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Ni'Imar Haihuwa Da Hakkokin `Ya`Ya a Musulunci

Ni'Imar Haihuwa Da Hakkokin `Ya`Ya a Musulunci

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This book is about the manners of welcoming new born baby in Islam
This book is about the manners of welcoming new born baby in Islam

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GABATARWA Godiya ta tabbata ga Allah.

Muna gode maSa, muna neman taimakonSa, muna neman gafararSa, kuma muna neman tsarinSa daga sharrin kawunanmu da munanan ayyukanmu. Wanda Allah Ya shiryar babu mai vatar da shi, wanda Ya vatar babu mai shiryar da shi. Kuma ina shaidawa babu wanda ake bauta wa bisa cancanta sai Allah, Shi kaxai, ba Shi da abokin tarayya. Kuma ina shaidawa Muhammad bawanSa ne kuma ManzonSa. "Ya ku waxanda suka yi imani! Ku bi Allah da taqawa, a kan haqqin binSa da taqawa, kuma kada ku mutu face kuna masu sallamawa (Musulmi)"1 "Ya ku mutane! Ku bi Ubangijinku da taqawa, Wanda Ya halitta ku daga rai guda, kuma Ya halitta, daga gare shi, ma'auransa, kuma Ya watsa daga gare su maza masu yawa da mata. Kuma ku bi Allah da taqawa, Wanda kuke roqon juna da (sunan) Shi, da kuma zumunta. Lalle ne Allah Ya kasance, a kanku, Mai tsaro ne."2 "Ya ku waxanda suka yi imani! Ku bi Allah da taqawa, kuma ku faxi magana madaidaiciya. Ya kyautata muku ayyukanku, kuma Ya gafarta zunubanku. Kuma wanda ya yi xa'a ga Allah da

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Aal Imraan, 3:102 Nisaa, 4:1

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ManzonSa, to, lalle, ya rabanta, babban rabo mai girma."3 Bayan haka: Lalle, mafi kyawun magana, (shi ne) littafin Allah, kuma mafi kyawun shiriya, (ita ce) shiriyar Muhammad (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). Kuma mafi munin al'amura, (su ne) abubuwan da aka qago (a cikin addini). Domin dukan qagaggun abubuwa (waxanda ba su da asali a cikin Alqur'ani da Sunnah) bidi'a ce, kuma dukan bidi'a vata ce, kuma dukan vata (makomanta) cikin wuta. Bayan haka: `Ya`ya kyauta ce daga Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka)4, kuma ni’ima ce da ta dace da xabi’a, da yanayin xan Adam. Wannan ya sa xan Adam ke jin daxi, ya yi farin ciki, idan aka haifa masa `ya`ya. Hakan nan, yana roqon Allah Ya azurta shi da `ya`ya, idan bai samu haihuwa ba.5 Haihuwa arziqi ne6, kuma tana daga fa’idodin aure. Su kuma `ya`ya, ado ne7 da aka qawata wa mutane sha’awarsa8. Fatan kowane mutum shi ne ya samu `ya`ya nagari, masu albarka, masu biyayya, masu tausayi; waxanda za su tsaya makwafinsa, su cike gurbinsa, su ci gaba daga wurin da ya tsaya, idan Allah Ya xauki
3 4 5 6 7 8

Ahzaab, 33:70-71 Shoorah, 42: 49 – 50 Aal Imraan, 3:38 Nahl, 16:72 Kahf, 18:46 Aal Imraan, 3:14

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ransa.9 Burin kowane uba nagari, shi ne Allah Ya sa `ya`yansa su wakilce shi a ko’ina, su zamanto sanyin ido a gare shi, su tausaya ma shi, su xauki nauyin shi idan ya tsufa, sa’an nan su yi ma shi addu’a idan ya mutu.10 `Ya`ya amana ce a wuyan iyaye, kuma wasiyya ce daga Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka).11 Babu shakka, za a tambayi kowane uba da uwa game da ni’imar `ya`ya, kuma za a tambaye su game da wannan amana.12 Samar da kyakkyawar tarbiyya ga `ya`ya na daga cikin manya-manyan hanyoyin nuna godiya ga Allah bisa wannan ni’ima ta haihuwa. Kyakkyawar tarbiyya kuwa, na samuwa ne ta hanyar kiyaye qa’idodin Shari’a da aiki da ladubbanta gwargwadon hali, a cikin dukan abubuwan da za a yi wa `ya`ya, tun suna jarirai, har su girma. Saboda ganin yadda mutane ke da buqatar sanin tanaden-tanaden Shari’a dangane da `ya`ya tun kafin haihuwarsu, har zuwa girmansu, na ga ya dace in rubuta wannan littafi a matsayin tawa gudummuwar a vangaren tarbiyya, don ya zama tunatarwa gare ni da sauran iyaye. Na rubuta shi a cikin harshen Hausa, kasancewar akwai qarancin

Maryam, 19:5 – 6 Al-furqaan, 25:74 11 Nisaa, 4:11 12 Muslim
9 10

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littafai da ke bayani a kan tarbiyya13, a cikin wannan harshe. Littafin ya qunshi vangarori uku. Vangare na farko ya yi magana a kan ladubban da za a kiyaye kafin haihuwa. Vangare na biyu ya yi magana a kan tanade-tanaden Shari’ah game da `ya`ya, da ladubban da ya kamata a kiyaye bayan haihuwa. Vangare na uku ya yi magana a kan haqqoqin `ya`ya a musulunci da qalubalen da ke fuskantar iyaye. Ina roqon Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya karvi wannan xan aiki a matsayin ibada, Ya ba ni ladan da Ya tanadar wa waxanda suke qoqarin karatu da karantar da addininSa, kuma Ya yi sakamako na alheri ga waxanda suka taimaka, ta kowace hanya, wurin tabbatar littafin. Ina roqon Allah Ya yafe mani kurakuran dake ciki. Haka nan, ina roqon waxanda suka ga kuskure a cikin littafin (ko na bayani ko na salon rubutu) da su faxakar da ni, domin a qara kyautata littafin idan za a sake bugawa. Ahmad Bello Dogarawa Shawwaal, 1426 haihuwa@gmail.com

