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# CHAPTER 29—THE MAGNETIC FIELD

ActivPhysics can help with these problems: Activities 13.4, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8
Section 29-2:—The Magnetic Force and Moving Charge
Problem
1. (a) What is the minimum magnetic field needed to exert a 5.4 × 10 −15 -N force on an electron moving at
2.1 × 10 7 m/s ? (b) What magnetic field strength would be required if the field were at 45° to the electron’s velocity?

Solution
(a) From Equation 29-1b, B = F=vsin
e θ , which is a minimum when sin θ = 1 (the magnetic field perpendicular to the
−15
velocity). Thus, Bmin = (5.4 × 10 N )=(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(2.1 × 10 7 m/s) = 1.61 × 10 −3 T = 16.1 G. (b) For θ = 45° ,
B = Bmin =sin 45° = 2 Bmin = 22.7 G.

Problem
2. An electron moving at right angles to a 0.10-T magnetic field experiences an acceleration of 6.0 × 1015 m/s 2. (a) What
is the electron’s speed? (b) By how much does its speed change in 1 ns ( = 10 −9 s) ?

Solution
(a) If the magnetic force is the only one of significance acting in this problem, then F = ma = ev B sin θ . Thus,
v = ma=eB sin θ = (9.11 × 10 −31 kg)(6 × 1015 m/s 2 )=(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(0.1 T) sin 90° = 3.42 × 10 5 m/s. (b) Since F » v × B is
perpendicular to v, the magnetic force on a charged particle changes its direction, but not its speed.

Problem
3. What is the magnitude of the magnetic force on a proton moving at 2.5  10 5 m/s (a) at right angles; (b) at 30°;
(c) parallel to a magnetic field of 0.50 T?

Solution
From Equation 29-1b, F = evB sin θ , so (a) when θ = 90°, F = (1.6 × 10 −19 C)(2.5 × 10 5 m/s)(0.5 T ) = 2.0 × 10 −14 N,
(b) F = (2.0 × 10 −14 N ) sin 30° = 1.0 × 10 −14 N, and (c) F = evB sin 0° = 0.

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Problem
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Solution
The magnetic force is qv × B = (1 µ C)(20 m/s)(0.1 T)v × î = 2 µN v × î, where v is a unit vector in the direction of the
velocity of the particle when it first enters the field region. (a) If v = î, v × î = 0. ( b) For v = j, the direction of the force
is j × î = − k (along the negative z axis), while (c) k × î = j. (d) v × î = (cos 45° î + sin 45° j) × î = − k= 2 , so the force is
( − 2 µN )k .

Problem
5. A particle carrying a 50- µ C charge moves with velocity v = 5.0 î + 3.2 k m/s through a uniform magnetic field
B = 9.4 î + 6.7j T. (a) What is the force on the particle? (b) Form the dot products F ⋅ v and F ⋅ B to show explicitly
that the force is perpendicular to both v and B.

Solution
(a) From Equation 27-2, F = qv × B = (50 µC)(5î + 3.2 k m/s) × (9.4 î + 6.7j T ) = (50 × 10  6 N)(5 × 6.7k + 3.2 × 9.4 j −
3.2 × 6.7î ) = ( −1.072 î + 1.504 j + 1.675k ) × 10 −3 N. (The magnitude and direction can be found from the components, if
desired.) (b) The dot products F ⋅ v and F ⋅ B are, respectively, proportional to ( −1.072 )(5) + (1.675)(3.2 ) = 0, and
( −1.072)(9.4) + (1.504)(6.7) = 0, since the cross product of two vectors is perpendicular to each factor. (We did not round
off the components of F, so that the vanishing of the dot products could be exactly confirmed.)

Problem
6. Moving in the x direction, a particle carrying 1.0 µ C experiences no force. Moving with speed v at 30° to the x axis,
the particle experiences a magnetic force of 2.0 N. What magnetic force would it experience if it moved along the y
axis with speed v?

Solution
We assume that the forces mentioned are due only to the presence of a magnetic field, which is uniform in the region of
space considered. The first condition requires that the field be in the x direction, since F1 = qvî × B = 0, implies that
î × ( Bx î + By j + Bz k ) = By k − Bz j = 0, or By = 0 = Bz . The second condition requires that the magnitude of the field
satisfies the equation 2 N = F2 = qvB sin 30° , or qvB = 4 N. Therefore, the force on the particle, when its velocity is
vj, is F = qvj × B î = − qvBk = −( 4 N)k.
3

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Problem
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Solution
The magnetic force on the first proton is ( 7.4 × 10 −16 N )î = e(v1j) × ( Bx î + By j + Bz k ) = ev1 ( − Bx k + Bz î ), so Bx = 0
and 7.4 × 10 −16 N = ev1 Bz . The force on the second proton is (2.8 × 10 −16 N)j = e(v2 î ) × ( By j + Bz k ) = ev2 ( By k − Bz j),
so B = 0 and 2.8 × 10 −16 N = − ev B . Therefore, B = B k = k (7.4 × 10 −16 N )=(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(3.6 × 10 4 m/s) =
y 2 z z

## (0.128 T)k , and v 2 = v2 î = î( −2.8=7.4)(3.6 × 10 4 m/s) = ( −1.36 × 10 4 m/s)î.

Problem
8. The magnitude of Earth’s magnetic field is a little less than 1 G near Earth’s surface. What is the maximum possible
magnetic force on an electron with kinetic energy of 1 keV? Compare with the gravitational force on the same
electron.

Solution
An electron, moving perpendicularly to the Earth’s magnetic field near the surface, experiences a maximum magnetic
force of evB  eB 2 K /m ' (1.6  10 −19 C)(10 −4 T ) 2(10 3 eV)(1.6 10 −19 J/eV)=(9.11 10 −31 kg) ' 3 10 −16 N. The
weight of an electron near the Earth’s surface is mg = (9.11 × 10 −31 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) ' 9 × 10 −30 N, a factor of nearly
3 × 10 −14 times smaller.
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Problem
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Solution
The magnetic force on the alpha particle is (Equation 29-1a): FB = 2ev × B = 2(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(150 î + 320 j − 190 k)
 ×
3  −16   
(10 m/s)(0.66 î − 0.41j) T = (3.2 × 10 N )( −150 × 0.41k − 320 × 0.66k − 190 × 0.66 j − 190 × 0.41 î ) =
 
−(24.9 î + 40.1j + 87.3k) fN.

Problem
10. How much charge would you need to put on a 2.7-g ping-pong ball so the magnetic force when it’s moving at 6.0 m/s
at right angles to Earth’s 44- µ T magnetic field is equal to its weight? Is this realistic?

Solution
When v ⊥ B, the magnitude of the magnetic force is qvB. This equals the weight of the ping-pong ball when
q = mg=vB = (2.7 g)(9.8 m/s 2 )=(6 m/s)( 44 µ T) = 100 C, huge by ordinary standards.

