Anda di halaman 1dari 3

Chapter 12: Defense Mechanisms: p482

Focus Questions
What are defense mechanisms?
Defense mechanisms are the unconscious psychological processes that people
develop to relieve anxiety.
What are the most common defense mechanisms?
Among questionable forms of coping are the defense mechanism described by
Freud. These are unconscious psychological processes, mental of symbolic,
developed to relieve anxiety. They include the following:
Most Common Defense Mechanisims

Repression The person tries to banish offending desires from conscious thought to the point of being
totally unaware of the original desires.
(The Primary Mechanism)
(Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious)
The person attempts to deal with a stressful situation by claiming that the stressor was of
Rationalization minimal importance and may even have had beneficial effects.
(Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior)

The person unconsciously transforms conflict and anxiety into different but related desire that
Sublimation
is more acceptable to society and to him/her self.

The person attempts to take on the virtues of an admired person.


Identification
(Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group)

Reaction The person pretends to possess desires that are the opposite if the desires that are causing
Formation conflict and anxiety. (Behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings)

The person attributes to others the desires or thoughts that have caused personal conflict.
Projection
(attributing one’s own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another)

Denial The person attempts to dispel anxiety by refusing altogether to accept reality.

Displacement The person tries to escape the discomfort of unwanted ideas or feelings by transferring them
Substitution onto another person. (diverting emotional feelings, usually anger, from their original source to
Sublimination a substitute target)

The person retreats toward behaviors that usually characterize a lower level of maturity. ( a
Regression
reversion to immature patterns of behavior)

Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it becomes a part of that person.
Introjection One example often used is when a child envelops representational images of his absent
parents into himself, simultaneously fusing them with his own personality.
Encountering failure or frustration in some sphere of activity, one overemphasizes another.
Compensation The term is also applied to the process of over-correcting for a handicap or limitation.
Direct Compensation Examples: (1) a physically unattractive adolescent becomes an expert dancer. (2) a youth
Overcompensation with residual muscle damage from poliomyelitis becomes an athlete. (3) Demosthenes.
(isolation). Concentrating on the intellectual components of the situations as to distance
oneself from the anxiety provoking emotions associated with these situations.
Intellectualizatio Intellectualization is a defense mechanism where reasoning is used to block confrontation with
n an unconscious conflict and its associated emotional stress. It involves removing one's self,
emotionally, from a stressful event. Intellectualization is often accomplished through
rationalization; rather than accepting reality, one may explain it away to remove one's self.

Fixation in human psychology refers to the state where an individual becomes obsessed with
Fixation
an attachment to another human, animal or inanimate object

Crazy Joe’s Psych 101 Notes II Prof. T.R. Tharney: PSY101 Chapter 12: pp. 1
Common Defense Mechanisms (12 of 25)
Repression: (The Primary Mechanism): Displacement (Substitution and Sublimination):
The person tries to banish offending The person tries to escape the
desires from conscious thought to the discomfort of unwanted ideas or
point of being totally unaware of the feelings by transferring them onto
original desires. another person. (diverting emotional
(Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings, usually anger, from their
feelings buried in the unconscious) original source to a substitute target)
Ex. A traumatized soldier has no Ex. After failing a important exam,
recollection of the details of a close a student takes her anger out on
brush with death. her little brother.
Rationalization: The person attempts to Regression: The person retreats toward
deal with a stressful situation by behaviors that usually characterize a
claiming that the stressor was of lower level of maturity. ( a reversion to
minimal importance and may even immature patterns of behavior)
have had beneficial effects. Ex. An adult has a temper tantrum
(Creating false but plausible excuses to when he doesn’t get his way.
justify unacceptable behavior)
Ex. a student who cheats on an Introjection: Identifying with some idea or
exam may rationalize the action object so deeply that it becomes a part
with the claim that everybody of that person.
cheats, which makes cheating One example often used is when a
easier to accept. child envelops representational images
of his absent parents into himself,
Sublimation: The person unconsciously simultaneously fusing them with his
transforms conflict and anxiety into own personality.
different but related desire that is more
acceptable to society and to him/her Compensation (Direct Compensation,
self. Overcompensation): Encountering failure
or frustration in some sphere of
Identification: The person attempts to take activity, one overemphasizes another.
on the virtues of an admired person. The term is also applied to the process
(Bolstering self-esteem by forming an of over-correcting for a handicap or
imaginary or real alliance with some limitation. Examples: (1) a physically
person or group) unattractive adolescent becomes an
Ex. An insecure young man joins a expert dancer. (2) a youth with
fraternity to boost his self-esteem. residual muscle damage from
poliomyelitis becomes an athlete. (3)
Reaction Formation: The person pretends
Demosthenes.
to possess desires that are the
opposite if the desires that are causing Intellectualization :( isolation).
conflict and anxiety. (Behaving in a Concentrating on the intellectual
way that is exactly the opposite of components of the situations as to
one’s true feelings) distance oneself from the anxiety
Ex. A parent who unconsciously provoking emotions associated with
resents a child spoils the child these situations.
with outlandish gifts.
Intellectualization is a defense
Projection: The person attributes to others mechanism where reasoning is used to
the desires or thoughts that have block confrontation with an
caused personal conflict. (attributing unconscious conflict and its associated
one’s own thoughts, feelings, or emotional stress. It involves removing
motives to another) one's self, emotionally, from a stressful
Ex. A person who does not want to event. Intellectualization is often
recognize his/her inadequate accomplished through rationalization;
tennis skills blames all bad shots rather than accepting reality, one may
on a flawed racquet. explain it away to remove one's self.
Denial: The person attempts to dispel anxiety Fixation: in human psychology refers to the
by refusing altogether to accept reality. state where an individual becomes
obsessed with an attachment to
another human, animal or inanimate
object.