Akwai littafin da na rubuta a kan tarbiyyar `ya`ya a Musulunci. Allah Ya ba ni ikon fatar da shi ga jama’a.
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KASHI NA FARKO: KAFIN HAIHUWA
Musulunci ya tanadi ladubba dabam-daban da suka shafi `ya`ya, tun kafin haihuwa da kuma bayan haihuwa. Fahimtar waxannan ladubba da aiki da su, tare da xabbaqasu a kan `ya`ya, na da tasiri sosai wajen tarbiyya. Sakaci dangane da ladubban, na iya zama sanadi na tavarvarewar tarbiyya. Daga cikin tanadetanaden da Musulunci ya yi dangane da `ya`ya, tun kafin haihuwarsu, akwai: KAFIN XAUKAR CIKI Tarbiyyar `ya`ya, ta hanyar kula da su da koya masu kyawawan halaye da xabi’u nagari, da karantar da su ilmin addini da ilmin sana’a yadda ya dace, don su zamanto masu kishin zuci, da dogaro da kai, abu ne da Musulunci ya ba muhimmanci sosai. Wannan ya sa aka kwaxaita wa dukan musulmi zaven abokan zama na qwarai tun lokacin da ake nufin yin aure, kasancewar hakan na taimakawa wajen samar da tarbiya ga `ya`yan da za a haifa, idan Allah Ya kawo. Zaven abokan zama na qwarai a lokacin aure, na daga haqqoqin `ya`ya, tun kafin xaukar ciki. Musulunci ya fifita addini da kyawawan xabi’u, a kan dukiya ko kyawun fuska ko dangantaka, wajen zaven abokiyar zama na aure. Hadisi ya tabbata cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya umurci maza da auren
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mata waxanda ke riqo da addini, saboda amfaninsa da tasirinsa a cikin rayuwar aure da tarbiyar `ya`ya. Ana sa ran cewa matar dake riqo da addini za ta zamanto mace ta qwarai, wadda ke kiyaye dokokin Allah a cikin zamantakewar aure; idan mijinta ya umurce ta da aikata wani abu ko barin wani abu (matuqar bai sava wa Shari’a ba), za ta yi masa biyayya; idan ya kalle ta, za ta faranta masa rai; idan ya rantse (a kan wani abu), za ta kuvutar da shi ta hanyar kiyaye abin da ya yi rantsuwar saboda shi; kuma idan ba ya nan (a gida ko a gari), za ta kiyaye mutuncin kanta da dukiyarsa. A cikin wani Hadisi sahihi, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya bayyana cewa matar da ke da waxannan siffofi ko halaye, ita ce mafi alheri a cikin matan aure.14 Samun matar aure ta qwarai babu shakka, ni’ima ce daga Allah da za a yi tambaya game da ita a ranar qiyama. Haka nan, an umurci iyaye su aurar da `ya`yansu mata ga masu addini da kyawawan xabi’u. Kyawawan xabi’u da fahimtar addini, tare da riqo da shi, na sanya mutum ya girmama matar da ya aura, kuma idan ba ya sonta, ba zai zalunce ta ba. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Idan wanda kuka yarda da addininsa da xabi’arsa ya zo (neman auren `ya`yanku mata), to ku aura
Ahmad, an-Nasaa’ee, al-Haakim, da at-Tabaraanee: Saheeh [Duba littafin Saheeh al-Jaami’` #270; da asSaheehah, #1022 na Muhammad Naasiruddeen alAlbaanee]
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masa. Idan kuka qi, hakan zai haifar da fitina a cikin qasa da varna mai yawa.”15 Musulunci ya karantar da iyaye muhimmancin yin addu’a a lokacin kwanciyar aure. Addu’ar na da tasiri a kan makomar abin da za su haifa idan Allah Ya qaddara samun ciki a wannan saduwa, kamar yadda take da tasiri wajen tsare shi daga wasuwasin shaixan. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Idan xayanku, a lokacin da zai sadu da iyalinsa, ya ce: ‫بسم الله, اللهم جنبنا الشيطان وجن نب‬ ‫ن‬ ‫[ الشنيطان منا رزقتننا‬Da sunan Allah. Ya Allah Ka tsare mu daga shaixan kuma Ka tsare abin da za ka azurta mu da shi daga shaixan], to idan an qaddara masu samun xa a wannan lokaci, shaixan ba zai iya cutar da shi ba har abada.”16 Da yawa daga malamai sun ce wannan addu’a ba ta kevanci maza kawai ba. Kowace mace ya
Tirmidhi, Haakim da Baihaqi: Hasan [Duba Saheeh alJaami’` #270 da as-Saheehah, #1022] 16 Bukhaari da Muslim Wannan shi ne abin da ya tabbata a Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). Maganganun da suka shahara a bakunan mutane cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi umurni da faxin waxansu kalmomi ko addu’o’i na musamman a lokacin saduwa da iyali, ko kuma wai Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya hana a sadu da iyali a cikin waxansu ranaku ko waxansu lokatai, duk maganganu ne waxanda ba su da asali. Littafin da ake cewa wai wasiyyar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ce ga Aliyyu ibn Abi Xaalib (Allah Ya yarda da shi) dangane da ranaku ko lokacin da aka hana saduwa da iyali, ba shi da asali kwata-kwata.
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kamata ta karanta wannan addu’a, a lokacin da mijinta ya zo saduwa da ita.17 BAYAN XAUKAR CIKI Musulunci ya wajabta wa iyaye mata kula da abin da Allah Ya halitta a cikin mahaifarsu har zuwa lokacin da za a haife shi. Hakan zai samu ne idan mai ciki ta kula da lafiyarta da kyau ta hanyar cin abinci mai nagarta, gwargwadon yadda jikinta ke buqata, da nisantar abubuwan dake iya kawo haxari gare ta, ko ga abin da ke cikinta (kamar shan giya da taba sigari).18 Kuma don taimaka wa mai ciki kula da lafiyar abin da ke mahaifarta, da kuma sauqaqa mata xawainiyar dake tattare da goyon ciki, har xauke mata azumin watan Ramadan aka yi, matuqar yin azumin zai harfar da matsala ga abin da ke cikinta. Hadisi ya tabbata cewa wadda ke tsoron haxari ga cikin da take goyo, na iya barin azumin watan Ramadan. Za ta
Yoosuf ibn Abdillah al-`reefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam [fassarar da Aboo Xalhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank ya yi zuwa turanci], (Al-Fathi Islamic Publications, Agbado-Ijaye, Lagos), shafi na 24. 18 Shan taba sigari haramun ne, ba wai makaruhi ba, kamar yadda waxansu mutane ke tsammani. Shan sigari ya qunshi almubazzaranci, sakarci wajen kashe kuxi, cutar da lafiya, cutar da sauran mutane waxanda za su ji warinta a lokacin da ake zuqa da busa ta. Alqur’ani da Hadisi da Ijmaa’i duk sun nuna haramcin waxannan abubuwa gaba xaya. Haka nan, sayar da taba ko sayo ta, duk haramun ne, domin kuwa abu ne da ya qunshi taimako cikin savon Allah.
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ciyar da miskini guda xaya a madadin kowace rana da ba ta yi azumi ba.19 Haka nan, an kwaxaitar da ita neman magani ko amfani da magani a duk lokacin da buqatar haka ta taso, bisa shawarwari daga likitoci ko qwararrun masana. Manufar ita ce tabbatar da ingantacciyar lafiya ga kanta da abin da ke cikin mahaifarta. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Bayin Allah, ku nemi magani…”20 Bayan wannan, Musulunci ya kwaxaitar da iyaye mata yin addu’ar fatan cikakkiyar lafiya, da alheri, da albarka, da kyakkyawar tarbiyya, da shiriyar Allah, ga abin da ke cikin mahaifarsu, kamar yadda suka yi addu’ar alheri a lokacin kwanciyar aure, a ranar da mazajensu suka sanya maniyyin da Allah Ya yi wannan halitta daga gare shi.21 Ana buqatar mai ciki ta yi haka ne kasancewar ita ce uwar abin da ke cikin mahaifarta. Sanannen abu ne cewa ana amsa addu’ar da
Wannan shi ne ra’ayi mafi qarfi. Waxansu malamai na ganin wajibcin rama azumi a kanta. Waxansu na ganin wajibcin ramawa tare da ciyarwa. Amma idan mutum ya yi nazarin hujjojin dukan vangarorin, zai gamsu cewa abin da muka tabbatar a sama, cewa ciyarwa kawai za ta yi, shi ne ya fi qarfi da rinjaye. Duba littafi na mai suna Gift to the fasting Muslim don qarin bayani. 20 Ahmad da Haakim: Saheeh 21 Ya gabata a can baya cewa an so mata da miji su karanta ‫بسم الله, اللهم جنبنا الشيطان وجن نب الشنيطان منا رزقتننا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ lokacin kwanciyar aure
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uwa ta yi ga xanta. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Addu’o’i guda uku ana amsa su (kai tsaye): addu’ar wanda aka zalunta, da addu’ar matafiyi, da addu’ar mahaifi (uwa22 ko uba) ga xansa.”23 Don haka, ya kamata iyaye mata su yi qoqari wajen yin addu’o’i na alheri ga abin da ke cikin mahaifarsu. Su roqi Allah Ya sanya haihuwar ta zo cikin sauqi, Ya sanya abin da za a haifa ya zama shiryayye kuma mai albarka, Ya kiyaye shi daga shaixan da `yan kanzaginsa, kuma Ya sanya shi ya zamanto mai amfani a gare su da sauran al’umma. LOKACIN HAIHUWA Mata masu juna biyu kan fuskanci wani yanayi mai tsanani da rashin tabbas a lokacin haihuwa. Zafin naquda da raxaxin da ke tare da fitar xa daga mahaifa, abubuwan zullumi ne ga kowace mai ciki, musamman a haihuwar farko. Don haka mata masu juna biyu na da buqatar kulawa ta musamman da fatan alheri a lokacin haihuwa.24
Malamai sun tabbatar da cewa kalmar ‘mahaifi’ da ta zo a cikin wannan Hadisi ta haxa da uwa da uba. Sun dogara da Hadisin Juraij ar-Raahib wanda mahaifiyarsa ta yi addu’a a kansa, kuma Allah Ya karva, kamar yadda Bukhaari ya ruwaito 23 Ibn Maajah: Hasan 24 Wannan ne ke tabbatar da rashin dacewar abin da waxansu ma’aikatan asibiti, musamman masu aikin jinya da anguwar zoma, ke yi ga matan da ke naquda.
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Mace mai juna biyu na buqatar komawa ga Allah tare da neman taimakonSa a wannan lokaci. Ta tsananta wajen addu’a da roqon Allah Ya sawwaqe mata naqudar, Ya sauqaqe mata haihuwar, kuma Ya sa ta haihu lafiya. Tabbas, Allah Mai iko ne a kan haka. Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Sa’an nan Ya sauqaqe masa hanya (ta fitowa daga mahaifa).”25 Kuma Ya ce: “Ko wane ne yake karva wa mai buqata idan ya kira Shi, kuma yake yaye munanan abubuwa (ga wanda ya roqe Shi)…“26 Daga cikin irin addu’o’in da ya kamata mai naquda ta yi, akwai waxanda Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya karantar da waxanda suka samu kansu a cikin tsanani ko wahala. Addu’o’in sun haxa da: ‫“اللهم رحمتك أرجو فل تكلني إلى نفسي طرفة عين وأصنلح‬ ‫ن‬ “ ‫لى شأني كله لإله إل أنت‬ [Ya Allah! Rahamarka nake qauna, don haka Ka da Ka qyale ni da kaina ko da qiftawar ido ne, kuma Ka kyautata mani sha’anina

Sukan riqa daka wa mai naquda tsawa da yin surutai marasa ma’ana. Wani lokaci har da zage-zage ko gorin cewa lokacin da matar ke jin xaxinta tare da mijinta kafin xaukar ciki, ai ba ta yi ihu ko kururuwa ba. Wajibi ne a yaqi irin waxannan xabi’u marasa kyawu. Mazaje da sauran masu faxa a ji na buqatar xaukar matakai da suka dace don hana irin wannan cin mutunci ga mata masu juna biyu. 25 ‘Abasa, 80:20 26 an-Naml, 27:62

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dukansa, babu wanda ake bautawa bisa cancanta sai Kai]27; “‫اللهم ل سهل إل ما جعلته سهل وأنت تجعل الحزن إذا‬ ‫”شئت سهل‬ [Ya Allah! Babu wani (abu mai) sauqi sai abin da Ka sauqaqe, kuma Kana sanya dutse/tsanani ya zamanto mai sauqi idan Ka so]28; “‫”الله الله ربي لأشرك به شيئا‬ [Allah! Allah ne Ubangijina, ba na yin tarayya da shi da wani abu (a cikin bauta)].29 Waxansu malamai na ganin halascin karanta addu’o’in da ake yi wa wanda bai da lafiya idan naqudar ta yi tsanani. Wato, a karanta irin addu’o’in da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce a yi wa mara lafiya, a tofa a hannu, sa’an nan a shasshafe wuraren da ke raxaxi. Suka ce, yin haka bai sava wa Sunnah ba, idan an dubi mai naquda a matsayin wadda ba ta da lafiya. Waxansu malamai sun qara da cewa idan mai naquda ta kasa karanta irin addu’o’in da aka gabatar a can baya, kuma aka rasa waxanda za su yi addu’o’in mara lafiya gare ta, alhali kuma tana cikin tsanani, babu laifi a karanta addu’o’in a cikin ruwa don ta sha. Lalle ne wadda za ta haihu ko waxanda ke tare da ita su nisanci amfani da abin da bai tabbata
27 28 29

