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Contents A Note from the Authors vii About the Book ix 1. Basic Principles 1

Contents

A Note from the Authors

vii

About the Book

ix

1.

Basic Principles

1

1.1 Introduction

1

1.2 Fluid Analysis

1

1.3 Physical Properties

1

1.4 Flash Calculations

19

1.5 Use of Computer Programs for Flash Calculations

23

1.6 Approximate Flash Calculations

24

1.7 Other Properties

25

1.8 Phase Equilibrium

26

2.

Process Selection

31

2.1 Introduction to Field Facilities

31

2.2 Controlling the Process

33

2.3 Reservoir Fluid Characteristics

37

2.4 Basic System Configuration

37

2.5 Well Testing

58

2.6 Gas Lift

59

2.7 Offshore Platform Considerations

62

3.

Two-Phase Gas–Liquid Separators

65

3.1 Introduction

65

3.2 Functional Sections of a Gas–Liquid Separator

70

3.3 Equipment Description

72

3.4 Selection Considerations

82

3.5 Vessel Internals

84

3.6 Potential Operating Problems

104

3.7 Design Theory

109

3.8 Separator Design

114

Nomenclature

129

4.

Three-Phase Oil and Water Separators

131

4.1 Introduction

131

4.2 Equipment Description

133

vi

Contents

4.3 Vertical Separators

141

4.4 Selection Considerations

144

4.5 Vessel Internals

146

4.6 Potential Operating Problems

147

4.7 Design Theory

147

4.8 Separator Design

151

4.9 Separating Oil Droplets from Water Phase

154

4.10 Vertical Separator’s Sizing

160

Nomenclature

173

5.

Mechanical Design of Pressure Vessels

175

5.1 Introduction

175

5.2 Design Considerations

176

5.3 Inspection Procedures

185

5.4 Estimating Vessel Weights

186

5.5 Specification and Design of Pressure Vessels

189

5.6 Pressure Relief Devices

200

5.7 Corrosion Protection

200

Glossary of Terms

205

Index

219