Problem
11. A 1.4- µ C charge moving at 185 m/s experiences a magnetic force FB = 2.5î + 7.0 j µ N in a magnetic field
B = 42 î − 15j mT. What is the angle between the particle’s velocity and the magnetic field?

Solution
Equation 29-1b gives sin θ = F=vq B = (2.5 2 ) + (7.0) 2 µ N ÷ (1.4 µ C)(185 m/s) ( 42 2 ) + ( −15) 2 mT = 0.644. Then
θ = 40.1° or 140° (both are possible since sin θ = sin(180° − θ )).

Problem
12. A velocity selector uses a 60-mT magnetic field and a 24 kN/C electric field. At what speed will charged particles
pass through the selector undeflected?

Solution
The condition for zero deflection is v = E=B = (24 kN/C)=(0.06 T ) = 400 km/s.

Problem
13. A region contains an electric field E = 7.4 î + 2.8j kN/C and a magnetic field B = 15j + 36k mT. Find the
electromagnetic force on (a) a stationary proton, (b) an electron moving with velocity v = 6.1î Mm/s.

Solution
The force on a moving charge is given by Equation 29-2 (called the Lorentz force) F = q(E + v × B). (a) For a stationary
proton, q = e and v = 0, so F = eE = (1.6 × 10 −19 C)(7.4 î + 2.8j) kN/C = (1.18î + 0.448j) fN. (b) For the electron,
q = − e and v = 6.1î Mm/s, so the electric force is the negative of the force in part (a) and the magnetic force is
− ev × B = ( −1.6 × 10 −19 C)(6.1î Mm/s) × (15j + 36k ) mT = ( −14.6k + 351
. j) fN. The total Lorentz force is the sum of
. î + 34.7j − 14.6k ) fN.
these, or ( −118

Problem
14. A charged particle is moving at right angles to both a 11. kN/C electric field and a 0.75-T magnetic field. If the
magnitude of the electric force on the particle is twice that of the magnetic force, what is the particle’s speed?

Solution
Under the conditions stated, FE = qE = 2 FB = 2qvB, therefore v = E=2 B = (11
. kN/C)=(2 × 0.75 T) = 733 m/s.

## Section 29-3:–The Motion of Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields

Problem
15. What is the radius of the circular path described by a proton moving at 15 km/s in a plane perpendicular to a 400-G
CHAPTER 1 11

magnetic field?

Solution
From Equation 29-3, the radius of the orbit is r = mv=eB = (1.67 × 10 −27 kg)(15 km/s)=(1.6 10
× −19 C)( 4 × 10 −2 T ) =
3.91 mm. (SI units and data for the proton are summarized in the appendices and inside front cover.)

Problem
16. How long does it take an electron to complete a circular orbit at right angles to a 1.0-G magnetic field?

Solution
Equation 29-4 gives a period of T = 2π m=eB = 2π (9.11 × 10 −31 kg) ÷ (1.6 × 10 −19 C)(10 −4 T ) = 358 ns.

Problem
17. Radio astronomers detect electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 42 MHz from an interstellar gas cloud. If this
radiation is caused by electrons spiraling in a magnetic field, what is the field strength in the gas cloud?

Solution
If this is electromagnetic radiation at the electron’s cyclotron frequency, Equation 29-5 implies a field strength of
B  2π f ( m=e) 2π ( 42 MHz)(9.11  10 −31 kg= 1.6 10 −19 C) 1.50 10 −3 T 15.0 G.

Problem
18. A beam of electrons moving in the x direction at 8.7 × 10 6 m/s enters a region where a uniform magnetic field of
180 G points in the y direction. How far into the field region does the beam penetrate?

Solution
While moving perpendicularly to the magnetic field, the beam is bent into a horizontal circle of radius given by
Equation 29-3, r = mv=eB = (9.11 × 10  31 kg)(8.7 × 10 6 m/s)=(1.6 × 10 19 C)(0.018 T ) = 2.75 mm. If the electrons enter
normal to the boundary of the field region, r is also the penetration distance, and the beam will travel 180° in a circle
before exiting the field region in a direction opposite to which it entered. (However, if the beam enters the field region
making an angle θ with the normal to the boundary, then it penetrates a distance r(1 − sin θ ) into the region, travels
180° − 2θ around the circle, and exits at angle θ on the other side of the normal, as shown, where −90° < θ < 90° .)

Problem 18 Solution.

Problem
19. Electrons and protons with the same kinetic energy are moving at right angles to a uniform magnetic field. How do

Solution
It is convenient to anticipate the result of Problem 22 for the orbital radius of a non-relativistic charged particle in a plane
perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. From Equation 29-3, r = mv=qB. For a non-relativistic particle, K = 12 mv2 , or
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v = 2 K=m , therefore r = 2 Km=qB. (Note: All quantities can, of course, be expressed in standard SI units, but in many
applications, atomic units are more convenient. The conversion factor for electron volts to joules is just the numerical
magnitude of the electronic charge, so if K is expressed in MeV, m in MeV=c 2 , q in multiples of e, and B in teslas, we
obtain
2 K (e × 10 6 )m(e × 10 6 =c 2 ) I
r = =
10 6 2 Km
=
2 Km
. JJ
(qe) B 8
(3 × 10 )qB 300qB K
From this expression, it follows that protons and electrons with the same kinetic energy have radii in the ratio rp=re =
m p=me = 1836 ¼ 43, in the same magnetic field. Heavier particles are more difficult to bend.

Problem
20. The Van Allen belts are regions in space where high-energy charged particles are trapped in Earth’s magnetic field. If
the field strength at the Van Allen belts is 0.10 G, what are the period and radius of the spiral path described (a) by a
proton with a 1.0-MeV kinetic energy? (b) by a 10-MeV proton?

Solution
The cyclotron frequency, f = qB=2π m, is independent of the particle’s energy, so the orbital period for protons of either
energy is T = 1=f = 2π (1.67 × 10 −27 kg= 1.6 × 10 −19 C) ÷ (10 −5 T ) = 6.56 ms. The radius is given by the result of
Problem 22 (in atomic units, explained in the solution of Problem 19). (a) For a 1 MeV proton, r = 2 Km=300qB =
2(1)(938)=300(1)(10 −5 ) = 14.4 km. (b) Since r » K , the orbital radius for a proton with ten times the kinetic energy is
10 (14.4 km ) = 45.7 km.

Problem
21. Microwaves in a microwave oven are produced by electrons circling in a magnetic field at a frequency of 2.4 GHz.
(a) What is the magnetic field strength? (b) The electron’s motion takes place inside a special tube called a magnetron.
If the magnetron can accommodate electron orbits with a maximum diameter of 2.5 mm, what is the maximum
electron energy?

