characteristics and economics of gain in growing
and finishing pigs. Fifteen male and fifteen female weaned crossbred (Large White Yorkshire x Desi, 50
per cent) piglets with an average body weight of 13.50 kg were divided into three homogeneous groups
190
190
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

of ten piglets in each, with regard to age, sex and body weight. The three groups of piglets were main-
tained for 152 days on three isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets T1, T2 and T3 in which crude protein from
unsalted dried fish was replaced by the protein of dried cuttle fish waste silage at 0, 50 and 100 per cent
level. The piglets on the three groups were fed their respective grower rations which contained 18 per
cent crude protein and 3200 kcal digestible energy per kg until they attained an average body weight of
50 kg and thereafter changed to finisher rations containing 14 per cent crude protein and 3100 kcal
digestible energy per kg until the animals were slaughtered. A digestibility trial was conducted towards the
end of the experiment using chromic oxide added at 0.05 per cent to each diet as external indicator. At
the end of the experiment six animals from each treatment were slaughtered randomly to study the carcass
characteristics. The animals maintained under the three dietary treatments T1, T2 and T3 had almost similar
growth rate (P>0.05) with a cumulative average daily gain of 370.31, 353.15 and 364.90 g, respectively.
There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in cumulative feed conversion efficiency between groups, the
values being 4.16, 4.28 and 4.26 for the three dietary treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The digest-
ibility coefficients of dry matter and crude protein were higher for the diets T3 and T1 than that of T2,
respectively. The digestibility coefficients of ether extract, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract were simi-
lar for the three diets T1, T2 and T3. Dressing percentage and carcass characteristics such as carcass
length, back fat thickness, loin eye area, meat percentage and meat bone ratio were not significantly
influenced by the inclusion of dried cuttle fish waste silage. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain of pigs
in the three dietary treatments T1, T2 and T3 were Rs.35.15, 34.40 and 32.25, respectively. The dietary
treatments T2 and T3 were economically efficient at 2 and 8 per cent over T1. The above results indicate
that the dried cuttle fish waste silage can be used economically as a substitute for unsalted dried fish in the
rations of growing and finishing pigs on protein basis, without any adverse effect on growth rate, feed
conversion efficiency, digestibility of nutrients and carcass characteristics.

MG 114
Effect of weaning weight on post weaned
performance in crossbred pigs
J. J. Gupta, P. B. Reddy, R. K. Bordoloi and K. M. Bujarbaruah
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793103, India

A feeding experiment for the duration of 90 days was conducted to study the post weaned perfor-
mance of crossbred (Hampshire x Khasi local) piglets having 87.5% exotic inheritance and weaned at 60
days of age with different weaning weights. A mash ration with 16.5% protein and, 2890 Kcal/ kg DE
was offered to two groups of piglets weaned at 60 days of age with average initial body weight of 11.27
kg (T1) and 5.00 kg (T2). Piglets in T1 consumed significantly (P<0.0l) higher feed per day than those in
T2 (1217g vs 623g). Similarly, piglets in T1 attained significantly (P<0.0l) higher average daily gain (317g)
than those in T2 (172g) where as the feed conversion efficiency was not influenced by the weaning weight
of piglets. Thus, it was concluded that feed intake and growth rate in post weaned piglets was greatly
influenced by their weight at weaning even though age at weaning was similar for all the piglets.

191
191
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 115
Pig farming in Aizawl district of Mizoram: Key areas
of thrust - A case study
G. Kalita, K. Sarma and R. Buragohain
College of Veterinary Sciences& Animal Husbandry
Central Agricultural University, Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram, India

Rearing of Pig is deeply embeded in culture and customs of Mizo society. Scale of rearing ranges
from 1 to 5 pigs/farmer with a very few hundreds/farmer. To have an assessment of medium scale pig
farming practices in the District, a case study was undertaken in the first quarter of the year 2007. Mr.
Zothantuma, a Villager of Chite, Ramthar, Aizawl, is having a piglet producing farm with a strength of
about 136 Pigs (Pregnant sow-15, unweaned sow -7, weaned non pregnant sow-7, unweaned piglets-
60, weaned piglets 38, fattener -9); capable to sale 25-30 weaned piglets/month. Hampshire, Yorkshire
and their crosses are the breeds available in the farm. Feeding comprises of mixture of boiled- rice, jungle
leaves, waste vegetables, roots, tubers, kitchen waste with wheat, wheat bran, rice polish and commercial
pig feed (84.20% of total cost of production). Ankasa (Spilanthus Sp.), Vawkpui thal (Bidens biternata),
Khup nal (Hibiscup sp.) Japan hlo (Mikenia scanden), Buar (Conyza auriculata), Taham (Polygonum
Chinensis), Pumpkin, Bamboo shoots, Banana (psedostem, leaves and green banana fingers), Colocasia
(leaves, stem and tubers), Sweet potato(leaves and tubers) and Tapioca(leaves and tubers) are the com-
monly used indigenous feed resources for feeding of pigs. Due to low reproductive performance(age at
first fertile service 8-10 months, body weight of gilts at first service 70-80kg, litter size at birth 9-10 no,
litter size at weaning 7-8 no, service period 20-50 days, farrowing index-1.8), high mortality(10-30% due
to swine fever, diarrhea, cough, injury etc), poor quality of feed, lack of knowledge about scientific rearing
of pig farming, poor housing and hygiene etc. are the prime causes of low profitability. Enrichment of
present feeding with good quality nutrients, preventive measures against diseases, improvement of hous-
ing, hygiene & sanitation of farm, empowering the farmer with scientific knowledge and skills of pig
rearing etc may be the key areas of thrust for overall sustainable pig farming in Aizawl District of Mizoram

MG 116
Studies on effect of probiotics for effective utilization of kitchen
waste in swine under intensive system of rearing
M. C. Pandey, Ashok Kumar, M. Patel, R. Arya, B. C. Mondal and Jyoti Palod
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences
Pantnagar-263 145, Distt. U.S.Nagar, India

A study was conducted to evaluate the effective utilization of kitchen waste by supplementing probiotic
on weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and biochemical parameters in pigs. Four months’ old 20
Large White Yorkshire male pigs were divided into 4 dietary groups (C, K, P1 and P2) of 5 animals each.
All the diets were made equally nitrogenous. The diets consisted of only standard concentrate mixture in
group C, whereas 50 % of concentrate mixture was substituted with kitchen waste in group K, P1 and P2,
respectively. Further, in P1 and P2 groups, probiotic were supplemented @ 1g/ kg feed and @ 2g/kg
feed, respectively. The mean final body weight in K, P1 and P2 differed significantly (p<0.05) with C

192
192
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

group. However, P1 and P2 treatments did not differ significantly (P>0.05). Average daily gain in body
weight was higher in P1 (566±28.4 g) followed by P2 (558±23.1 g) and then K (454±18.1 g) and lowest
in group C (334±20.6 g). Dry matter intake of pigs in 10th day interval were 17.617±1.88, 22.574±2.32,
24.994±2.09, 23.66±2.01 kg in groups C, K, P1 and P2 respectively and they were found to differ signifi-
cantly (p<0.05). The feed conversion efficiency was significantly higher in group P2 (4.17±0.248) which
was followed by P1 (4.271±0.178) and K (5.071±0.413) and lowest in group C (5.231±0.408). Serum
cholesterol value in C group was significantly (p<0.05) lower than other groups. The probiotic-fed groups
had significantly (P<0.05) lower value of serum cholesterol than K group. There was a highly significant
(p<0.01) effect of treatment on serum total protein, albumin and globulin. In total protein, no significant
effect was observed in groups K and P1. Digestibility of proximate principles viz, DM, OM, CP, EE, CF
and NFE were lower in C group. The nutritive value (CP, DCP and TDN) of diet was superior in groups
K, P1 and P2. Disease outbreak was lower in probiotic-fed groups. The total expenditure incurred on feed
was higher in C group and lower in K group. The total expenditure incurred on medicines was higher in C
group. In conclusion, the kitchen waste substituted diet was found to be the most economical diet.

MG 117
Effect of feeding different levels of rice bran to crossbred gilts during
growing and breeding periods on preweaning performances of piglets
A. P. Thirumurugan, A. K. Chhabra, R. Bhar1
Faculty of Livestock Production and Management
1
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India

Fifty four crossbred (Landrace x local Indian) gilts were selected at 25 weeks of age and 26.38
±0.85 kg body weights. The animals were randomly put into three dietary treatment groups and were fed
respective rations containing maize, wheat bran and rice bran at 35, 47 and 0% in T1; 17.5, 23.5 and
41% in T2 and 0, 0 and 82% in T3. Soybean meal and fish meal were used as source of protein at 10 and
6%, respectively, in all the rations. After eight fortnights, out of 18 animals in each group 12 were selected
based on regularity in oestrus cycles and put into four replicates of 3 animals each. Twelve boars were
used to mate 36 gilts. Organic matter (OM) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) of the respective diets
decreased with increase in the level of rice bran, on the other hand, ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF),
total ash and acid insoluble ash (AIA) content and GE value of the diets increased with increase in
percentage of rice bran incorporation in the diet T2 and T3. As the level of rice bran increased in the diets
(T2 and T3) plane of nutrition decreased and DM intake increased during lactation. However, during
gestation DM intake of gilt was lower (P<0.01) in T3. Total creep feed intake per piglet was lower
(P<0.01) in T3 than T1 and T2. Different types of ration and plane of nutrition during gestation did not
significantly influence birth weight (average 0.83 ±0.04 kg) of piglet. However, weight of piglet at weaning
was lower (P<0.01) in T3 than T2 and T1 and the difference between latter two was comparable. The
results suggest that rice bran could be incorporated at 41% level in the diet of breeding crossbred gilts
without affecting the preweaning weight gain of piglet.