Abu Daawud da Ahmad: Saheeh Ibn Hibbaan: Saheeh Abu Daawud: Saheeh

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a cikin Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ba, don sauqaqa wahalar naquda. Ba shi daga cikin abin da Sunnah ta tabbatar, rubuta waxansu ayoyin Alqur’ani da ake yi don a rataya a jikin mai naquda, ko a wanke don ta sha ruwan, ko a yayyarfa a jikinta da al’aurarta. Waxanda ke irin wannan aiki sun dogara da wata magana dake cewa wai Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya umurci Umm Salamah da Zainab bint Jahsh da su karanta wa Faaximah Aayatul-Kursee, da aya ta 54 a cikin suratul-A’araaf, da suratul Falaq da Naas, a lokacin da ta zo haihuwa. Malaman Hadisi sun tabbatar da cewa wannan Hadisi ne na qarya (maudoo`). Haka nan, sun dogara da Hadisin da ke cewa: “Idan naquda ta tsananta ga mace, sai a samu wani abu a rubuta aya ta 35 a cikin suratul Ahqaaf, da aya ta 46 a cikin suratun Naazi’aat, da aya ta 111a cikin suratu Yoosuf. Daga nan, sai a wanke a ba mai naqudar ta sha, sauran kuma sai a yayyarfa a kan cikinta da al’aurarta. Wannan Hadisin ma bai inganta ba. Malamai sun ce Hadisi ne mai rauni (da`eef). Bayan wannan, akwai bayanan da aka ce an ruwaito daga waxansu sahabbai (kamar Ibn Abbaas da Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn al-‘Aas – Allah Ya yarda da su), da tabi’ai, cewa sun rubuta ayoyin Alqur’ani ga matan dake naquda don su sha ko a yayyafa a jikinsu. Sai dai kuma duk bayanan da ake danganawa gare

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su, ba su tabbata ba; ko dai Hadisai ne masu tsananin rauni, ko kuma na qarya.30 Saboda haka, ya kamata a taqaitu ga ladubban da suka inganta a cikin Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi).31

Muhammad Abdus-Salaam Khidir as-Shuqairee, asSunan wal Mubtadi’aat, (Daar al-Fikr, 1352AH), shafi na 24 31 Shaykh Muhammad Saalih Al-`Uthaymeen na ganin halascin rubuta ayoyin Alqur’ani, musamman surah alZalzalah, ko aya ta 48 a cikin Fussilat da aya ta 8 a cikin Ra’ad, ko kuma ayoyin da ke tabbatar da cewa Allah Ya san abin da ke cikin mahaifa, ko ayoyin da ke magana a kan sauqaqe abu mai wuya, domin sauqaqa naquda. Za a yi amfani da za’afaran wajen rubuta ayoyin a cikin mazubi (kamar qwarya ko kwano), sa’an nan a zuba ruwa, a jujjuya rubutun, sa’an nan a ba mai naquda ta sha, kuma a shasshafe cikinta da sauran ruwan. Al-`Uthaymeen bai dogara da wani Hadisi ko fatawa daga sahabbai da tabi’ai ba a kan wannan. Hasali ma, ya tabbatar da cewa babu wani abu sahihi a cikin Sunnah da ya tabbatar da haka. Amma ya bayyana cewa mutane da yawa sun jarraba wannan hanya, kuma ta yi masu amfani. Haka nan, ya yi qiyasin fatawarsa da mas’alar ruqyar da ta kuvuta daga shirka. Ya bayyana cewa irin wannan tajribah ba a kiransa bidi’a. Duba Fataawaa Mu’aasirah lil `Uthaymeen, (Daar al-Gadd alJadeed, Egypt), shafi na 8; da Fataawaa Nurin alal Darb da ke liqe a cikin shafin fatawar Shari’ah na bakan gizo www.binothaimeen.com; da www.almeshkat.net/vb/showthre...306#post168306. Ke nan, Al-`Uthaymeen ya gina fatawarsa a kan tajribah ce, ba wai nassi ba. Akwai malamai da ke ganin halascin dogaro da irin wannan hanya ta tajribah a wajen fatawa, matuqar ba a cikin mas’alolin ibada ba ne.
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Da zarar ta haihu, an so ta yi wa abin da ta haifa addu’a, kamar yadda mahaifiyar Maryam ta yi a lokacin da ta haife ta: “‫إني أعيذها بك وذريتها‬ ‫[ ”من الشيطان الرجيم‬Ina neman tsarinka (Ya Allah) gare ta da zuriyarta daga shaixan abin jefewa]32 Addu’a bayan haihuwa na da amfani da tasiri mai girma a kan abin da aka haifa, kasancewar hakan na nuna neman taimakon Allah da iyaye ke yi a cikin shiriya da tarbiyar `ya`yansu, da nema masu tsarewar Allah daga shaixan, tun daga lokacin haihuwa. Abu Hurairah (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ruwaito daga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Babu wanda za a haifa daga cikin `yan Adam face shaixan ya shafe shi a lokacin haihuwar, sai ya riqa kururuwa saboda shafar da shaixan ya yi masa, ban da Maryam da xanta (saboda addu’ar da mahaifiyarta ta yi a lokacin da ta haife ta).” Sa’an nan sai Abu Hurairah ya karanta: “‫وإننني أعيننذها بننك وذريتهننا مننن الشننيطان‬ 33 ‫”الرجيم‬ A wata ruwayar: “Kowane xan Adam shaixan kan soki sasannin jikin shi (guda biyu) da yatsarsa, a lokacin haihuwa, ban da Isa xan Maryam…”34 Imam al-Qurxubi ya ce: “Sukar
Bayan wannan, akwai littafin da Umm Abdillah Naurah bint Abdir-Rahmaan ta rubuta mai suna AlIfaadah fi ma Jaa’a min Wirdil Wilaadah. Shaykh Abdullah ibn Jibreen ya rubuta gabatarwa ga littafin. A cikin littafin, an tabbatar da irin wannan fahimta. 32 Aal Imraan, 3:36 33 Bukhaari da Muslim 34 Bukhaari da Muslim

15

nan da shaixan ke yi wa yaro a lokacin haihuwa, ita ce matakin farko da yake bi na samun iko da nasara a kan mutum. Amma sai Allah ya tsare Maryam da xanta, saboda albarkar addu’ar da mahaifiyarta ta yi a lokacin da ta ce: “‫وإننني أعيننذها بننك وذريتهننا مننن الشننيطان‬ ‫.53”الرجيم‬ Don haka, ya kamata iyaye su lazimci irin wannan addu’a da mahaifiyar Maryam ta yi, ko makamancinta, daga cikin addu’o’in da ke da lafazi da ma’ana mai kyau, da zarar an yi haihuwa. Lalle ne a nisanci al’adar karanta irin surkullen da waxansu daga cikin masu karvar haihuwa (anguwar zoma) ke yi a lokacin da xa ya fito daga mahaifa ko a lokacin da za a yanke masa cibiya. Wannan al’ada ba ta da asali cikin addini. Daga cikin irin surkullen da ake karantawa a lokacin da jariri ya faxo, akwai: ‘marhaba bi ka ya Muhammad, ka zo da kanka ba saqo ba’. Idan jaririya ce, sai a ce: ‘marhaba bi ki ya Faaximah, kin zo da kanki ba saqo ba’. Irin waxannan surkulle da maganganu a lokacin karvar haihuwa, ko yanke cibiya, ko wanka, ko huda wa jaririya kunne, na nuna irin jahilci da rashin fahimtar Sunnah dake tare da irin waxannan masu karvar haihuwa. Wajibi ne a ilmantar da mata ladubban Musulunci da ke cikin aikin anguwar zoma da jinya. Sa’an nan kuma, ya kamata a riqa duba waxanda ya dace
Sameer Abdul-Azeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, (Daar Ibn Rajab, Egypt, 1999), shafi na 65
35

16

a gayyata don karvar haihuwa da sauran ayyukan da ke biyo baya, kamar yadda ya kamata a sanya ido sosai idan haihuwar an yi ta ne a asibiti. Bincike ya nuna cewa da yawa daga cikin kiristoci masu karvar haihuwa a asibiti, na yin waqe-waqe da addu’o’in coci ga jarirai kafin waxanda ke wurin su ankara. Idan ta haihu lafiya, sai ta gode wa Allah kuma ta yabe Shi. Ka da ta tsaya neman sanin namiji ne ta haifa ko mace, kamar yadda mafi yawancin mutane ke yi a yanzu. ‘A’ishah (Allah Ya yarda da ita) ta kasance idan aka yi haihuwa a gidansu, ba ta tambayar namiji ne ko mace. Sai dai ta ce: “An haife shi lafiya lau?” Idan aka ce mata lafiyarsa lau, sai ta ce: “Godiya ta tabbata ga Allah Ubangijin halitta.”36

36

Bukhaari ne ya ruwaito a cikin Al-Adabul Mufrad

17

KASHI NA BIYU: BAYAN HAIHUWA
Haihuwa na daga cikin abubuwan da ke kawo farin ciki ga al’umma, musamman waxanda abin ya shafa. Da zarar an haifi xa/`ya, mutane kan yi murna da farin ciki. Haka nan, ana yin addu’a ta fatan alheri da qoshin lafiya ga abin da aka haifa da kuma wadda ta haihu. Daga cikin manufofin addu’ar, akwai neman shiriyar Allah da kiyayewarSa da albarkarSa ga wanda/wadda aka haifa. Kasancewar albarka da tarbiya na da dalilai, Sunnah ta tanadar da abubuwan da ya kamata a yi don nema wa wanda/wadda aka haifa albarka da shiriyar Allah, tare da tsarewarSa. Gudanar da waxannan abubuwa a kan jariri/jaririya, alama ce ta nuna murna da bayyanar da godiya ga Allah game da ni’imarSa. Haka nan, kiyaye su na nuna muhimmancin da aka ba jaririn, da irin rawar da ake fatan ya taka nan gaba wajen gina al’umma. Waxannan abubuwa sun haxa da ladubban fuskantar wanda aka haifa a matsayin baqo, da haqqoqinsa bayan haihuwa, da ladubban da ya kamata a kiyaye wajen tabbatar da waxannan haqqoqi. Ga bayani kamar haka: SANAR DA HAIHUWA

18

Bayar da bushara ko sanar da haihuwa shi ne abu na farko da ake fara bikin murnar haihuwa da shi. An so a kai labarin haihuwa ga uban jaririn/jaririyar (idan an yi haihuwar a lokacin da ba ya gida). Yin hakan, zai faranta wa mahaifin rai, musamman da yake abu ne da ya daxe yana jira. Haka nan, an so a sanar da `yan’uwa da abokan arziqi, da sauran mutane. Alqur’ani ya zo da ambaton irin wannan bushara ta haihuwa da aka yi wa waxansu Annabawa. Misali, Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ba Zakariyya busharar haihuwar Yahaya, kamar yadda Ya ba Ibrahim busharar samun Isma’il. Dangane da Zakariyya, Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Sai mala’iku suka kiraye shi, alhali kuwa shi yana tsaye yana salla a cikin masallaci. (suka ce), ‘Lalle ne, Allah Yana ba ka bushara da Yahaya, …”37 Game da Ibrahim, Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Sai Muka yi masa bushara da wani yaro mai haquri.”38 Hadisi ya tabbatar da cewa Ka’ab ibn Maalik (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ba da mayafin shi ga wanda ya zo masa da busharar Allah Ya karvi tubansu a lokacin da ba su je yaqi tare da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ba.39 Haka nan, Hadisi ya zo cewa Thuwaibah ta ba Abu Lahab bushara a lokacin da aka haifi Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su
37 38 39

