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Bkv Xn I -

X bpw
\mkvXn-I-Xbpw
PhmZv sI

""ssZhw acn-¨p-t]m-bn-cn-¡p¶p''sh¶v At±lw {]kvXm-hn-¨-Xv. Xsâ Ime-L- I-hmZw,- {]{In-bm-]c


- a- mb \mkvXn-Ih - Zmw
\-oXvtj ]d-ª-Xmbn Nne {KÙ-§-fn «-¯nse hnizm-kn-If - psS kao-]\
- §
- fpw F¶n-§s\ \mkvXn-I-Xsb Nne Nn´-
 ImWmw. Pohn-¨n-cp¶ Hcp ssZhw D aX-¯nsâ Nqj-Wm-[n-jvTn-Xa- mb CS-s]- IÀ c­mbn thÀXn-cn-¨n-«p­v. (- 1)

­m-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¶pw B ssZh-amWv ac- S-ep-Ifpw ssZhs¯ \ntj-[n-¡p-hm³ hyàn a\-Êp-I-fn hnizm-k-¯n\v


W-s¸-«p-t]m-b-sX-¶p-amWv \o-Xv-tj ]d- aäp-]-e-scbpw t]mse \oXvtj¡pw Xosc CSw In«msX hfÀ¶p-hc- m³ km[n-
ª-sX¶pw CXns\ hymJym-\n-¡m-hp-¶- t{]c-W-bm-bn-cp-¶n-«p-­v. \mkvXn-I-hm-Z- ¡pI F¶-XmWv kzm`m-hnI \mkvXn-I-
Xm-Wv. F¶m ASn-Øm-\-]-c-ambn \o ¯nsâ Ncn-{Xhpw Nn´m-[m-cbpw ]cn- hm-Za- mbn hnti-jn-¸n-¡s - ¸-Sp-¶X
- .v ]t£,-
Xvtj Hcp ssZh-\n-tj-[nbpw \mkvXnI- tim-[n-¡p--t¼mÄ AXp kzm`m-hn-I-ambn Ncn-{X-¯n-sâbpw hkvXp-X-I-fp-sSbpw
hm-Zn-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p. Hcp ssZh-¯n Xm³ BhnÀ`-hn-¡p¶ Hcp _u²n-I-\n-e-hm- shfn-¨-¯n Nn´n-¡p-t¼mÄ C¯-c-
hniz-kn-¡p-¶nà F¶p kqNn-¸n-¡m³ c-ambn Hcp Ime¯pw A\p-`-h-s¸-«n-«nà samcp \mkvXn-IX FhnsS Ft¸mÄ
th­n-bmWv ssZhw acn-¨p-t]m-b-Xmbn F¶p ImWmw. kzm`m-hn-Ia- mb \mkvXn- F§s\ BhnÀ`-hn-¨n-«p­v F¶Xv- D¯-
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
\mkvXn-Ih
- m-Z¯
- nsâ Ncn-{Xhpw Nn´m-[m-cbpw ]cn-tim-[n-¡-tp-¼mÄ AXp kzm`m-hn-I-ambn BhnÀ`-hn-¡p¶ Hcp
_u²n-I-\n-e-hm-c-ambn Hcp Ime¯pw A\p-`h
- s
- ¸-«n-«nà F¶p ImWmw. kzm`m-hn-Ia- mb \mkvXn-I-hmZw,-
{]{Inbm]c-amb \mkvXn-I-hZmw F¶n-§s\ \mkvXn-I-Xsb Nne Nn´-IÀ c­mbn thÀXn-cn-¨n-«p­v.
hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
2007 G-{]n-Â- 19
c-an-Ãm¯ tNmZy-am-Wv. Hcp a\p-jy³ fnepw hyàn-I-fnepw AXn\p hncp-²- ¯n-\pw, B at\m-`m-h-¯n \n¶pÅ
P\n-¡p-Ibpw hf-cp-Ibpw Pohn-X¯ - nsâ amb at\m-`mhw ASn-t¨Â]-n¡ - p-hm³ \S- amä-¯n-\p-th­n t_m[-]qÀh-amb ]cn-
sshhn-[y-]qÀW-§-fmb hgn-I-fn-eqsS ¯p¶ {ia-§Ä hn]-coX ^e-§-fmWv {i-a-§Ä Bh-iy-ambn hcn-Ibpw sN¿p-
hf-cp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶X - n-\n-Sb
- n Ahsâ Df-hm-¡p-I. C¯cw {ia-§Ä hyànXz ¶-Xn-\m-emWv hnizmkw kzm`m-hn-Ihpw
Nn´m-[m-cb - nÂ\n¶pw at\m-ap-Ip-c¯ - n inYn-eo-Ic- W - w, at\m-hn-{`m-´n-IÄ F¶n- Ahn-izmkw {]{In-bm-]c- h - p-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶-
\n¶pw hnizmkw A{]-Xy-£a- mbn F¶p hbv¡v CS-bm-¡p-¶p. Xv. klhpw kzm`m-hn-I-hp-ambn _p²n-
hcmw. ]t£, hnizm-k-¯nsâ em©-\ A-©v-).- \mkvXnI at\m-`m-hhpw bpsS Bh-iy-ambn hyànPohn-X¯ - nÂ
bpw kzm[o-\-hp-an-ÃmsX Hcp hyàn¡p Ahn-izm-khpw ]peÀ¯p¶ hyàn-I- IS-¶p-h-cp-¶-Xv hnizm-k-am-Wv. CXns\
hfÀ¶p-h-cm³ Ign-bpI F¶Xv- Akm- fpsS Pohn-X-s¯-¡mÄ hkvXp-\n-jvT-X, adn-I-S-¡p¶ t_m[-]qÀh-apÅ at\m-
[y-am-Wv. hnizm-k-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸«p IrXy-X, ^e-{]m-]X v n, IÀa-\n-cX F¶nh `mh krjvSn-bmbn am{Xsa Ahn-izm-k-
\S-¯nb ]co-£W - §- f - nÂ\n¶v- Dcp-¯n- hnizm-ka- t- \m-`m-hm-[n-jvTnX Pohn-X¯ - n ¯n\v \ne-\n¡p-hm³ Ign-bq. aX-
cn-bp¶ ]c-amÀY-w a\p-jysâ kzm`m-hn- sâ DS-a-IÄ¡v D­m-bn-cn-¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. (2) ¯nsâ Hcp D-Â]¶-ambn hnizm-ks¯
I -a-t\m-`m-h-¯nsâ {]Xn-^-e-\-amWv ImWp-¶X - n\p ]I-cw, a\pjy a\-Ên-sâ-
hnizm-ks - a-¶m-Wv. PohnX kml-Nc - y-§- hnizm-k-¯n-sâbpw Ahn-izm-k-¯n- Xs¶ Hcp kzm`m-hnI ^e-ambn ImWp-
fn-eqsS Cu kzm`m-hnI at\m-`m-hs¯ sâbpw ^e-§s - f-¡p-dn-¨pÅ ]T-\§ - Ä ¶-h-bmWv- ]T-\-§Ä.- hnizm-k-¯nsâ
D³aqe\w sN¿p-hm³ km[n-¡p-I-bn-Ã. aX-¯n-sâbpw bpàn-hm-Z¯ - n-sâbpw k \oXo-I-c-W-¯n\p ssZh-im-kv{X-§-fpw
CXp-ambn _Ô-s¸«p \S-¯n-bn-«pÅ hn-tij taJ-e-I-fm-bn-«mWv ]ecpw Im ssZhhnÚm- \ o- b - § fpw \ÂIp¶
At\z-j-W-§-fn \n¶v Dcp-¯n-cnª Wp-¶-sX-¦nepw B[p-\nI a\x-im-kv{X- \ymbo-I-c-W-§-fà a\x-im-kv{Xhpw
Imcy-§Ä Ch-bmWv:- ¯n Cu hnj-b-§Ä Iqe-¦-j-ambn `uXn-I-]-T-\-§fpw \ÂIp-¶-Xv. ssZh
NÀ¨-sN-¿s - ¸-«n-«p-­.v tIhew aX-¯nsâ hnÚm-\o-b§ - f - psS am\-ZÞ - § - Ä hn`n-
H-¶v-).- hyàn P\n¨p hf-cp-¶-tXm- XmXznI \ne-]m-Sp-IÄ¡v AwKo-Im-c-ap-
sSm¸w kw`-hn-¡p¶ _p²n-hn-Imkw,- ¶-§f - m-W.v imkv{Xw \nXy-Po-hn-Xh - p-ambn
­m-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ {]hÀ¯-\-§fpw _Ô-s¸« hnj-b-§fpw a\p-jysâ
]cn-k-c-t_m[w XpS-§n-b-h-bpsS ]n³ sshÚm-\nI kao-]\ - §- fpw F¶-XnÂ
XpSÀ¨-bmbn Hc-Xo-X-i-àn-bn-epÅ -hn- hyàn-]c - hpw hnIm-k] - c- h
- p-amb {]iv\-
I-hnªv a\pjyPohn-X-¯nsâ kl-P- §-fp-ambn _Ô-s¸« hnj-b§ - f - pamWp
izm-khpw BhnÀ`-hn-¡p-¶p-­v. amb at\m-`m-hþ- i - o-e§ - f - p-ambn _Ô-s¸« NÀ¨ sN¿p-¶-Xv. Cu ]T-\-ta-J-e-IÄ
c-­v-).- hyàn,- P\n-¡p¶ IpSpw_w,- hkvXp-\n-jvT-amb Bcm-b-ep-IÄ F¶ X½n-epÅ hyXym-khpw `n¶-X-Ifpw
Pohn-¡p¶ ]Ým-¯ew F¶n-h-bpsS \ne-bn-emWv hnizm-kþ- A - h - n-izmk at\m- hnizm-k-¯n-sâbpw Ahn-izm-k-¯n-sâ
ASn-Øm-\-¯n Dcp-¯n-cn-bp¶ Hcp `m-h-§-fp-ambn _Ô-s¸« {]iv\-§Ä bpw D]-bp-àambn _Ô-s¸« NÀ¨-I-
at\m-`m-ha- à CXv. thdn-«Xpw hyXy-kvX- NÀ¨-sN-¿s - ¸-«n-«p-ÅX - .v ssZh-im-k{v X-¯n- fnepw kzm[o-\n-¡pI kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv.
hp-amb Hcp t{kmX-Ên \n¶pw, Hcp sâ-tbm, aX-]mTy ]²-Xn-bp-sStbm `mK- C¯-c-samcp kzm[o-\-¯nsâ ^e-am-bn-
sshIm-cnI ioe-¯n \n¶pw A\p-{Im- aà hnizm-khpw Ahn-izm-k-hpw. adn¨v «m-W,v hnizm-kþ- A - h - n-izmk at\m-`m-h¯ - n
an-Ia- mbn hnImkw {]m]n-¡p-¶X - m-Wn-Xv. a\x-im-kv{X-]c - a- mb ]T-\t- a-Je - b
- n-te¡v sâ sshhn-[y-§Ä hyàn-Po-hn-X-hp-am
aq-¶-v).- hnizm-k-¯n\pw aX-]-c-amb IS¶p sN¶n-cn-¡p¶p C¶-h. bn _Ô-s¸«p hni-I-e\w sN¿-s¸-Sp-
ho£-W§ - Ä¡pw kzm[o-\a- n-Ãm¯ Hcp hnizmkw kzm`m-hn-I-amb Hcp at\m- ¶Xpw hkvXp-\n-jvTX - b
- psS ASn-Øm-\-
kml-N-cy-¯n hyànsb hfÀ¯p-¶- `m-ha- mWv F¦n Ahn-izmkw {]{In-bm- ¯n NÀ¨-sN-¿s - ¸-Sp-¶X - pw. B[p-\nI-
Xn-eqsS Cu at\m-`mhw CÃm-sX-bm-¡p- ]-ca- mb at\m-`m-ha- m-Wv. hyàn-bpsS a\- a-\p-jysâ Pohn-X-¯n hnizm-khpw
hm³ km[n-¡p-¶n-Ã. XoÀ¯pw Ahn-izm- Ên hnizmkw kzm`m-hn-Ia- mbn Dcp-¯n- Ahn-izm-khpw GXp coXn-bn {]Xn-^-
k-¯n-sâ-Xmb Hcp IpSpw_ PohnX cn-bp-¶p-sh-¦n Ahn-izmkw Dcp-¯n-cn- en-¡p¶p F¶-Xnsâ ASn-Øm-\-¯n-
]Ým-¯-e-¯n hf-cp¶ Ip«n-I-fn bp-¶-Xn\v t_m[-]qÀh-amb {ia-§Ä emWv Ah-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸« NÀ¨-IÄ
t]mepw B kml-Nc - ys¯ A-Xn-hÀ¯n- Bh-iy-am-Wv. hyàn P\n-¨p-h-fÀ¶ C¶p \S-¡p-¶-Xv. F¶m hnizm-k-
¨p-sIm­v hnizm-k-¯nsâ at\m-`mhw kml-N-cy-§Ä F´p-X-s¶-bm-bmepw ¯nbpw Ahn-izm-k-¯n-sâbpw LS-\m-
D­m-bn-¯o-cm-\n-Sb - p-­v. hnizmkw kzm`m-hn-Ia- mbn BhnÀ`-hn-¡p- ]-c-amb sshhn-[y-§Ä Btem-N-\-¡p-
\m-ev)- .- F¶m hnizmk at\m-`mhw Ibpw C§s\ kzm`m-hn-Ia- mbn BhnÀ`- hn-t[-ba- m-¡s - ¸-Sp¶ ]T-\§ - Ä C¯cw
kzm`m-hn-I-ambn Dcp-¯n-cn-bp¶ Ip«n-I- hn-¡p¶ at\m-`m-h-¯nsâ \ncm-I-c-W- NÀ¨-I-fn \n¶pw thdn«p \n¡p¶p