Solution
(a) A cyclotron frequency of 2.4 GHz for electrons implies a magnetic field strength of B = 2π f ( m=e) = 2π (2.4 GHz)
(9.11 × 10 −31 kg=1.6 × 10 −19 C) = 85.9 mT (see Equation 29-5). (b) The kinetic energy of an electron, with the maximum
orbital radius allowed for this magnetron tube (half the diameter), in the field found in part (a), is K = (reB) 2 =2 m =
(1.25 mm × 1.6 × 10 −19 C × 85.9 mT ) 2 =(2 × 9.11 × 10 −31 kg) = (1.62 × 10 −16 J )=(1.6 × 10 −19 J=eV ) = 1.01 keV (see Problem 22).
The same calculation in atomic units, explaioed in the solution to Problem 19, is (1.25 × 10 −3 × 300 × 85.9 × 10 −3 ) 2
(2 × 0.511) −1 MeV. The electron’s kinetic energy could also be expressed in terms of the cyclotron frequency directly,
K = (2πfrm) 2=2 m = 2 m(π rf ) 2 , with the same result.

Problem
22. Show that the orbital radius of a charged particle moving at right angles to a magnetic field B can be written
2 Km
r = ,
qB
where K is the kinetic energy in joules, m the particle mass, and q its charge.

Solution
See solution to Problem 19.

Problem
23. Two protons, moving in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field of 500 G, undergo an elastic head-on
collision. How much time elapses before they collide again? Hint: Draw a picture.
CHAPTER 1 13

Solution
In an elastic head on collision between particles of equal mass, the particles exchange velocities (v1 f  v2 i and v2 f  v1i ,
see Section 11-4). Moving in a plane perpendicular to B, each proton describes a different circle of radius r = mv=eB, with
period (which is independent of r and v) of T = 2π m=eB = 2π (1.67 × 10 −27 kg)=(1.6 × 10 −19 C) × (5 × 10 −2 T ) = 1.31 µs.
After one period, each proton would be back at the site of the collision, and could collide again.

Problem
24. Repeat the preceding problem for the case of a proton and an antiproton colliding head-on (a) if they have the same
speed and (b) if they have different speeds. (An antiproton has the same mass as a proton, but carries the opposite
charge.)

Solution
A proton and an antiproton have the same cyclotron frequency and would also return to the same point after one period
(i.e., 1.31 µ s, see preceding solution). (b) If they have different speeds, and therefore different radii, they would not collide
at an intervening time. (a) However, if they had the same speed, they would circulate in opposite directions around the
same circular orbit, and hence would collide again after half a period, or 0.656 µs.

Problem
25. A cyclotron is designed to accelerate deuterium nuclei. (Deuterium has one proton and one neutron in its nucleus.)
(a) If the cyclotron uses a 2.0-T magnetic field, at what frequency should the dee voltage be alternated? (b) If the
vacuum chamber has a diameter of 0.90 m, what is the maximum kinetic energy of the deuterons? (c) If the magnitude
of the potential difference between the dees is 1500 V, how many orbits do the deuterons complete before achieving
the energy of part (b)?

Solution
(a) The frequency of the accelerating voltage is the cyclotron frequency for deuterons (Equation 29-5), f = eB=2π m '
(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(2 T ) ÷ 2π (2 × 1.67 × 10 −27 kg) = 15.2 MHz. (b) We can use the result of Problem 19 (expressed in atomic
units), with the maximum orbital radius equal to the radius of the dees. Thus, K max = (300 qBrmax ) 2=2 m '
(300 × 1 × 2 × 0.45) 2 =2(2 × 938) = 19.4 MeV. (c) If the deuterons start with essentially zero kinetic energy, and gain
1500 eV each half-orbit, they will make 19.4 MeV=2(1500 eV) = 6.48 × 10 3 orbits. (Of course, the same results follow in
standard SI units.)

Problem
26. Without changing the magnetic field, how could the cyclotron of the preceding problem be modified to accelerate
(a) protons and (b) alpha particles (two protons and two neutrons)? What would be the maximum energy achievable
with (c) protons and (d) alpha particles?

Solution
The cyclotron frequency is proportional to q=m. Compared to deuterons, protons have ( q=m) p = e=m p = 2e=2 m p ¼ 2(q=m) d ,
and α -particles have ( q=m)α ¼ 2e=4 m p ¼ (q=m) d . Therefore, the frequency of the accelerating voltage should be
(a) doubled for protons, and (b) left unchanged for α’s. The maximum kinetic energy is proportional to q 2 =m(other
cyclotron design parameters constant). Now ( q 2=m) p = e 2 =m p = (2e) 2 =4 m p ¼ (q 2 =m)α ' 2(q 2 =m) d , so K max will be
doubled for both (c) protons and (d) α’s compared to deuterons.

Problem
27. Figure 29-38 shows a simple mass spectrometer, designed to analyze and separate atomic and molecular ions with
different charge-to-mass ratios. In the design shown, ions are accelerated through a potential difference V, after which
they enter a region containing a uniform magnetic field. They describe semicircular paths in the magnetic field, and
land on a detector a lateral distance x from where they entered the field region, as shown. Show that x is given by
2 2V
x = ,
B ( q=m)
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where B is the magnetic field strength, V the accelerating potential, and q=m the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion. By
counting the number of ions accumulated at different positions x, one can determine the relative abundances of
different atomic or molecular species in a sample.

## FIGURE 29-38 Problem 27 Solution.

Solution
The positive ions enter the field region with speed (determined from the work-energy theorem) of 12 mv2 = qV , or
v = 2V ( q=m). They are bent into a semicircle with diameter x = 2r = 2 mv=qB = 2( m=qB) 2V (q=m) = 2 2( m=q )V =B, as
shown in Fig. 29-38 (see Equation 29-3).

Problem
28. A mass spectrometer like that of the preceding problem has V = 2000 V and B = 1000 G. It is used to analyze a gas
sample suspected of containing Ne, O 2 , CO, SO 2 , and NO 2 . Ions are detected at distances of 58 cm, 68 cm, and
87 cm from the entrance to the field region. Which gases are actually present? Assume that all molecules are singly
ionized.

Solution
If we express the mass of the ions in atomic mass units (u = 1.66 × 10 −27 kg), and use the given spectrometer parameters,
then the equation for the distances given in Problem 27 becomes
2 2V 2 2(2000 V )M
x = = −19
= (12.9 cm ) M .
B (q=m) 0.1 T (1.6 × 10 C=1.66 × 10 −27 kg)
The molecular masses for the ions listed are approximately M = 20.2, 32.0, 28.0, 64.1, and 46.0, respectively. The
corresponding distances are x = 57.9, 72.9, 68.2, 103.2, and 87.4 cm, so the presence of Ne + , CO + , and NO +2 is
indicated.

Problem
29. A mass spectrometer is used to separate the fissionable uranium isotope U-235 from the much more abundant isotope
U-238. To within what percentage must the magnetic field be held constant if there is to be no overlap of these two
isotopes? Both isotopes appear as constituents of uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), and the gas molecules are all singly
ionized.