193
193
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 118
Nutrition-Reproduction interaction: Effect of post mating
feeding level on embryonic survival in gilts
Rajesh Jindal and G.R. Foxcroft*
Dept. of Veterinary Physiology,
Guru Angad Dev Veterinary & Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana
*Dept. of AFNS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

A high dietary intake for at least 4-5 days before mating (‘Flush feeding’) maximizes ovulation rate,
however, continuation of this high level of feeding after mating may have a detrimental effect on embryonic
survival (ES). The present study was conducted to establish the timing of changes in feed intake in the
immediate post-mating period in order to improve the ES rate in gilts. 82 pubertal gilts maintained on high
dietary regimen for one estrous cycle were randomly allocated to one of the three dietary groups after
their artificial insemination. Gilts were changed from earlier allowance of 2.5 kg/d to either 1.5 x mainte-
nance per day on d1 (Group N1) or d3 (group N3), or 2 x maintenance from d1 (Group H). From d15
onwards all gilts were fed a standard allowance of 1.8 kg feed/day until slaughtered on d28±3 of preg-
nancy. No difference was found in ovulation rates in the 3 groups. ES in group N1 was higher than pooled
results of N3 and H groups (85.93% vs 72.15 %), and that in group H was lower than combined
estimates of groups N1 and N3 (66.96 vs 81.64 %). There was no significant effect of dietary treatment
on total number of embryos or crown-rump length of embryos. However, mean viable ES in group N1
was higher than group H (84.67 vs 64.45 %) and group N3 (74.01%) was intermediate. Viable ES in
group N1 was also higher tan that in N3 + H combined and lower in group H when compared to groups
N1 + N3. It is concluded that the critical period during which a reduction in dietary intake has a positive
effect on early ES is the day after onset of estrus.

MG 119
Studies on supplementation of nutrimilk (vitamins and minerals feed
supplement) to lactation ration for sows on their performance
D. Srinivasa Rao and A. Ravi
All India Coordinated Research Project on Pigs,
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Tirupati-517 502, India

An experiment was conducted with 22 sows randomly divided into two groups to study the effect of
supplementation of “Nutrimilk” (Vitamins and Minerals feed supplement) to lactation ration on the perfor-
mance of sows and piglets. The control group was given a standard lactation ration with 140 g CP and
3000 Kcal DE/kg and the treatment group was given the same ration supplemented with Nutrimilk @ 5
kg/ tonne of feed. All the sows were offered 2.0 kg maintenance ration + 250 g ration per piglet per day
from days 21 to 56 during lactation. The sows were weighed after farrowing and at weaning i.e. after 56
days. The piglets were weighed at weekly intervals. No significant differences were observed for pre-
weaning growth rates (165 Vs 174 g/d) and mortality of piglets.(3.57% Vs 3.77%). However, the loss of

194
194
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

weight during lactation was 15% lower (25.77 kg Vs 22.36 kg) due to supplementation of Nutrimilk to
lactation ration for sows. These results indicate that feeding of Nutrimilk to lactation ration is beneficial
because these sows will take less time to recoup the weight loss occurred during lactation, will come to
estrus early and will be ready for breeding quickly.

MG 120
Effect of feeding probiotics on digestibility of
nutrients and growth in pigs
J. Bera and G. Samanta
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences Kolkata-700037, India

Forty Large White Yorkshire piglets (one month old) were randomly divided into four groups with a
replicate of 5 each. The control group (C) was fed basal diet with no supplement. The treatment groups
were supplemented with pure yeast (saccharomyces) culture (Y) - (YL) or Y + mannanoligo-saccharides
(YMOS) respectively. In the pre-weaning period, 30 day old piglets for 30 days superior performance in
body weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded in group supplemented with YMOS followed by YL
and Y. In the post-weaning period for 60 days, similar trend was obtained and significantly higher (p<0.01)
body weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded in groups YMOS, YL, Y than control (C). The
digestibility of different nutrients indicated that significantly higher (p<0.01) digestibility of DM, OM, and
CP were obtained in probiotic treated groups (YMOS, YL and Y) than control (C). The blood plasma
biochemical parameters in post-weaning piglets revealed that probiotics treatment groups (YMOS, YL
and Y) have significantly higher effect on total.

MG 121
Performance of crossbred pigs on different feeding
regime under the condition of North East India
J. J. Gupta and K. M. Bujarbaruah
Animal Nutrition Division
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793103, India

Performance of crossbred (Hampshire x Khasi local) pigs during post weaning and grower stages
was studied on maize-soy and deoiled rice polish (DRP) based rations. Pigs attained significantly (P<0.01)
higher growth rate (g/d) of 189±5.91 at post weaning and 406±27.23 at grower stage on maize-soy
based ration with better FCR values, less feed cost per kg gain and higher DM and CP digestibility than
DRP based ration. Supplementation of DL-methionine in maize-soy based ration during grower stage had
significantly increased (10.62%) more growth rate whereas supplementation of live fungi and enzymes
mixture in DRP based ration had increased 81.87% more growth rate in pigs than non-supplemented
groups. The overall growth rate was significantly higher in all stages i.e. post weaning and grower on
maize-soy based ration in comparison to DRP based ration. However, the nutritional value of DRP based
ration could also be improved through supplementation with live fungi and enzymes mixture.

195
195
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

MG 122
Utilization of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves for
economic angora rabbit production
R. S. Bhatt and D. Mondal
Central Sheep and wool Research Institute Avikanagar,
Via Jaipur Raj asthan-30450 1, India

An experiment was conducted on thirty-eight adult, angora rabbit divided into two’ groups of nine-
teen raebit in each group. Rabbit inTI groups were offered 110 g of concentrate pellets and ad lib green
grass. In T 2 rabbit were given 80 g of concentrate, ad lib green grass and remaining 30 g of concentrate
was supplemented through 200 g of fresh mulberry leaves. 1he composition of concentrate was groundnut
cake 15, mustard cake 5, sunflower cake 5, soyaflakes 5, maize 25, wheat bran 15, deoiled rice bran 15,
fish meal .1.5 and common salt 0.5 parts. The green grass was a mixture of seasonal grasses with their
botanical composition as Festuca arundinacea, Lolium perene, Trofolium repens, Paspalum sp” Puereria
thunbergiana, Panicum sp. Themeda sp. and Setaria sp. All other management practices were kept
common in both the groups. The experiment was conducted for a period of 225 days. Initial body weight
in T 1 and T 2 groups was 3.14±0.08 and 3.14± 0.06 kg respectively. At the end of 3rd shearing the
respective body weights were 3.16±O.07 and 3.10±0.04 kg in both the groufs, however the differences
were non-significant. The wool yield in 1 st, 2nd and 3r shearing was 130.8±2.9 g, 133.7±3.4 g, 167.0±4.5
g in T1 and 125.3±4.8 g, 138.0±4.2 g, 158.5±6.5 g in T 2 groups. The total wool production in three
shearing in these groups was 431.5 and 421.8 g in T l and T2 group with the average wool yield/ shearing
as 130.8±2.9 and 125.3±4.8 g. The differences were non significant. Total dry matter intake in T l and T2
group was 139.3±8.3 and 162.8±5.3 g, respectively. Proportion of mulberry leaves in daily dry matter
intake was 66.3± l.7 g and was 40.7 percent of total daily dry matter intake. Non significant differences
were recorded for staple length, fiber diameter, medullation percent, pure fiber and guard hair. Significant
differences were recorded for the digestibility of crude fiber and ether extract, however the differences for
the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and nitrogen free extract was non significant. Dry matter
required for producing 100 g wool was 7.84 kg in T I and 9.12 kg in T 2 with the respective cost of Rs.
49.82 and 41.66. From this experiment it may be concluded that the mulberry leaves can succssfully
replace 30 g of concentrate from the feeding of rabbits.

MG 123
Effect of detoxified castor bean meal on the
performance of broiler rabbits
A. H. Syed Afsar Pasha, T. M. Prabhu, B. S. V. Reddy and B. N. Suresh
Department of Animal Nutrition,
Veterinary College, KVAFSU (Bidar), Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India

An attempt was made to the study the influence of incorporation castor (Ricinus communis) bean
meal (CBM) as a protein supplement on the performance of broiler rabbits. In completely randomized
design, thirty rabbits (6-7 wk old) of uniform body weight were assigned in equal number to five isonitrogenous
composite diets. The groundnut cake (GNC) was served as the protein source in control diet (T1) and in
the test diets, 25 and 50 % GNC-nitrogen of T1 was substituted by 4% lime treated (T2 and T3, respec-

196
196
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

tively) and 2% salt treated CBM (T4 and T5, respectively) while the Rhodes hay was served as the
roughage source in all the diets. The diets were offered ad lib for a period of 70 days. The results
revealed that the daily dry matter intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were comparable
among different groups. Similarly, the digestibility of various nutrients including balance of nitrogen, cal-
cium and phosphorous were similar (P³0.05) among control and test diets. The status of blood parameters
namely Hb, SGPT, SGOT. AP, total protein, albumin and globulin were well with in the normal physiologi-
cal range and quite consistent among the different groups at different intervals. It was concluded that the
substitution of GNC-nitrogen up to 50% by processed CBM had no adverse effect on the performance
of rabbit and it can serve as a potential alternative source for mitigating chronic shortage of vegetable
protein supplement in economic broiler rabbit production.

MG 124
Performance of local rabbit under farm condition
C. M. Prasad, Rupa Lakra, Sushil Prasad and Ravindra Kumar
Department of Livestock Production & management
Ranchi Veterinary College, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, India

The present experiment was carried out on local rabbit under farm management condition of Ranchi
Veterinary College. A feeding trial was conducted for a period from birth to 25 weeks of age to see the
effect on growth performance under farm management conditions. The daily body weight gain during
preweaning (0-6 weeks) period was maximum (15.31±0.60g) during 3rd and 4th week while during post
weaning period (7-25 weeks), the maximum (16.66±0.46g) daily body weight gain was at 13th week of
age. The overall daily weight gain during preweaning period was 10.00±1.78g and birth to 13th week of
age was 11.39±1.51g. The average body weight of rabbits at sexual maturity was 1747.81±34.99g. The
average daily feed consumption (g/day) on DM basis was 45.64±1.80g at 7th week of age which become
115.45±1.78g at 25th week of age for concentrate (84.87±1.26) and greens (30.96±0.89) together. The
feed conversion ratio during 7-13 and 7-25 weeks of age were 4.92±0.07 and 12.27±0.16, respectively.

MG 125
Nutritional evaluation of sewen (Lasiurus sindicus)
grass hay in the ration of horse
Rajesh Nehra, G. R. Purohit, T. Sharma, R. K. Dhuria and R. A. Legha
Department of Animal Nutrition
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001, India

In order to assess nutritional potentiality of Sewen (Lasirus Sindicus) grass hay in the diet of horses,
a feeding trial followed by digestion trial was conducted with 4 Marwari stallions of same age group, body
weight and confirmation. The horses were offered Sewen grass hay ad libitum. The DM intake calculated
as kg/100kg body weight was found to be 2.77± 0.07. The digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, CF, EE,
NFE, NDF, ADF, Hemicellulose and cellulose were found to be 52.39±1.01, 55.75±1.71, 45.46±0.96,
47.02±1.75, 67.35±1.56, 39.70±0.59,30.66±1.66, 49.48±1.72 and 47.91±1.71 per sent, respectively.
All the animals maintained good health throughout the experiment and the average body weight gain in
horses was found to be 1.62±0.239 kg. The value of digestible nutrient contents in terms of DCP, TDN,
NR and SE were calculated to be 2.45%, 57.47%, 1:22.46 and 52.31%, respectively. The results of
197
197
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

study indicated that a horse utilizes sewen grass hay very efficiently and it can serve as basal feed for
horses in arid areas.