aX-¯nsâ Hcp D-Â]¶-ambn hnizm-ks¯ ImWp-¶-Xn\p ]I-cw, a\pjy a\-Ên-sâ- Xs¶ Hcp kzm`m-hnI ^e-
ambn ImWp-¶-h-bmWv- ]T-\-§Ä.- hnizm-k-¯nsâ \oXo-I-c-W-¯n\p ssZh-im-kv{X-§-fpw ssZhhnÚm-\o-b-
§fpw \ÂIp¶ \ymbo-Ic
- W
- §
- f
- Ã a\x-im-kv{Xhpw `uXn-I]
- T
- \
- §
- fpw \ÂIp-¶X
- v. ssZh hnÚm-\o-b§
- f
- psS
am\-Z-Þ-§Ä hn`n-¶-§-fm-Wv.

2007 G-{]n-Â- 20
F¶p ImWmw. a\p-jysâ hfÀ¨-bv¡n-
(3)
b-tam, hkvXp-\n-jvTÚ
- m-\¯
- nsâ ]n³ ¨-¯n hnizm-khpw Ahn-izm-khpw
S-bn Dcp-¯n-cn-bp¶ kl-P-amb Ah- _-e-¯n-eqsS Ønco-I-cWw t\Sn-sbSp X½n-epÅ ASn-Øm-\] - c
- a- mb hyXym-k-
t_m-[§ - f - psS XpSÀ¨-bm-bmWv hnizmkw ¡p¶tXm AÃ. a\p-jysâ _p²n, a §-fpsS Hcp ]«nI Xb-m-dm-¡p-I-bm-sW-
BhnÀ`-hn-¡p-¶-Xv. {]Ir-Xn, Pohn-Xw, t\m-`m-hw, sshÚm-\n-I-X, Bi-b-]c- ¦n AXp Xmsg ]d-bpw-hn-[-am-bn-cn
a\p-jym-hØ - I - Ä F¶n-hs - b-¡p-dn-s¨-Ãm- amb At\z-jW - § - Ä F¶n-hb
- psS shfn- ¡pw :
(6)

apÅ Bghpw ]c-¸p-apÅ ]T-\-§-fnepw


X¯-zN - n-´b - nepw GÀs]-Sp-¶X - n\p ap¼p-
Xs¶ hnizmkw D­m-Ip¶p F¶-Xn- hnizmkw Ahn-izmkw
\m a\p-jysâ t_m[-]qÀh-amb sXc- 1. kl-Phpw kzm`m-hn-I-hp-ambn 1. t_m[-]qÀh-amb ]cn-{i-a-¯n-eqsS
sª-Sp-¸nsâ ^e-aà hnizmkw,- AXn D­m-bn-cp-¶p. D­m-Ip-¶p.
sâ BhnÀ`mh L«-¯nÂ. F¶m ]n
2. Adn-hv, A\p-`-hw, Ah-t_m-[-§Ä 2. Adnhv A\p-`hw Ah-t_m[w
¶oSv- F{Xtbm hn`n-¶-amb a\p-jym-h-
F¶n-h-bn-eqsS hfÀ¶phcp-¶p. F¶nh Hcp kzm[o-\hpw sNep-¯p-
Ø-I-fn-eqsS IS-¶p-t]m-Ip¶XneqsS
¶n-Ã.
hnizm-k-¯n\p \oXo-I-cWw \ÂIp¶
\nc-h[n LS-I-§Ä hyàn-IÄ BÀP-n- 3. {Iam-\p-K-X-ambn ]Iz-Xbpw 3. F¶pw Htc Ah-Ø-bn \ne
¡p-¶p-­v. hnizmkw AXnsâ BhnÀ`m ]mI-Xbpw BÀPn¨p apt¶-dp-hm³ \n¡p-¶-Xn-\m hnIm-k- ]-cn-Wm-a-
h L«-¯n a\p-jy-a\ - Ê
- n D­m-Ip¶ km[y-Xb - p-­v. -§-fn-Ã.
AXo-Xt- _m-[w, {]Ir-Xym-Xo-Xa- mb Bi- 4. krjvSn-]-c-amb Bi-b-§Ä¡v 4. krjvSn-]-cX Xosc-bn-Ãm¯ \nÀPo
b-§Ä F¶n-hs - b-bmWv {]Xn-^e - n-¸n-¡p- ]Ým-¯e - a- m-Ip¶p -hX ]peÀ¯p-¶p.
¶-Xv. F¶m ]n¶oSp BÀP-nX LSI 5. Pohn-Xs¯ KpW-]-c-ambn 5. Pohn-X-¯n Hcp-Xcw kzm[o-\hpw
§-fpsS klm-b-t¯m-Sp-IqSn Ah hyh- kzm[o-\n-¡p-¶p. sNep-¯p-¶n-Ã.
Øm-]n-X-amb Hcp LS-\-bmbn hnI-kn-
¡p-¶p-þ -\n-b-Xhpw IrXy-hp-amb H¶n- 6. aX-¯n-sâbpw [mÀan-I-X-bp-sSbpw 6. H¶n-sâbpw ASn-¯-d-bmbn
epÅ Hcp iàn-bnepw ØnXn hnti-j- ASn-¯-d-bmbn hÀ¯n-¡p-¶p. hÀ¯n-¡m-\pÅ Bi-b-`-{Z-X-bn-Ã.
¯n-ep-apÅ hnizm-k-ambn hf-cp-Ibpw 7. aX-¯n-sâbpw aqey-§-fp-sSbpw 7. Ahn-izm-ks¯ aXhpw aqey
ssZh-hn-izm-k-¯nsâ LS\ BÀP-n-¡p- ]n´p-Wb - p­v §fpw ]n´p-W-¡p-¶n-Ã.
I-bp-amWp sN¿p-¶-sX¶v ]T-\-§Ä 8. Pohn-X-¯n\v e£yhpw amÀKhpw 8. PohnX¯n\v H¶pw kw`m-h\
sXfn-bn-¨n-«p-­.v a\pjy\n kl-Phpw-
(4)
\ÂIp¶ am\-k-nI iàn-bmbn sN¿p-¶n-Ã.
kzm`m-hn-Ih - p-ambn BhnÀ`-hn-¡p¶ ioe- hÀ¯n-¡p-¶p.
§fpw Nn´m-KX - n-Ifpw hnI-kn-¡p-Ibpw 9. AÀY-h-¯mb Nn´-IÄ¡pw 9. hyàn-Isf \njvIÀa,- -\n-Ýn´m
hkvXp-\n-jvT-amb Adn-hn-sâbpw Ah- At\z-jW - § - Ä¡pw t{]c-Wb - m-Ip-¶p. at\m-`m-h-¯n Xf-¨n-Sp-¶p.
t_m-[¯ - n-sâbpw ]n³_-et- ¯msS kar
²-amhp-Ibpw sN¿p-¶-Xp-t]m-se-bmWv 10. imkv{X-¯n-sâbpw am\-hn-Im-h- 10. A¯cw Hcp ]n´pW e`n-¡p-¶n-
hnizm-k¯ - nsâ Imcy-¯nepw kw`-hn-¡p- t_m-[-§-fp-sSbpw ]n´p-W-bp-­v. Ã.
¶Xv F¶ \nco-£-W-¯n\v ]T-\-§Ä 11. Pohn-X-hr-¯-¯n\p ]qÀW-amb 11. Pohn-X-hr¯w Hc-]qÀW-Xb-mbn
]cn-K-W\ \ÂIp-¶p-­v. {Iam-\p-K-X-
(5) Hcp hncm-aw -\nÀtZ-in-¡p-¶p. A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp-¶p.
ambn Dcp-¯n-cn-bp¶ LS-I§ - f
- psS klm- 12. ka-{Khpw bpàn-]-c-hp-amb 12. Pohn-X-þ-{]-Ir-Xn-þ-{]-]-© -t_m-[-
b-t¯msS hnizm-k-¯nsâ at\m-`mhw Pohn-Xþ- {- ]-Ir-Xn-þ{- ]-]©
- t- _m-[¯
- nsâ ¯n kzm[o\w sNep-¯p-¶n-Ã.
hf-cp-Ibpw ]cnWan¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. ASn-¯-d-bmbn hÀ¯n-¨p-sIm-­n-cn-
F¶m Ahn-izm-k¯ - nsâ Imcy-¯n ¡p-¶p.
C¯cw Hcp km[yX \ne-\n¡p-Itbm 13. a\p-jy- \n-e-\nÂ]nsâ Zpcq-l-X-I 13. a\p-jy-\n-e-\nÂ]nsâ Zpcq-l-X-
Dcp-¯n-cn-bp-Itbm sN¿p-¶n-Ã. Ahnizm Ä¡pw ]cn-lmcw \ÂIp¶ Nn´m-K-Xn- IÄ Zpcq-l-X-IÄ am{X-ambn Ah-ti-
kw kl-Pa- Ã - m-¯X - p-t]m-se-¯s¶ AXp IÄ DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-¡p-¶p. jn-¡p-¶p.-
{Iam-\p-K-X-amb ]cn-Wm-a-¯n\p hnt[-

{]Ir-Xn, Pohn-Xw, a\p-jym-h-Ø-IÄ F¶n-h-sb-¡p-dn-s¨-Ãm-apÅ Bghpw ]c-¸p-apÅ ]T-\-§-fnepw


X¯-z-Nn-´-bnepw GÀs]-Sp-¶-Xn\p ap¼p-Xs¶ hnizmkw D­m-Ip¶p F¶-Xn-\m a\p-jysâ
t_m[-]qÀh-amb sXc-sª-Sp-¸nsâ ^e-aà hnizmkw,- AXnsâ BhnÀ`mhL«-¯nÂ.