Solution
The separation of different uranium isotopes in UF6 molecules can be found by differentiation of the result of Problem 27.
Keeping the spectrometer parameters fixed, x » m1=2 , dx » 12 m −1=2 dm, and dx=x = 12 ( dm=m). The molecular masses of
the two species are approximately 235 or 238 plus 6 × 19 which equals 349 or 352, respectively, so
1
2 ( dm=m) ¼ 3=2 × 350 = 0.43%. For a particular ion, x » B −1 and dx » B −2 dB, therefore dx=x = − dB=B. Thus, variations
in B should be less than 0.43% to separate these isotopes.

Problem
30. An electron is moving in a uniform magnetic field of 0.25 T; its velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the
. × 10 6 m/s. (a) What is the radius of the electron’s spiral path? (b) How far does it move
field are both equal to 31
along the field direction in the time it takes to complete a full orbit about the field direction?
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Solution
(a) The radius depends only on the perpendicular velocity component, r = mv⊥ =eB = (9.11 × 10 −31 kg)(31 . × 10 6 m/s) ÷
(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(0.25 T ) = 70.6 µm. (b) The distance moved parallel to the field is d = v|| T , where T is the cyclotron
period (Equation 29-4). Since v|| = v⊥ in this case, d = v|| (2π m=eB) = 2π ( 70.6 µ m ) = 444 µ m.

Problem
31. An electron moving at 3.8 × 10 6 m/s enters a region containing a uniform magnetic field B = 18k mT. The electron is
moving at 70° to the field direction, as shown in Fig. 29-39. Find the radius r and pitch p of its spiral path, as indicated
in the figure.

## FIGURE 29-39 Problem 31.

Solution
The parallel and perpendicular components of the electron’s velocity (relative to the field direction, or z axis) are
v|| = v cos 70° = (3.8 × 10 6 m/s) cos 70° = 1.30 Mm/s, and v⊥ = v sin 70° = 3.57 Mm/s. Then r = mv⊥ =eB = 113 . mm and
the pitch p = v||T = v|| (2π m=eB) = 2.58 mm.

Problem
32. A proton in interstellar space describes a spiral path about a 15-mG magnetic field, with velocity component 40 km/s
perpendicular to the field. If the pitch of the helix (see Fig. 29-39) is 8.7 km, what is the proton’s velocity component
parallel to the field?

Solution
Using the expressions for radius and pitch from the previous problem, we find v|| = p=T = 8.7 km=43.7 ms = 199 km/s.

## Section 29-4:—The Magnetic Force on a Current

Problem
33. What is the magnitude of the force on a 50-cm-long wire carrying 15 A at right angles to a 500-G magnetic field?

Solution
The force on a straight current-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field is (Equation 29-6) F = I × B. Thus,
F = IB sin θ = (15 A )(0.5 m )(0.05 T ) sin 90° = 0.375 N. (The direction is given by the right-hand rule.)

Problem
34. A wire coincides with the x axis, carrying 2.4 A in the + x direction. The wire passes through a region containing a
uniform magnetic field B = 0.17 î + 0.32 j − 0.2k T. Find a vector expression for the force per unit length on the wire
in the magnetic field region.

Solution
A unit length of the current carrying wire is described by I= = (2.4 A)î, on which the magnetic force (Equation 29-6) is
F= = ( I=) × B = (2.4 Aî ) × (0.17 î + 0.32 j − 0.21k ) T= (0.504 j + 0.768k ) N/m.
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Problem
35. A wire carrying 15 A makes a 25° angle with a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic force per unit length of wire is
0.31 N/m. (a) What is the magnetic field strength? (b) What is the maximum force per unit length that could be
achieved by reorienting the wire in this field?

Solution
Equation 29-6 gives the magnetic force on a straight current carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field, F  I  B.
(a) From the magnitude of F and the given data, we find B = F=Isin θ = (0.31 N/m )=(15 A) sin 25° = 48.9 mT. (b) By
placing the wire perpendicular to the field (sin θ = 1) a maximum force per unit length of IB = (15 A )( 48.9 mT ) =
0.734 N/m could be attained/

Problem
36. A wire of negligible resistance is bent into a rectangle as shown in Fig. 29-40, and a battery and resistor are connected
as shown. The right-hand side of the circuit extends into a region containing a uniform magnetic field of 38 mT
pointing into the page. Find the magnitude and direction of the net force on the circuit.

## FIGURE 29-40 Problem 36 Solution.

Solution
The forces on the upper and lower horizontal parts of the circuit are equal in magnitude, but opposite in direction and thus
cancel (see Fig. 29-40), leaving the force on the righthand wire, IB = (E=R)B = (12 = V3 Ω)(0.1 m )(38 mT ) = 15.2 mN
toward the right, as the net force on the circuit.

Problem
37. In a high-magnetic-field experiment, a conducting bar carrying 7.5 kA passes through a 30-cm-long region containing
a 22-T magnetic field. If the bar makes a 60° angle with the field direction, what force is necessary to hold it in place?

Solution
The magnitude of the force necessary to balance the magnetic force on the bar (Equation 29-6) is F = I × B =
IB sin θ = (7.5 kA)(0.3 m )(22 T ) sin 60° = 42.9 kN (nearly 5 tons). The direction of this force is perpendicular to the
plane of  × B in the opposite sense as the magnetic force.

Problem
38. A 20-cm-long conducting rod with mass 18 g is suspended by wires of negligible mass, as shown in Fig. 29-41. The
rod is in a region containing a uniform magnetic field of 0.15 T pointing horizontally into the page, as shown. An
external circuit supplies current between the support points A and B. (a) What is the minimum current necessary to
move the bar to the upper position shown? (b) Which direction should the current flow?
CHAPTER 1 17

## FIGURE 29-41 Problem 38 Solution.

Solution
An upward magnetic force on the rod equal (in magnitude) to its weight is the minimum force necessary. (a) Since the rod
is perpendicular to B, IB = mg implies I = mg=B = (0.018 × 9.8 N)=(0.2 × 0.15 T ⋅ m ) = 5.88 A. (b) The force is upward
for current flowing from A to B, consistent with the right hand rule for the cross product.

Problem
39. A piece of wire with mass per unit length 75 g/m runs horizontally at right angles to a horizontal magnetic field. A
6.2-A current in the wire results in its being suspended against gravity. What is the magnetic field strength?

Solution
A magnetic force equal in magnitude to the weight of the wire requires that IB = mg (since the wire is perpendicular to
the field), or B = ( m=)( g=I ) = ( 75 g/m)(9.8 m/s 2 )=(6.2 A) = 0.119 T.

Problem
40. A nonuniform magnetic field points out of the page, as shown in Fig. 29-42. The field strength increases at the rate of
2.0 mT/cm as you move to the right. A square wire loop 15 cm on a side lies in a plane perpendicular to the field, and
a 2.5-A current circles the loop in the counterclockwise direction. What are the magnitude and direction of the net
magnetic force on the loop?