MG 126
Nutritional evaluation of green lucerne (Madicago sativa) in horse
Rajesh Nehra, G. R. Purohit, T. Sharma, R. K. Dhuria and R. A. Legha
Department of Animal Nutrition
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001, India

In order to assess the nutritional worth of green Lucerne (madicago sativa) in the diet of horses
feeding trial followed by digestion trial was conducted with 4 Marwari stallions of same age group, body
weight and confirmation. The horses were offered Sewen grass hay and green Lucerne and then digestibil-
ity of green Lucerne was calculated by difference method. The DM intake calculated in terms of kg/100kg
body weight was found to be 2.78± 0.60. The digestibility coefficient of DM, gross nutrients and fibre
fractions were found to be 63.69±4.0 for DM, 76.10±2.38 for CP, 47.41±7.36 for CF, 39.34±2.67 for
EE, 71.45±5.72 for NFE, 48.66±1.04 for NDF, 47.41±7.36 for ADF, 50.22±2.95 for hemicellulose and
48.11±2.23 per cent for cellulose, respectively. All the four horses kept on sewen grass with Lucerne
maintained good health and assured an average body weight gain of 2.25±0.14 kg. The practical nutri-
tional worth of green Lucerne calculated in terms of DCP, TDN, NR and SE were found to be 15.06%,
55.89%, 1:2.71 and 54.64%, respectively. The results of study indicated that horses could be maintained
on sewen hay and green Lucerne without any adverse effect on health.

MG 127
Effect of feeding bread-milk-vegetables based homemade
diet with or without pulses on nutrient utilization and
blood metabolic profiles in spitz pups
C. Shakhar, A. K. Pattanaik, K. Sharmta and K. B. Kore
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122

Seven female Spitz, pups of two months age (2.50±0.32) were used in two periods involving a
complete switchover design to study the influence of pulses supplementation to bread-milk-vegetables
(BMV) based homemade diet. Accordingly, the pups were fed two diets viz. bread-milk-vegetables (15:55:30)
and bread-milk-vegetables-pulses (14:57:26:3). The experimental protocol, consisting of two subsequent
periods of 14d each, involved a digestion trial of 3d during days 12-14 involving daily recordings of food
intake, palatability score and faecal score, followed by blood collection on day 15. The palatability score
and mean daily intake of food improved significantly (P<0.05) in the pulses supplemented pups compared
to the BMV control. The mean daily intake both DE and ME tended to be higher in the pulses supple-
mented groups. The faecal DM percent and frequency of defecation was significantly (PO.05) higher in
the pups fed pulses supplemented diet; on the contrary, there was significant reduction (P<0.05) in faecal
lactate pet unit dry faeces and mean concentration (P<0.01) of faecal TVFA in said diet. Pups on pulses
supplemented diet achieved better average daily gain compared to control diet. The metabolic profiles of
the two groups were similar except for glucose which was significantly (P<0.05) lower accompanying

198
198
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

higher values for inorganic phosphorous (P<0.05) and Hb (P=0.06) in pulses supplemented groups com-
pared to their control. The ME intake fell short of the requirements in both the group. Large deficits were
observed for protein, Ca, P and Zn in both the groups when compared vis-a-vis standard requirements.

MG 128
Comparative evaluation of soya nuggets and soybean meal as
protein source in homemade diet of adult spitz dogs
M. M. Pawar and A. K. Pattanaik
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar - 243 122, India

Four adult Spitz dogs were used in a complete switchover design to assess the comparative nutritive
value of soya nuggets and soybean meal as protein source in homemade diet. Accordingly, the dogs were
fed two diets viz. rice-milk-soybean meal (SBM) and rice-milk-soya nuggets (SN) with appropriate supple-
mentation of micronutrients as per prescribed standard. The experimental protocol, consisting of two
subsequent periods of 21d each, involved a digestion trial of 3d during days 18-20 involving daily record-
ings of food intake, palatability score and faecal score, followed by blood collection on day 21. There
was no variation in the feed intake, with similar palatability score between the two groups. The digestibility
of crude protein (93.98±0.60 vs. 96.06±0.50%) and ether extract (87.67±1.51 vs. 91.59±0.59%) found
to be significantly (P<0.05) higher on SN as compared to SBM diet. Moreover, digestibility of crude fibre
tended to be higher (P=0.066) upon SN feeding concomitant to a reduction in dietary crude fibre level.
The faecal excretion and score was similar between the two diets. However, the faecal ammonia concen-
tration showed the propensity to be lower (P=0.088) on SN diet as compared to SBM diet. Faecal
concentration of acetate, propionate as well as total SCFAs were found to increase significantly (P<0.05)
upon SBM inclusion in place of SN in the diet. The metabolic profile of the dogs on the two diets was
found to be without any significant variation attributable to the dietary manipulation. It is concluded that
soyabcan meal could replace the soy nuggets in the homemade diet of adult Spitz dogs without any
significant effects in the nutrient utilization and metabolic profile.

MG 129
A survey of feeding management and metabolic profile of
pet dogs in part of Western India
K. B. Kore, A. K. Pattanaik, Puneet Kumar and K. Sharma
Centre of Advanced Studies in Animal Nutrition
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122

A benchmark survey (n=279) was undertaken in the Mumbai city to gather information on the feed-
ing and nutrition of pet dogs reared on homemade diets (HMD). It revealed that all the pet owners were
depending on HMD to feed their dogs, however, only 17.9% owners found to cook it exclusively for the
pets. Use of proprietary food as an occasional supplement was restricted to 7.2% of the surveyed pet
dogs. About 46% of the pet owners use bakery bread to feed their dogs. Most owners prefer rice as the
cereal of choice (45.2%) followed by sorghum (23.7%) and wheat (22.9%); 8.2% owners do not feed
any extra cereal to their pet dogs. Similarly, as protein sources, pulses is most prevalent (48.7%) followed

199
199
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

by meat (17.9%), egg (4.3%) and fish (1.1%); about 28% pet dogs are reared without extra protein
feeding other than basal milk diet. More than two-third of the owners preferred non-vegetarian diet for
feeding their pets and only 31.9% using exclusive vegetarian diets. About 28% of the owners fed their
dogs with some vegetables in the diet. Milk was found as an indispensable component of dogs’ diet in
91.4% cases. Most of the pet owners were feeding milk and bread/cereal based diets to their dogs, either
with no other supplement (15.4%) or supplemented with vegetables (26.2%), egg (7.2%) meat with
occasional vegetables (20.8%,) or pulses (dal) (30.5%). Blood samples of pet dogs (n=5l) collected
during the survey were analyzed for metabolic profile. The clinical chemistry picture in terms of plasma
glucose, proteins, cholesterol and various macro- and micro-minerals also reflected wider prevalence of
protein deficit in the diets accompanying widespread Ca and P deficiency/imbalances in the surveyed
dogs, further, the plasma picture also reflected deficiencies with respect to zinc and copper. It is con-
cluded that the homemade diets for feeding pet dogs are variously deficient in terms of both major and
micronutrients.

MG 130
Effect of conjugated linoleic acid feeding on 7, 12 dimethyl benz (a)
anthrazene induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in rats
C. Kathirvelan and A. K. Tyagi
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001, Haryana

A study was conducted to investigate anticarcinogenic potency of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in
rats. A 21 day female wistar rats were taken for study and animals are divided into two groups of 30
animals each. Group I, animals were fed with soybean oil (20%) based diet where as group II animals
fed with Ghee (20%) which is having the CLA 19.36 mg/g of fat. Feeding of test diets were started on
the day of weaning. Animals of both the groups were given 7, 12 Dimethyl benz(a)anthrazene (DMBA) @
5 mg per animal as single dose by oral intubation. Feeding of test diets were continued 32 weeks after
DMBA administration. Animals were weekly palpated for its mammary tumour development and datas
were recorded. At the end of 32 weeks, animals of both the groups were sacrificed, tumour data were
recorded and histopathological of tumour was done. The tumour incidence in group I was 83.33%
where as in group II, 46.07%. The type of tumour occurrence based on histopathological were fibroma,
adenoma, fibroadenoma in both the groups where as in group one animals were showed malignant type of
tumour ie adenosarcoma. The incidence of fibroma, adenoma , fibroadenoma and adenosarcoma in group
I were 36.00%,24.00%,28.00% and 12.00% and in group II 57.14%,14.29%, 28.57% and 0.00%
respectively. Hence it was concluded that, feeding of CLA not only inhibited benign type tumour but
malignant tumour as well.

200
200
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Pasture/nutritional management in relation


Session - VI
to small ruminant production

SR 1
Nutritive value evaluation of peepal and pakar leaves
in growing Barbari kids
P. S. Niranjan, Udeybir, V. Srivastava, Shiva Pratap Singh and D. N. Verma
Department of Animal Nutrition
College of Veterinary Science & Animal Husbandry
N.D.U.A. and T., Kumarganj, Faizabad- 224229, India

An experiment was conducted on twelve growing Barbari kids (8-9 kg BW) equally divided in to
two groups to evaluate nutritive value of peepal and pakar leaves when fed ad-lib respectively for a
period of 28 days including last 7 days as metabolism trial. The chemical composition (% DM basis) of
peepal and pakar leaves was DM 36.33±0.13, 43.61±0.19; CP 9.17±0.02, 12.65±0.04; EE 2.87±0.03,
2.96±0.02; CF 26.07±0.07, 20.42±0.07; NFE 45.26±0.13, 52.19±0.14; OM 83.46±0.l1, 88.22±0.09;
total ash 16.65±0.05, 11.78±0.09 and their digestibility coefficients were 52.38± 0.51, 57.04±0.80;
55.27±0.34, 62.23±0.65; 30.82±0.47, 56.52±0.63; 49.23±1.02, 51.47±0.58; 63.40±0.63, 53.90±0.36;
51.57±0.54, 63.35±0.77, respectively for DM, CP, EE, CF, NFE and OM. The dry matter intake of
peepal leaves (BWof kids 8.09±0.69kg) and pakar leaves (BW of kids 8.62±0.59kg) were 71.34±1.65
and 77.24±2.09 g/kg W0.75 respectively. The average daily gain was higher in pakar leaves (37.49±5.48
g) than peepal leaves (11.90±1.95 g) feeding. It was concluded that pakar leaves considered as mainte-
nance and production fodder while peepal leaves were comparatively poor and might be served as main-
tenance fodder for goats when fed as sole feed.