2007 G-{]n-Â- 21
Ahn-izm-k¯
- nsâ Bib {]Xn-k- kvXh ssZh-imkv{X Nn´-I-\m-bn-cp¶ fmbn amdp-¶p.
Ôn-IÄ amÀkz-eot\m Xsâ Hcp IrXn-bn ]d- 5).- aX-¯n-sâepw hnizmk ]²-Xn-
hnizm-k¯- nsâ kl-Pa- mb at\m-`m- bp-¶p-­v . Ahn-izmkw hnizm-ks¯
(7)
I-fp-sS-bpw Abp-àn-I-h-i-§Ä Xncn-¨-
h- io-e§
- Ä¡p hncp-²a- mbn hyàn-IÄ At]-£n¨v t_m[-]qÀh-Ia- mb Hcp ]cn- dn-bp-t¼mÄ Nne hyàn-IÄ hnizm-k-
t_m[-]qÀhw hfÀ¯n-sb-Sp-¡p-¶X - mWv {i-a¯
- n-eqsS Dcp-¯n-cn-bp-¶p F¶-Xn-\m- ¯n \n¶p ]n´n-cn-bp-¶p.
Ahn-izm-k-sa-¶-Xv. hnizmkw F¶Xp emWv hnizm-kn-IÄ kl-ambn BhnÀ`-
6).- {]]-©-s¯bpw Po-hn-X-s¯bpw
km[m-c-Whpw kmam-\y-hp-amb AÀY- hn-¡p-t¼mÄ Ahn-izm-kn-IÄ \nÀ_-Ô-
kw_-Ôn-¨pÅ Nn´-I-fn-eqsS kXyw
¯n Cuiz-c- hn-izm-k-am-Wv. hymh-lm- ]qÀhw Bbn-¯o-cp-¶h - c- mWv F¶p hnh-
Is­-¯p-hm³ Ign-bmsX hcp¶ _u
cn-Ihpw `mjm]c-hp-amb XmÂ]cy-§Ä £n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. kl-P-amb BhnÀ`m-
²nIamb {]Xn-kÔ - n-If - n \n¶pw Ahn-
ap³\nÀ¯n hnizmkw aäp- ]-Z-§-tfmSpw hhpw Ir{Xn-a-amb Bbn-¯o-c-ep-Ifpw
izmkw cq]w sImÅm-dp-­v.
Bi-b-§-tfmSpw hkvXp-¡-tfmSpw tNÀ X½n-epÅ `n¶X hfsc hep-Xm-Wv.
7).- hyà-amb amÀK-ZÀi-\-¯nsâ
¯v- D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p. Cuizc hnizm-k- hyànIfpsS A\p-`-h-§-fp-sSbpw
ASn-Øm-\-¯n hyàn-I F¯n-t¨-
sa¶p tIh-emÀY-¯n hnh-£n-¡-s¸- tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯-ep-I-fp-sSbpw ASn-Øm-\-
cp¶ hnizm-k-]-c-amb kao-]-\-§-fpsS
Sp¶ hnizmkamWp kl-P-am-bn-«p-Å-Xv. ¯n -Nn-´n-¡p-t¼mÄ Ahn-izm-kn-I-fm-
Xncn-¨-Sn-IÄ F¶ \ne-bn BhnÀ`-hn-
Xsâ BhnÀ`m-hw, Pohn-Xw, Pohn-X-¯n bn-¯o-cp-¶X - n\p ]e-Im-cW - §
- Ä It­-
¡p-¶- {]iv\§Ä hyàn-Isf Ahn-izm-
\p ]n¶nse cl-ky-§Ä PohnX {]iv\- ¡mw. {KÙ-§f - p-sSbpw tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯e - p-
kn-I-fm¡n ]cn-hÀ¯\w sN¿m-dp-­v.
§-fnse ka-ky-IÄ F¶n-hs - b-¡p- d- n¨p I-fp-sSbpw ASn-kvY-m-\-¯n A¯cw
Ch-b{- Xbpw km[m-cW Pohn-X¯ - n Im
Nn´n-¨p-sIm-­mWv Nne hyàn-IÄ Imc-W§ - sf C{]-Imcw ImWm-hp-¶X - m-W:v -
Wp-¶h - bpw XnI¨pw km[m-cW - § - f
- p-amb
hnizm-kn-I-fm-bn-¯o-cp-¶-Xv. _p²n-bp-d- 1).- hfÀ¶p-hn-Ik - n-¡p¶ _p²n-bpsS Imc-W§ - f
- m-W.v hnizm-k¯ - n \n¶v- Ahn
¡p-Ibpw Nn´m-tijn {]tbm-Kn¨p XpS- shfn-¨-¯n hyàn-IÄ kz´w at\m- izmk¯n-te-¡pÅ amä-¯nsâ BXy-´n-
§p- I bpw sN¿p¶ ssii- h - ¯ nsâ \n-eI- sf ]p\x-]c- n-tim-[n-¡p-t¼mÄ D­m I-amb Imc-W{- I-a§ - Ä At\z-jn-t¡­
\mfp-I-fnÂXs¶ a\-Ên cq]-sa-Sp- -Ip¶ hyXn-bm\ Nn´-IÄ hnI-kn-¸n¨v Xv hyàn-If - psS a\-Êp-If - n Xs¶-bmWv. (8)

¡p¶ hnizmkw ssZhm-kvXn-Iy-hp-ambn Ahn-izm-k¯ - n F¯n-t¨-cp-¶X - m-Wv.


_Ô-s¸« t_m[-am-Wv. CXv hfÀ¶p ss{IkvXh ]Ým-¯e - ¯
- n P\n¨p
2).- P\n¨p hf-cp¶ kml-Nc - y-§f - n hfÀ¶ Ht«sd {]apJ hyàn-Xz-§Ä
hnI-kn¨v Bi-b-§Ä, aqey-Nn-´-IÄ,
\n¶p e`y-am-Ip¶ hnizm-k-¯nsâ km hnizm-k-¯nsâ adp-h-i-t¯¡v ]n¶oSp
aX-]-c-amb ho£-W-§Ä F¶n-h-bpsS
[y-X-I-sfbpw bpàn-I-sfbpw kz´w \o§n-\n-¶-Xmbn Ah-cpsS Pohn-X-tc-J-
klm-b-t¯msS hn]p-eo-I-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-
Adn-hp-I-fp-sSbpw A\p-`-h-§-fp-sSbpw I-fn \n¶pw {Kln-¡m³ Ign-bpw. bm³
Ibpw hyànPohn-X-¯n kzm[o\w
shfn-¨-¯n hyàn-IÄ Xnc-kvI-cn-¡p- t]mÄkmÀ{Xv,- _À{Sm³-dv- d-Ê - , slanw
sNep- ¯ p¶ am\- k nI iàn- b mbn
¶-Xnsâ ^e-ambn Ahn-izm-kw D­m- Kvth, entbmtSmÄtÌmbv XpS-§nb t]cp-
hÀ¯n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. F¶m Cu
Ip-¶p;- hyàn-IÄ AhnizmknIfmbn IÄ DZm-lc - W
- a- m-sb-Sp-¡mw. ss{IkvXh - -
kzm`m-hn-I-amb coXn¡pw amÀK-¯n\pw
¯ocp-¶p. _meyw AXy-[nIw ck-Ic- § - f - mb A\p-
FXn-cmWv hnizmk at\m-`m-h-¯nÂ
\n¶v Ahn-izmk at\m-`m-h¯ - n-te-¡pÅ 3).- imkv{Xw, imkv{Xm-[n-jvTnX ]T- `-h-§-fp-sS-Xm-Wv. bmYm-Øn-Xn-I-amb
hyàn-I-fpsS ]cn-hÀ¯-\-§Ä.- a\-Ên- \-§Ä F¶n-h-bpsS ASn-Øm-\-¯n hnizmk ]Ým-¯e - ¯
- n P\n¨p Pohn
s\bpw Nn´-sbbpw AXnsâ kl-Phpw hyàn-IÄ Ah-ew-_n-¡p¶ t_m[-]-c- ¨ AhÀ¡v Ah-cpsS hnizm-khpw kmaq-
kzm`m-hn-Ih
- p-amb coXn-bnepw hgn-bnepw amb kao-]-\-§Ä \ntj-[m-ß-I-am-Ip- ln-Iþ-KmÀlnI Pohn-Xhpw X½n-epÅ
apt¼m«p t]mIp-hm³ A\p-h-Zn-¡msX t¼mÄ Ahn-izmkw P\n-¡p-¶p. s]mcp-¯-t¡-Sn-sâ-bpw,- hnizmkw Pohn-
hyàn-IÄ t_m[-]qÀhw kzoI-cn-¡p¶ 4).- ]T-\§ - f
- p-sSbpw a\-\§ - f - p-sSbpw Xm-\p-`-h-§-fn \n¶v hgn-]n-cnªp \S-
at\m-`mhw F¶ \ne-bn Ahn-izm-k- ASn-Øm-\¯ - n kz´w hnizm-k§ - sf ¡p¶Xnsâbpw \nc-h[n ]mT-§Ä Pohn-
¯n\v AXn-sâ-Xmb \nc-h[n {]iv\ ]p\x-]c - n-tim-[n-¡p-hm³ hyàn-IÄ Hcp- X-¯nÂ\n¶v ]Tn-t¡­n h¶n-«p-­v.
k¦oÀWX-I-fp-­v. ""Ahn-izm-kn-IÄ §p-I-bpw, kz´w hnizm-k-¯n\v FXn- _mey-Im-e¯v Krlm-´-co-£-¯nÂ
Bbn-¯o-cp-I-bmWv F¦n hnizm-kn-I cmb Is­-¯-ep-IÄ kw`-hn-¡p-Ibpw \n¶p a\-Ên Ib-dn-¡-q-Snb hnizm-k-
Ä D­m-bn-¯o-cp-I-bmWv''- F¶v ss{I sN¿p-t¼mgpw hyàn-IÄ Ahn-izm-kn-I- hpw, ]n¶oSp thZm-[n-jT v n-Xa- mb aX-t_m-

ss{IkvXh ]Ým-¯-e-¯n P\n¨p hfÀ¶ Ht«sd {]apJ hyàn-Xz-§Ä hnizm-k-¯nsâ adp-h-i-t¯¡v


]n¶oSp \o§n \
- n-¶X
- mbn Ah-cpsS Pohn-Xt- c-JI
- f
- n \n¶pw {Kln-¡m³ Ign-bpw. bm³ t]mÄ kmÀ{Xv-,
_À{Sm³-dv- d-Ê-Â, slanwKvth, entbmtSmÄtÌmbv XpS-§nb t]cp-IÄ DZm-l-c-W-am-sb-Sp-¡mw.