Aal Imraan, 3:39 As-Saaffaat, 37:101 Bukhaari

19

tabbata a gare shi).40 Bayan wannan, Ibn Sa’ad a cikin Xabaqaat da Ibn Abdul-Barr a cikin alIstee’aab, sun ruwaito cewa Abu Raafi` ya zo da bushara ga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) a lokacin da aka haifi xansa Ibrahim. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ba shi kyautar bawa saboda wannan bushara. Babu shakka, sanar da haihuwa, musamman ga wanda abin ya shafa, abu ne mai sanya farin ciki. Yana da kyau a raya wannan Sunnah ta Allah da ManzonSa (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). TAYA MURNA DA YIN ADDU’A Taya murna da addu’ar fatan alheri ga iyaye da `yan’uwan wanda aka haifa na daga ladubban da ake buqatar kulawa da su. Musulunci ya kwaxaitar da taya murna da farin ciki ga duk wani Musulmi idan wani abu na farin ciki ya same shi, kamar yadda ake son jajantawa idan abin baqin ciki ya same shi. Wannan ya sa a lokuta na aure ko sallar idi ko kammala karatu ko samun ci gaba na rayuwa da makamantansu, ake taya mutane murna da farin ciki. Sunnah ta tabbatar cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya kasance yana yin addu’ar fatan alheri da neman albarka ga `ya`yan da aka haifa wa sahabbai. `A’ishah
40

Bukhaari: Mursal

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(Allah Ya yarda da ita) ta ce: “An kasance ana kawo wa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) `ya`yan da aka haifa; sai ya yi addu’ar Allah Ya yi masu albarka, kuma ya tauna dabino ya sanya a bakinsu.”41 Babu wani Hadisi daga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ko wata sahihiyar magana daga sahabbansa (Allah Ya yarda da su) dake qunshe da lafazin da ake buqatar amfani da shi wajen taya murna. Amma an samu athari daga tabi’ai a kan haka. Misali, wani mutum ya tambayi al-Hasan al-Basaree (Allah Ya jiqan shi) dangane da kalmomin da zai yi amfani da su wajen taya murna ga wanda aka yi wa haihuwa. Sai ya ce, ka ce: ‫جعله الله مباركا عليك وعلى أمة محمد )صلى الله عليه وآله‬ (‫وسلم‬ [Allah Ya sanya shi mai albarka a gare ka da al’ummar Muhammad (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi].”42 Wannan yasa malamai suka ce za a iya amfani da kowane lafazi mai kyau, kuma mai sahihiyar ma’ana, wajen taya murna da yin addu’a ga wanda ya samu qaruwa ta haihuwa. Yana daga lafuzzan da za a iya amfani da su wajen taya murna: ،‫بارك الله لك فى الموهوب، وشنكرت النواهب، وبلنغ أشنده‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ورزقت بره‬ ِ ُ [Allah Ya sanya maka albarka cikin kyautar (da Ya baka), kuma (Ya sa) ka gode wa Mai kyautar
41 42

Muslim da Abu Daawud Xabaraani: Hasan

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(Allah), kuma (Ya raya shi har) ya kai qarfinsa, kuma a azurta ka da (samun) biyayya daga gare shi]43 TAHNEEK (SANYA DABINO A BAKIN JARIRI) Tahneek na nufin tauna dabino ko dandaqa shi don sanyawa a cikin bakin jariri/jaririya bayan haihuwa. Idan an dandaqa ko an tauna dabinon sai a xiba da yatsar hannun dama, a sanya a cikin bakin jariri, a jujjuya, dama da hagu, don kowane vangare ya samu. Bayan haka, sai a yi addu’ar alheri da neman albarka da shiriyar Allah gare shi. Wannan shi ne abin da Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya kasance yana yi ga `ya`yan da aka haifa. A cikin Sharh Saheeh Muslim, Imam an-Nawawi ya tabbatar da cewa Malamai sun yi ittifaqi cewa yin tahneek ga `ya`yan da aka haifa, mustahabbi ne, kuma mace ko namji daga cikin mutanen kirki ne za su yi wannan aiki.44 Hadisi ya gabata cewa ana kawo jarirai ga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) don ya yi masu tahneek da addu’ar neman albarka. Haka nan, Abu Musa (Allah Ya yarda da shi ) ya ce: “An haifa mani xa namiji, sai na zo da shi
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, (Maktabah alQur’aan, al-Qaahirah, 1987), shafi na 27 44 Saalim Aliyyu Raashid as-Shabalee da Muhammad Khaleefah Muhammad ar-Rabaah, Ahkaamul Maulood fi as-Sunnah al-Muxahharah, (Al-Maktab Al-Islaamee, Beirut, 1994), shafi, 32
43

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wurin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). Ya sanya masa suna Ibrahim kuma ya goga taunannen dabino a cikin bakinsa, ya yi masa addu’a, sa’an nan ya miqo shi gare ni.”45 Bayan wannan, Hadisi ya tabbata cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi haka ga waxansu `ya`yan, kamar Abdullah bn Abi Xalhah, a lokacin da Anas ya kawo shi.46 An so a yi tahneek da zarar an yi haihuwa, ba tare da dogon jinkiri ba. Haka Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) da sahabbansa (Allah Ya yarda da su) suka kasance suna yi. Ba daidai ba ne a jinkirta wannan aiki zuwa kwana uku, a haqqin namiji, ko kwana huxu, a haqqin mace, bisa hujjar cewa za a yi huxuba ga jariri/jaririya. Tahneek ne ya tabbata a Sunnah ba wai wata huxuba ba. Ana amfani da busasshen dabino ne wajen yin tahneek. Amma Ibn Hajar ya ce: “Idan mutum bai samu busasshen dabino ba, sai ya yi amfani da xanye. Idan bai samu ba, ana iya amfani da duk wani abu mai zaqi. Sai dai kuma ana fifita zuma a kan sauran abubuwa masu zaqi.”47 Da yawa daga malamai na ganin cewa a dandaqa dabinon ya fi a tauna. Suka ce, tauna
Bukhaari da Muslim Bukhaari da Muslim 47 Ahmad bn Aliyyu bn Hajar, Fath al-Baari Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, (Daar al-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, 1379AH), 9/588
45 46

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dabino ya kevanci Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ne saboda albarkar dake cikin yawunsa. Wannan ya sa ba a samu sahabbai sun tauna ba bayan rasuwar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) sai dai dandaqawa.48 Ke nan, neman tubarraki wajen tahneek daga wanin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) kuskure ne.49 Iyayen jariri (uwa ko uba) ko kuma wani daga cikin mutanen kirki ne ya kamata su yi wannan muhimmin abu. Dangane da iyaye, Hadisi sahihi ya gabata cewa ana karvar addu’ar da suka yi wa `ya`yansu. Ke nan idan xayansu ya yi tahneek da addu’a ga jariri, ana kyautata zaton dacewa. Haka nan, addu’ar mutanen kirki, waxanda ke bin Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) sau da qafa, na daga cikin abubuwan da ake yin tawassuli da su don neman biyan buqata.50 Don haka, ana iya neman wani bawan Allah, mai ilmi da taqawa, wanda ya fahimci Sunnah kuma yake aiki da ita gwargwadon iko, wanda ake sa ran karvar addu’arsa saboda biyayyarsa ga
Sulaymaan bn Abdillah, Tayseer al-`Azeez al-Hameed, shafi na 186 49 Saalim ibn Ali ibn Raashid as-Shabalee da Muhammad ibn Khaleefah ibn Muhammad ar-Rabah, Ahkaam alMaulood fi as-Sunnah al-Mutaharrah, shafi na 34 50 Shari’a ta tabbatar da halaccin yin tawassuli da nau’o’in abubuwa guda uku: sunayen Allah mafi kyawu da siffofinSa mafi xaukaka; ayyuka kyawawa da mutum ya aikata; da addu’ar mutumin kirki mai tsoron Allah. Don qarin bayani duba littafi na mai suna Sunayen Allah mafi kyawu
48

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Allah, ya yi tahneek da addu’ar ga jariri ko jaririya a madadin iyayen. Tahneek na da fa’idodi masu yawa. Idan mutum ya fahimci wasu daga cikin fa’idodin, zai qara nishaxantuwa da dagewa wajen ganin ya bi Sunnah sau da qafa. Amfanin tahneek ya haxa da:51
1. Koyi da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su

tabbata a gare shi) da kuma raya Sunnar da ya kasance a kanta tare da sahabbansa (Allah Ya yarda da su). da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) wadda ke bayyana a cikin wannan aiki. Likitanci ya tabbatar da cewa yara kan fuskanci haxarin da ke iya kai su ga mutuwa bayan an haife su idan adadin sukari da suke buqata a jikinsu (blood sugar) ya yi matuqar qaranci. Da zaran sun fito daga mahaifa, dukan kariya, da abincin da ke gina jiki da sanya kuzari da suke samu a cikin mahaifa, yana yankewa. Hakan na sanya jikin yaro ya buqaci abinci fiye da yadda yake buqata kafin haihuwa. Idan mahaifiyarsa ta kasa ba shi nono a wannan lokaci, yana iya faxawa

2. Tabbatar da mu’ujiza ta Manzon Allah (tsira

Sameer Abdul-Azeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, shafi na 71-72; da Yoosuf ibn Abdillah al`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal Al-Maulood fil Islaam, shafi na 36-37; da Saalim Aliyu Raashid da Muhammad Khaleefah, Ahkaam al-Maulood fi as-Sunnah alMuxahharah, shafi na 34
51

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cikin haxari babba. Goggoga dandaqaqqen dabino a cikin bakinsa, na taimakawa wajen samar da adadin sukari mai yawa da zai bi sasannin jikinsa don samar da kariya a gare shi na wani lokaci. Binciken da aka gudanar ba da daxewa ba, ya tabbatar da cewa adadin jarirai da ke mutuwa a sanadiyar wannan matsala a vangaren waxanda ba musulmi ba, ya ninka na musulmi. Bayan wannan, goggoga dabino a cikin bakin jariri a farkon rayuwarsa na taimaka masa wajen shan nono cikin sauqi, kamar yadda likitoci suka tabbatar.
3. Sanannen abu ne cewa dabino na da amfani

sosai ta vangaren lafiya. Gudanar da Sunnar tahneek ga jarirai na taimakawa wajen samar da qoshin lafiya a gare su.