Crazy Joe’s Psych 101 Notes II Prof. T.R. Tharney: PSY101 Chapter 12: pp. 2
Defense Mechanisms: Study Questions
1) Correct Greg learns that he has cancer. He Jerry's experience is an example of which
begins to learn everything he can about type of defense mechanism?
the illness, reading books, journal articles,
a) Acting out
and the latest experimental research.
Greg's response to his diagnosis is what b) Avoidance
type of defense mechanism?
a) Intellectualization c) Compensation

b) Regression d) Aim inhibition

c) Sublimation 7) Wrong Jess often experiences intense


feelings of anger and frustration. In order
d) Repression to cope with these feeling, he enrolls in a
kickboxing class as an outlet for his
2) Correct Bill's friends and family believe that
emotions. Jess's actions are an example of
he has a drinking problem. When Bill is
which type of defense mechanism?
confronted by his loved ones, he claims
that his drinking is not problematic. What a) Sublimation
type of defense mechanism is Bill's
response? b) Projection

a) Repression c) Displacement

b) Rationalization d) Repression

c) Denial 8) Wrong who described ten different defense


mechanisms used by the ego to defend
d) Displacement against anxiety?
3) Correct Which defense mechanism did a) Carl Rogers
Freud believe to be a sign of maturity?
b) Sigmund Freud
a) Repression
c) Erik Erikson
b) Displacement
d) Anna Freud
c) Sublimation
9) Wrong Clare complains about her job duties
d) Regression at work, rarely completes assigned tasks,
and is regularly late for work. When she is
4) Correct Mary has an argument with her
fired, she claims it was due to her co-
boss, but remains calm while at work.
worker badmouthing her instead of
When she gets home that evening, she
blaming it on her own poor work
yells at her spouse and children. Which
performance. Which defense mechanism
defense mechanism is Mary displaying?
explains Clare's reaction?
a) Rationalization
a) Displacement
b) Denial
b) Denial
c) Reaction Formation
c) Rationalization
d) Displacement
d) Sublimation
5) Correct Jessica dislikes public speaking.
10) Correct while out on her morning jog, Linda
She stops going to school, changes jobs,
encounters a growling dog. Linda fears that
and declines most social engagements to
the dog may try to bite her. According to
ensure that she does not have to speak in
Freud, this type of anxiety is:
public. Jessica's behavior is an example of
which defense mechanism? a) Moral Anxiety
a) Denial b) Reality Anxiety
b) Avoidance c) Neurotic Anxiety
c) Sublimation d) Libidinal Anxiety
d) Passive-aggression
6) Wrong Jerry's dream is to be a professional
basketball player. When he realizes that he
is unable to fulfill his dream, he instead
becomes a high school basketball coach.