2007 G-{]n-Â- 22
[-¯n-eq-sS- e-`n-¡p¶ Nn{X-§fpw X½n- £n-bmb Nn{X-¯n-sâtbm Bbn-cp-¶p. CXn\p kam- \ - a mb {]iv \ - § Ä
epÅ sshcp-[y-§Ä Nn´m-ti-jn-bpÅ F¶m hf-cpw-tXmdpw A¯cw Hcp k¦ Xs¶-bmWv _À{Smâ v- dÊ-en\pw ]d-bm-
C¯cw {]Xn-`-Isf ]p\-cm-tem-N\IÄ Â]¯nepw ImgvN¸ - m-Sn-ep-apÅ hnizmkw \p-­m-bn-cp-¶-Xv. {Inkv-X-ym\n-än-sb-¡-p-
¡v t{]cn-¸n-¡pI kzm`m-hn-Ia- mWv.- aX- (9)
AÂ-]mÂ]-ambn F\n¡p \jvS-s¸-«p- dn¨v ASn-Øm-\-]-c-§-fmb ]e-tNm-Zy-
]-ca- mb KmÀln-Im-´c - o-£¯ - nsâ XS-hp- sIm-­n-cp-¶p. Fsâ _p²nbpw Nn´ §fpw D¶-bn-¨n-«pÅ dÊ ""Rm³ Hcp
Im-cpw ssiihw a\-Ên \nt£-]n¨ bpw hnI-kn-¡pw-tXmdpw Rm³ a\-Ên-em- {InkvXym-\n-bm-Im-Xn-cn-¡p-¶Xv hyà-am-
aqV-[m-c-W-I-fpsS ASn-a-I-fp-am-ImsX ¡n-sh-¨n-cp¶ ssZh-¯nepw iàn-bn-ep- bI - m-cW - § - f- p­v'' F¶p hyà-am-¡pI
ChÀ Cd-§n-s¨-Ãp-¶Xv imkv{Xhpw apÅ Fsâ Nn´bpw B{i-bt- _m-[hpw IqSn sNbvXp. At±lw BZyw Dt]-£n-
bpàn-Nn-´bpw am\-hn-I-t_m-[-§fpw \jvS-s¸-«p-sIm-­n-cp-¶p. bpàn-]-c-a-Ãm ¨Xv Xsâ ss{IkvXh hnizm-k-am-Wv.
Bib sshhn-[y-§fpw \ndª hnim- ¯ Hcp aqVm-he - w-_a- mWv Fsâ _mey- F¶m ]n¶o-S-t±lw hnizmkw F¶
e-tem-I-¯n-te-¡m-Wv. Cu ]pXnb tem Ime hnizm-kzm-h-t_m[w F¶ -X-c-¯n LSIw Xs¶ ]qÀW-ambpw XÅn-¡f - b
- p-
Iw a\-Ên \nt£-]n-¡p¶ ]pXnb  ]Xps¡ ]Xps¡ Fs¶ Nne FXn I-bmWv sNbvX-Xv. Cu {Iam-\p-K-X-amb
Nn´-If - pw, imkv{Xw sNep-¯p¶ kzm[o- À Nn´-IÄ kzm[o-\n¨p XpS-§n.'' hnizmk \ncm-Ic - W
- ¯ - nsâ Imc-W§ - Ä
\hpw Ch-cpsS ImgvN¸ - m-Sp-Isf amän-¯n- ""ssZhhpw hnizm-khpw t]dn-s¡-m- At±lw hyà-am-¡n-bXv C{]-Im-ca- m-bn-
cp-¯p-¶p. ]mc-¼-cy-[m-c-W-Isf \ntj- ­pÅ Pohn-X-¯n\v- F´ÀY-am-Wp-Å- cp¶p:
[n-¡p¶ ]pXnb ho£-W-§Ä IS¶p sX¶v Fsâ bpànt_m[w Ft¶mSp ""ss{IkvXh hnizm-ka- mWv `qan-bnÂ
hcp-t¼mÄ Ah-sb-¡-p-dn¨v Nn´n-¡pI tNmZn¨p XpS-§n-bt- ¸m-gmWv Rm³ thZm- Gähpw anI-¨s - X-¶m-bn-cp¶p Rm³ [cn-
F¶Xv kl-Pa- mbn kw`-hn-¡p¶ Imcy- [n-jT v n-Xa- mb ]T-\¯ - n-eqsS hnizm-k¯ - n- ¨n-cp-¶X - .v Gähpw anI¨ hnizmkw Xs¶
am-Wv. C¯cw amä-§fpw Nn´-Ifpw sâbpw ssZh-¯n-sâbpw bmYmÀYy-§Ä A_-²-amWv F¶p hcp-In aäp hnizm-
hnizm-k-¯nsâ hnhn[ LS-I-§sf Adn-b-W-sa¶p Nn´n-¨-Xv. Rm³ hniz- k-§f - psS Imcy-¯n Nn´n-t¡-­X - nÃ
AÂ]mÂ]-ambn CÃm-sX-bm-¡n-s¡-m­ - n- kn-¡p¶ AtX ssZhw Xs¶-bmtWm F¶p F\n-¡p-tXm-¶n. F¶m ""ss{Ikv
cn-¡p-I-bpw XpSÀ¨-bmbn kw`-hn-¡p¶ Fsâ thZ-¯n Pohn-¡p-¶Xv F¶mWv Xhw'' F¶ kz`mhw amän-\nÀ¯n-bmÂ
Cu hnizmk inYn-eo-I-c-Ww, Ahn-izm- {][m-\-ambpw F\n¡v Adn-tb-­n-bn-cp- Xs¶bpw hnizm-kw-þs - sZhw F¶n-§s\
k-¯nsâ Hcp BsI-¯p-I-bmbn Ah- ¶-X.v F¶m Ipcn-in acn¨ Hcp ssZh- Nne LS-I-§Ä Fsâ a\-Ên ià-
km-\n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. a\-Ên kzcp- s¯-¡p- d- n-¨pw, B ac-W¯ - nsâ klXm- am-bn-¯s¶ \ne-\n-¶p. hnizm-k¯ - nsâ
¡-q-Sn-bn-cp¶ ]qÀh-Ime Ah-t_m-[- ]-ap-WÀ¯p¶ hnh-c-W-§-sf-¡-p-dn¨pw Imcy-¯n ]qÀW-amb Hcp ]n´n-cn-b-
§sf adn-I-S-¡p¶ ]pXn-b-Xcw Adn-hp- Fsâ _mey-¯n F\n¡p tIÄ¡m- en\v Fsâ a\Êv Fs¶ A\p-h-Zn-¡m-
IÄ hnizm-k-]-c-amb LS-I-§-fpsS \n \n-S-bm-bn-«n-ÃtÃm F¶pw, ]Icw Rm³ Xn-cn-¡p-I-bm-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m ]n¶oSv
t£-]§ - sf AÂ]mÂ]ambn {Zhn¸n-¨p- tI«-X-{Xbpw s]m§-¨-¡m-c\pw hen-b- Pohn-Xm-\p-`-h-§fpw ImgvN-¸m-Sp-Ifpw
sIm-­n-cn-¡p¶ A\p-`hw ]e kzX{´ h\pw ho¼p-]d- b - p-¶h - \- p-amb ssZh-s¯- amdn-am-dn-h-¶-t¸mÄ kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw
Nn´-Ic - p-sSbpw Pohn-X¯ - n D­m-bn-«p- ¡-p-dn-¨m-WtÃm F\n¡p _mey-¯n hnizm-ks - a¶ Bi-b¯ - n\p Xs¶ {]k-
Å-Xm-bn -Im-Wmw. bm³t]mÄ kmÀ{Xv-, tIÄ¡m\n-Sb - m-bXv F¶pw Xncn-¨d- n-bm³ àn-bn-Ãm-Xm-bn-¯o-cp-¶-XmWv a\pjy
Xsâ _mey-s¯bpw hnizm-k-]-c-amb km[n-¨Xv Hcp hen-bI - mcyw Xs¶-bm-bn- Pohn-X-sa¶p Rm³ a\-Ên-em¡n''.- (11)

]cn-hÀ¯-\-s¯bpw Ipdn¨p ]d-bp¶ cp-¶p. Cu Xncn-¨-dnhv Fsâ Nn´m-K-Xn- {InkvXym-\n-bm-Im-Xn-cn-¡p-¶X - n-\pÅ


Imcy-§Ä {it²-b§ - f - m-Wv. At±-l¯ - n I-sfbpw Bi-b-§-sfbpw hÃmsX Cf Imc-W§ - Ä \nc-¯p¶ _À{Smâ v dÊÂ
sâXmbn- h¶ Hcp A`n-{]m-b- {]-I-S\w ¡n adn-¨p. ss__nÄ ]d-bp¶ {]Im- bYmÀY-¯n Xm³ Hcp hnizm-kn-bm-Im-
C{]-Im-c-amWv: ""hfsc am\p-jnI KpW- c-apÅ Hcp ssZhhpw ss{IkvXh IpSpw- Xn-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ Xtâ-Xmb \ymbo-I-
§Ä DÅ-h-\pw kvt\l-hm-\p-amb Hcp _- ]-Ým-¯-e-¯n hnh-cWw \ÂI- c-W-§Ä temI-¯n\p ap¶n kaÀ¸n-
ssZh-s¯-¡-p-dn-¨mWv Rm³ Fsâ _m s¸-Sp¶ Hcp ssZhhpw X½n-epÅ A]- ¡p-Ib - mWv sNbvXX - .v ss{IkvXh hnizm-
ey-¯n tIÄ¡pIbpw a\-Ên-em-¡p- I-S-I-c-amb A´cw Fsâ {]mc-W-I- k-¯nsâ Abp-àn-bpw _p²n-iq-\y-X-
Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶X - v. B ImgvN¸ - mSv- G sfbpw hnizm-k-§-sfbpw hÃmsX tNm bpw Bi-b-cm-ln-Xyhpw Xs¶-bmWv
Xm­v Hcp \Ã ]nXm-hn-sâtbm kvt\l- Zyw sNbvXp XpS-§n-bt- Xm-sS-bmWp Rm³ At±-l-¯n\p {][m-\-ambpw ]d-bm-\p-
hm-\mb Ab¡m-c-sâtbm KpW-Imw- Ahn-izmkw Xnc-sª-Sp-¯Xv''.- (10)
­m-bn-cp-¶X - v. ""Xsâ _mey-¯n X¶n

C¯cw amä-§fpw Nn´-Ifpw hnizm-k¯


- nsâ hnhn[ LS-I§
- sf AÂ]mÂ]-ambn CÃm-sX-bm-¡n-
s¡-m-­n-cn-¡p-I-bpw XpSÀ¨-bmbn kw`-hn-¡p¶ Cu hnizmk inYn-eo-I-c-Ww, Ahn-izm-k-¯nsâ Hcp
BsI-¯p-I-bmbn Ah-km-\n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p.

