Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual cum observation note book

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Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual cum observation note book

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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By

Mr.B.Ramesh, M.E.,(Ph.D),

Associate professor,

Department of Mechanical Engineering,

St. Joseph’s College of Engineering,

Jeppiaar Trust, Chennai-119

Ph.D. Research Scholar, College of

Engineering Guindy Campus, Anna

University, Chennai.

50

Observation:

Area of the collecting tank , A = 0.3 x 0.3 ,m2

Energy meter constant , EMC = 1200 , rev / kwhr

Distance between the centres of

vacuum gauge and pressure gauge , X= 0.2 ,m

Lubricating oil used = SAE 40

Total Head

revolutions

Time for 5

discharge,

Power ,Po

Power ,Pi

gauge ,G

Time for

Pressure

gauge ,V

h=10 cm

Vacuum

Output

Actual

Sl.No.

ηpump

Input

rise ,t

Qact

Tn.

H

Units↓

mm m of m3/s x

Kgf/ sec sec w w %

Hg oil 10-4

cm2

1 0.4

2 0.8

3 1.2

4 1.6

5 2.0

6 2.4

51

Exp. No. :

Characteristic tests on gear oil

pump at constant speed

Date :

Aim:

To study the characteristics of the gear pump at constant speed.

Apparatus required:

Description:

The gear pump is a positive displacement type of pump and consists of a pair of

helical or spur gears, housed closely in a casing. The pressure gauge is fitted to the

delivery side and a vacuum gauge to the suction side. The energy input to the pump can

be measured through an energy meter. There is a collecting tank with a level indicator

and a gate valve at the drain.

Procedure:

i) Keeping the gate valve in the delivery side fully open the experiment is

started.

ii) The pressure gauge reading ,vacuum gauge reading ,the time taken for 5

revolutions of the energy meter disc , time taken for 10 cm rise of oil level

are noted.

iii) By closing the delivery valve gradually, the flow rate is varied.

iv) For each valve setting the above readings are noted and tabulated.

Formulae:

where,

G = Pressure head ,kg/cm2

V = Vacuum head ,mmHg

X = distance between pressure gauge and vacuum

gauge ,m

where,

A = Area of collecting tank ,m2

h = Rise of oil in the collecting tank = 0.1 m

t = Time for 10 cm rise of oil in collecting tank , sec

52

Model calculation:

53

where,

ηmotor = 0.75

where,

Graphs:

i) Head vs Actual discharge

ii) Head vs Efficiency of pump

iii) Head vs Output power

54

Model calculation:

55

Result:

The characteristic test was conducted on the gear oil pump and the following

graphs were drawn:

i) H vs Qact ii) H vs ηpump and iii) H vs Po

56

Observation:

Diameter at throat of venturimeter ,d2 = 12.5 ,mm

Manometer Time

Total

readings taken Qact Qtheo

head ,H √H

Sl.No for 20 Cd

h1 h2

litre ,t

units m of m of m3/sec m3/sec

cm cm sec

→ water water x 10-4 x 10-4

1

2

3

7

Mean cd =

57

Exp. No. :

Venturimeter

Date :

Aim:

To find the co-efficient of discharge of the given venturimeter.

Apparatus required:

iii) Stop watch.

Description:

ii) Water is circulated through the venturimeter from reservoir to collecting

tank by means of a monoblock pump.

iii) The collecting tank of the venturimeter is connected to a mercury

manometer.

Procedure:

ii) Keeping the gate valve fully open the experiment is started.

iii) The manometer readings and the time taken for 20 litre of water are noted.

iv) The gate valve is gradually closed; for each valve setting the readings are

noted and the values are tabulated.

Formulae:

taken for collection of 20 litres of

water , m3/sec.

where,

a1 = cross sectional area of inlet = π d12/4 ,m2

a2 = cross sectional area of throat = π d22/4 ,m2

d1 = diameter at inlet of the venturimeter ,m

d2 = diameter at throat of the venturimeter ,m

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 ,m/sec2.

= [ (h1- h2) /100 ] × [ ( 13.6 / 1 ) – 1 ] ,m of water

where,

h1- h2 = difference of mercury level in the manometer.