SR 2
Nutritive value of high tannin oak (Quercus incana) leaves in Pashmina
(Cheghue) goats reared at high altitude of Kumaon hills
Arun Lukose, V. B.Chaturvedi, Neeta Agrawal and R. Bhar
Animal Nutrition Division
Indian Veterinary Research institute, Izatnagar-243 122, India

Tree leaves of Quercus incana (Banj), Quercus semicarpifolia (Telunj) and Quercus floribunda
(Kharsu) were analyzed for total tannins and condensed tannins. Experiment was conducted in winter
season when leaves were fully mature. Total and condensed tannins in Quercus incana were 13.43 and
6.74 % respectively which was greater than the total and condensed tannin content of Quercus semicarpifolia
(12.27 and 7.91%) and Quercus floribunda (9.83 and 2.20%). Quercus incana was selected for animal
experimentation due to highest content of tannins. Quercus incana had 54.03, 11.3, 4.04, 57.11, 44.10,
19.32. 24.78, and 13 percent DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and ADE, cellulose and hemicellulose, respec-
201
201
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

tively. A feeding trial of sixty days was conducted by feeding of Quercus incana leaves as sole feed to
Pashmina goals. A metabolic trial for a period of six days was conducted to study nutrient utilization after
the feeding trial. Average daily-dry matter intake of the experimental goats was 2.52 kg/100 kg BW
(52.35 g/kg W0.75). Average digestibility of DM, OM, EE, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose, and hemicellulose
were 52.49, 52.94, 52.56, 49.72, 42.36, 39.36, 39.19 and 40.58 percent respectively. OM, DCT and
TDN content of the leaves were 95.84, 5.61 and 53.46 percent respectively. All the animals were on
positive nitrogen balance. There was no reduction in body weight of animals due to feeding of oak leaves
as sole and ad-libitum feed and there was no adverse effect on Hb and PCV values. It shows that
Pashmina goats could utilize tannin rich feed effectively as there was no adverse effect of animal body
weight and blood parameter.

SR 3
Growth performance of Assam local kids under stall feeding
with parari (Schefflera wallichiana) tree leaves
P. B. Reddy and J. J. Gupta
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya-793103, India

Growth performance of male and female Assam local kids was studied under stall-feeding with parari
(Schefflera wallichiana) tree leaves as sole source of roughage along with concentrate supplementation.
Fourteen kids in the age range of 160 to 172 days were weaned and divided into two groups by sex.
Average initial body weight of male kids was 6.15 kg and that of female kids was 7.13 kg. Kids in both
the groups were offered parari tree leaves adlib throughout the experimental period of 90 days. Concen-
trate mixture with 16% CP and 65%TDN was offered in measured quantities daily in the evening.Initially,125g
concentrate was offered to each animal daily and once the animals attained an average of 9kg body
weight, the concentrate allowance was increased to 175 grams per animal per day. Body weights changes
and quantity of parari leaves consumed by animals was measured at fortnightly intervals. Apart from the
daily allowance of concentrate feed, male kids consumed slightly higher (P>0.05) quantity of parari leaves
(1.16 vs 1.08 kg per kid per day). Male kids gained 5.55 kg and females gained 4.37 kg body weight
during the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in males than
in females (61.67 vs 48.61g). It was concluded that parari tree leaves can be a viable option for feeding
of goats during lean season in the north eastern region.

SR 4
Nutritive value of mulberry (Morus alba L.)
green leaves in sheep and goats
S. C. Kantwa, B. P. Singh, Lokesh Gupta and S. P. Tailor
Department of Animal Production, Rajasthan College of Agriculture
Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur-313001, India

An experiment was conducted by using ten growing animals, five each of Sonadi x Corriedale sheep
(18.5-23.4 kg) and Sirohi goats (19.5-24.8 kg). The animals were fed on mulberry green leaves ad lib.

202
202
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

Mulberry green leaves contained 88 % OM, 15.20%CP, 9.85 % CF, 7.10% EE, 55.85% NFE and
12.00% Ash with an average DM content of 32.38% in fresh leaves. The digestibility coefficients for DM,
OM, CP, CF, EE and NFE in sheep and goats were 67.53 and 73.41, 67.31 and 69.83, 79.99 and
80.79, 48.58 and 54.14, 40.83 and 42.41 and 67.80 and 69.83 per cent, respectively. The differences
for OM, CP, EE and NFE digestibility in sheep and goats were non-significant, however, the DM and CF
digestibility was significantly (P<0.01) higher in goats than in sheep. The values of DCP, TDN, DE and
ME for mulberry green leaves in sheep and goats were 12.16 and 12.28, 61.34 and 63.48 per cent, 2.71
and 2.80 and 2.18 and 2.26 Mcal/kg, respectively. The dry matter intake in goat were significantly (P<0.01)
higher than in sheep. The higher DMI in goats may be due to their browsing habit and have relished well
as compared to sheep. Average daily gain (ADG) was higher in goats (42.40 g) as compared to sheep
(30.80g). It may be concludes that utilization of mulberry green leaves by sheep and goats was adequate
to meet their requirement, but supplement of mulberry green leaves with concentrate may result in opti-
mum growth rate in sheep and goats.

SR 5
Effect of Leucaena leucocephala and Ziziphus mauritiana, as sources of
tannin on nutrients digestibility and nitrogen utilization in goat fed on rice
straw diet supplemented with sesame meal
Tin Ngwe1, Khin Htay Myint2, Khin San Mu1, T. Mitani3, K. Ueda3 and S. Kondo3
1
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Science, Yezin, Nay Pyi Taw,
Myanmar; 2Livestock Breeding and Veterinary Department, Yangon, Myanmar;
3
Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Japan

In trial 1, the in situ study was conducted using a bull fitted with rumen cannula. Four diets used in
the trial 1 were S (sesame meal), S+L25 (sesame meal and Leucaena leucocephala 25% in the diet),
S+L50 (sesame meal and Leucaena leucocephala 50% in the diet) and S+Z50 (sesame meal and Ziziphus
mauritiana 50% in the diet). Crude protein (CP) disappearance of S+L25, S+L50 and S+Z50 were signifi-
cantly lower (P<0.001) than that of S. In trial 2, four indigenous male goats were randomly allocated to
four treatments using 4×4 latin square design. Four dietary treatments were RS (rice straw and sesame
meal), RSL25 (rice straw, sesame meal and Leucaena leucocephala 25% of diet), RSL50 (rice straw,
sesame meal and Leucaena leucocephala 50% of diet) and RSZ50 (rice straw, sesame meal and Ziziphus
mauritiana 50% of diet). The CP intakes of RSL50, RSL25 and RS were significantly higher (P<0.01) than
that of RSZ50. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF for RSZ50 were significantly lower
(P<0.01) than those of other treatments. The digestible DM intake and digestible OM intake for all diets
were not significantly different (P>0.05). The proportion of faecal nitrogen to total nitrogen intake for
RSZ50 was significantly higher (P<0.01) than those of other diets. The proportion of nitrogen retention to
the total nitrogen intake for RSL25 tended to promote in comparison with RS, RSL50 and RSZ50 diets.

203
203
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

SR 6
Nutritive value of jhunjhuna (Trema sp.) leaves as a fodder for goat
Jyotindra Narayan, Chandramoni, Ayodhya Prasad, Lakshmi Kant
Department of Animal Nutrition, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna-14, India
Jhunjhuna tree (Trema Sp.) is one of the fast growing tree available in plenty in several districts of
Bihar, Jharkhand and some other states of India. It is fast growing, evergreen tree attaining 25-35 feet
height and 2-3 feet girth only. The leaves are rough, oblong lanceolate or ovate laceolate having no
apparent bitterness. Jhunjhuna leaves are relished very much by goats. Its nutritive value has so far been
not reported from the state. Proximate composition of Jhunjhunaa leaves was found to be 34.00, 86.70,
19.00, 6.50,11.00, 50.20 and 13.30 percent of DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE and Total ash, respectively.
Calcium and Phosphorous content of Jhunjhuna tree leaves was 1.90 and 0.22 percent respectively.
Nutritive value of Jhunjhuna leaf for Goats in terms of DCP and TDN percentage was calculated to be
12.10+0.21% and 58.36+0.59% respectively, which supported growth of goats satisfactorily.

SR 7
Effect of feeding jhunjhuna (Trema Sp.) leaves on performance of goat
Jyotindra Narayan, Chandramoni, Ayodhya Prasad, Lakshmi Kant
Department of Animal Nutrition, Bihar Veterinary College, Patna -14, India
Twelve Black Bengal Goats (Castrated, male 3-4 month old) were selected for 8 weeks experiment.
Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six in each. First group was kept as control and were
fed with Gram bhusa ad lib. and weighed amount of concentrate mixture. 2nd group was treatment group
and were fed with 100 percent Jhunjhuna leaves ad lib. Average of dry matter intake during 8 weeks
period showed significant (P<0.05) difference which was 260.75 gm/head/day and 300. 38 gm/head/day
in control and treatment group respectively. Average body weight attained after eight weeks was 7.44±0.13
and 8.08±0.22 kg in control and treatment group respectively. Weekly body weight gain of goat showed
that treatment group gained significantly (P<0.05) more than the control throughout the experiment. In
terms of nutrient balance, all the goats showed positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorous balance, how-
ever due to higher CP content in Jhunjhuna leaves, goats retained significantly (P<0.05) higher nitrogen
fed on Jhunjhuna leaves than the control. On the other side retention of Calcium was significantly low but
there was no effect on Phosphorous retention. Overall growth performance of kids revealed that average
daily gain in bodyweight was 46.70±2.20 gm/day and 38.96±1.47 gm/day in treatment and control group
respectively, showing significant (P<0.05) difference. Finally it was concluded that Jhunjhuna leaf might be
fed as a sole feed to the goat for maintenance and growth as well. No deleterious effect in goat after
feeding Jhunjhuna leaf for a period of eight weeks was observed.