Solution
The force on the loop is given by Equation 29-8, with the constant current factor outside the integral, and the range of
z z z z
integration split into segments of the square: F = I ( bot + right + top + left )d × B. Take the x axis to the right, the y axis
up, and the z axis out of the page, as shown in Fig. 29-41. The magnitude of B only depends on x, and its direction is
constant, so B = B( x )k = [ B0 + (0.2 T/m ) x ] k . Consideration of symmetrical pairs of path elements, d and − d at the
same value of x, shows that the net force on the bottom and top segments exactly cancels. The field is constant over the
right or left segments, so if we let right = j = − left , and substitute for B( x ), the force becomes
F = I ( × B) right + I ( × B) left
= Ij × k [ B0 + (0.2 T/m ) x r − B0 − (0.2 T/m ) x  ]
= Iî(0.2 T/m )( x r − x  ) = (2.5 A)(0.15 m ) 2 (0.2 T/m )î
. × 10 −2 N)î.
= (113
18 CHAPTER 29

## FIGURE 29-42 Problem 40 Solution.

Problem
41. A wire carrying 1.5 A passes through a region containing a 48-mT magnetic field. The wire is perpendicular to the
field and makes a quarter-circle turn of radius 21 cm as it passes through the field region, as shown in Fig. 29-43. Find
the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force on this section of wire.

Solution
Take the x-y axes as shown on Fig. 29-43, with the z axis out of the page and the origin at the center of the quarter-circle
arc. With θ measured clockwise from the y axis, d = R dθ ( î cos θ − j sin
 θ ) as shown, and B = B( − k ). The magnetic
force on the arc of wire is found from Equation 29-8.

F= I z z
d × B = I
90 °
R dθ ( î cos θ − j sin θ ) × B( − k )

z
arc 0
90°
= IRB ( j cos θ + î sin θ ) dθ
0
90 °
= IRB − î cos θ + j sin θ = IRB( î + j).
0

This has magnitude 2 IRB = 2 (1.5 A)(0.21 m )( 48 mT ) = 21.4 mN and direction 45° between the positive x and y axes.

## FIGURE 29-43 Problem 41 Solution.

Problem
42. A wire coincides with the x axis, and carries a current I = 2.0 A in the +x direction. A nonuniform magnetic field
points in the y direction, given by B = B0 ( x=x 0 ) 2 j, where B0 = 0.22 T, x 0 = 1.0 m, and x is the x coordinate. Find
the force on the section of wire between x = 1.0 m and x = 3.5 m.

Solution
Equation 29-8 gives, with d = î dx,

z z F xI 
z
2 3.5 m
x 2 dx 3
G
Hx JKj = IB k
 x
3.5 m
F= Id × B = ( I î dx ) × B0  = IB k
0 0
wire wire 0 1.0 m x 02 3 x 02 1.0 m

k
= (2 A )(0.22 T/m 2 ) [(3.5 m ) 3 − (1.0 m )3 ] = 6.14 Nk .
3

Problem
43. Apply Equation 29-8 to a closed current loop of arbitrary shape in a uniform magnetic field, and show that the net
force on the loop is zero. Hint: Both I and B are constant as you go around the loop, so you can take them out of the
integral. What is the remaining vector integral?

z z
Solution
If both I and B are constants, Equation 29-8, for a closed loop, may be written as F = Id × B = I ( d ) × B. But the
CHAPTER 1 19

integral is the sum of vectors, d, beginning and ending at the same point, hence
special case of Equation 8-1 for a constant F.)
z d = 0. (This integral relation is a

Problem
44. A rectangular copper strip measures 1.0 mm in the direction of a uniform 2.4-T magnetic field. When the strip carries
a 6.8-A current at right angles to the field, the Hall voltage across the strip is 1.2 µV. Find the number density of free
electrons in the copper.

Solution
The geometry in this problem is the same as that in the discussion leading to Equation 29-7, which shows that
n = IB=qVH t = (6.8 A)(2.4 T )=(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(1.2 µV)(1 mm ) = 8.50 × 10 28 m −3 is the number density if conduction
electrons are the charge-carriers.

Problem
45. The probe in a Hall-effect magnetometer uses a semiconductor doped to a charge-carrier density of 7.5 × 10 20 m −3 .
The probe measures 0.35 mm thick in the direction of the magnetic field being measured, and carries a 2.5-mA current
perpendicular to the field. If its Hall potential is 4.5 mV, what is the magnetic field strength?

Solution
If we assume the charge-carriers are of one type, with charge of magnitude e, then Equation 29-7 and the given data
require B = nqVH t=I = (7.5 × 10 20 m −3 )(1.6 × 10 −19 C)( 4.5 V)(0.35 mm )=(2.5 mA) = 75.6 mT.

## Section 29-5:–A Current Loop in a Magnetic Field

Problem
46. Earth has a magnetic dipole moment associated with currents flowing in the planet’s liquid outer core. Suppose that
current flowed in a single loop at the outer edge of the liquid core (radius 3000 km). What current would be needed to
give the observed dipole moment of 8.0 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 ? (The actual current structure is more complex than a single loop.)

Solution
The dipole moment of a circular loop is µ = Iπ R 2 (Equation 29-10), so I = (8.0 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 )=π (3 × 10 6 m ) 2 =
2.83 × 10 9 A.

Problem
47. A single-turn square wire loop 5.0 cm on a side carries a 450-mA current. (a) What is the magnetic moment of the
loop? (b) If the loop is in a uniform 1.4-T magnetic field with its dipole moment vector at 40° to the field direction,
what is the magnitude of the torque it experiences?

Solution
. × 10 −3 A ⋅ m 2 .
(a) Equation 29-10 for the magnetic moment of a loop gives µ = NIA = (1)( 450 mA)(5 cm ) 2 = 113
(b) Equation 29-11 gives the torque on a magnetic dipole moment in a uniform magnetic field, τ = µ × B = µ B sin θ =
. × 10 −3 A ⋅ m 2 )(1.4 T ) sin 40° = 1.01 × 10 −3 N ⋅ m.
(113

Problem
48. An electric motor contains a 250-turn circular coil 6.2 cm in diameter. If it is to develop a maximum torque of
1.2 N ⋅ m at a current of 3.3 A, what should be the magnetic field strength?

Solution
The maximum torque on a plane circular coil follows from Equations 29-10 and 11, τ max = µ B = NIπ R 2 B. In this case,
. cm ) 2 = 482 mT.
B = (1.2 N ⋅ m )=(250)(3.3 A )π (31
20 CHAPTER 29

Problem
49. A bar magnet experiences a 12-mN ⋅ m torque when it is oriented at 55° to a 100-mT magnetic field. What is the
magnitude of its magnetic dipole moment?

Solution
Equation 29-11, solved for the magnitude of the dipole moment, gives µ = τ=B sin θ = (12 × 10 −3 N ⋅ m )=(0.1 T ) sin 55° =
0.146 A ⋅ m 2 .