SH = specific gravity of mercury = 13.6

SL = specific gravity of water = 1

58

Model calculation:

59

60

61

Graphs:

i) Qact vs Qtheo

Result :

i) Experimentally =

ii) Graphically =

3

2

1

3

2

1

units↓ Sl.No. units↓ Sl.No.

h1

h1

cm

cm

readings

readings

h2

h2

cm

cm

Manometer

Manometer

Observation:

sec

sec

20 litre ,t 20 litre ,t

Copper (Cu) :

Loss of head Loss of head

,Hf ,Hf

m of water

m of water

Galvanized iron pipe (GI) :

Actual Actual

discharge, discharge,

m3 / s

m3 / s

x 10-4

x 10-4

Qact Qact

d = 12.5 mm

Velocity of Velocity of

water, v water, v

m/s

m/s

d = 12.5 mm

v2

v2

Mean

Mean

i

i

f1=

f1=

Co-efficient of Co-efficient of

friction, friction,

f1 f1

f2 =

f2 =

Co-efficient of Co-efficient of

friction, friction,

62

f2 f2

63

Exp. No. :

Losses due to pipe friction

Date :

Aim:

To determine the co-efficient of friction for flow of water through the given pipes.

Apparatus required:

i) Pipe line set up and ii) Stop watch.

Description:

The given arrangement is closed type fitted with a reservoir and a collecting tank.

A monoblock pump which is fitted on the reservoir can pass water through any one of the

four pipes of different materials ( Galvanized iron, Aluminium, Copper and Stainless

steel). Two tapping at a distance of 60 cm are connected to a water manometer.

Procedure:

ii) The discharge valve of the required pipe is fully opened and values in the

manometer are noted.

iii) Time taken for 20 litre of water collection is also noted.

iv) By closing the discharge valve gradually the flow rate is varied.

v) For each position of the discharge valve, the above readings are noted.

Formulae:

a) Darcy-weisbach’s formula:

where,

Loss of head ,Hf = [ (h1- h2) /100 ] × [ ( SH / SL ) – 1 ] ,m of water

= [ (h1- h2) /100 ] × [ ( 13.6 / 1 ) – 1 ] ,m of water

where,

h1- h2 = difference of mercury level in the manometer.

SH = specific gravity of mercury = 13.6

SL = specific gravity of water = 1

L = length of the pipe = 0.6 ,m

g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 ,m/s2

velocity of flow ,v = Actual discharge / area of cross section of the pipe ,m/s

= Qact / a

Actual discharge , Qact = Volume of water collected / time

taken for collection of 20 litres of

water , m3/sec.

64

Model calculation:

65

66

67

b) Chezy’s formula:

where,

Hydraulic radius , m = area of flow / wetted perimeter

= [ πd2 / 4 ] / [ πd ] = d / 4 ,m

Loss of head per unit length of pipe ,i = Hf / L

ρ = density of water = 1000 ,kg/m3

Graphs:

The following graphs (for both GI & Cu) are drawn taking (velocity of flow)2 on

X axis:

ii) Velocity of flow2 vs Loss of head per unit length of pipe.

Result :

The test was conducted on the given pipe lines and the following graphs were

drawn:

i) v2 vs Hf and ii) v2 vs i

f1

GI

f2

f1

Cu

f2

68

Observation:

Area of the collecting tank , A = 0.7 x 0.7 ,m2

Energy meter constant , EMC = 750 , rev / kwhr

Distance between the centres of

vacuum gauge and pressure gauge , X= 0.31 ,m

revolutions

discharge,

Power ,Po

Power ,Pi

Head , H

gauge ,G

Time for

Time for

gauge ,V

Pressure

h=10 cm

Vacuum

Output

Actual

Sl.No.

ηpump

Input

rise ,t

Total

Qact

Tn.

10

Units↓

mm m of m3/s x

Kgf/ sec sec w w %

Hg water 10-3

cm2

1 0.2

2 0.4

3 0.6

4 0.8

5 1.0

6 1.2

7 1.4

69

Exp. No. :

Characteristic tests on centrifugal

pump at constant speed

Date :

Apparatus required:

Description:

ii) The pressure gauge is fitted to the delivery side and a vacuum gauge to the

suction side.

iii) The energy input to the pump can be measured through an energy meter.

iv) There is a collecting tank with a level indicator.

Procedure:

ii) Close the gate valve.

iii) Start the motor.

iv) Note:

a) The pressure gauge reading , G.

b) The vacuum gauge reading, V

c) Time for 10 revolutions in the energy meter by means of stopwatch.

d) Time for 10cm. rise in the collecting tank by means of stopwatch

e) Difference of level between the pressure and vacuum gauge.

v) Take atleast 6 sets of readings by varying the head from minimum when

the gate valve is fully open to maximum at shut off. This can be done by

throttling the delivery valve.