SR 8
Influence of supplements on nutrition and growth performance of
Bundelkhandi goats maintained on natural grazing land
S. K. Mahanta, G. H. Pailan, Anil Kumar and A. K. Misra
Plant Animal Relationship Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi- 284 003, India
A 90-day duration study was conducted to record the nutrition and growth performance in Bundelkhandi
204
204
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

goats maintained on grazing alone and grazing plus limited quantity of different supplements. Forty growing
goats were divided into 4 groups (G1 to G4) of 10 animals in each. They were supplemented with 100 g
concentrate mixture (G2), 500 g green berseem (G3) and 400 g subabul leaves (G4), except animal under
G1group (control). All the animals were allowed to graze on natural vegetations for 6 to 8 hrs during the
winter months. Six animals from each group were identified and used for collection of representative
samples of herbage and faeces for estimation of herbage intake and nutrient digestibility. Herbage samples
were collected daily during the digestion trial period by snatching 40 to 50 bites from the mouth before
swallowing. The herbage samples contained 12.6 to 13.4% CP and herbage consumption during the
winter months varied from 2.57 to 3.28% of the body weight in growing goats. Average daily DMI (g/ w
0.75) was higher (P <0.05) in animal of G2 group (78.3) followed by G3 (75.1), G4 (67.1) and G1
(63.4), respectively. Similar was the trend with respect to DM and OM digestibility. However, NDF,
ADF and cellulose digestibilities were statistically comparable amongst the groups. Again TDN and CP
intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in growing goats supplemented with concentrates leading to higher body
weight gain. Average daily gain (ADG) was 31, 58, 46, and 41 g in G1, G2, G3 and G4 groups, respec-
tively. Study indicated that green forages (berseem) and top feeds (subabul leaves) can also be used as
economical supplements in growing Bundelkhandi goats.

SR 9
Relationship between urinary purine derivatives creatinine index and daily
excretion of purine derivatives in Deccani sheep fed pearl millet stovers
G. Alexander1, A. A. Khan1, F. R. Bidinger2 and M. Blümmel1
1
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), c/o ICRISAT, Patancheru-502 324,
2
International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru-502 324, India

This study was conducted to assess the usefulness of urinary purine derivatives creatinine (PDC)
index as a relative measure of daily urinary total purine derivatives excretion. Allantoin, uric acid, xanthine
and hypoxanthine and creatinine were determined in the pooled urine samples collected for 7 days from
59 growing Deccani sheep (average body weight 20 kg) exclusively fed on 10 ICMV 221 pearl millet
stovers (grown as 5 trait specific experimental varieties such as control, high-grain yield, dual-purpose,
high-nitrogen and high-digest in 2 replications) representing close to sub-maintenance diets. Total purine
derivatives excretion ranged from 3.95 to 5.12 mmol/d. PDC index calculated as the ratio of purine
derivatives (mmol/l) to creatinine (mmol/l) concentration in urine in relation to body weight varied from
10.0 to 14.7. The PDC index tended to be positively correlated with daily total PD excretion (mmol/d) (r
=0.61; P = 0.06). Daily creatinine excretion expressed as mmol/kgW0.75 was significantly (P < 0.05)
influenced by the type of stover and varied from 0.346 to 0.458. Therefore, PDC index as a relative
measure of daily urinary purine derivatives excretion appears to be of limited value in Deccani sheep fed
on feeds marginally differing in chemical composition. However, PDC index or daily PD (mmol/d) excre-
tion calculated based on mean creatinine concentration (0.390 mmol/kgW0.75) from spot urine samples in
Deccani sheep may still be useful to evaluate the feeds of widely varying quality on microbial nitrogen
supply.

205
205
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

7SR 10
Urinary purine derivatives excretion and microbial nitrogen
supply in sheep fed pearl millet stovers
G. Alexander1, A. A. Khan1, F. R. Bidinger2 and M. Blümmel1
1
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), c/o ICRISAT,
Patancheru-502 324, Andhra Pradesh; 2 International Crops Research Institute for
the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru-502 324, India

Nutritional factors influencing the daily excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD) and microbial
nitrogen supply was assessed (MNS) in sheep fed pearl millet stovers. Nutritional quality of these stovers
was close to sub-maintenance diets. Fifty nine growing Deccani sheep (mean body weight 20 kg) were
used to evaluate 10 ICMV 221 pearl millet stovers (4 trait specific experimental varieties of high-grain
yield, dual-purpose, high-nitrogen and high-digestibility plus the original variety grown and fed in 2 repli-
cations) of variable chemical composition in a completely randomized design (9 groups of 6 animals each,
one group of 5 animals). Chaffed stovers were fed to sheep as a sole feed ad libitum. Nitrogen intake
(NI), organic matter intake (OMI), organic matter digestibility (OMD), digestible organic matter intake
(DOMI), purine derivatives (PD) excretion, microbial N supply (MNS), efficiency of microbial nitrogen
synthesis (EMNS) and N retention were measured. All the measured variables differed significantly (P <
0.05) among stovers. NI (g/d) and DOMI (g/d) ranged from 4.12 to 5.72 and 229 to 301, respectively.
MNS (g/d) and EMNS (mg MNS/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen (OMADR, assumed to be
equal to 65% of DOMI)) varied from 2.98 to 4.13 and 15.9 to 23.7, respectively. NI (g/d) was strongly
positively associated (r = 0.87; P = 0.0012) with total PD excretion (mmol/d) and MNS (g/d). DOMI (g/
d) was not significantly related to total PD excretion (mmol/d), MNS (g/d) and EMNS. NI expressed as
g/kg OMADR/d was highly positively correlated (r = 0.91; P = 0.0003) with EMNS. A weak, but
significant positive relationship (r = 0.65; P = 0.04) was observed between total PD excretion (mmol/
kgW0.75/d) and N retention (g/kgW0.75/d). The results suggest that insufficient N availability in relation to
available energy for microbial growth in the rumen is the major factor affecting EMNS and daily MNS in
sheep fed pearl millet stovers.

SR 11
Effect of stylo feeding at different levels on the
growth performance of goats
C. R. Upreti1 S. B. Panday2, A. A. Degen3, M. Kam,3 L. N. Pandey4, B. K. Shrestha1
1
Animal Nutrition Division-NARC, Khumaltar, Nepal; 2Nepal Agricultural Research Council,
Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Ben-Gurion University, Negev, Israel;
4
Agricultural Research Station (Goat) Bandipur, Tanahun Nepal

Growing castrated male goats were used to evaluate the level of stylo on growth performance and
feed conversion efficiency. Growing goats (n= 20, 6 -7 month male goats) were divided into four groups
(n=5/group) and fed selected tree foliage such as Khanayo (Ficus semicordata), Sal (Shorea robusta ),
Kabro (Ficus lacor ), Pakhuri (Ficus globerima), Katus (Castanopsis triboloids ),and Annp (Magnifera
indica) as basal diets. The dietary treatments were D1=Seasonal fodder ad. lib. +No stylo +75g/d con-
centrate, D2 = Seasonal fodder ad. lib. +100gm. stylo +75g/d concentrate, D3 = Seasonal fodder ad. lib.
+300 gm. stylo +75g/d concentrate D4 = Seasonal fodder ad. lib. +500gm. stylo +75g/d concentrate.
206
206
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

The results indicated that the supplementation of 300 gram fresh stylo to the goats diet is suitable to
improve on the growth performance compared to the control (zero level of stylo) and other level of stylo
supplementation such as stylo of 100 gram and 500 gram although the increased growth rate was not
significantly different. The highest total weight was obtained in Diet 3 (66.33±3.59) followed by Diet 2
(62.5±6.57), Diet4 (56.83±0.92) and Diet1 (53.0±6.61). Slower growth rate in D1 i.e. without stylo
indicated the need of stylo supplementation on the goat diet. A higher level of stylo could have negative
effect on the growth performance as D4 showed slower growth rate. Lowest feed intake was recorded
with D3 (491.49± 26.76 g/d) followed by D4 (542 .91± 38.97), D1 (547.26±19.87), D2 (577.72±37.12).
The feed conversion ratio was significantly improved while supplementing the stylo in Diet3 (7.43±0.27)
followed by Diet2 (9.50±0.82), and D4 (9.53±0.60). Lowest FC was recorded with Diet1 (10.91±1.23)
suggesting the need of stylo supplementation to improve on the feed utilization. It can be concluded that
supplementation of stylo about 20% of total diet is suitable to improve in feed utilization and growth
performance in the hills (sub-tropical environment) of Nepal.

SR 12
Prangos ferulacea as a replacement for alfalfa in fattening Lori
lambs diets: effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics
Fazlolah Azarfard
Animal nutrition specialist in Agricultural and Natural resources Research Center (ANRRC) of
Kohgiloya and Bovirahmad Province, Iran

This study was conducted to determine the effect of replacement alfalfa hay (Medicago Sativa) with
Prangos ferulacea hay, a plant found in the Mediterranean and Middle-east regions, where it is used as
animal fodder, on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening Lori lambs. Samples of
mature plants were collected from South-east Iran. In experimental diets, 1, 2, 3 and 4 alfalfa hay was
replaced with Prangos ferulacea hay at levels, 0, 35, 60, and 100% respectively on a dry matter basis.
Each diet was fed to 10 Lori lambs during a period of 84 days. The lambs were 3 months old with an
average weight of 20.8±1.1 Kg. The diets were formulated according to NRC (1985) to have identical
concentration of metabolizable energy and crude protein. Average dry matter intake (DMI) of lambs fed
diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 1.23, 1.27, 1.25, 1.30 (Kg/day) respectively. Average daily gain (ADG) and
standard deviation of lambs fed diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 during whole period of experiment were 230.1±21.7,
215 ±10.8, 220±23.3, 211±10.7 (g/day) respectively. Feed conversion (F/G) ratios were 5.34 ±0.75,
5.90 ±0.26, 5.68 ±0.4 and 6.16 ±0.66 for diets 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively. The significant difference between
four diets for the DMI, ADG and F/G were not found (P>0.05). Replacement alfalfa hay with Prangos
ferulacea hay did not significantly affect on carcass meat and bone percentage, (P>0.05). However, fat
tail percentage was significant differences (P<0.01) among the diets. At present costs, replacement alfalfa
hay (Medicago Sativa) with Prangos ferulacea hay at level 60% in the ration of fattening lambs seems to
be cost effective.