2007 G-{]n-Â- 23
 ss{IkvXh hnizmkw kzm[o\w sN §Ä F¶n-h-sb-¡-p-dn-¨pÅ ]cm-aÀi- Gähpw IqSp-X Ahn-izm-kn-Isf
ep-¯p-Ibpw ]n¶oSv B hn-izmkw CÃm §Ä IS-¶p-hc- p-¶Xv \mkvXn-IX - s- bbpw krjvSn-¨n-«pÅ aX-amWv {InkvXp-a-X-
Xm-bn-¯o-cp-Ibpw kw`-hn-¨n-cp-¶n-sÃ-¦n Ahn-izm-ks - ¯bpw hfÀ¯n-sb-Sp-¡p¶ sa¶v tPm¬ sehnkv ]d-ª-t¸mÄ (15)

Xm³ Hcp-]t£,- icn-bmb Hco-iz-ch - n-izm- \nc-h[n LS-I-§Ä ss{IkvX-h-X-bn It¯m-en-¡m-a-X-amWv Gähpw ISp¯
kn-bm-bn-¯s¶ ]n¡me-§f - nepw Pohn- D­v F¶-Xp-sIm-­m-Wv. \mkvXn-Ia- mb \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-Isf D­m-¡n-b-sX¶v
¨n-cp-t¶¡mw'' F¶n-§s\ ss{IkvXh Nn´m-[m-c-bpsS Bi-b-§sf iàn-s¸- tPmk^v sa¡m-s_bpw ]d-ªn-«p-­v. (16)

hnizm-k¯ - nsâ D³aqe-\¯ - n-eqsS kw`- Sp-¯p¶ BkvXnI aqey-§Ä {InkvXp- hnizm- k - h p- a mbn {]Xn- h À¯n- ¡ p¶
hn¨ Xsâ Ahn-izm-km-[n-jvTn-Xa- mb ]p a-X-¯n-ep­v F¶v Nne Nn´-IÀ ]d- at\m- ` m- h - § - f psS cq]o- I - c - W - ¯ n\v
\ÀP·w At±lw hyà-am-¡n-bn-«p-­v. (12)
bp-¶Xv taÂ]-dª AÀY-¯n-emWv . (13)
ss{IkvX-hX Imc-W-am-bn-¯o-cp-I-bpw,
hyàn-a\ - Ê
- p-If - nse hnizm-k] - c- a- mb ss{IkvXh hnizmk ]Ým-¯ew F§- hnizm-k-¯nsâ \oXnbpw bpànbpw
ap³hn-[n-Isf XIÀ¯p-sIm-­mWv Ahn- s\-bmWv Ahn-izm-k-¯n\pw \mkvXn-I- \ntj-[n-¡p¶ {]h-W-X-IÄ ss{IkvX-
izm-khpw bpàn-t_m-[hpw bpàn-Nn- Xbv¡pw Imc-Wa- m-bn-¯o-cp-¶Xv F¶Xp h-Xb- n \n¶pw Bcw-`n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-
´bpw a\-Êp-If - n tNt¡-dp-¶Xpw IS- kw_-Ôn¨p \ÂI-s¸-«n-«pÅ hnh-c-W- ¶-Xp-sIm-­mWv ap³ ]-dª c­p
¶p-sN-Ãp-¶-Xpw. aX-]-c-hpw hnizm-k-]- §Ä \nc-h[ - n-bm-Wv. Ahsb hni-Ie - \ bpàn-hmZn Nn´-Icpw A¯-c-samcp
c-hp-amb kml-N-cy-§Ä Hmtcm hyàn- hnt[-b-am-¡p-t¼mÄ Is­¯p¶ hkv A`n-{]mb {]I-S-\-¯n\p \nÀ_-Ôn-X-
bp-sSbpw Imcy-¯n `n-¶§ - f
- m-bn-cn¡pw.- Xp-XI- sf C{]-Imcw t{i-Wo- I-cn-¡m-hp-¶- cm-bn-¯oÀ¶-Xv. hnizm-kh - pw ktµ-l§ - -
C¯cw `n¶ kml-N-cy-§-sfbpw LS- XmWv:-- fpw {]Xym-ibpw \ncm-ibpw X½n-epÅ
I-§-sfbpw A`n-ap-Jo-I-cn¨v hfÀ¶p 1).- hnizmkw F¶ at\m-`m-hs¯ at\m-Xe kwLÀj-§Ä¡v ss{IkvXh
hnI-kn-¡p¶ hnizm-khpw Ah-t_m-[- {Iam-\p-KX - a- mbn bpàn-]qÀh-w hfÀ¯n- hnizm-khpw AXnsâ thZm-[n-jT v n-Xa- mb
§fpw Ah-bpsS kz´w LS-\-bn sb-Sp-¡p-hm³ Bh-iy-amb t_m[\w hni-Zo-Ic - W
- §- fpw Imc-Wa- m-Ip-¶p- . ]Xn-
\oXn-]qÀh-Ihpw bpàn-]-chpw KpW-]- ss{IkvX-h-X-bnÂ\n¶p e`n-¡p-¶n-Ã. s\«,-v ]s¯m³]X,-v Ccp-]Xv- \qäm-­p-
c-hp-a-sÃ-¦n Ah- Xs¶ Ahn-izm-k- I-fnse ]mÝmXy- \mkvXnI Nn´-Ic- psS
2).- ss{IkvXh hnizm-k-¯nsâ Hcp Pohn-Xh - pw, Ah-cpsS hni-Zo-Ic - W- § - fpw
¯nsâ Imc-W§ - f - mbn amdn F¶p-hc - mw. {][m\ LS-Ia- mb BÄssZh hnizmkw Cu \nco-£-Ws¯ \qdp-i-X-am-\hpw
c£-I-\mb Hcp ssZh-¯n-epÅ hnizm- ssii-h-_m-ey-§-fn Imhy-m-ß-I-amb ]n´p-W¡ - p-¶p-­.v ""aX-]c- a- mbn hniz-¡p-
k-¯n-\mWv ss{IkvXh KmÀln-Im-´c - o- Hcp k¦Â]ambn tXm¶p-sa-¦nepw hnI- t¼mÄ Xs¶ bpàn-]-c-ambn \ncm-I-cn-
£-¯n {]m[m-\yhpw ]cn-K-W-\bpw kn-¡p¶ bpàn-t_m-[-¯n-\p-ap-¶n ¡m³'' t{]cn-¸n-¡p-¶p ss{IkvX-hX
\ÂI-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. ]n©p a\-Êp-Isf AXn\p \ne-\n¡m³ km[n-¡p-I-bn- F¶mWv t]mÄ XnKvs]³ A`n-{]m-bs - ¸-
kzm[o-\n-¡m-hp¶ ]e-Xcw sI«p-IY - I- Ä Ã. Sp-¶-Xv. (17)

Cu hnizm-ks¯ Npän-¸än hnX-cWw


3).- {InkvXp-hnsâ hyàn-Xz-hp-ambn ssZhw {]Xn-`m-ktam anYytbm?
sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p. c£I ssZh-¯n-epÅ
_Ô-s¸« hni-Zo-I-c-W-§-fpw, {InkvXp-
hnizmkw Du«n-bp-d¸ - n-¡m-\mbn ]d-bp¶ \mkvXn-IX - b- psS \oXo-Ic- W
- h
- m-Z¯
- n-
hns\ tI{µo-Ic - n-¡p¶ ssZhn-Ii - à- n-bn-
IY-IÄ, ]nÂIm-e¯v thZ-]-cn-Úm-\- \p-th­n imkv{Xw, bpàn-Nn-´, _p²n
epÅ hnizm-k-§fpw X½n _p²n-]-c-
¯nsâ shfn-¨¯ - n \ncm-Ic- n-¡s - ¸-Sp¶ ]c-amb {]hÀ¯-\§ - Ä F¶n-hs - bÃmw
amb hfÀ¨m L«-§-fn {]Xn-hÀ¯n-
A\p-`hw ss{IkvXh IpSpw-_-§-fn F¡m-e¯pw \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-IÄ D]-tbm-
¡p-¶p.
P\n-¨p -h-fÀ¶ ]e hyàn-I-fp-sSbpw Kn-¨n-«p-­v. hkvXp-\n-jvT-Xbv-¡p ]pd-
Pohn-X¯ - n D­m-bn-«p-­.v - A-XpsIm­p- 4).- thZm-\p-kr-Xa- mb Ah-tem-I\ - §- - ¯pÅ km¦Â]n-I-amb Hcm-i-b-amWp
X-s¶-bmWv ss{IkvXh aX-ka- q-l¯ - n fn-eq-sSbpw ]T-\-§-fn-eq-sSbpw Dcp-¯n- ssZh-sa¶p hcp-¯n-¯oÀ¡p-hm-\mWv
\n¶mWv Gähpw IqSp-X aX-\n-cm-I-c- cn-bp¶ Ah-t_m-[§ -- Ä KmÀln-Im-´c - o- imkv{X-LS- I - §- f- n NneXv Ah-ew-_n-
W-hm-Zn-I-fpw \nco-izc hm-Zn-I-fpw- D- £-¯n \n¶pw aäpw BÀP-n-¡p¶ ¡-s¸-«-sX-¦n-epw, imkv{X-¯nsâ ]n³
­mbn«pÅ-Xv. hnizm-khpw Ahn-izm-k- hnizm-k-§Ä¡v FXn-cm-bn-¯o-cp-Ibpw _e-¯n-eqsS Øm]n-s¨-Sp-¡m-hp¶ H¶-
hp-ambn _Ô-s¸« NÀ¨-I-fn-seÃmw A¯cw L«-§f - n c­pw H¶n¨p \ncm- à AsX¶v ]ecpw a\-Ên-em-¡n-bn-«p-­v.
ss{IkvXh ssZh-im-kv{Xw, hnizm-kw, I-cn-¡p-hm-\pÅ Nn´m-KXn Nne hyàn- hkvXp-\n-jvT-amb Adn-hp-IÄ¡pw Ah-
kmaq-lnI Pohn-Xw, sshb-àn-Im-\p-`- I-fn BhnÀ`-hn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-¶p. (14)
tem-I-\-§Ä¡pw hg-§m¯ H¶mWv

ss{IkvXh hnizmk ]Ým-¯ew F§-s\-bmWv Ahn-izm-k-¯n\pw \mkvXn-I-Xbv¡pw Imc-W-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶Xv


F¶Xp kw_-Ôn¨p \ÂI-s¸-«n-«pÅ hnh-c-W-§Ä \nc-h-[n-bm-Wv. Ahsb hni-I-e\ hnt[-b-am-¡p-t¼mÄ
Is­¯p¶ hkv Xp-X-Isf C{]-Imcw t{i-W-oI-cn-¡m-hp-¶-XmWv:

2007 G-{]n-Â- 24
ssZhhpw hnizm-khpw F¶p hcp-¯n- [n-¡m-hp¶ LS-I-§Ä¡-¸p-d-t¯¡v I-hpw _men-ih - p-am-bmWv imkv{X-hn-izm-
¯oÀ¡p-hm³ e£y-an«p imkv{Xs¯ imkv{Xw AXnsâ At\z-jW taJe kn-IÄ Ah-X-cn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xv. {]]©w,-
Ah-ew-_n-¨-hÀ IW-¡p-Iq-«nb LS-I- hym]n-¸n-¡m-hp-¶-XÃ F¶ Aen-Jn-X- {]IrXn,- a\p-jy³,- `uanI {]Xn-`m-k-
§Ä Ch-bm-bn-cp-¶p:- amb Hcp kXys¯ adn-I-S-¡p¶ Hcp §Ä F¶n-h-bpsS Imcy-¯n I\¯
1).- imkv{X-¯nsâ coXn-IÄ hkvXp {]iv\-ap-­n-XnÂ.- hkvXp-\n-jvTX - b - p-sSbpw B[n-Im-cn-IX - -
\njvT-bn \n£n-]vX-ambXmI-bm 2).- ssZh-¯n hniz-kn-¡p-¶-Xn\v bp-sSbpw ssien Ah-ew-_n-¡p¶ im
hkvXp-\n-jvT -hn-i-I-e-\-¯n\v hg-§m imkv{X-¯nsâ Bh-iy-anà F¶ Ah- kv{X-¯n\v ssZhm-t\z-j-W-¯n am{X-
¯ ssZhwþ hnizmkw F¶n-hsb hfsc t_m[w a\p-jy-cm-in-bnse apgp-h³ ambn t\cn-Sp¶ ]cm-Pb - hpw bpàncmln-
sbfp¸w a\pjy Nn´-I-fnÂ\n¶v IS- AwK-§s - fbpw kzm[o-\n-¡p¶ \nXy-\q- Xy-hpw imkv{Xw hnizm-k¯ - n\pw ssZh-
]p-g¡n Fdn-bm³ Ign-bpw. X-\-amb Hc-dn-hnsâ XpSÀ¨-bm-Wv. Cu ¯n\pw ap¶n H¶p-aà F¶ at\m-`m-
2).- a\p-jysâ _p²n-]-chpw `mh\m Adn-hns\ aäp coXn-bn ]cn-tim-[\m h-amWv cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶Xv . (20)

]c-hp-amb khn-ti-jX - I
- f
- nÂ\n¶v {Iam- hnt[-ba- m-t¡­ bmsXm-cmh-iyhpw am\- imkv{Xhpw ssZh-hp-am-bpÅ _Ô-
\p-KX- a- mbn hnI-kn-¨p-h¶ Hcm-ib - s
- a¶ h-cm-in-bn bmsXm-cmÄ¡p-an-Ã. Cu ¯nsâ AYhm A¯csamcp _Ô-s¸-
\ne-bn a\pjy _p²n-bpsS Xs¶ A\m-h-iy-amb D¯-c-hm-Zn¯w Gsä-Sp- Sp-¯-ensâ Xncn-¨-Sn-IÄ F¶ \ne-bnÂ
asäm-cpÂ]-¶-amb imkv{X-¯n\v AXn- ¡p-¶-Xn-eqsS imkv{X hnizm-kn-IÄ NÀ¨ sN¿-s¸-«-h-bmWv taÂ]-dª
thKw hnizm-k-s¯bpw ssZh-s¯bpw kzbw ]cn-lm-ky-cm-Ip-¶t- Xm-sSm¸w Ah Imcy-§Ä. F¶m imkv{Xhpw hnizm-
adn-I-S-¡p-hm³ Ign-bpw. À imkv{X-s¯bpw ]cn-lm-ky-am-¡p-Ib - m- khpw X½n t\À¡p-t\À \n¶p-sIm­v
bn-cp-¶p. Hcp Bi-bk - w-L«- \ - ¯
- n-sâbpw sshNm-
3).- hnizm-k-¯n\v hkvXp-\n-jvTamb
hnh-cW - § - f - n-eqsS km[q-Ic - Ww \ÂIm 3).- ssZh-¯n-\p-th-­n-bpÅ imkv{X- cn-I-amb kwLÀj-¯n-sâbpw Bh-iy-
³ Ign-bmsX hcp¶ kml-Ncyw imkv{X- ¯nsâ At\z-j-W-§Ä At¼ ]cm-P- an-söp hniz-kn-¡p¶ {]Xn-`I - Ä Gsd-
¯nsâ taÂt¡mbvabpw hkvXp-\njvT b-s¸-Sp-sa¶ ap¶-dnhv am\-h-cm-in-bn bm-W.v imkv{Xw Pohn-X¯ - nsâ D]-cn-¹h
Úm\-¯nsâ ap³KW-\bpw Ønc-s¸- \n£n-]vX-am-Wv. Cu ap¶-dn-hns\ Ah- LS-I-§sf \nb-{´n-¡p-Ibpw \nbm-a-I-
Sp-¯p-¶X - m-bn-cn-¡mw.
(18) K-Wn-¨p-sIm­v imkv{X-hm-Zn-IÄ ssZhm- am-bn kzm[o-\n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-t¼mÄ
t\z-jW - ¯ - n GÀs]Sp-t¼mÄ ]cm-Pb - - ssZhhpw hnizm-khpw a\p-jy-sâbpw
F¶m taÂ]-dª {]Xo-£-IÄ
s¸-Sp-sa¶v Dd-¸pÅ Hcp ]cn-{i-a-¯n-te- Pohn-X¯ - n-sâbpw BXy-´n-Ia- mb {]iv\-
]pe-cp-I-bp-­m-bn-Ã. imkv{X-¯nsâ
¡mWv kXy-¯n Ah-cn-d§ - p-¶Xv.- a\p- §-fp-sSbpw ktµ-l-§-fp-sSbpw taJ-e-
klm-bt- ¯msS ssZh-s¯bpw hnizm-k-
jy-cm-in¡v Bh-iy-an-Ãm¯ Cu hrYm- bp-ambn _Ô-s¸« hnj-b-§-fn-emWv
s¯bpw IS-¶m-{I-an-¡p-hm³ \S¶ {ia-
hr-¯n-bn-eqsS imkv{X-s¯-¡-p-dn-¨pÅ Bh-iy-am-bn-h-cp-¶Xv F¶v AhÀ Xncn-
§Ä¡v I\¯ Xncn-¨-Sn-bmWp t\cn-«-
hnizm-ky-X Xs¶bpw XIÀ¡-s¸-Sp-I- ¨-dn-bp-¶p. taÂ]-dª Xc-¯n imkv
Xv. Cu Xncn-¨-Sn-bpsS hnhn[ hi-§Ä
bmWp sN¿p-¶X - v. {X-s¯bpw ssZhhnizm-ks - ¯bpw hniz-
]mÝmXy X¯-z Nn´-Ic- psS IrXn-If - nÂ
NÀ¨-sN-¿-s¸-«n-«p-­v. FdnIvtlm^À X 4).- ssZhs¯ D³aqe\w sN¿p-hm³ kn-¡p-Ibpw hni-Zo-I-cn-¡p-I-bpw sN¿p-
sâ Hcp IrXn-bn imkv{Xs¯ D]-tbm- imkv{X-¯n\p Ign-bp-sa¶ Ah-Imi ¶-hÀ imkv{X-¯nsâ ssZhm-t\z-jWw
Kn¨v ssZh-hp-ambn CS-s]-Sm³ \mkvXn- hmZ-§f - p-ambn cwK-¯n-d§
- p¶ imkv{Xw ]cm-P-b-s¸-Sp-¶-Xn\p ]d-bp¶ Imc-W-
IÀ \S-¯nb {ia-§sf hnti-jn-¸n-¡p- ssZhm-t\z-jW - w, ssZhm-kvXn-Iy-¯nsâ §Ä C{]-Im-ca- mWv:
¶Xv ""\£-{X-§sf he-ho-in-¸n-Sn-¡p- D³aqe\w F¶nhbv¡m-hi - y-amb {]mY- 1).- ssZhw hkvXp-hÂI-cn-¡s - ¸« Hcp
hm³ Pem-ib - ¯
- n he-sb-dnª ap¡p- an-I-amb {]hÀ¯\ cq]-tc-J-t]mepw Bi-b-tam, Bi-b-hÂI-cn-¡-s¸« hkv
hsâ hnUv-Vn-¯w hnh-cn-¡p¶ ssN\o Is­-¯p-hm-\m-ImsX ]cm-P-b-s¸-Sp¶ Xpthm AÃm-¯X - n-\m imkv{X-¯nsâ
kv IY-bpsS B[p-\nI BhÀ¯\w'' ImgvN imkv{X hnizm-kn-Isf kw_- {]hÀ¯-\§ - fpw taJ-eI - fpw ssZh-¯n-
F¶mW.-v Cu {ia-¯nsâ Xncn-¨S- n-IÄ
(19)
Ôn¨v Ak-l-\o-b-amb H¶m-Wv. sâbpw ssZh-hn-izm-k-¯n-sâbpw Imcy-
F¶ \ne-bn At±lw ]d-bp¶ Imcy- 5).- imkv{X-¯n-epÅ hnizm-khpw ¯n {]k-à-§-f-Ã.
§Ä CÆn-[-amWv:- {]Xo-£bpw am\-h-cm-in¡p \jvS-s¸-Sp- 2).- {]]-©¯ - n-sâbpw hkvXp-{I-a¯ - n-
1).- a\p-jy³, {]Ir-Xn, {]]©w F amdv ssZh-hn-izm-k-t¯m-SpÅ hntbm-Pn- sâbpw kml-N-cy-§fpw kµÀ`-§fpw
¶n-h- t]mse hkvXp-\n-jT v a- mbn ]cn-tim- ¸nsâ LS-I-§Ä AXy-[nIw Abp-àn- D]-tbm-Ks - ¸-Sp¯n At\z-jn-¡m-hp¶ Xc-

imkv{Xhpw ssZh-hp-am-bpÅ _Ô-¯nsâ AYhm A¯csamcp _Ô-s¸-Sp-¯-ensâ Xncn-¨-Sn-IÄ


F¶ \ne-bn NÀ¨ sN¿-s¸-«h
- b
- mWv taÂ]-dª Imcy-§Ä. F¶m imkv{Xhpw hnizm-khpw X½nÂ
t\À¡p-t\À \n¶p-sIm­v Hcp Bi-b-kw-L-«-\-¯n-sâbpw sshNm-cn-I-amb kwLÀj-¯n-sâbpw
Bh-iy-an-söp hniz-kn-¡p¶ {]Xn-`-IÄ Gsd-bm-Wv.