Formulae:

= [ Po / Pi ] x 100

where,

Density of water , ρ = 1000 ,kg / m3

Acceleration due to gravity ,g = 9.81 ,m / s2

Actual discharge , Qact = Ah / t ,m3 / s

Where,

A = area of collecting tank ,m2

h = rise of water level in collecting tank = 0.1 ,m

t = time taken for 10 cm rise in collecting tank , sec

70

Model calculation:

71

c) Total head , H = [ G x 10 ] + [ V x 0.0136 ] + X ,m of water

where,

G = pressure head ,kg/cm2

V = vacuum head ,mmHg

X = distance between pressure gauge and vacuum

gauge ,m

where,

n = Number of revolutions of energy meter disc = 10

ηmotor = 0.75

Graphs:

i) Head vs Actual discharge

ii) Head vs Efficiency of pump

iii) Head vs Output power

72

73

Result:

The characteristic test was conducted on the centrifugal pump and the following

graphs were drawn:

i) H vs Qact ii) H vs ηpump and iii) H vs Po

74

Observation:

Area of the collecting tank , A = 0.495 x 0.495 ,m2

Energy meter constant , EMC = 1200 , rev / kwhr

Distance between the centres of

vacuum gauge and pressure gauge , X= 0.35 ,m

Time for 10

Total Head

revolutions

discharge,

Power ,Po

Power ,Pi

gauge ,G

Time for

Pressure

gauge ,V

h=10 cm

Vacuum

Output

Actual

Sl.No.

ηpump

Input

rise ,t

Qact

Tn.

cd % slip

H

Units↓

mm m of m3/s x

Kgf/ sec sec w w % %

Hg water 10-4

cm2

1 0.4

2 0.8

3 1.2

4 1.6

5 2.0

6 2.4

75

Exp. No. :

Characteristic tests on

reciprocating pump at constant speed

Date :

Aim:

To study the characteristics of the reciprocating pump at a constant speed.

Apparatus required:

Description:

a plunger working inside a cylinder. The cylinder has got two valves, one allowing water

into the cylinder from the suction pipe and the other allowing water from the cylinder

into the delivery pipe.

During the suction stroke, a petrol vacuum is created inside the cylinder,

the suction valve opens and water enters into the cylinder. During the return stroke the

suction valve closes and the water inside the cylinder is displaced into the delivery pipe

through the delivery valve. In case of double acting pump two sets of delivery and

suction valves are provided. So for each stroke one set of valves are operated and there is

a continuous flow of water.

Specification of the pump :

Type of the pump : Double acting cylinder

Piston stroke : 4.5 cm

Piston diameter : 5 cm

Suction pipe : 1”

Delivery pipe : 3/4 ”

pump is belt driven by a A.C motor .The pump can be run at three different speeds by the

use of V- belt and differential pulley system. The belt can be put in different grooves of

pulleys for different speeds. A set of pressure gauge are provided and the required pipe

lines are also provided.

Procedure:

ii) Open the gate valve in the delivery pipe fully.

iii) Start the motor.

iv) Throttle the gate valve to get the required head.

v) Note the following :

a) Pressure gauge (G) and vacuum gauge (V) readings.

b) Time taken for : 10 cm rise of water in the collecting tank and

10 revolutions of the energy meter.

vi) Repeat the experiment for different heads. Take atleast 6 set of readings.

76

Model calculation:

77

Formulae:

where,

A = Area of collecting tank ,m2

h = Rise of water in collecting tank = 0.1 ,m

t = Time taken for 0.1 m rise of water ,sec

where,

K = No. of strokes of the pump = 2

l = Stroke length = 0.045 ,m

d = Diameter of cylinder = 0.05 ,m

a = Cross sectional area of cylinder = [ πd2 ] / 4 ,m2

Np= Pump speed = 300 ,rpm

% Slip = [ Qtheo - Qact ] / [Qtheo ] x 100 ,%

where,

n = No. of revolutions of the energy meter disc = 10

ηmotor = 1

EMC = Energy meter constant ,rev / kwhr

Tn = Time taken for n revolutions of the energy meter disc ,sec

where,

ρ = Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 ,m / s2

H = Total head , m of water

where,

G = Pressure gauge reading , kgf / cm2

V = Vacuum gauge reading , mmHg

X = Distance between the centres of pressure gauge and

vacuum gauge , m

78

79

Graphs :

i) Total head vs Actual discharge

ii) Total head vs Efficiency of the pump

iii) Total head vs Power output

iv) Total head vs % Slip

Result :

The characteristic test was conducted on the reciprocating pump and the

following graphs were drawn:

i) H vs Qact ii) H vs ηpump iii) H vs Po and

iv) H vs % S

v) % Slip, S = ,%

80

Observation:

Pr. Head Wt. Wt N Power Power

G H T1 Kg Kg m3/s watts watts %

1

7

81

Exp. No. :

Pelton wheel

Date :

Aim :

To conduct a test on the pelton wheel (turbine) at constant head.