207
207
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

SR 13
Changes in energy and protein requirements during
maintenance and growth in Sangesari lambs
A. Kamalzadeh1, 2
1
Animal Sciences Research Institute, Karaj, I. R. Iran; Institute of Scientific and Applied Higher
Education, Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, Tehran, I.R. Iran

Sangesari lambs (24; 6 m old; 26 kg BW) were used to measure maintenance (zero growth) and
growth requirements of protein and metabolizable energy (ME). The lambs were divided into two equal
groups: maintenance (M) and a growth (G) group. The experiment had duration of 14 days adaptation
period and 36 days treatment period. The animals were individually placed in metabolism cages and fed a
diet based on pelleted concentrate mixture consisted of alfalfa, barley, cottonseed meal and barley straw.
During the experiment, the lambs of group M maintained a relatively constant live weight, while the ani-
mals of group G gained 19.98 g.kg-0.75.d-1. Nitrogen (N) and energy requirements were determined by
both measured and regression methods. Animals of the M group stayed at about zero N balance, whereas
the N retention of G group was about 0.70 g.kg-0.75.d-1. Digestible organic matter intake (DOMI) and
energy requirement for maintenance (EM) were measured by both constant weight technique and regres-
sion method by regressing N balance on DOMI and metabolizable energy (ME) intake on daily weight
gain (DWG). The DOMI measured during constant weight and the DOMI calculated from regression
equation were 25.9 and 25.04 g.kg-0.75.d-1, respectively. The measured EM for M group during constant
weight and the EM calculated from regression method were 363 and 356 kJ.kg-0.75.d-1, respectively.
There was not significant differences between both measured and regression techniques. The metaboliz-
ability values obtained in this experiment were 0.40 and 0.52 for groups M and G, respectively.

SR 14
Effect of diets varying in partitioning factor on nutrient intake,
digestibility and nitrogen balance in growing ram lambs
T. Thirumalesh and U. Krishnamoorthy
Department of Livestock Production and Management, Veterinary College,
Bangalore-560 024, Karnataka

Effects of diets varying in microbial biomass synthesis were examined on dry matter (DM) intake,
weight gain, nutrient digestibility and N metabolism in growing ram lambs. Twelve lambs were divided into
four groups of three animals each based on body weight and age. Diets consisted of rhodes hay and
compound feed mixture were fed so as to consume total DM intake of 3 per cent of the body weight with
concentrate and roughage ratio 50 : 50 to meet the requirement of maintenance plus 50 g weight gain per
day according to ARC (1984). Four concentrate supplements viz. CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 formu-
lated from different feed ingredients were iso-metabolizable energetic and iso-N, but differ in partitioning
factor (PF). The feeding trial was conducted in four periods in a switch over design, with each period
lasting for four weeks with a 7 day metabolism trial at the end of each period. The ME (MJ/kg DM), CP
content (g/kg DM) and PF (mg/ml) of CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 were 13.47, 198 and 3.54, 11.87,
208 and 4.08, 12.49, 209 and 3.80, 11.34, 203 and 4.75, respectively. The intake (g/day) of DM,
organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF)

208
208
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

for CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 fed groups were 519.8, 486, 66.9, 314.5 and 195.2; 527.9, 485.9,
69.9, 342.1 and 217.9; 527.1, 490, 70.4, 337.7 and 214.5; 528.8, 481.3, 69, 350.1 and 226.3, respec-
tively. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference between the groups in CP, NDF and ADF intake
where as no significant difference in DM (P=0.06) and OM (P=0.07) intake. The body weight gain (g/
day) for the groups CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 fed were 50.6, 42.6, 44.3 and 38.1, the difference
was non significant between the groups. The digestibility (g/kg DM consumed) of OM, CP, NDF and
ADF were significantly (P<0.001) different between the groups. The N retained in CS-2 fed group was
higher (P<0.04) than other groups, and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion (mmol/day) in groups
CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and CS-4 fed were 4.81, 4.30, 4.79 and 4.41, there was no significant difference
between the groups. Similarly, no significant difference was observed between the groups in PD absorp-
tion, microbial nitrogen (g/kg DOMR and ADOM) supply. The higher PF which is index of microbial
biomass synthesis of diets failed to influence higher microbial flow to the duodenum as reflected by similar
PD excretion in all the groups indicated that the other factors like rate of gas production (k) and associa-
tive effect of feed ingredients in diet formulation are also to be considered to influence higher microbial
biomass synthesis.

SR 15
The effect of dietary containing different supplemental protein on
performance and carcass characteristics in finishing Arabian lambs
Fazlolah Azarfard
Animal nutrition specialist in Agricultural and Natural resources Research Center
(ANRRC) of Kohgiloya and Bovirahmad Province, Iran

The effect of dietary containing different supplemental protein on performance and carcass character-
istics in finishing Arabian lambs were investigated during a period of 98 days using 32 lambs of 3 months
old with an average weight of 18.8 ± 1.1 Kg. The supplemental protein of diets respectively were (1)
Soybean meal (2) Soybean meal and poultry by product meal (3) Cottonseed meal (4) Cottonseed meal
and poultry by product meal. The lambs were allocated to the ration according to a completely random-
ized design. The diets were formulated according to NRC (1985) based analyzing the ingredient compo-
sition in nutrition laboratory and to have identical concentration of metabolizable energy (11.93 MJ/kg
DM) and crude protein (160 g/kg DM) and had approximately a similar contents of other nutrients.
Average dry matter intake(DMI) of lambs fed diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 during whole period of experiment were
1.09, 1.08, 1.10 and 1.12 (Kg/day) respectively. Average daily gain (ADG) and standard deviation of
lambs fed diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 during whole period of experiment were 230.1±57.7, 215.5±30.4, 251.7±49.8
and 226.2±61.7 (g/day) respectively. Feed conversion (F/G) ratio were 5.11± 1.75, 5.09± 0.73, 4.58±
1.07 and 5.35± 1.73 for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Statistically significant different (P>0.05) were
not found for the Average dry matter intake, Average daily gain and Feed conversion ratio. The lambs fed
cottonseed meal had highest ADG and lowest F/G. The effect of different supplemental protein on carcass
meat percentage, femur percentage, breast percentage, fat tail percentage were statistically significant
(P<0.05). In conclusion, result of economic investigation this experiment shows that the diet containing
cottonseed meal has best economic efficiency.

209
209
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

SR 16
Effect of feeding sorghum grain in place of maize on nutrients
utilization and production performance of goats
Sajjan Sihag, V. S. Panwar and D. S. Dahiya
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

Fifteen lactating beetal goats of Ist lactation having average body weight of 25.75 1.05 kg were
selected and divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each. The animals of control group T1 were fed gram
straw, berseem fodder and concentrate mixture based on maize grain as energy source s per NRC stan-
dards while in the concentrate mixtures of groups T2 and T3, 50 and 100% maize was replaced with
sorghum grains, respectively. The crude protein content of the different concentrate mixtures were not
affected by replacing the maize with sorghum grains and varied between 18.64 to 18.68 per cent. How-
ever, NDF and ADF content increased by this replacement in T2 and T3. Dry matter intake in the three
experimental goats varied marginally and was 914.41, 971.04 and 943.00 g animal-1 and day-1 in treat-
ments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. It was revealed that digestibility of DM, CP, EE, NFE and cellulose
did not vary significantly by replacement of maize with sorghum grains in the concentrate mixture of
lactating goats, however, the digestibility of NDF and crude fibre decreased significantly (P<0.05) by
100% replacement which might be due to higher content of NDF and ADF in sorghum grains as com-
pared to maize. The TDN values of the diets were 59.62, 59.68 and 58.30 per cent in respective treat-
ments which did not differ significantly. N intake was similar in all three dietary groups, N retained g
animal-1 day-1 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in T2. None of the parameter studied for milk produc-
tion and milk composition during the metabolic trial showed any variation between the experimental groups.
It was concluded from the present study that 100% replacement of maize grain with sorghum grains in the
concentrate mixture of lactating goats did not affect the performance of goats in terms of intake, digestibil-
ity of nutrients, nitrogen balance, milk production and milk composition.

SR 17
Sorghum grain as energy source in ration of kids
Sajjan Sihag, D. S. Dahiya and V. S. Panwar
Deptt. of Animal Nutrition
CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

Twenty male crossbred kids of 4-5 months age and 12-13 kg average body weight were equally
divided into four groups. All the experimental kids were fed gram straw ad libitum and weighed quantity of
concentrate mixtures for 180 days. The concentrate mixture of control group 1 was comprised of Maize
grain (50), Barley (22), soybean meal (10), Mineral mixture (02) and Common salt (01 part). In the
concentrate mixtures of experimental kids group II, group III and group IV, the maize grain of control
group was replaced with sorghum grain @ 33,66 and 100 per cent, respectively. The proximate compo-
sition of concentrate mixture was not affected due to incorporation of various levels sorghum grain, how-
ever, NDF and ADF content increased. The mean values of dry matter intake per day were 559.3,
570.41, 544.42 and 546.34 g, the DMI d-1 was slightly higher in T2, but statistical analysis showed non-
significant difference. Similarly DMI in terms of % body weight did not differ significantly among various
treatments. Non -significant differences in DMI among different groups indicating that the concentrate
210
210
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

mixture having either maize or sorghum grain were equally accepted by the experimental kids. The digest-
ibility of all the proximate nutrients except CP were comparable in all the four treatments, CP digestibility
was significantly (P<0.05) less in G-IV as compared to others. The DCP and TDN percent in different
diets and DCP and TDN intake g per day/animal were similar in all experimental groups and were close
to the recommended levels. The intake of N and its balance did not differ among the groups. The mean
body weight gain values during experimental period were 9.80, 10.51, 9.98 and 9.57 kg in treatment G-
I, G-II, G-III and G-IV, respectively, indicating that there was significantly (P<0.05) higher body weight
gain in G-II as compared to others. It was concluded from the present study that 100% replacement of
maize grain with sorghum grains in the concentrate mixture of growing kids did not affect the performance
of kids in terms of intake, digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen balance and body weight gain.