2007 G-{]n-Â- 25
¯n ssZhw Øe-þ-Im-e-§Ä¡v DÅn ¨p-sIm-­n-cn-¡p-¶p-ap-­v. AXp-sIm-­p- Xn F¶n-hs - b-¡p- d- n¨p tNmZn-¡p¶p F¶-
 \n¡p¶ Hcp hkvXpthm {]Xn-`m- Xs¶ Fdn-Ivt{^-kÀ imkv{X-¯n\p Xp-Xs¶ tNmZy-IÀ¯m-hnsâ k¯m-]-
ktam AÃ.- \ÂIp¶ hnti-jW - § - f - mb ""a\p-jysâ c-amb _Ô-¯nsâ BhÀ¯-\-am-Wv.
3).- a\p-jy-Po-hn-X¯ - n \nc-´cw CS- aq¶mw I®v'', ""a\p-jysâ asäm-cp- l- AYhm X¶-nÂXs¶-bpÅ A\n-hm-cy-
s]-Sp-Ibpw a\p-jy-\nÂXs¶ \ne-sIm- kvXw'', ""a\p-jysâ asäm-cp-Xe'' F¶n- X-I-fmb Øew, Imew, ka-bw, kµÀ
Åp-Ibpw sN¿p¶ \nc-h[n {]Xn-`m-k- §s\bpÅ hnti-j-W-§Ä AÀY-h- `w, F¶n-§-s\-bpÅ LS-I-§-fpsS
§-sf-¡p- d- n-¨pÅ imkv{Xo-ba- mb At\z- ¯mWv . imkv{X-¯nsâ ]cn-an-Xn-Isf
(22)
_Ô-¯n \n¶p tamNn-X-\mbn ssZh-
j-W-§ÄXs¶ Fhn-sSbpw F¯msX Bte-J\w sN¿p-¶-h-bmWv Cu hnti- s¯-¡-p-dn¨p Nn´n-¡p-hm³ tNmZyIÀ
A]qÀW-X-bn \n¡-p-I-bm-Wv. Cu j-W-§Ä. imkv{Xw ASn-ap-Sn -{]-ZÀin- ¯m-hn\p Ign-bmsX hcp-¶X - mWv ChnsS
kml-Nc - y-¯n a\p-jym-Xo-Xa- mbn \ne- ¸n- ¡ p¶ a\p- j y- k z- ` m- h - ¯ nÂ\n¶v {]iv\-am-bn-¯o-cp-¶-Xv. ""a\p-jy³ Ah
\n¡p¶ ssZh-¯n-te-¡pw, {]]-©m- AXns\- ]cn-hÀ¯n-¸n-¡m³ Hcp Ime sâXs¶ ]cn-an-Xn-I-fpsS XS-hp-Im-c-
Xo-X-ambn \n¡p¶ hnizm-k-¯nsâ ¯pw km[y-hp-a-Ã. \yq\-X-bp-tS-Xmb \mWv'' F¶ kXy-amWv Chn-sSbpw Bh
Cu ØnXn-hn-tijw \ne-\nÀ¯n-s¡-m- À¯n-¡s - ¸-Sp-¶X - v. taÂ]-dª ]cn-an-Xn-
A`ua LS-I-§-fn-te¡pw imkv{Xw
­mWv imkv{X-¯nsâ klm-bt- ¯msS IÄ¡pÅn \n¡p- ¶ - X m- b n- c p¶p
AXnsâ At\z-jW taJe hym]n-¸n-
NneÀ ssZhm-t\z-jWw \S-¯n-sIm-­n- ssZhw F¦n C¯cw Hcp-tNmZyw
¡p-¶Xv _men-i-amb AX-n-tam-l-amWv-.
cn-¡p-¶-Xv. a\pjy ]cn-an-Xn-IÄ¡-¸pdw AsÃ-¦n H«-\-h[n tNmZy-§Ä Xs¶
4).- imkv{X-¯nsâ D]-Ic - W- m-[n-jvTn- IS-¶n-«n-Ãm¯ Adn-hp-If - psS BsI-¯p- BhnÀ`-hn-¡p-am-bn-cp-¶n-Ã. AYhm ssZ
X-hpw hkvXp-\n-jvT-hpamb At\z-j-W- I-bmb imkv{Xw D]-tbm-Kn¨v ssZhs¯ h-¯nsâ a\p-jym-Xo-X-amb D¬abpsS
§-fn-eq- s- Sbpw Adn-hp-If - n-eq-sSbpw hyh- At\z- j n- ¡ p- I bpw Is­- ¯ p- I bpw al-¯-z-amWv a\p-jys\ taÂ]-d-ª-X-
l-cn-¡p-hm\pw hni-Zo-Ic - n-¡s - ¸-Sp-hm\pw sN¿m-sa¶ hnizm-k-¯n-sâbpw tXm¶- c-¯n Nn´n-¡p-hm³ t{]cn-¸n-¡p-¶Xv
km[y- a mb H¶m- b n- c p¶p ssZhhpw en-sâbpw ]cm-Pbw A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. F¶p Xncn-¨-dn-bm³ Ign-ªm ssZh-
hnizm-k-hp-sa-¦n am\-h-cm-in-bpsS imkv{Xw- sIm­v ssZhs¯ bYm-hn[n s¯-¡p- d- n-¨pÅ a\p-jysâ ktµ-l§ - Ä
]n¶n- « - I m- e - § - f nepw hÀ¯- a m- \ - I m- Is­-¯p-hm\pw IS-¶m-{I-an-¡p-hm\pw AØm-\¯ - m-sW¶ kXy-¯n F¯n-
e¯pw kmam-\ym-Xo-X-amb Hcp taJ-e- Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p-sh-¦n AXn-s\-¡mÄ t¨-cp-hm³ GXp ISp¯ \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn
bmbn ssZhhpw hnizm-khpw tijn-¡p- IqSp-X-embn a\pjyt\{X-§ÄsIm­p ¡pw \nÀa-Xh--- m-Zn¡pw km[n-¡p-am-bn-cp-
am-bn-cp-¶nÃ. (21)
Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-¶p. F¶m a\p-jysâ ¶p. Øew,-- Im-ew, ]cn-an-Xn-IÄ F¶n
a\p-jy-tI-{µo-Ir-Xa- mb Adn-hp-If - psS C{µn-bm-Xo-X-amb Ign-hp-IÄ¡-¸p-d¯v §-s\-bpÅ \yq\-X-IÄ¡v AXo-X-hpw,
kam-lm-c-amWv imkv{Xw. F{X-Xs¶ Ahsâ _p²n- ] - c - a mb hI- X n- c nhpw hm¡v A£cw NnÓw XpS-§nb klm-
]ptcm-KX - n {- ]m-]n-¨mepw imkv{X-¯nsâ Ignhpw sIm­p-am{Xw Xncn-¨-dn-bp-hm³ bI LS-I-§Ä CÃm-¯Xpw Bb tNm
Cu ASn-Øm\ kz`m-h¯ - n\p amäw hcn- Ign-bp¶ \nc-h[n {]Xn-`m-k-§Ä DÅ Zyw ssZh-s¯-¡p- d- n¨v D¶-bn-¡m³ a\p-
I-bn-Ã. a\p-jy-_p-²n-bn BhnÀ`-hn- Cu temI¯v ssZhw-am{Xw a\p-jy-\p- jy\v Ign-bp¶ Hcp Imew hcp-t¼mÄ
¡p¶ Bi-b-§fpw X¯-z-§-fpw, Ah- ap-¶n {]Xy-£s - ¸-SW
- s - a¶p ]d-bp-¶Xv am{Xsa a\p-jy-]-cn-an-Xn-I-fm hebw
bpsS ]co-£W - m-[n-jT v n-Xa- mb NÀ¨-Ifpw _men-ia- mb ZpÀhm-in-am-{X-am-Wv. sN¿-s¸« tNmZy-§Ä¡v ap¶n ssZhw
Bhn-jvIm-c§ - f- pw, a\p-jy-{In-bm-]c - ¼- c
- - ssZhs¯ Øe-þI - m-e§ - f - n At\z- t\cn«p {]Xy-£s - ¸-Sp-Ib
- pÅq F¶mWv
I-fn-eqsS Dcp-¯n-cn-bp¶ D]-Ic - W
- § - Ä, jn-¡p¶ Hcp {]h-WX s]mXpth \nco- ]mÝmXy \nco-izchmZn-IÄ¡p adp-]Sn
C§s\ imkv{X-¯nsâ a\p-jy-k-l-P- iz-ch
- m-Zn-IÄ ]peÀ¯p-¶p-­v. ]mÝmXy ]d-ªp-sIm­v {_Êo-ense Hcp ss{I
kz-`mhw hfsc hyà-am-Wv. a\p-jy-sâ- bpàn-hm-Zn-If - nepw \nco-iz-ch - m-Zn-If
- nepw kvXh Nn´-I-\mb Atam-dn-s_³k¬
Xmb FÃm-¯cw ]cn-an-Xn-I-fp-sSbpw ]ecpw tNmZn¨ tNmZy-§-fn ssZh- ]dª-X.-v (24)

BsI-¯p-I-bmb At\Iw {]iv\-§Ä ¯nsâ Ccn-¸nSw Fhn-sS, Ahsâ Ime- ssZh-¯nsâ AkvXnXzw At\z-jn-
imkv{X-¯nsâ B`y-´c LS-\b - n-ep-­.v {Iaw GXm-Wv, ssZh-¯n\v F{X hb- ¡p-¶-Xn\v hkvXp-\n-jvT-Úm-\s¯
a\p-jy-Nn-´bpw [njWbpw ]peÀ¯p Êm-bn Fs¶m-s¡-bpÅ Imcy-§-fmWv D]m- [ n- b m- ¡ p- ¶ - X nse hnUv V n¯w
¶ ]cn-Wm-a-¯n-sâbpw hnIm-k-¯n- D¶-bn-¡s - ¸-«Xv . Cu coXn-bn Nn´n-
(23)
t]mse-¯s¶ asämcp hnUvVn-¯a- mWv
sâbpw ss\c-´cyw imkv{X-¯nsâ ¡p¶p F¶-Xp-X-s¶, AYhm ssZh- ssZhs¯ AwKo-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xn ssZh-
B´cLS-\sb \nc-´cw ]p\À\nÀan- ¯nsâ Imew, Øew,- ]-cn-Wmaw, Øn km-¶n-[y-¯n\v D]-cn-¹-h-L-S-I-§Ä

ssZhs¯ Øe-þI
- m-e§
- f
- n At\z-jn-¡p¶ Hcp {]h-WX s]mXpth \nco-iz-ch
- m-Zn-IÄ ]peÀ¯p-¶p-­v.
]mÝmXy bpàn-hm-Zn-If
- nepw \nco-iz-ch
- m-Zn-If
- nepw ]ecpw tNmZn¨ tNmZy-§f
- n ssZh-¯nsâ Ccn-¸nSw Fhn-sS,
Ahsâ Ime-{Iaw GXm-Wv, ssZh-¯n\v F{X hb-Êm-bn Fs¶m-s¡-bpÅ Imcy-§-fmWv D¶-bn-¡-s¸-«Xv.-

2007 G-{]n-Â- 26
Bh-iy-amWv F¶p Nn´n-¡p-¶-Xpw. Ahn-izm-k¯ - nsâ am\-ZÞ
- §
- Ä hnizm- 69,70,71,- amÀKäv B³hnÂ, {_n«¬, 1984.-

ssZhw a\p-jy-s\-t¸m-setbm {Kl- k-¯nsâ KpW-§Ä¡v ]Icwsh¡m-hp- (10).- sse^v Bâ v ^ntem-k^n Hm^v B³