Apparatus required:

Description:

Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine, which is used to utilise high heads for

generation of electricity. All the available head is converted into velocity energy by

means of spear and nozzle arrangement. The water leaves the nozzle in jet formation. The

jet of water then strikes the buckets of the pelton wheel runner. The buckets are in the

shape of double cups, joined at the middle portion. The jet strikes the knife edge of the

buckets with least resistance and shock. Then the jet glides along the path of the cup, and

the jet is deflected through more than 160° to 170°. While passing along the buckets, the

velocity of the water is reduced and hence an impulsive force is supplied to the cups

which in turn are moved and hence the shaft is rotated. The specific speed of the pelton

wheel changes from 10 to 100.

Procedure :

i) Keep the nozzle opening at the required position. i.e. full opening or 3/4

opening.

ii) Start the pump.

iii) Allow water in to the turbine, then the turbine rotates.

iv) Note the speed of the turbine.

v) Take readings in manometer.

vi) Note the pressure of water in the pressure gauge.

vii) Load the turbine by putting weights.

viii) Note dead weight T1 and spring weight T2

ix) Note the head.

x) Repeat the experiment for different loadings.

xi) Tabulate the readings.

Formulae:

To find discharge

The venturimeter and the manometer has been calibrated.

82

Model calculation:

83

d

Venturimeter , = 0.6

D

a1

= 0.36

a2

K. 0.36 a1 √2g √ H1

Qa =

√ 1 - (0.36)

= K. 1.72 a1√ H1

D = 0.065 m

a1 = 0.00332 m2

Qa = K 0.0057 √H1

K = 0.962

-----------------------------------------------

Qa = 0.0055 √H1 m3/s

-----------------------------------------------

Manometer Reading:

The height of mercury column in left arm, h1 = m

The height of mercury column in right arm, h2 = m

Difference of level , h = h1 -h2 m

Equivalent water column, H1 = 12.6 h m

Discharge = Q m3/s

Head = Hm

Input power = 1000 X gQH

Dead weight, T1 = kg

Spring weight , T2 = kg

Weight of hanger T0 = kg

Resultant load W = T1 - T2 + T0 kg

Speed, N = RPM

Dia. of brake drum = 0.40 m

Thickness of pipe = 0.015 m

Resultant dia. D = 0.415 m

2 π N (W*R)*9.81

output. power =

60

84

Pelton wheel

85

Result:

A test is conducted on Pelton wheel (turbine) and the following graphs were drawn.

i) Output power Vs N & ii) Efficiency Vs N

86

Observation :

No G+V P1 P2 `m’ Q m3/s (W) N K Kg (W) %

g

87

Exp. No. :

Francis turbine

Date :

Aim:

To study the characteristics of Francis Turbine at constant head.

Apparatus required:

Description:

Francis turbine is a prime mover. It converts the hydraulic energy (head of water)

into mechanical energy, which in turn can be transformed into electrical energy by

coupling a generator to the turbine. Francis Turbine is a radial inward flow reaction

turbine. This has the advantage of centrifugal force acting against the flow, thus reducing

the tendency of the wheel to race. The turbine consists essentially of runner (G.M.), a

ring of adjustable guide vanes, a volute casing(spiral casing) , draft tube. Francis turbines

are best suited for medium heads, say 40m to 300m. The specific speed ranges from 25 to

300.

Procedure:

ii) Prime the pump

iii) Start the pump

iv) Vent the manometer

v) Note the pressure gauge reading (G) and vacuum gauge reading (V).

vi) Adjust the gate valve so that G +V reads = 15m.

vii) Note the readings in the pressure gauge

Left limb reading = P1 m

Right limb reading = P2 m.

viii) Measure the speed of the turbine by tachometer

ix) Load the turbine by putting weights in the weights hanger. Take all

readings.

x) Repeat the experiments for various loadings and take 6 readings.

xi) Experiment can be repeated for different guide vane opening.

Formulae:

I. Discharge:

Right limb reading = P2m.

Difference of levels H1 = (P1 -P2) 10 m of water

88

Model calculation:

89

3

Venturimeter equation Q = 0.0131 ÖH1 m /s

II. Head:

Pressure gauge = G m.

Vaccuum gauge = V m.

Total Head = G + V + X ,(X = Difference of levels pressure & vacuum

gauge)

= H m.

III. Input to the turbine:

I. H. P. = 1000 QH

75

IV. Output:

Rope diameter = 0.015m

Equivalent drum diameter = 0.315m.

Hanger weight = T0 Kg = 1 kg.

Dead Weight = T1 kg.

Spring Load = T2 kg.

Resultant load = T1 -T2 + T0 = T kg.

Speed of the turbine = N RPM

(w x R) watts

60

Output

Efficiency = x 100

Input

90

91

Result:

The characteristics of Francis turbine at constant head is studied and the

following graphs were drawn.

iii) Output power Vs Efficiency

Calculate specific speed.

92

93

94

95

96

97

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