Huxubar da mutane ke yi wa jarirai bayan kwana uku (a haqqin namiji) ko kwana huxu (a haqqin mace) da ta qunshi kiran salla a kunnen dama, da yin iqama a kunnen hagu, ko kuma kiran salla a kunnen dama da hagu, ba ta da inganci a Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). Hadisin da ke magana a kan kiran salla a kunnen dama, da yin iqama a kunnen hagu, ba shi da alaqa da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ko kaxan. Hasali ma, malamai sun tabbatar da cewa Hadisi ne na qarya (maudu’).52 Shi kuma
Shaykh Abubakar Jaabir al-Jazaa’iree ya kawo wannan Hadisi a cikin littafin Minhaajul Muslim. Na samu labarin cewa an faxakar da shi matsayin Hadisin, kuma ya
52

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Hadisin da ke magana a kan kiran salla kawai, ba tare da iqama ba, mai rauni ne (da’eef). Ke nan, ba za a iya kafa hujja ko a yi aiki da shi ba.53 Don haka, kiran salla da iqama, ko kuma kiran salla kawai da ake yi wa jarirai, da sauran abubuwan da ake yi, da sunan huxubar haihuwa, ba su tabbata ba a cikin Sunnah. Abin mamaki shi ne yadda mutane da yawa suka jahilci Sunnar tahneek. Mutane da yawa ba su yi, kuma ba su sanyawa a yi wa `ya`yansu. Maimakon haka, sai su nemo liman ko wani
amince da gyaran. 53 Duba littafin Silsilah al-Ahaadeeth ad-Da’eefah na Shaikh Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaani, #321, (Maktabah al-Ma’aarif), 1/494; da Yoosuf ibn Abdillah al`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal Al-Maulood fil Islaam, shafi na 31 don qarin bayani. Shaikh al-Albaanee ya bi matakai guda uku, kafin ya tabbatar da raunin Hadisin da ke magana a kan kiran salla. Ya nuna cewa Hadisi ne Hasan, kai tsaye, a cikin Saheeh al-Kalim at-Tayyib, Saheeh Abi Daawud #4258, da Saheeh at-Tirmidhi #1224. Daga baya, ya ce Hadisi ne Hasan in sha Allah, a cikin Irwaa’ul Ghaleel 4/401. Daga qarshe, ya ce Hadisi ne Da’eef, kai tsaye, a cikin Silsilah ad-Da’eefah. Kuma ya bayyana dalilan da suka sanya shi ya riqa tunanin cewa Hadisin na da qimar da za ta sa a yi amfani da shi bisa la’akari da hanyoyinsa mabambanta. Sauye-sauyen hukunci ga Hadisi xaya, da alAlbaanee ya yi, na nuna abubuwa guda uku: (1) ikhlasin al-Albaanee da qoqarin karantar da mutane ingantattun Hadisai, ba tare da ta’assubanci ko taqalidanci ba; (2) ilmin Hadisi na da faxi da zurfin gaske, kuma babu wanda zai iya yin da’awar qure shi gaba xaya; (3) taqalidanci ga wani malami, ko ta’assubanci ga fatawar wani mutum, ba shi daga cikin hanyar Ahlus-Sunnah.

27

dattijo don ya yi huxuba, wani lokaci ma a haxa da surkulle, kai har da sanya baki a cikin kunnen jariri, a ce: sunanka/sunanki wane/wance. Ya kamata iyaye su tsaya ga abin da Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ta tabbatar. Su yi watsi da maganar huxubar nan da sai an kira waxansu mutane don gabatar da ita. Sau da yawa ma, irin waxannan mutane ba su yin huxubar a kyauta; hanya ce ta neman kuxi a gare su. SANYA SUNA Kowace al’umma na sanya suna ga `ya`yan da aka haifa a cikinta don a iya gane su. Sanya suna shi ne abu na farko da uba ke yi don shigar da abin da aka haifa masa cikin diwanin al’umma. Suna, shi ne tambari na farko da ake iya gane mutum da shi, kuma shi ne hanya mafi sauqi ta bambancewa tsakanin wane da wane ko wannan da wancan. Sabo da muhimmancin suna, da tasirin shi a kan wanda aka kira da shi, Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ta karantar da ladubba game da sanya suna, da irin sunayen da ya kamata iyaye su zava wa `ya`yansu. Wajibi ne iyaye su sanya wa `ya`yansu suna mai kyau, kuma a lokacin da ya dace. Nazari
28

cikin Hadisai ingantattu na tabbatar da lokuta biyu54 da ake iya sanya wa jarirai suna:
1. Rana ta bakwai daga lokacin da aka haihu.

Dalili a kan haka na qunshe cikin Hadisin Samurah (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ce: Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Kowane yaro (da aka haifa) jingina ne ga aqiqarsa (dabbar da ake yankawa). Za a yanka masa a ranar bakwai, a sanya masa suna, kuma a yi masa aski.”55 Haka nan, Hadisi ya tabbata cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi umurni da sanya suna ga abin da aka haifa a rana ta bakwai, da kawar da qazanta (gashi) gare shi, da yanka masa dabba.56
Shaykh Bakr Abdullah Abu Zaid ya bayyana cewa akwai lokuta guda uku da Sunnah ta tabbatar cewa ana sanya wa `ya`ya suna: (1) ranar haihuwa; (2) rana ta uku; da (3) rana ta bakwai. Kasancewar bai kawo wani Hadisi ko wata magana daga magabata dangane da rana ta uku ba, ban kawo ranar a matsayin xaya daga cikin ranakun da ake sanya suna ga waxanda aka haifa ba. Duba littafinsa Tasmiyyatul Maulood. Sai dai kuma ya zo a cikin littafin Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood na Ibn al-Qayyim, shafi na 75, cewa Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal ya ce ruwayar Anas ta zo da sanya wa jariri/jaririya suna a rana ta uku. Wannan yasa Ibn al-Qayyim ya ce, a shafi na 80, “Kasancewar ana sanya wa abu suna ne don a gane shi, ya halasta a sanya wa jariri suna a ranar da aka haife shi, ko a jinkirta zuwa rana ta uku, ko a bar shi sai ranar da za a yanka masa aqiqa. Ya halasta kafin wannan lokaci da kuma bayan shi; kowane aka yi, ya halasta.” 55 Ahmad da Abu Daawud: Saheeh 56 Tirmidhi: Hasan
54

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2. Daga lokacin da aka haihu har zuwa rana ta

bakwai. Dalili a kan haka na qunshe cikin ingantattun Hadisai da yawa. Misali, Anas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ce: Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “An haifar mani xa namiji a daren yau, kuma na sanya masa sunan babana (kakana) Ibrahim.”57 Haka nan, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya sanya wa Abdullah ibn az-Zubair, da Abdullah ibn Abi Xalhah, da Ibraahim ibn Abi Moosa al`Ash’aree, da al-Mundhir, suna a ranar da aka haife su.58

Daga Hadisan da suka gabata, za a fahimci cewa Shari’a ta ba da damar sanya suna ga jarirai tun daga lokacin da aka haife su har zuwa rana ta bakwai. Imam al-Baihaqee ya ce: “Hadisan da suka yi magana game da sanya suna a lokacin da aka yi haihuwa sun fi hHadisan dake magana a kan jinkirtawa zuwa rana ta bakwai inganci.”59 Amma da yawa daga malamai sun ce jinkirtawa zuwa rana ta bakwai mustahabbi ne, saboda la’akari da maganar da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi. Sanya suna a ranar da aka yi haihuwa kuwa, halas ne saboda aikin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya tabbatar da haka.60
Muslim Bukhaari da Muslim 59 Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, 9/589 60 Yoosuf ibn Abdillah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 39; da Muhammad bn Aliyyu
57 58

30

Waxansu malamai na ganin cewa jinkirta sanya suna har zuwa rana ta bakwai shi ne ya fi idan akwai halin yanka dabbar aqiqa (ragon suna). Idan kuwa ba za a yanka dabba ba, sai kawai a sanya sunan tun daga lokacin da aka yi haihuwar.61 Sai dai kuma magana mafi qarfi ita ce an so a jinkirta sanya suna zuwa rana ta bakwai, amma ya halasta a sanya sunan tun daga ranar haihuwa, ba tare da la’akari da cewa za a yanka dabba ko ba za a yanka ba. Wannan shi ne abin da Hadisan suka tabbatar qarara.62 Uba (mahaifi) ne ke da haqqin zava wa xansa suna mai kyau ta hanyar yin shawara da uwa (mahaifiya). Idan suka yi savani game da sunan da za a sanya, haqqin sanyawar na ga uba. Idan ya so ya zava da kansa, idan ya ga dama ya bar uwar ta zava, ko ya yi quri’a a tsakaninsu, ko ya ba wani mutum damar zavar
bn Muhammad as-Shawkaanee, Nayl al-Awtaar Sharh Muntaqaa al-Akhbaar, (Daar al-Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon,1994), 5/210 61 Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Baari Sharh Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, 9/588 62 Maslahar ilmantar da mutane halascin bayyana sunan jarirai tun daga ranar da aka haife su, ta sanya mafi yawancin `yan’uwa sun yi watsi da mustahabbanci jinkirtawa zuwa rana ta bakwai. Sanannen abu ne cewa, kafin a qara samun wayewar addini da fahimtar Sunnah a Nijeriya, idan aka bayyana sunan jariri tun kafin kwana bakwai, waxansu gani suke yi kamar an yi ridda ko kuma an aikata wata babbar varna. Tun da mutane sun fahimta a yanzu, akwai buqatar komawa zuwa ga wannan mustahabbi.