Problem
50. A single-turn wire loop 10 cm in diameter carries a 12-A current. It experiences a torque of 0.015 N ⋅ m when the
normal to the loop plane makes a 25° angle with a uniform magnetic field. What is the magnetic field strength?

Solution
Equations 29-10 and 11 yield a field of magnitude B = τ=Iπ R 2 sin θ = (0.015 N ⋅ m )=(12 A)π (5 cm ) 2 sin 25° = 377 mT.

Problem
51. A simple electric motor like that of Fig. 29-36 consists of a 100-turn coil 3.0 cm in diameter, mounted between the
poles of a magnet that produces a 0.12-T field. When a 5.0-A current flows in the coil, what are (a) its magnetic dipole
moment and (b) the maximum torque developed by the motor?

Solution
(a) From Equation 29-10, the magnetic moment of the coil has magnitude µ = NIA = 100(5 A ) 14 π (0.03 m ) 2 =
0.353 A ⋅ m 2 . The direction of µ, determined from the right-hand rule (see Fig. 29-33), rotates with the coil. (b) The
maximum torque (from Equation 29-11, with sin θ = 1) is τ max = µ B = (0.353 A ⋅ m 2 )(0.12 T ) = 4.24 × 10 −2 N ⋅ m.

Problem
52. A satellite with rotational inertia 20 kg ⋅ m 2 is in orbit at a height where Earth’s magnetic field strength is 0.18 G. It
has a magnetic torquing system, as described in Example 29-7, that uses a 1000-turn coil 30 cm in diameter. What
should be the current in the coil if the magnetic torque is to give the satellite a maximum angular acceleration of
0.0015 s −2 ?

Solution
If we require that the maximum torque from the coil, τ max = µ B = NIAB (from Equations 27-10 and 11), should yield the
desired angular acceleration, α = τ max =I rot , then the current necessary is I = τ max =NAB = α I rot =NAB =
(1.5 × 10 −3 s −2 )(20 kg ⋅ m 2 ) ÷ (10 3 ) 14 π (0.3 m ) 2 (1.8 × 10 −5 T) = 23.6 A.

Problem
53. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a technique for analyzing chemical structures and is also the basis of magnetic
resonance imaging used for medical diagnosis. The NMR technique relies on sensitive measurements of the energy
needed to flip atomic nuclei upside-down in a given magnetic field. In an NMR apparatus with a 7.0-T magnetic field,
how much energy is needed to flip a proton ( µ = 1.41 × 10 −26 A ⋅ m 2 ) from parallel to antiparallel to the field?

Solution
From Equatioo 29-12, the energy required to reverse the orientation of a proton’s magnetic moment from parallel to
× −26 A ⋅ m 2 )(7.0 T) = 1.97 × 10 −25 J = 1.23 × 10 −6 eV.
antiparallel to the applied magnetic field is ∆U = 2 µ B = 2(1.41 10
(This amount of energy is characteristic of radio waves of frequency 298 MHz, see Chapter 39.)

Problem
54. A wire of length λ carries a current I. (a) Find an expression for the magnetic dipole moment that results when the
wire is wound into an N-turn circular coil. (b) For what integer value of N is this moment a maximum?
CHAPTER 1 21

Solutioo
(a) The number of turns of radius r that can be formed from a wire of length λ is N = =2π r, so r = =2π N . The magnitude
of the magnetic dipole moment of such a coil is µ = NIπ (=2π N ) 2 = I2 =4π N. (b) This is clearly a maximum when N is a
minimum, and the smallest value of N is, of course, one.

Paired Problems
Problem
55. Find the magnetic force on an electron moving with velocity v = 8.6 × 10 5 î − 4.1 × 10 5 j m/s in a magnetic field
B = 0.18j + 0.64k T.

Solution
From Equation 29-1a, F = − ev × B = − (1.6 × 10 −19 C)(8.6 î − 4.1j)(10 5 m/s) × (0.18j + 0.64 k ) T = (16 f N)( 4.1 × 0.64 î +
8.6 × 0.64 j − 8.6 × 0.18k ) = ( 42.0 î + 88.1j − 24.8k ) fN. (If necessary, review the cross product of unit vectors; see Fig. 13-
9 and use the right hand rule.)

Problem
56. A proton moving with velocity v = 2.0 × 10 5 î + 4.0 × 10 5 j m/s experiences a magnetic force
F = 10 î − 5.0 j + 21k fN. What is the z component of the magnetic field?

Solution
Equation 29-1a gives F = (10 î − 5j + 21k ) f N = ev × B = (16 fC ⋅ m/s)(2 î + 4 j) × ( Bx î + By j + Bz k ) =
(16 fA ⋅ m )[ 4 Bz î − 2 Bz j + (2 By − 4 Bx )k ]. From either the x or y component, Bz = 10 fN=(16 × 4 fA ⋅ m ) = 156 mT =
( −5 fN)=( −16 × 2 fA ⋅ m ). (The general expression for the cross product in components, with vz = 0, gives Bz = Fx =v e y =
−Fy =ve x .)

Problem
57. Proponents of space-based particle-beam weapons have to confront the effect of Earth’s magnetic field on their beams.
If a beam of protons with kinetic energy 100 MeV is aimed in a straight line perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic field in
a region where the field strength is 48 µT, what will be the radius of the protons’ circular path?

Solution
It is simplest to use the result of Problem 22, in atomic units, to find the radius (see solution to Problem 19),
r = 2 Km ÷ 300qB, where r is in meters, K is in MeV, m in MeV/c 2 , q in units of e, and B in teslas. Then
r = 2(100)(938)=300(0.48 × 10 −4 ) = 30.1 km. (The mass of a proton in atomic units is approximately 938 MeV/c 2.)

Problem
58. Electrons are accelerated through a 30-kV potential difference at the rear of a TV tube. The electron beam is initially
headed straight toward the center of the tube. The TV is oriented so the beam is perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic
field, in a location where the field strength is 62 µT. What will be the radius of the electron beam’s curved path?

Solution
As in the previous problem, r = 2(0.03)(0.511)=300(62 × 10 −6 ) = 9.41 m. (The mass of an electron in atomic units is
approximately 511 keV=c 2.)

Problem
59. A 170-mT magnetic field points into the page, confined to a square region as shown in Fig. 29-44. A square
conducting loop 32 cm on a side carrying a 5.0-A current in the clockwise sense extends partly into the field region, as
shown. Find the magnetic force on the loop.
22 CHAPTER 29

## FIGURE 29-44 Problem 59 Solution.

Solution
The forces on the upper and lower horizontal parts of the loop in the field region cancel one-another, so the net force is just
due to the magnetic force on the right vertical side, which is directed to the right in Fig. 29-43, with magnitude
IB = (5 A)(0.32 m )(170 mT ) = 0.272 N. (See Equation 29-6.)