SR 18
Optimization of metabolizable nitrogen and energy use in pregnant
ewes in the later half of conceptus growth
B. Srinivas, N. Swain and S. A. Karim
Division of Animal Nutrition
Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avkanagar 304501, India

Thirty Malpura breed of pregnant ewes were randomly divided into six groups of five on the basis of
body weights (25.64±0.05 kg BW). After 90 d of pregnancy animals were kept in individual pens and fed
guar straw as basal roughage. Animals in control groups (CG) was not provided concentrate supplement
(CS) while remaining 4 groups were provided CS (Maize 27, GNC 27, Wheat bran 40, Mineral Mixture
3, Common salt 1.5 parts and Vita blend 0.5 parts) 100 (EG1), 200 (EG2), 300 (EG3), 400 (EG4) and
500 (EG5) g/d respectively to fit the data into optimization models. True biological product (TBP) was
derived in a comparable terms based on metabolic body weights of the ewes. TBP for metabolizable
nitrogen (MN) was -0.07, 0.30, 0.53, 0.73, 1.07 and 0.71 g/KgW0.75 (SEm 0.10, P<0.001), respectively
in CG and EG1 to EG5. TBP of metabolizable energy (ME) was 0.30, 0.40, 0.46, 0.63, 0.60 and 0.57
MJ/ KgW0.75 (SEm 0.03, P<0.001), respectively in CG and EG1 to EG5. Average biological product
(ABP) for MN was 38.37, 33.50, 30.22, 23.98 and 23.15 mg/ KgW0.75 (SEm 4.04, P<0.01) respectively
in EG1 to EG5 over CG. ABP for ME was 48.58, 28.25, 26.03, 18.37 and 12.87 KJ/ KgW0.75 (SEm
3.43.14, P<0.001) respectively in EG1 to EG5 over CG. Marginal biological product (MBP) for MN was
42.88, 38.85, 20.00, 21.57 and -136.86 mg/ KgW0.75 (SEm 5.65, P< 0.01) respectively in EG1 to EG5
over CG. MBP for ME was 11.47, 7.37, 21.15, 7.21 and 0.51 KJ/ KgW0.75 (SEm 2.04, P< 0.01)
respectively in EG1 to EG5 over CG. Based on the three basic characteristics of production function; 1.
CS above 500 g/d was ineffective and uneconomical because TBP is declined, 2. when, MBP > ABP
where adding supplement of CS would increase ABP but a unit increase in MBP of MN (300 g CS) or
ME (100 g CS) was less and, 3. when MBP < ABP each unit increase in supplement there could be a unit
increase in biological product which was 100 g CS for MN and 300 g CS for ME. The result indicated
that the threshold and critical levels of CS for optimal use of metabolizable maternal energy and protein
were 100 and 300 g, respectively beyond which both in biological and economical terms CS is intangible.

211
211
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

SR 19
Relative growth, heat increment and nitrogen accretion in foetus of
Malpura ewes in the last 30 days of pregnancy term
B. Srinivas, N. Swain and S.A.Karim
Division of Animal Nutrition
Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar 304501, India

Thirty Malpura breed of pregnant ewes were kept on grazing consisted 4.22±0.25 % DCP and
57.27±2.01 % TDN with a nutritive ratio (NR) of 12.68±0.54. To substantiate the wider NR, all animals
were provided a concentrate supplement (CS) containing 218±9.0 g/Kg CP and 15.4±0.1 MJ/Kg gross
energy. After feeding all the animals for till 90d of feeding, ewes were grouped into six groups of five each
randomly on the basis of body weights (Average B. Wt. 25.64±0.05). Animals in the control groups (CG)
were not provided concentrate supplement (CS) while remaining 4 groups were provided CS (Maize 27,
GNC 27, Wheat bran 40, Mineral Mixture 3, Common salt 1.5 parts and Vita blend 0.5 parts) 100
(EG1), 200 (EG2), 300 (EG3), 400 (EG4) and 500 (EG5) g/d respectively. Data was fitted to optimum
production models. A metabolism trail was conducted at 120 d of pregnancy and data collected during the
period was subjected to analysis based on the empirical models for conceptus growth. Relative growth
rate of foetus was 25.79, 28.28, 29.32, 30.17, 27.15 and 24.89 g/d/kg (SEm 0.83, P=0.64), respectively
till the end of the term. Heat increment was 251.6, 274.9, 285.0, 292.8, 264.5 and 242.8 KJ/Kg/d (SEm
0.78, P= 0.38), respectively. Nitrogen accretion was 1.34, 1.46, 1.52, 1.56, 1.41 and 1.29 g/d/kg (SEm
0.04, P=0.23), respectively in foetus after 120d of conceptus growth. Relative growth rate, heat incre-
ment and nitrogen accretion in foetus were apparently appeared to decline when concentrate intake was
more than 300 g/d however, statistically CS had no influence on the foetus growth, heat increment and
nitrogen excretion.

SR 20
Influence of protein supplementation and processing of
sorghum stover on nutrient utilization in sheep
G. H. Pailan, S. K. Mahanta and N. C. Verma
Plant Animal Relationship Division
Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India

To study the influence of protein supplementation and processing of sorghum stover on intake and
digestibility of nutrients, thirty growing Jalauni sheep (8-10 m old of 17.0±0.7 kg BW) were randomly
distributed into six groups of five each. The animals under group 1 to 3 fed chaffed sorghum stover (mash
form) as basal diet along with three levels of protein supplements i. e. 100, 150 and 200g through mustard
cake. However, animals under group 4 to 6 fed sorghum stover block as basal diet along with three levels
of protein supplements similar to the previous treatments (Gl to G3). Along with mustard cake all the
animals were supplemented with 100 g crushed barley grains as energy source fortified with 2% mineral
mixture and 1% common salt. A metabolism trial was conducted for a 7 days collection period after a
preliminary feeding of 60 days. Average daily DM intake (% body weight) in different groups ranges from
2.79 to 2.99 and the variation among the groups was non-significant. DM and CM digestibility was similar
in all the groups and the values ranges from 56.30 to 59.75% and 58.86 to 63.65%, respectively. CP and
FF digestibility was increased (P<0.05) from 49.74 to 59.50 % and 54.35 to 60.63%, respectively in
212
212
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

chaffed stover (mash) fed animals and 50.19 to 60.45% and 56.63 to 63.39%, respectively in block fed
animals with increasing levels of protein supplementation. With higher levels of protein supplementation,
NDF and ADF digestibility decreased from 54.74 to 50.70% and 47.53 to 43.29%, respectively, how-
ever, variation among the groups was non significant. Daily nitrogen retention per animal increased (P<0.05)
from 1.97 to 3.77g and 2.12 to 3.61g with the increasing level of protein supplementation in chaffed
stover (mash) fed and block fed animals, respectively. The results indicated that supplementation of 150 g
mustard cake and 100g barley grains are required for optimum nutrient utilization from poor quality sor-
ghum stover based diet in growing sheep.

SR 21
Evaluation of complete feed for Madras red sheep
P. Vasan and T. Sivakumar
Institute of Animal Nutrition
Livestock Research Station, Kattupakkam, India
An experiment was carried out to study the performance of sheep fed complete diets prepared by
utilizing crop residues (Groundnut haulms, cumbu stover and sesame meal) prevalent in Northeastern zone
of Tamilnadu. Three isonitrogenous complete diets (I, II and III) were formulated @ 60:40 roughage
concentrate ratio. Eighteen numbers of weaned madras red female lambs of the same age group (84 d)
were randomly divided into three treatment groups. The lambs were housed in individual sheds; water and
feed were provided at libitum for 60 days period. Initial body weight and final body weight at the end of
60 days period were recorded. The final body weight ranged from 12.33 to 13.37 kg. The mean daily
weight gain ranged between 66.67g and 75 g. The average body weight gain at 142 d of age was 4.08,
4.23 and 4.63 kg for group I, II and III respectively. There was no significant difference in final body
weight and daily weight gain between the treatment groups. The cost-benefit ratio was Rs 42.36, 41.76
and 37.01 per kg live weight gain for treatments I, II and III respectively. Though there was no significant
difference in feed cost between treatment groups, the group fed complete diet III was lesser by rupees 4
to 5 per kg live weight gain when compared to groups II and III. The feed conversion ratio was 9.77,
8.83 and 8.96 for the treatment groups I, II and III respectively. No significant difference was observed
in FCR between the three experimental groups. From economical point of view it can be concluded that
the complete diet III would be a suitable dietary combination to the small animal farming community in the
northeastern zone of Tamilnadu.

SR 22
Effect of feeding complete feed on serum enzyme and
mineral profile of Madras red sheep
P. Vasan and T. Sivakumar
Institute of Animal Nutrition
Livestock Research Station, Kattupakkam, India
A study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding dry fodder based complete diet on the serum
enzyme and serum mineral profile of madras red sheep. Three isonitrogenous complete diets (I, II and III)
were formulated @ 60:40 roughage concentrate ratio. The experimental diets were prepared by utilizing
crop residues (Groundnut haulms, cumbu stover and sesame meal) prevalent in Northeastern zone of
Tamilnadu. About eighteen numbers of weaned madras red female kids, 84 d of age belonging to the same
213
213
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

flock were selected for the present study. The experimental kids were randomly divided into three treat-
ment groups and housed in individual sheds. Each experimental animal was provided with separate wa-
terer and feeder. Feed and water were provided at libitum throughout the experimental period. At the
end of 60 days blood was collected and serum separated. The serum was analyzed for enzymes viz.,
glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and min-
erals namely calcium and phosphorus. The SGOT activity ranged between 9.89 and 10.10 IU ml the
treatment groups. No significant difference was observed in SGPT activity between the three experimental
groups. The alkaline phosphatase activity was 27.26, 36.29 and 33.97 KA units in the groups I, II and III
respectively. The ALP activity was significantly (p< 0.05) higher in animals fed complete diet II. The
concentration of serum calcium ranged between 7.39 and 7.93 mg/dl among the three experimental groups.
The concentration of phosphorus in serum was 7.09, 8.07 and 7.38 mg/dl in treatment I, II and III
respectively. There was no significant difference in mineral concentrations among the treatment groups.
But the mineral concentrations were within the normal range. The present study revealed that the serum
mineral and enzyme profiles were well within the normal range despite maintaining them on feedlot dry
fodder based complete diet regimen devoid of green forages.

SR 23
Effect of feeding of moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius) straw based complete
feed in Marwari sheep on nutrient utilization effeciency
J. Singh, T. Sharma, R. K. Dhuria and R. S. Arya
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001, India

To study the effect of feeding of moth straw based complete feed on nutrient utilization efficiency in
sheep, six Marwari sheep of same age group and of uniform conformation were subjected to a feeding
trial followed by metabolism trial of 7 days for complete ration composed of moth straw (60 parts),
barley (15 parts), DORB (10 parts), groundnut cake (12 parts), mineral mixture (2 parts) and common
salt (1 part). The chemical composition of complete feed was recorded to be 92.28 % DM, 83.75 %
OM, 13.27 % CP, 3.67 % EE, 15.82 %CF, 51.06 % NFE, 16.18 % total ash, 31.26 % NDF, 23.29 %
ADF, 7.97 % hemi cellulose, 3.10 % calcium and 0.53 % phosphorus. All the animals maintained good
health throughout the experiment. The dry matter intake calculated both as % of body weight as well as g/
kgW0.75 was found to be 3.94 and 95.51, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were 60.15% for DM,
70.76% for CP, 62.05% for EE, 51.48% for CF, 67.60% for NFE, 43.57% for NDF, 37.31% for ADF
and 61.89% for hemi cellulose. The practical nutritional worth of feed calculated in term of DCP, TDN
and NR were found to be 9.39, 66.88 and 1:6.12 respectively. The intake in respect of DCP and TDN
were recorded to be 127.46g/d and 908.32g/d, which supported a live weight gain of 111.96g/d. The
results of study indicated that sheep could be effectively maintained with high dry matter intake, nitrogen
balance and good health on feeding complete ration containing 60 % level of moth straw.