31

sunan gare su. Malamai sun fahimci cewa uba ne ke da ikon zava wa xansa suna, kasancewar tun a nan duniya, ana danganta kowane mutum ne ga mahaifinsa. Allah (mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Ku kira su ga ubanninsu, shi ne mafi adalci a wurin Allah…”63 Haka nan ma, za a danganta mutane ga ubanninsu ne a ranar qiyama. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Za a xaga tuta ga kowane mayaudari a ranar qiyama, kuma a ce: ‘Wannan ita ce yaudarar wane xan wane.”64 Da waxannan dalilai ne malamai suka ce ba shi daga cikin karantarwar Musulunci, danganta mace ga sunan mijinta. Wajibi ne a danganta kowace mace (matar aure ko wadda ba ta da aure) ga mahaifinta, ba mijinta ba. Danganta mace ga mijinta, baquwar al’ada ce da ta shigo cikin Musulunci daga qasashen yammacin duniya.65
Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:5 Bukhaari da Muslim 65 Marwaan ibn Ibraaheem al-Qaisee, a cikin Aadaabul Islaam, na ganin cewa qasqanci ne ma ga mace ta danganta sunanta zuwa ga sunan mijinta saboda ta yi aure, kuma wulaqanci ne ga iyayenta da `yan’uwanta; domin kuwa ba a tava samun wata daga cikin matan Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ko matan sahabbai ta yi haka ba, tare da cewa sun fi kowa sanin darajar aure da haqqoqin miji. Mafi yawancin Hadisan da aka ruwaito daga sahabbai mata, na xauke ne da sunayensu tare da na iyayensu, ko kuma sunayensu kawai. A duk lokacin da aka ambaci sunan mazajensu, a kan ce ‘wance matar wane’ ba wai ‘wance wane’ ba, kamar yadda mutane ke yi a yanzu. Wannan ya sa Alqur’ani ya zo da ambaton ‘matar Nuhu’, ‘matar Lux’,
63 64

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Idan jariri ya mutu kafin a sanya masa suna, Shari’ah ta tabbatar da cewa za a sanya masa suna, kuma a yi masa jana’iza. Wannan shi ne abin da Imam an-Nawawi ya tabbatar a cikin littafin al-Majmoo`. Idan kuwa aka haife shi babu rai (wato aka yi vari) bayan an cika halittarsa, malamai sun yi savani game da dacewar sanya masa suna. Malaman shafi’iyya da hanbaliyya sun ce, mustahabbi ne a sanya masa suna. Suka qara da cewa idan ma ba za a iya gane namiji ne ko mace ba, sai a sanya sunan da ke iya xaukar ma’ana ta namiji ko mace, kamar su Xalhah da Hind. Malaman sun dogara da Hadisin da ke magana a kan kiran mutane da za a yi da sunayensu a ranar qiyama.66 Idan kuwa halittarsa ba ta cika ba a
da ‘matar fir’auna’. Ke nan, idan aka ce ‘wance matar wane’, babu laifi. Amma ba daidai ba ne a ce ‘wance wane’ ba, domin kuwa hakan ya sava wa Alqur’ani da Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) da ayyukan sahabbai (Allah Ya yarda da su). Abin mamaki, wasu mutanen, musamman `yan boko, na ganin wajibi ne ga matansu su canza suna a takardun makaranta ko wurin aiki, don wai hakan ne zai tabbatar da cewa matansu ne a hukumance. Wannan kuskure ne. Da yawa mun ji mata na canza sunansu fiye da sau uku ko biyar saboda canjin mazajen aure da suka samu a cikin rayuwarsu. Ya kamata Musulmi su bi karantarwar addininsu, su yi watsi da al’adun da suka sava wa Musulunci. Sa’an nan, yana da kyau a sani cewa ko amfani da kalmar ‘Mrs’ ba daidai ba ne. Kalmar ba tana nufin ‘matar wane’ ba ne a turanci. Kalma ce dake nuna ‘laqabi’ ko ‘matsayi’ na girmamawa ga wadda ke da aure. 66 Yoosuf ibn Abdillah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 41

33

lokacin da aka haife shi, babu buqatar sanya masa suna. Amma, Hadisan da ke magana a kan kwaxaitarwar da aka yi game da sanya suna ga wanda aka haife shi ba tare da rai ba, ba su inganta ba, kamar yadda malaman Hadisi suka tabbatar. Madogara a kan sanya suna ga wanda aka haife shi babu rai, ita ce bayanan da suka gabata, ba wai wani Hadisi qarara ba. Zaven suna mai kyau, na daga haqqoqin `ya`ya a kan iyayensu. Sanya wa `ya`ya sunan da ya dace, zai haifar masu da jin daxi, kuma ya sanya su kazarkazar duk lokacin da aka kira su da shi. Rashin sanya suna mai kyau na dakushe tunanin yara da tauye matsayinsu a cikin al’umma, musamman idan suka fahimci ma’anar sunan, bayan sun girma. Don haka, wajibi ne iyaye su sanya wa `ya`yansu suna mai ma’ana, da lafazi kyakkyawa. Kamal ibn asSayyid Saalim ya ce: “Wajibi ne uba ya zava wa xansa suna mai kyau a wajen lafazi da ma’ana, bisa tanade-tanaden Shari’a. Lalle ne sunan ya zamanto mai daxin faxi a harshe, mai daxin ji a kunne, mai daraja da karamci, kuma mai siffa ta gaskiya. Sa’an nan kuma, ka da sunan ya kasance daga cikin sunayen da Shari’a ta haramta, ko ta karhanta.”67 Malaman Sunnah sun bayyana matakai guda biyar da iyaye za su bi wajen zaven suna mai ma’ana ga `ya`yansu. Kowane mataki ya fi wanda ke qasan shi daraja. Matakan su ne:
Fiqh as-Sunnah lin-Nisaa`, (al-Maktab at-Taufiqiyyah, Cairo, 2000), shafi na 445
67

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1. Sanya

sunan da Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka) Ya fi so. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Mafi qaunatuwar sunaye a wurin Allah (Mabuwayi da xaukaka) su ne Abdullah da AbdurRahmaan.”68 Idan mace ce, sai a ce: Amatullah da Amatur-Rahmaan. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) da sahabbansa (Allah Ya yarda da su) sun tabbatar da muhimmancin irin waxannan sunaye a aikace. Misali, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya sanya wa xaya daga cikin `ya`yan shi suna Abdullah. Ya sanya wa wasu daga cikin `ya`yan sahabbai suna Abdullah da AbdurRahmaan. Haka nan, sahabbai da yawan gaske sun yi amfani da waxannan sunaye ga kawunansu da kuma `ya`yansu. Wannan ya sa, sunayen suka yi matuqar shahara a cikin sahabbai da tabi’ai, kamar yadda tarihi ya tabbatar. Ibn Salah ya bayyana cewa adadinsu ya kai xari biyu da ashirin (220). Jalaaluddeen as-Suyuxi ya qididdige sunaye kusan xari uku (300) na sahabbai da tabi’an dake amsa wannan suna.69 Sanya wa `ya`ya irin waxannan sunaye, na da matuqar muhimmanci. Bayan kasancewar sunaye ne mafi qaunatuwa a wurin Allah,

Muslim da Abu Daawud Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 42
68 69

35

akwai hikima ta cusa wa `ya`ya sanin alaqarsu da Allah. Idan yaro ya fahimci cewa shi bawa ne na Allah tun daga ma’anar sunansa, zai samu karsashi da kuzarin yin bauta, da tsayuwa da wajibinsa ga Allah.
2. Sanya wa jarirai sunan da ke nuna bauta ga

Allah. Wato a sanya sunan da ke xauke da kalmar `Abd a haqqin namiji ko Amatu a haqqin mace, tare da danganta kalmar ga xaya daga cikin sunayen Allah mafi kyawu, ban da Abdullah da Abdur-Rahmaan. Irin waxannan sunaye sun haxa da AbdurRaheem, Abdul-`Azeez, Abdul-Kareem, da Abdur-Razzaaq, a haqqin namiji. Idan mace ce, sai a ce Amatur-Raheem, Amatul-`Azeez, Amatul-Kareem, da Amatur-Razzaaq.70 Wajibi ne a yi amfani da tabbatattun sunayen Allah mafi kyawu da suka zo a cikin Alqur’ani da Hadisai sahihai, a wajen sanya wa `ya`ya irin waxannan sunaye. Kuskure ne babba a yi amfani da sunan da Alqur’ani ko Hadisai ingantattu ba su tabbatar wa Allah ba. Misali, bincike ya tabbatar da cewa, “alKhaafid, ar-Raafi’, al-Mu’izz, al-Mudhil, al`Adl, al-Jaleel, al-Baa`ith, al-Muhsee, alMubdee, al-Mu`eed, al-Muhyee, al-Mumeet, al-Waajid, al-Maajid, al-Waalee, al-

Hadisin da ya zo da sigar: “Mafi qaunatuwar sunaye a wurin Allah shi ne wanda aka yi amfani da kalmar ‘Abd’ (tare da xaya daga cikin sunayen Allah)” bai inganta ba.
70