Problem
70. Find the force on the circular current loop shown at the right of Fig. 29-44. The loop carries 5.0 A clockwise, has
radius 16 cm, and extends 10 cm into the field region.

Solution
To find the force, we integrate Equation 29-8 over the part of the loop extending into the field region, with choice of co-
ordinate axes and angle θ as shown in the sketch. Then B = − Bk and Id = IRdθ ( − î cos θ + j sin θ ). The force is
z zθ
F = I d × B = IRB 2 ( − j cos θ − î sin θ ) dθ = IRB[− j(sin θ − sin θ ) + î(cos θ − cos θ )]. The angular limits are
θ1 2 1 2 1
−1 2
θ 1 = sin (6=16) and θ 2 = 180° − θ 1 , so sin θ 1 = 6=16 = sin θ 2 , and cos θ 1 = 1 − (6=16) = − cos θ 2 . Finally,
2
F = IRB 2 1 − (6=
16) ( − î ) = − 0.252 î N, where we used the given values of I, R, and B.

Problem 60 Solution.

Problem
61. An old-fashioned analog meter uses a wire coil in a magnetic field to deflect the meter needle. If the coil is 2.0 cm in
diameter and consists of 500 turns of wire, what should be the magnetic field strength if the maximum torque is to be
1.6 µ N ⋅ m when the current in the coil is 1.0 mA?

Solution
The maximum torque on a flat coil, with magnetic moment µ = Nπ R 2 I , is τ max = µ B (see Equations 29-10 and 11).
Thus, B = τ max =NI Rπ2 = (1.6 µ N ⋅ m )=(500)(1 mA )π (1 cm ) 2 = 102 G.

Problem
62. A circular wire coil 15 cm in diameter carries a 460-mA current and experiences a 0.020-N ⋅ m torque when the
CHAPTER 1 23

normal to the coil makes a 27° angle with a 42-mT magnetic field. How many turns are in the coil?

Solution
Combining Equations 29-10 and 11, we find the magnitude of the torque on a circular current-carrying coil in a uniform
magnetic field to be τ = µ B sin θ = NIπ R 2 B sin θ . Thus, N = (0.02 N ⋅ m )=( 460 mA)π (7.5 cm ) 2 ( 42 mT ) sin 27° = 129
turns. (With the numbers given, N is an integer, to an accuracy of better than 0.03%.)

Supplementary Problems
Problem
63. Electrons in a TV picture tube are accelerated through a 30-kV potential difference and head straight for the center of
the tube, 40 cm away. If the electrons are moving at right angles to Earth’s 0.50-G magnetic field, by how much do
they miss the screen’s exact center?

Solution
The electrons suffer the maximum deflection when moving perpendicularly to the magnetic field. They are bent into a
2(3 × 10 4 eV)(1.6 × 10 −19 J/eV)(9.11 × 10 −31 kg)
R= 2 Km=eB = = 11.7 m.
(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(5 × 10 −5 T )
Geometry gives the maximum deflection from screen center: y = R(1 − cos θ ), where sin θ = x=R. Numerically,
y = (11.7 m ){1 − cos[sin −1 (0.4=
11.7)]} = 6.85 mm.

Problem 63 Solution.

Problem
64. The coil in the loudspeaker of Fig. 29-31 consists of 100 turns of wire, 3.5 cm in diameter. The magnetic field strength
at the coil is 0.64 T. Find the magnitude of the force on the speaker coil when the current in the coil is 2.1 A.

Solution
In Fig. 29-31(b), the magnetic force on each element of current in the wire has the same magnitude, IdB, perpendicular
z
to the page, so the net force on N turns of diameter d is F = coil IBd = NIBπ d. (The total length of the wire is assumed
to be the number of identical turns times the circumference of one turn.) For the values given, F = (100)(2.1 A) ×
(0.64 T )π (3.5 cm ) = 14.8 N.

Problem
65. A conducting bar with mass 15.0 g and length 22.0 cm is suspended from a spring in a region where a 0.350-T
magnetic field points into the page, as shown in Fig. 29-45. With no current in the bar, the spring length is 26.0 cm.
The bar is supplied with current from outside the field region, using wires of negligible mass. When a 2.00-A current
flows from left to right in the bar, it rises 1.2 cm from its equilibrium position. Find (a) the spring constant and (b) the
unstretched length of the spring.
24 CHAPTER 29

## FIGURE 29-45 Problem 65.

Solution
In equilibrium, the vertical forces on the bar must sum to zero. These include the weight of the bar, −mg (negative
downward), the upward spring force k ∆ = k ( − 0 ) (where λ is the length and 0 the unstretched length of the spring),
and when current flows from left to right in the bar, an upward magnetic force of FB = ILB (L is the length of the bar).
The conditions stated require that k (26.0 cm − 0 ) − mg = 0, and k (24.8 cm − 0 ) + ILB − mg = 0 or k (26 cm − 0 ) = mg
and k (26 cm − 0 − 1.2 cm ) = mg − ILB. These equations can be solved for k and 0 (subtract to eliminate 0 , and
divide to eliminate k) with the result k = ILB=(1.2 cm ) = (2 A )(22 cm )(0.35 T )=(1.2 cm ) = 12.8 N/m, and
0 = 26 cm − ( mg=ILB)(1.2 cm ) = 26 cm − (0.015 × 9.8 N)=(12.8 N/m ) = 24.9 cm.

Problem
66. In 2.0 µ s, an electron moves 15 cm in the direction of a 0.10-T magoetic field. If the electron’s velocity components
perpendicular and parallel to the field are equal, (a) what is the length of its actual spiral trajectory and (b) how many
orbits about the field direction does it complete?

Solution
(a) The velocity component in the direction of B is v|| = 15 cm=2 µ s = 75 km/s, which is also the numerical value of v⊥ ,
the speed perpendicular to B. Thus, the speed along the spiral trajectory is v = v||2 + v⊥2 = 2 v|| , and the actual length
traveled in 2 µs is 2 (75 km/s)(2 µs) = 21.2 cm. (b) The cyclotron period is T = 2π m=eB, so the number of orbits
completed in 2 µ s is 2 µ s=T = (1 µ s)(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(0.1 T )=π (9.11 × 10 −31 kg) = 5.59 × 10 3 .

Problem
67. A solid disk of mass M and thickness d sits on an incline, as shown in Fig. 29-46. A loop of wire is wrapped around
the disk, running along a diameter and oriented so the loop is parallel to the incline. A uniform magnetic field B points
vertically upward. Find an expression for the current I in the loop that will keep it from rolling down the incline.
CHAPTER 1 25

## GIGURE 29-46 Problem 67.

Solutioo
The torque of gravity causing the disk to roll down the incline (about the point of contact) is τ grav = mgR sin(180° − θ ) =
mgR sin θ into the page in Fig. 29-46. The magnetic torque on the magnetic moment of the loop, which would cancel this,
is τ mag = µ B sin θ out of the page for the current shown, where µ  IA and A 2 Rd is the area of the loop. (The
magnetic torque is due to a couple and is the same about any point.) In equilibrium,
mg sin θ = I (2 Rd ) B sin θ , or I = mg=2 Bd . (We assume that static friction between the disk and the incline is sufficient to
satisfy the other conditions for equilibrium.)