214
214
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

SR 24
Effect of feeding of groundnut straw based complete feed block on
nutrient utilization and live weight changes in Marwari sheep
I. Singh, R. K. Dhuria, T. Sharma and R. S. Arya
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Science
Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334 001, , India

To study the effect of feeding of groundnut straw based complete feed blocks on nutrient utilization
and live weight changes in sheep, six Marwari sheep of same age group and of uniform conformation were
subjected to a feeding trial followed by metabolism trial of 7 days for complete feed blocks composed of
groundnut (Arachis hypogea) straw (60 parts), barley (9 parts), DORB (14 parts), groundnut cake (14
parts), mineral mixture (2 parts) and common salt (1 part). The complete feed blocks of 2 kg each were
prepared at 4000 PSI. The chemical composition of complete feed block were recorded to be 94.53%
DM, 87.42% OM, 13.74% CP, 2.45% EE, 19.69%CF, 51.52% NFE, 12.58% total ash, 52.53%NDF,
30.76% ADF, 21.76% hemi cellulose, 1.80% calcium and 0.66% phosphorus. All the animals maintained
good health throughout the experiment. The dry matter intake, calculated as % of body weight as well as
g/kgW0.75 was found to be 4.10 and 98.78, respectively. The digestibility (%) of nutrients were 63.94%
for DM, 65.52% for OM, 69.64% for CP, 70.51% for EE, 59.44% for CF, 67.37% for NFE, 56.87%
for NDF, 43.80% for ADF and 75.34% for hemi cellulose. The practical nutritional worth of complete
feed blocks calculated in term of DCP, TDN and NR were found to be 9.56, 59.87 and 1:5.25, respec-
tively. The intake in respect of DCP and TDN were recorded to be 131.37 g/d and 822.82g/d. The
feeding of complete feed blocks supported a live weight gain of 115.67g/d. The results of study indicated
that complete feed blocks having 60% groundnut straw could be effectively used for the feeding of sheep
to support production. It could also be concluded from the results of study that densification improved
feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization besides other advantages related with transportation
and storage of feed.

SR 25
Haemobiochemical profile of goats fed on mustard straw
based pelleted complete ration
R. N. Dhore and D. H. Rekhate
Department of Animal Nutrition
Post graduate Institute of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Akola- 444 104, India

Haemobiochemical profile of eighteen local goats fed on mustard straw based pelleted complete
ration in three groups was assessed during the experimental period of 120 d. The goats of group T1 were
fed on pelleted complete ration containing 60 per cent mustard straw and 40 per cent concentrate mix-
ture. T2 were given pelleted complete ration of 50 per cent mustard straw, 10 per cent gram straw and 40
per cent concentrate mixture and T3 were offered 40 per cent mustard straw, 20 per cent gram straw and
40 per cent concentrate mixture. The haematological profile studied fortnightly revealed significant varia-
tions for TEC, TLC, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The values for T1, T2 and T3 were Hb (g/dl) 10.88±0.18,
11.13±0.14 and 10.91±0.16, PCV (%) 34.63±0.46, 35.77±0.51 and 34.83±0.65, TEC (x106/cumm)
9.79±0.12, 9.52±0.09 and 9.94±0.11, TLC (x103/cumm) 7.52±0.22, 7.24±0.26 and 7.04±0.22, Neu-
trophils (%) 44.73±1.31, 46.23±1.13 and 43.43±1.15, Lymphocytes (%) 44.67±1.57, 43.90±1.28 and
215
215
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

46.00±1.31, Eosinophils (%) 7.17±0.26, 6.13±0.33 and 6.83±0.31, Monocytes (%) 3.07±0.26, 3.73±0.30
and 3.57±0.34 and Basophils (%) 0.03±0.03, 0.00±0.00 and 0.10±0.06. The biochemical parameters
also studied fortnightly revealed significant variations for glucose, total lipids, creatinine and calcium. The
values for T1, T2 and T3 were glucose (mg/dl) 54.54±0.60, 58.90±0.97 and 54.96±0.53, total protein (g/
dl) 7.38±0.05, 7.37±0.03 and 7.37±0.03, albumin (g/dl) 4.42±0.06, 4.37±0.06 and 4.35±0.05, globulin
(g/dl) 2.95±0.06, 2.99±0.06 and 3.00±0.08, total lipids (mg/100 ml) 285.13±6.20, 287.46±7.02 and
306.19±7.29, creatinine (mg/100 ml) 1.37±0.05, 1.26±0.03 and 1.25±0.03, calcium (mg/dl) 9.66±0.06,
9.41±0.05 and 9.52±0.05 and phosphorus (mg/dl) 4.26±0.04, 4.34±0.06 and 4.24±0.04, respectively.
It was concluded that feeding of mustard straw based pelleted complete ration in goats has no adverse
effect on haematological and biochemical parameters, hence can be fed to goats for optimum growth
under stall fed condition.

SR 26
Nutritional evaluation of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw
based complete feed in loose and compressed form in Marwari sheep
N. Singh, R. S. Arya, T. Sharma, R. K. Dhuria, N. Saini And D. D. Garg
Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, India

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional worth of clusterbean (Cyamopsis


tetragonoloba) straw based complete feed fed in loose and compressed form to sheep. The experiment
was conducted with sixteen male Marwari sheep of same age group and uniform conformation in random-
ized block design. The four dietary treatments were, T1 complete feed having 60% clusterbean straw in
loose form, T2 complete feed having 70 % clusterbean straw in loose form, T3 complete feed having 60%
clusterbean straw in compressed form and T4 complete feed having 70 % clusterbean straw in com-
pressed form. All the four complete rations were iso-nitrogenous and nearly iso-caloric. The complete
feeds thus prepared were evaluated by conducting feeding trial of 28 days followed by metabolism trial of
7 days. The dry matter intake, digestibility of dry matter, gross nutrients and fibre fractions, balances of
nitrogen and minerals, digestible nutrient content and their intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency
were studied for all the four experimental complete feeds. A significant decrease due to effect of increase
in level of clusterbean straw from 60 to 70 % and an improvement due to densification of complete feed
were observed on dry matter intake (g/kg W0.75 and kg/100 kg b.wt), nitrogen retention, average daily
gain, feed efficiency were observed. The DM, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and hemicelluloses digestibility,
balances of calcium and phosphorus were non-significant in statistical terms. The results obtained in present
investigation suggest that up to 70% level, clusterbean straw can be utilized successfully in sheep by
blending with other relishable ingredients in the form of complete feed, further it could also be concluded
from the study that densification of complete feed besides other advantages of transportation and storage
improves feed consumption and efficiency of feed utilization.

216
216
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

SR 27
Effect of feeding clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)
straw based complete feed on rumen and
hemato-biochemical parameters in Marwari sheep
N. Singh, R. S. Arya, T. Sharma, R. K. Dhuria, N. Saini And D. D. Garg
Department of Animal Nutrition,
College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, India

To study the effect of feeding of clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw based complete feed
in loose and compressed form to sheep on rumen parameters, a study was conducted on 16 Marwari
rams divided in four equal groups and fed 60% clusterbean straw based complete feed in loose form (T1),
70 % clusterbean straw based complete feed in loose form (T2), 60% clusterbean straw based complete
feed in compressed form (T3) and 70% clusterbean straw based complete feed in compressed form (T4).
Rumen fermentation pattern and hemato-biochemical parameters were studied in all four experimental
group subjected to one month feeding of clusterbean straw based complete feed in loose and compressed
form. Significant effect of increase in level of clusterbean straw from 60 to 70% were observed on TVFA,
ammonia nitrogen and total protozoal count with significant decrease in overall mean values. The rumen
pH did not exhibit any significant effect of increase in level of clusterbean straw. Regarding hemato-
biochemical studies, it was observed that all the parameters viz., hemoglobin, packed cell volume, blood
glucose and total serum protein estimated for four treatment groups were well with in the normal range
and also did not exhibit any statistical difference, indicated that all the animals were physiologically normal
irrespective of dietary regime. It could be concluded from the results of the study that clusterbean straw
could be incorporated up to 70 percent level in the ration of sheep to maintain the adult sheep satisfacto-
rily without any adverse effect.

SR 28
Performance of goats on urea treated wheat straw and
sugarcane bagasse based complete pelleted ration
R. N. Dhore, R. B. Pujrod, G. V. Chavan, Shital Chopde and A. P. Dhok
Department of Animal Nutrition
Postgraduate Institute of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Akola- 444 104, India

Local kids (n-18, 111.16±1.01 d old and 10.42±0.05 kg BW) were divided into three equal groups.
The animals in T1 group (control) were offered tree leaves of Apta (Bauhinia racemosa), Anjan (Hardwickia
binata) and Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala); T2 on urea treated sugarcane bagasse based pelleted
complete ration and T3 on urea treated wheat straw based pelleted complete ration for 90 days. The
pelleted feeds were having 8% DCP and 62% TDN. The roughage to concentrate ratio was kept 1:1.
The daily DMI and DMI/100 kg BW was significantly (P<0.01) higher in T3 group. The ADG for the
respective groups was 44.37, 68.73 and 76.31 g with significant (P<0.01) variations. The feed conver-
sion efficiency was significantly (P<0.01) better in T3 group. The non significant differences were observed
for digestibility coefficients for different nutrients except CP, EE and hemicellulose (P<0.01). The DCP
and TDN (%) were 6.61±0.25 and 52.26±1.32 in T1, 8.17±0.31 and 59.45±2.52 in T2 and 8.35±0.16
and 58.84±1.27 in T3 group. The goats in all the groups were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus

217
217
TROPNUTRICON-2007
Silver Jubilee Year of Animal Nutrition Society of India

balance. The rumen liquor profile studied at fortnightly intervals revealed significant (P<0.01) variations for
TVFA, NH3-N, total nitrogen, TCA-ppt-N and NPN. The fortnightly blood biochemical parameters a