36

Muntaqeem, Maalik-ul-Mulk, Dhul-Jalaal-WalIkraam, al-Muqsix, al-Jaami’, al-Mughnee, alMaani’, an-Naafi’, ad-Daarr, an-Noor, ‫الله‬ al‫الخلق‬ Haadee, al-Badi’, al-Baaqee, ar-Rasheed da ‫الوارث‬ as-Saboor”, ba tabbatattun sunayen Allah ba ‫الرازق‬ ne, kasancewar ba su zo da sigar suna ba, a ‫الرب‬ cikin Alqur’ani, kuma ba a ruwaito su a‫الستير‬ cikin ingantattun Hadisai ba. Don haka, ‫الوتر‬ bai ‫المنان‬ kamata a sanya wa jariri suna Abdur-Raafi`, ‫المعطى المحسن الطيب الشافى السيد السبوح الرفيق الجواد‬ ko Abdul-Jaleel, ko Abdul-Haadiy, ‫الجميل الحيي‬ ko AbdurRasheed, ko Abdus-Saboor, ko Abdul-Baaqiy, ‫المسعر‬ da makamantansu ba.71 ‫الديانالخر‬
‫الظاهر الباطن المتعالى‬ 3. Sanya sunan xaya daga cikin Annabawa‫البر‬ da ‫التواب‬ Manzanni (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare ‫العفو‬ ‫الرءوف‬ ‫المالك‬ 71 Don samun cikakken bayani game da sunayen ‫الغني‬ Allah ingantattu da waxanda ba su inganta ba, da ‫القدير‬ dalilin ‫المولى‬ kowane xaya daga cikinsu, nemi littafin da na rubuta ‫النصير القريب المبين‬ mai suna The most Beautiful Names of Allaah from the ‫القاهر‬ Qur’aan and Authentic Sunnah. ‫الشاكر‬ Sakamakon binciken da na gudanar, na fahimci cewa ‫المليك‬ akwai ‫ المجيد الشهيد الحق الوكيل القوي‬da ake danganta wa sunaye guda talatin (30) ‫الكرم العلىالحكيم الودود‬ ‫المتين‬ Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka), kamar yadda‫الولي الحميد‬ ‫ الحي‬suke cikin jerin sunayen Allah guda casa’in da tara (99), da ‫القيوم الواحد‬ ruwayar Tirmidhi ta tabbatar, duk da cewa ba su zo da ‫الحد‬ sigar suna ba, ‫الصمد القادر المقتدر المقدم المؤخر الول القابض‬a ‫ الباسط السميع‬a cikin Alqur’ani, haka nan, ba su zo cikin Hadisai sahihai ‫البصير الحكم اللطيف الخبير الحليم العظيم‬ ‫ الغفور الشكور العلي‬ba. Sunayen da ba su tabbata ba, su ‫الكبير الحفيظ المقيت الحسيب الكريم الرقيب المجيب الواسعالله‬ ne: ‫الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيمرافِعالمعزالمذللعَد ْللجليللباعثالمحصيالمب ْديءالمعيدالمحييالمميتالواجدا‬ ِ ُ ِ َ ُ ِ ُ ِْ ُ ُ ِ ُ ُ ِ ُ ِ ْ ُ ُِ َ ُ ِ َ ُ ّ ُ ّ ‫الخافضال‬ ُ ُ َ ُ ِ ‫لماجدالواليالمنت َقممال ِك المل ْكننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننننذو الجلل‬ ِ ‫َ الملك‬ ِ ُ َ ُ ِ ‫والكرامالمقسطالجامعالمغْنيالمان ِعالضارالنافِعالنورالهاديالب َديعالباقيالرشيدالصبور‬ ِ َ ُ ّ ُ ّ ّ ّ ُ َ ِ ُ ُ ِ َ ِ ْ ُ ‫القدوس‬ ُّ ُ ِ ّ ِ َ ُ ِ A qarshe, waxannan sunayen sun bayyana a gare ni, ‫السلم‬ bisa dalilan da na kawo a cikin littafin: ‫المؤمن‬ ‫المهيمن‬ ‫العزيز‬ ‫الجبار‬ 37 ‫المتكبر الخالق الباريء المصور‬ ‫الغفار القهار الوهاب الرزاق الفتاحالعليم‬

su).72 Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Kuna iya sanya suna irin nawa…”73 Kuma shi da kansa ya sanya wa xansa suna Ibraaheem, kamar yadda ya zo a cikin Hadisi: “An haifar mani xa namiji a daren yau, kuma na sanya masa sunan babana Ibraaheem.”74 Haka nan, ya sanya wa xan Abu Moosa suna Ibraaheem, kuma ya sanya wa jaririn da aka haifa wa Abdullah ibn Salaam suna Yoosuf.75 Bayan wannan, Hadisin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya tabbatar cewa Banoo Israa’eel sun kasance suna sanya wa `ya`yansu sunayen Annabawa da salihai da suka zo kafinsu.76 Maganar da ta shahara a bakin mutane cewa ba a son sanya sunayen Annabawa, don gudun ka da mutane su riqa kiransu ba tare da ladabi ba, ko su la’ance su, a lokacin da suka yi fushi, ba ta da inganci. Hadisan da suka gabata, na tabbatar da rashin sahihancin wannan ra’ayi.77
4. Amfani da sunayen magabata na qwarai

(maza ko mata), kamar sahabbai da tabi’ai da shahidai da malaman Sunna. Manufar

Hadisin dake cewa: “Ku riqa sanya suna irin na Annabawa”, bai inganta ba 73 Bukhaari da Muslim 74 Muslim 75 Ahmad: Saheeh 76 Muslim 77 Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, shafi na 91
72

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haka ta haxa da fatan da ake yi wa `ya`yan su taso da soyayya ga waxancan masu sunayen na asali, da qoqarin koyi da su wajen taqawa, ayyukan alheri, qoqarin neman ilmi, sadaukantaka, gwagwarmaya cikin addinin Allah, da neman shahada. Tarihi ya nuna cewa sahabin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) azZubair ibn al-Awaam (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya zava wa wasu daga cikin `ya`yan shi sunayen wasu sahabbai da suka yi shahada a wurin yaqi, da fatan su zama kamarsu wurin taimakon addinin Allah da samun shahada. Ya sanya Abdullah (don koyi da Abdullah ibn Jahsh), Urwah (saboda Urwah ibn Mas’ood), Hamzah (saboda Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muxxalib), Ja’afar (saboda Ja’afar ibn Abee Xaalib), da Mus’ab (saboda Mus’ab ibn `Umair).78 Wannan hukunci bai kevanci maza kawai ba. Yana da kyau a sanya wa `ya`ya mata sunayen sahabbai mata da sauran bayin Allah na qwarai magabata, da fatan su yi koyi da su cikin tsoron Allah, kamun kai, gwagwarmaya, da sauran xabi’u kyawawa. Irin waxannan sunaye sun haxa da Khadeejah, Faaximah, Aa’ishah, Maryam,

Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 44; da Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, shafi na 91
78

39

Asmaa, Zainab, Sumayyah, Nusaibah, da Khawlah.
5. Sanya duk wani suna da ya qunshi lafazi da

ma’ana mai kyau, da ke nuna sadaukantaka, kamun kai, ko taqawa. An so ya kasance mai sauqin faxi, wanda ya dace, kuma mai daxin ji, da kyawun ma’ana. Amma lalle ne ka da ya kasance daga cikin sunayen da Shari’a ta hana sanyawa. Daga cikin sunaye masu kyawun ma’ana, waxanda ke da daxin lafazi, ko suke nuna sadaukantaka, akwai: Hamzah, Khaalid, Anas, da Usaamah. A cikin sunayen mata, akwai: Saarah, Hassaanah, da Haleemah. Waxannan su ne matakai guda biyar na sunayen da ya kamata a yi amfani da su ga `ya`ya. Bai kamata a tsallake su zuwa ga waxanda Shari’a ta hana, ko waxanda ba su da ma’ana mai kyau, ko kuma ba su dace da waxanda aka yi wa mafani da su ba. Yin haka cutarwa ce ga `ya`yan, musamman idan suka fahimci matsayin sunayen a Shari’a, bayan sun girma. Lalle ne iyaye su fahimci cewa akwai sunayen da bai kamata su sanya wa `ya`yansu ba. Irin waxannan sunaye sun kasu gida biyu: waxanda aka hana kwata-kwata, da waxanda aka karhanta, saboda rashin dacewarsu.

40

Sunayen da aka hana yin amfani da su sun haxa da:
1. Duk wani suna da ke nuna bauta ga wanin

Allah. Irin waxannan sunaye sun haxa da Abdun-Nabee (bawan Annabi), Abdur-Rasool (bawan Manzo), Ghulaamun-Nabee (bawan Annabi), Ghulaamur-Rasool (bawan Manzo), Abdul-Husain (bawan Husain), Abdul-Ka’abah (bawan ka’aba), Abdul-Hajar (bawan dutse), Abdus-Shams (bawan rana), Abdul-Qamar (bawan wata) da Abdun-Nujoom (bawan taurari). Hakanan ma, sunan Abdul-Muxxalib (bawan Muxxalib) ya shiga cikin jerin sunayen da aka hana yin amfani da su.79
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn al-Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, shafi na 82 Abin mamaki, jama’a da yawa na sanya wa ‘ya’yansu suna ‘Abdul-Muxxalib. Idan ka tambaye su dalili, sai su ce ai sunan kakan Annabi Muhammad (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ne. Sai dai kuma ba su san cewa sanya wannan suna na da matsaloli guda biyu ba. (i) Sun danganta bauta ga wanin Allah mai suna Muxxalib. Bayani ya gabata cewa haramun ne a yi amfani da kalmar ‘’Abd’ tare da wani suna da ba na Allah ba. Al-Muxxalib kuwa ba shi daga cikin sunayen Allah bisa ittifaqin Musulmin duniya. Ke nan, kamar yadda ya haramta a sanya sunan ‘Abdur-Rasool ko ‘Abdul-Ghulaam ko ‘Abdun-Nabee ga wani, haka nan ma ba ya halasta a sanya wa wani suna ‘AbdulMuxxalib. (ii) Mai wannan suna na asali, wato, kakan Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), ba Musulmi ba ne, kamar yadda Hadisai da littafan tarihi suka tabbatar. Menene abin burgewa cikin sanya sunan wanda ba Musulmi ba, tare da cewa Annabi da sahabbansa da waxanda suka biyo bayansu ba su yi amfani da
79

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2. Duk wani suna daga cikin sunayen Allah ba

tare da an haxa da kalmar “’Abd” ba. Misali, haramun ne a kira wani da suna ar-Rahmaan ko as-Salaam ko ar-Razzaaq ko al-Hakam, kai tsaye. Maimakon haka, sai dai a ce ‘AbdurRahmaan, ‘Abdus-Salaam, ‘Abdur-Razzaaq da ‘Abdul-Hakam. Idan kuwa an yi amfani da sunan Allah ba tare da 'Al' a farko ba, watau kamar a kira wani da suna Rahmaan ko
wannan suna ga ‘ya’yansu ba? Waxansu mutane na ganin babu laifi a sanya wannan suna, kasancewar Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi amfani da shi a cikin waxansu Hadisai ingantattu. Misali, lokacin da aka umurce shi da kiran `yan’uwansa makusanta zuwa ga Musulunci a farkon annabta, ya ce: “Ya kai Abbaas ibn Abdil-Muxxalib …”. Hakanan, Hadisi ya tabbata cewa Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Ni Annabi ne (tabbas) ba qarya, Ni ne xan Abdul-Muxxalib”. Suka ce, da laifi ne yin amfani da wannan suna, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ba zai yi ba. Amsar da aka ba irin waxannan mutane ita ce: Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi mafani da wannan suna ne a babin bayar da labari, ba wai tabbatarwa ba. Sanannen abu ne cewa idan mutum zai bayar da labari game da wani ko wani abu, zai siffanta shi ko ya ambace shi ne da abin da kowa ya san shi, don gudun ka da ruxani ya shiga. Lokacin da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ke amfani da wannan suna, Abdul-Muxxalib ba shi da rai. Tunda ya bar duniya, babu fa’ida cikin canza masa suna. Aka qara da cewa da Abdul-Muxxalib na da rai lokacin da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya zama Manzo, babu shakka da an canza masa suna, matuqar ya musulunta, kamar yadda aka canza sunayen waxansu mutane da dama. Duba littafin Tuhfah alMaudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood don qarin bayani.