Problem
68. A disk of radius R carries a uniform surface charge density σ and is rotating with angular frequency ω. Show that its
magnetic dipole moment is 14 πσ ω R 4 . Hint: Divide the disk into concentric rings. Treat each as a loop carrying an
infinitesimal current, and integrate over all the loops.

Solution
A ring, of thickness dr and radius r, has charge dq = σ dA = σ ⋅ 2πr dr. When rotating with period T = 2π=ω , it represents
a current of dI = dq=T = ω dq=2π = σω r dr, and magnetic moment of dµ = dI ⋅ π r 2 = πσ ω r 3 dr (directed perpendicular
z
to the disk, out of the page for the rotation shown in the sketch). The total dipole moment is µ = 0R dµ =
πσ ω z r dr =
R
0
3 1
4
4
πσ ω R .

Problem 68 Solution.

Problem
69. A 10-turn wire loop measuring 8.0 cm by 16 cm carrying 2.0 A lies in a horizontal plane but is free to rotate about the
axis shown in Fig. 29-47. A 50-g mass hangs from one side of the loop, and a uniform magnetic field points
horizontally, as shown. What magnetic field strength is required to hold the loop in its horizontal position?

## FIGURE 29-47 Problem 69 Solutioo.

Solution
For the direction of current shown in Fig. 29-47, the magnetic moment of the loop is downward, and the magnetic torque
µ × B is along the axis, out of the page. The gravitational torque r × m g is along the axis, into the page. The two torques
cancel when µ B = mgr, or B = mgr=NIA = (0.05 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )(0.04 m )=(10)(2.0 A)( 0.8 × 0.16 m 2 ) = 76.6 mT.
26 CHAPTER 29

Problem
70. A closed current loop is made from two semicircular wire arcs of radius R, joined at right angles as shown in
Fig. 29-48. The loop carries a current I and is oriented with the plane of one semicircle perpendicular to a uniform
magnetic field B, as shown. Find (a) the magnetic moment of this nonplanar loop and (b) the torque on the loop. Hint:
You can think of the loop as a superposition of two semicircular loops, each closed along the dashed line shown
(why?).

## FIGURE 29-48 Problem 70 Solution.

Solution
(a) The whole current loop is equivalent to two semicircular loops, because currents of ±I cancel along their common
boundary. The magnetic moments of each semicircle have equal magnitudes ( µ = I 12 π R 2 ) and are mutually
perpendicular, so the total dipole momeot is µ tot = µ 1 + µ 2 = 2 µ = Iµ R 2 = 2 . The direction of µ tot is 45° to the
Fig. 29-48, but depends on the sense of circulation of the current. (b) The torque on the loop has magnitude
τ = µ tot × B = µ tot B sin 45° = ( Iπ R 2= 2 ) B (1= 2 ) = 12 Iµ R 2 B [the same for either direction of current, since
sin 45° = sin(180° − 45° )]. The direction of τ is to align µ tot parallel to B.

Problem
71. A circular wire loop of mass m and radius R carries a current I. The loop is hanging horizontally below a cylindrical
bar magnet, suspended by the magnetic force, as shown in Fig. 29-49. If the field lines crossing the loop make an
angle θ with the vertical, show that the strength of the magnet’s field at the loop’s position is B = mg=2π RI sin θ .

## FIGURE 29-49 Problem 71 Solution.

Solution
We assume that the magnetic field has axial symmetry, with vertical axis through the center of the loop’s horizontal plane
area. The magnetic field lines intersect the loop at right angles, and if the current circulates clockwise (as seen from the
magnet), the magnetic force on an element I d has an upward component dFy = dF sin θ = I d B sin θ . This is the
z
same at any position on the loop, so the net upward force is Fy = IB sin θ d = 2π RIB sin θ . (The horizontal forces on
dia-metrically opposite elements of loop cancel, so Fx = 0.) When the loop is suspended, the upward magnetic force
CHAPTER 1 27

## balances the loop’s weight, so Fy = mg, or B = mg=2π RI sin θ .

Problem
72. A square wire loop of mass m carries a current I. It is initially in equilibrium, with its magnetic moment vector aligned
with a uniform magnetic field B. The loop is rotated slightly out of equilibrium about an axis through the centers of
two opposite sides and then released. Show that it executes simple harmonic motion with period given by
T = 2π m=6 IB .

Solution
The torque on the loop, when its normal is displaced by an angle θ from B, is a restoring torque (in a direction to align µ
with B, and so opposite to the sense of increasing θ), of value τ = − µ B sin θ = I rot d 2θ=dt 2 , where I rot is the rotational
inertia of the loop about the axis of rotation specified. (In particular, two sides of the loop are parallel to the axis and two
sides are perpendicularly bisected by the axis, so I rot = 2( 14 m)( 12 a ) 2 + 2( 14 m)( 121 a 2 ) = 16 ma 2 . ) For small angular
displacements, sin θ ¼ θ , so d 2θ=dt 2 ¼ − ( B µ=I rot )θ , which represents simple harmonic motion with ω = µ B=I rot =
( Ia 2 B)=( 16 ma 2 ) = 6 IB=m , and period T = 2π=ω = 2π m=6 IB .

Problem
73. Early models pictured the electron in a hydrogen atom as being in a circular orbit of radius 5.29 × 10 −11 m about the
stationary proton, held in orbit by the electric force. Find the magnetic dipole moment of such an atom. This quantity
is called the Bohr magneton and is typical of atomic-sized magnetic moments. Hint: The full electron charge passes
any given point in the orbit once per orbital period. Use this fact to calculate the average current.

Solution
One electronic charge passes a given point on the orbit every period of revolution, so the magnitude of the average current
corresponding to the electron’s orbital motion is I = ∆q=∆t = e=(2π r=v). (The current circulates opposite to the orbital
motion, since the electron is negatively charged.) In the simplest version of the Bohr model for the hydrogen atom, the
electron moves in a circular orbit, around a fixed proton, under the influence of the Coulomb force, so that
mv2=r = ke 2=r 2, or v=r = ke 2 =mr 3 . Thus, I = (e=2π )(v=r ) = (e 2 =2π ) k=mr 3 . The magnetic dipole moment associated
with this orbital atomic current (called a Bohr magneton) has magnitude µ B = Iπ r 2 = 1
2 e 2 kr=m ¼ 12 (1.6 × 10 −19 C) 2 ×
(9 × 10 9 N ⋅ m 2=C 2 )(5.29 × 10 −11 m )=(9.11 × 10 −31 kg) ¼ 9.25 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 , and is typical of the size of atomic
magnetic dipole moments in general.