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Student Name: Due Date: 18/11/2010

Essential Biology 5.1: Ecosystems


& Communities

Blog resource: http://tinyurl.com/249fd5a

Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word). The first example has
been done for you.

Complete the self-assessment rubric before submitting to Moodle. Avoid printing this if
possible.

1. Define the following terms:

Species: A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.


(1)

Habitat- The environment in which a species normally lives (the location of a


living organism)

Population - a group of organisms of the same species living in the same area
at the same time

Community- a group of populations living and interacting with each other in


an area

Ecosystem- a community and its abiotic environment (non-living)

Ecology- the study of relationships between living organisms and between


organisms and their environment

Niche - the status of an organism within its environment and community


including diet, where they live and when they are active.

Biodiversity- a variation (number and variety of species) of life forms within


an ecosystem

Trophic level-the position an organism or a group of organisms occupy on the


food chain determined by the number of energy steps to get to that level.

2. Complete the tree below with definitions and examples of each type of
feeding strategy.

Distinguish between the feeding strategies at each level of the diagram.

Heterotrophs feed off of others while autotrophs feed themselves. The two
types of autotrophs feed by photosynthesis (sun energy) and
chemosynthesis(chemical energy). Heterotrophs have decomposers (energy
from non-living organisms) and consumers (energy from living or recently
killed).

Stephen Taylor Bandung International School


http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com
Student Name: Due Date: 18/11/2010
Essential Biology 5.1: Ecosystems
& Communities

3. Food chains represent the flow of energy and nutrients in a series of feeding
relationships.

Give one example of a marine food chain (min. 4


organisms)

Organisms which produce their own food from Organisms which derive energy from other
organic methods living organisms

Producers Decomposers Osprey

Photosynthesis, green plants, Chemosynthesis, deep sea, Organic matter which is Lives in or on non-living
Ingests non-living organic matter, secreting
pytoplankton and algae chemosynthetic bacteria living or recently killed
organic matter, digestive enzymes into it
earthworms, woodliceand absorbing digestive
--> bream --> freshwater shrimp products, bacteria and fungi

--> phytoplankton

Carnivores,omnivores, eat
Herbivores, eat producers
other consumers

Give one example of a terrestrial


food chain (min. 4 organisms)

Sparrow hawk --> great tit --> moth caterpillar --> yellow iris

Give one other example of a food chain (min. 4 organisms)

Seal --> cod --> krill, amphipods --> diatoms

4. Describe what is meant by a food web.

A food web shows all of the feeding relationships within a habitat and contain many
food chains.

5. The food web below shows some coral reef feeding relationships;

Stephen Taylor Bandung International School


http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com
Student Name: Due Date: 18/11/2010
Essential Biology 5.1: Ecosystems
& Communities

a. Identify species in the following trophic levels:

i. Producers

Phytoplankton and algae

ii. Primary consumers

Sea-whip, parrotfish, turtles, marine invertebrates,marine omnivores

iii. Secondary consumers

Reef sharks, snappers, groupers

6. On a separate sheet, construct a freshwater food web based on the following


information:

Organism Energy sources


Water crowfoot Sunlight
Cased caddisfly Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals
larva
Damselfly nymph Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals
Mayfly nymph Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals
Dragonfly Other adult insects and small flies
Duck All nymphs, all plants, snails, tadpoles, young frogs
Freshwater Shrimp Particles of dead plants and animals
Water vole Plants
Algae Sunlight
Otter Fish, frogs and newts
Water starwort Sunlight

Stephen Taylor Bandung International School


http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com
Student Name: Due Date: 18/11/2010
Essential Biology 5.1: Ecosystems
& Communities

Pond snail Microplants, all water plants and algae


Alderfly nymph Micro-plants, algae, particles of dead plants and animals
Pond skater Particles of dead plants and animals
Frog Mayfly, midge larvae, pond skater, caddisfly, small flies
Tadpole Micro-plants, algae
Micro-plants Sunlight
Great diving beetle Water flea, snails, tadpole, all nymphs
Bullhead fish Diving beetle, tadpole, all nymphs, water flea, snail, midge
larvae
Adapted from: http://www.cornwallriversproject.org.uk/education/education_pack.htm

7. For the food web created above:

a. Identify organisms in each of the trophic levels.

Producer- micro-plant, algae, water starwort, water crowfoot

Primary Consumer- Tadpole, Alderfly nymph, pond snail, mayfly nymph, cased
caddisfly larva, damselfly nymph, water vole

Secondary Consumers- Bullhead fish, great diving beetle, frog, duck, dragonfly

Tertiary Consumers- otter

Decomposers- pond skater, freshwater shrimp

b. Identify organisms that fit more than one trophic level.

A duck could fit on more than one trophic level because it eats the insects as
the secondary consumers do, but also eats frogs so it could be even with the
otter

c. Identify those which could be classed as detritivores

Detritivores would be considered pond skaters and freshwater shrimp as they


feed off of dead animals.

8. Suggest why it is sometimes difficult to classify organisms into trophic levels.

It is rare that all organisms eat one thing, the only organism that can be classified
into a proper trophic level is the producer as it creates for itself.

9. Outline why numbers of organisms are smaller at higher trophic levels.

Stephen Taylor Bandung International School


http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com
Student Name: Due Date: 18/11/2010
Essential Biology 5.1: Ecosystems
& Communities

There are less predators because there is less energy at the top of the trophic levels
and also there

10.State the original source of energy for almost all communities.

The initial energy source for almost all communities is sunlight.

11.Explain how energy flows through a community, including why energy


transfers are never 100% efficient.

90% of energy is lost due to it not being ingested, not digested or assimilated,
excreted, or lost as heat from respiration.

12.State the function of a pyramid of energy.

Pyramids of energy show the flow of energy between trophic levels.

13.Give an example of a unit of measurement used in a pyramid of energy,


giving a description of each component.

The unit of measurement used is units of energy per unit area per unit time
(kj m-2 y -1 ).

14.“Energy flows through an ecosystem, nutrients are recycled.”

Explain this statement with the aid of a flow chart. Include the roles of saprotrophic
bacteria and fungi.

15.Outline three examples of cycles of inorganic nutrients. For each, outline the
uses of the nutrients in living organisms, its method of transfer into and
through the food chain and how it is returned to the inorganic nutrient pool.

Stephen Taylor Bandung International School


http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com
Student Name: Due Date: 18/11/2010
Essential Biology 5.1: Ecosystems
& Communities

a. Carbon

Uses: forming the long molecular chains of DNA

Food chain: Carbon is introduced to the food train through producers via photosynthesis and
is then carried on through each trophic layer by the predators eating the producers. It is
then returned to the inorganic nutrient pool when the highest trophic layer dies and the
saprotrophic bacteria and fungi decompose the deceased and return the carbon back.

b. Nitrogen

Uses: Makes explosives and laughing gas

Food chain: Nitrogen is introduced to the food chain through the amino acids/proteins in our
bodies and are also very important in a plants nutrition. The nitrogen is passed on through
each trophic layer and then when the highest predator in that specific food chain dies,
decomposers such as worms decompose the dead predator and allow the nitrogen to enter
back into the air.

c. Calcium

Uses: keeps bones and skeletons strong and teeth as well, also makes strong shells of birds
and the cell wall of plants.

Food chain: introduced to the food chain through plants as well and passed up through the
trophic levels providing less calcium for each level. When the animal dies, the calcium is
passed onto the decomposers who then continue the cycle when they become the prey.

Stephen Taylor Bandung International School


http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com