§sft¸msetbm Poh-Pm-e-§-sf-t¸m- ¶-Xà F¶-XmWv ASn-Øm-\-]-c-amb F¯nÌv;- t]Pv 320, 321,- {_n«¬, 1985.-

setbm {]hÀ¯n- ¡ - W - s a¶ imTy- Hcp-`n-¶X.- (26)


(11).- {InkvX
- y
- m-\nän Bâ v F¯n-kw;- t]Pv42, 43,-

¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\-¯n-emWv ssZh- imkv{Xw _p²nsb kzm[o-\n-¡p-


hneyw hpUven§v, dmj-W-enÌv {]Ê-v, hnb-¶,

¯nsâ D]-cn-¹h {]hÀ¯\§fn-eqsS,- t¼mÄ hnizmkw Bßm-hn-s\-bmWv kzm


1975.-

AY-hm ssZhw {]Xy-£-s¸«v- NneXv [o-\n-¡p-¶Xv F¶p]d-bm-dp­v . _p²n- (27)


(12).- ssh Abmw t\m«v F {InÌy³? t]Pv 6,7,-
_À{Smâ v dÊÂ, dmj- W - e nÌv A¡m- Z an,
{]hÀ¯n-¡p-¶-Xn-eqsS am{Xsa ssZhw ]-ca- mb Imcy-{I-as¯ ASn-Øm-\a- m-¡n- {_n«³, 1999.-
AwKo-I-cn-¡-s¸-Sp-I-bpÅq F¶p hmZn- bpÅ imkv{X LS\ a\p-jysâ BXy- (13).- ^mÄkv Hm^v {Inkv-X-ym-\nän;- t]Pv 73,
¡p-¶Xv.- bYmÀY-¯n CXv _p²n-]-c- ´n-I-amb D¬a-IÄ Bcm-bp¶ Bßm- hneyw BÂ_Sv k ¬,- sPbnwkv BÀXÀ,-
amb ]m¸-c¯w Xs¶-bm-Wv. a\p-jy³ hnsâ D]m-[n-bmb hnizm-k¯ - nsâ LS- {_n«njv A¡m-Zan Hm^v C³Un-s]ââ v ÌUo-
Ahsâ hkvXpt_m[-¯nsâ ASn-Øm- \-bnÂ\n¶p Ht«sd hn`n-¶a- m-Wv. hnizm- kv, 1989.-
\-¯n ssZhs¯¸-än Nn´n-¡p-¶-Xp- k-¯n\p imkv{Xw Bh-iy-a-Ã;- Hcp (14).- ^mÄkv Hm^v {Inkv-X-ym-\nän,- t]Pv 96.-
sIm­v ssZhs¯ Is­-¯m³ Ah\p hyà-amb t{kmX-Êm-Wm-hiyw. AXp- (15).- lnÌdn Bâ v dmj-We
- nkw;- t]Pv 12, FUn-
Ign-bm-sX- h-cp¶p F¶v t]mÄ XnKvs]³ sIm-­p-Xs¶ hnizm-k-¯nsâ FXnÀh- äÀ tPm¬ sehnkv,- {_n«¬,- 1989.-
]d-bp-¶Xv- B A-ÀY-¯n-emWv . hkv (25)
i¯p \n¡p¶ Ahn-izm-k-¯n\pw (16).- ^mÄkv Hm^v {Inkv-X-ym-\nän,- t]Pv 120.-
Xp-hÂI-cn-¡-s¸« Úm\-ambn ssZh imkv{X-¯nsâ ]n³_ew bYmÀY-¯n (17).- dmj-We
- n-kw, dneo-Py³, l-yq-a\
- nkw;- t]Pv
s¯ ImWp-Ibpw IW-¡m-¡p-Ibpw km[y-aà - . F¶n«pw \nco-iz-ch- m-Z¯
- n\pw 62-þ63,- t]mÄ \n-Ks
v ]³, C³Ìn-äyq«v Hm^v en_-
sN¿p-¶X - nsâ ]cn-an-Xn-If - n \n¶p a\p- \mkvXn-I-X-bv¡pw imkv{X-¯nsâ LS- d ÌUo-kv, Hmkv-tem-, 1998.-
jy\v tamN\w km[n-¡p-¶Xv IWn-i I-§sf D]-tbm-Kn¨p \ymbo-I-cWw (18).- kb³kv Bâ v dneo-Py³;- t]Pv 12-þ13,- tUm.
hpw ¢njvSh - p-amb hnizm-k¯ - n-eqsS am{X- tXSp-¶Xv AXn-cp-IS- ¶ [mÀjvSy-¯nsâ hneyw Imw_Â, \yqsseäv,- ÌpSvKÀS vkv, 1980.-
am-Wv. kwip-²-amb hnizmkw bYmÀY- {]Xn-^-e-\-a-am-Wv. (19).- dmj-We
- nkw,- F¯o-kw, _neohvk;v - t]Pv
¯n a\p-jysâ ss\kÀK-n-I-amb Hcp 210, 211,- Fdn-Iv tlm-^À, C³Ìn-äyq«v Hm^v en_-

Bh-iy-am-Wv. IeÀ¸n-Ãm-¯Xpw ktµ- kqN-\I


- Ä d ÌUo-kv, 1998.-

l-§fpw kwi-b§ - fpw {Kkn-¡m-¯Xpw (1).- dmj-W-en-kw, l-yq-a-\n-kw, dnen-Py³-;- t]Pv (20).- ^mÄkv Hm^v kbân-^nIv sse^v, t]Pv

sshI- e y- § Ä _m[n- ¡ m- ¯ - X p- a mb 69-þ70,- t]mÄ IqÀSvkv, {_n«njv dmjW-enÌv 4þ5,- tUm. Fdn-Ivtlm-^À, C³Ìnäyq«v Hm^v
A¡m-Zan.-
hnizm-k-¯n-eqsS a\p-jy³ Ah-\n en_-d ÌUn-kv, Hmkvtem.-
(2).- tKmUv Bâ v lyq-a³- sse^v;- t]Pv 33, tUm.
Xs¶ al-¯z- hpw \oXo-Ic- W - hpw {]m]n- (21). tKmUv Bâ v dnen-Py³;- t]Pv 460,- Fdn-It
v lm-
C½m-\p-th s^Un-\â ,v - F^v.F
- .-kn, Cäm-en- ^À.-
¡p-I-bmWv sN¿p-¶-Xv. `uXn-I-amb b³ Xntbm-fP
- n-¡Â skan-\m-cn, 1999.-
KWn- X - { I- a - ¯ n- s â- b pw Úm- t \m- ] m (3).- sskt¡m-fP
- n, l-yq-a\
- n-kw, dnen-Py³;- t]Pv
(22).- sskt¡m-fPn Bâ v dnen-Py³;- t]Pv 14-þ15,-
FdnIv t{^kÀ, C³Ìn-äyq«v Hm^v ssk t¡m-f-
[nIfp-sSbpw klm-bt- ¯msS ssZhs¯ 340, tUm. AeIvkv sdayq-hÀ, lwK-dn, 1992.- Pn, {_n«³, 1969.-
a\-Ên-em-¡m-sa¶p [cn-¡p-¶-Xpw, A (4).- sskt¡m-fPn Hm^v _neoh-vkv, t]Pv 130- (23).- dnen-Py³ Bâ v dmj-Wn-enkw;-t]Pv 18,-
¯cw D]m-[n-IÄ¡v- AXo-Xa- mbn ssZhm- þ131,- t]mÄ sdIvkn³, C³Ìn äyq«v Hm^v I¼-m- _mÀ_-dm- kvan-¯v, {_n«¬,- 1989.-
kvXnIyw \ne-sIm-Åp-¶p F¶Xpw \nco- cn-äohv ÌUo-kv, PÀa-\n, 1986.-
(24).- Xntbm-fPn Hm^v FIvkn-̳kv;- t]Pv 64-
iz-c-hm-Zs¯ ]n´p-W-¡p¶ LS-I-§- (5).- AtX-{KÙw,- t]Pv 210.- þ65,- Atamdn s_³k¬, 1984, {_koÂ.-
fÃ.- hnizm-khpw Ahn-izm-khpw X½n- (6).- dneo-Py³, dmj-W-en-kw, l-yqa-\nän;- t]Pv (25).- dmj-We
- n-kw, dneo-P
- y³, l-yqa-\nkw;- t]Pv
epÅ hy-Xymkw hkvXp-\n-jvTa- mb Adn- 69-þ70,- tUm.- k-Ö
- mZv Jpssd-jn, CkvemanIv enä- 101-þ102,- t]mÄ XnKvs]³, 1996.-
hpw Dulm-[n-jvTn-X-amb \nK-a-\hpw td-¨À- skmssk-än, Idm-¨n,-1- 994.-
(26).- dneo-Py³ Bâ v dmj-We
- nkw;- t]Pv 53-þ54,-
X½n-epÅ hnXym-k-a-söp a\-Ên-em- (7).- ""tKmUv Bâ v am³'',- t]Pv 13-þ14, amÀkz sPbnwkv BÀXÀ dUvenbÀ, C³Ìn-äyq«v Hm^v
t¡- ­ p¶ _m[yX \nco- i z- c - h m- Z n- ent\m K{_n-tb-em, 1990, {_koÂ.- en_-d ÌUo-kv, 1990, Hmkvtem.-
IÄ¡p­v. `uXnI{Ia-¯nsâ ]cn-[n-¡- (8).- sskt¡m-fPn Bâ v dneo--Py³k;v t]Pv 410- (27).- dneo-Py³, dok¬, dmj-We
- nkw;- t]Pv 119-
¸p-d¯p \n¡p¶ Hcp D¬a F¶ þ411,- s{]m^. AeIvkv _mÀtebÀ, {_n«ojv þ120,- C³Ìn-äyq«v Hm^v en_-d ÌUok,-v 1994.
\ne-bn ssZhs¯ Xncn-¨-dn-bp-Ibpw A¡m-Zan Hm^v dneo-Py³ Ì-Uo-kv, 1986.-

AwKo-Ic- n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p-Ib - m-Wm-hi- yw. (9).- {Inkv-X-ym-\nän Bâ v dmj-W-enkw;- t]Pv

hnizm-k-¯n\p imkv{Xw Bh-iy-a-Ã;- Hcp hyà-amb t{kmX-Êm-Wm-hiyw. AXp-sIm-­p-Xs¶ hnizm-k-¯nsâ


FXnÀh-i¯p \n¡p¶ Ahn-izm-k¯
- n\pw imkv{X-¯nsâ ]n³_ew bYmÀY-¯n km[y-aÃ
- . F¶n«pw
\nco-iz-c-hm-Z-¯n\pw \mkvXn-I-X-bv¡pw imkv{X-¯nsâ LS-I-§sf D]-tbm-Kn¨p \ymbo-I-cWw tXSp-¶Xv
AXn-cp-I-S¶ [mÀjvSy-¯nsâ {]Xn-^-e-\-a-am-Wv.

2007 G-{]n-Â- 27