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Raheem ko Ra`oof, saboda siffantuwa da ya yi da abubuwan da sunan ya qunsa, ko kuma saboda kawai ana son a kira shi da wannan suna, mafi yawancin malamai na ganin halascin haka. Sun dogara da ayar da ke cikin surah at-Taubah80 da ta zo da sunayen Allah guda biyu: Ra’oof da Raheem (ba tare da 'Al' ba), a haqqin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi).81
3. Sunayen dake nuna mummunar makoma, ko

wani abu mai haxari, kamar Mal’uun ko Mal’uunah (wadda aka la’anta) da Zaqquum ko Zaqquumah (sunan wata bishiya a cikin wuta).82 da kafirai (yahudu, nasara ko maguzawa) suka kevanta da su, ko kuma sunayen waxanda suka shahara da zalunci ko qiyayya ga Musulunci da Musulmi. Daga cikin irinsu akwai Diana, Lenin, Fir’auna, Qarun, Abu Jahl, da Abu Lahab.

4. Sunayen

Aya ta 128 Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, The Fundamentals of Tawheed, (Tawheed Publications, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1990), shafi na 15; da Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, Tafseer Soorah al-Hujuraat (Tawheed Publications, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1990), shafi na 151 82 Na samu labarin cewa an sanya wa wata yarinya suna Mal’uunah (wato tsinanniya). Haka nan, wani xan’uwa ya ba ni labarin wata xaliba da ta ce sunanta Zaqquumah, a lokacin da ta zo yin rajista a makarantarsu ta Islaamiyyah.
80 81

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5. Sunaye guda huxu da Manzon Allah (tsira da

aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya hana sanya wa `ya`ya. Su ne: Aflah (mai rabo), Rabah (wanda ya ci riba), Yasar (sauqi) da Najih (mai nasara). A cikin wata ruwayar, Naafi` (mai amfani) aka ce, maimakon Najih.83

Wajibi ne a canza sunayen dake qarqashin lamba ta xaya da ta biyu da ta uku, zuwa sunayen da suka dace. Imam Abu Daawud ya ruwaito Hadisi sahihi daga Abu Shuraih cewa ya kasance ana yi masa alkunya da Abul-Hakam. Sai Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: "Allah Shi ne al-Hakam kuma Shi ne Mai hukunci". Sai (Abu Shuraih) ya ce: 'Mutane na sun kasance idan savani ya auku a tsakaninsu, sukan zo wuri na, kuma idan na yi masu hukunci, sai su yarda gaba xayansu'. Sai (Annabi) ya ce: "haka yana da kyau. Amma kana da ‘ya’ya?" Sai (Abu Shuraih) ya ce: 'Shuraih da Muslim da ‘Abdullah'. Sai (Annabi) ya ce: "wane ne babbansu?" Sai (Abu Shuraih) ya ce: 'Shuraih'. Sai (Annabi) ya ce: "daga yanzu alkunyarka ta koma Abu Shuraih". An yi savani game da sunayen da ke qarqashin lamba ta huxu. Ibn al-Qayyim na ganin cewa makaruhi ne amfani da su, ba wai haramun ba.84 Amma waxansu malamai na ganin haramcin sanya irin waxannan sunaye.85 Haka
Muslim Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, shafi na 85 85 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 45
83 84

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nan, malamai sun yi savani dangane da sunayen da ke qarqashin lamba ta biyar. Imam an-Nawawi da Ibn al-Qayyim na ganin cewa makaruhi ne sanya su, ba haram ba.86 Waxansu malamai na ganin haramcin yin amfani da su, tun da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya hana.87 Waxansu malamai sun qara da cewa haramcin sunayen da ke qarqashin lamba ta biyar ya haxa da duk wani suna mai ma’ana irin nasu. Amma magana mafi qarfi ita ce haramcin ya tsaya kan waxannan sunaye ne guda biyar da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ambata da bakinsa mai tsraki. Dalili a kan haka shi ne tabbatarwar da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi ga sunaye kamar Sa’eed, Sa’ad, Aliyyu, Maimoonah da Saalih, waxanda ke da ma’ana kwatankwacin ma’anar sunaye guda biyar xin da suka zo a wancan Hadisi.88 Sunayen da aka karhanta amfani da su saboda rashin ma’ana ko lafazi mai kyau, ko saboda ba su dace da waxanda aka sanya wa sunan ba, sun haxa da:
1. Duk sunan dake nuna bauta ga Allah, amma

aka danganta ga wani daga cikin sunayen da

Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, shafi na 8384; da Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal Al-Maulood fil Islaam, shafi na 47 87 Sameer ibn Abdul-Azeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, shafi na 76 88 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 48
86

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ba su inganta a haqqin Allah ba. Kamar Abdur-Raafi`, Abdul-Jaleel, Abdul-Haadiy, Abdur-Rasheed, Abdus-Saboor, AbdulBaaqiy, Abdul-Maujood, Abdul-Maqsood, da makamantansu. Kiran Allah da sunan da bai tabbata a cikin Alqur’ani ko Hadisi sahihi ba, rashin ladabi ne ga Allah.89
2. Sunayen da ke nuna qasqanci ko tozarci ko

munanan xabi’u, kamar Himaar (jaki), Harb (yaqi), Kalb (kare), Dajaajah (kaza), Baxxah (agwagwa). Wisaal (jima’i), Faatin (fitinanniya), Fitnah (fitina), Shaadiyah (mawaqiya), Nuhaad (mai manya-manyan nono), da Huyaam (sarkin soyayya). Irin waxannan sunaye sun fi shahara a cikin larabawa. Amma saboda rashin ilmi, waxansu mutane a wannan qasa tamu kan yi amfani da su ga `ya`yansu.

3. Sunayen da ke nuna rashin kunya, kamar

4. Sanya

sunayen surorin Alqur’ani, kamar Yaaseen, Xaahaa da Haameem. Imam Maalik (Allah Ya jiqan shi) ya ce amfani da irin waxannan sunaye makaruhi ne. Ibn alQayyim ya ce: “Abin da mutane ke xauka cewa Yaaseen da Xaahaa na daga cikin sunayen Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), ba daidai ba ne. Babu

Muhammad Saalih al-`Uthaymeen, al-Qawaa`id alMuthlaa fee Sifaat Allah wa Asmaa’ih al-Husnaa, (alJaami`ah al-Islaamiyyah, Madeenah, Saudi Arabia, 1410), shafi na 13
89

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wani Hadisi sahih, ko hasan, ko mursal, ko maganar wani sahabi da ke nuna haka. Su ma kamar sauran haruffan Alqur’ani ne irin su Alif-Laam-Meem, Alif-Laam-Ra da Haameem.”90
5. Sunayen

da ake cirowa daga ayoyin Alqur’ani, kamar Watteen, Wal-Fajr, IdhaWaqa, Qad-Sami`, Zaitun, Wal-Ha, Lam Yakun, Tabaara, Amma, Quloohiya, Kauthar, Alam tara, Humazah, Lan tana, Bushraa, da sauransu. sunayen mala’iku kamar Jibreel, Mikaa’il, da Israafeel. Wannan shi ne ra’ayin Imam Maalik. Amma waxansu malamai na ganin halascin sanya su ga maza, kasancewa Hadisin da aka ruwaito mai nuna hani a kan haka, mai rauni ne. An yi ittifaqi a kan rashin dacewar irin waxannan sunaye ga mata don gudun koyi da mushirikai da ke cewa mala’iku mata ne.91 da xaukaka ta musamman, kamar Barrah (mai tsoron Allah/mai kirki), Zaakiyyah (tsarkakakkiya), Saalihah (ta qwarai) da Muxee’ah (mai biyayya).92 Haka nan,

6. Sanya

7. Sanya sunayen dake nuna tsarkaka ko falala

Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam al-Maulood, shafi na 91 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood bi Ahkaam alMaulood, shafi na 85-86; da Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal Al-Maulood fil Islaam, shafi na 47 92 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 47
90 91

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sunayen da ake danganta su da addini ko Musulunci, kamar Muhyiddeen, Nuruddeen, Shamsuddeen, Izzuddeen, Naasiruddeen93, Zahraddeen, da Saiful-Islaam.94 Imaam axXabaree ya ce: “Bai kamata a sanya wa yaro wani suna da ke da ma’ana mummuna, ko sunan da ke nuna tsarkaka, ko wanda ma’anarsa ta qunshi zagi ba.” 95 Bayan wannan, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya canza sunan xaya daga cikin matansa daga Barrah zuwa Zainab.96
8. Sanya

duk wani suna mara ma’ana cikakkiya, ko wanda ba shi da lafazi mai daxi, ko kuma sunan dake nuna surkulle. Irin waxannan sunaye sun haxa da Naadiya, Sameerah, Ismuha, Shamsiyyah, Bashariyyah, Qamariyyah, Badariyyah, Maraqisiyyah, Maashixa, Zillaziyya, Nujoomah, Jawaahid, da sauransu.

Amfani da irin waxannan sunaye da aka bayyana a sama, bai dace ba, musamman waxanda ke qarqashin lamba ta xaya. Da yawa daga malamai na ganin wajibcin canza duk wani suna dake nuna bauta ga Allah, idan an
Wannan ya sa shaikh Muhammad Naasiruddeen alAlbaanee ya riqa qyamar wannan suna. An tabbatar cewa sau da yawa ya kan kira kansa ne da suna Naasir, maimakon Naasiruddeen. 94 Kamaal ibn as-Sayyid Saalim, Fiqh as-Sunnah linNisaa`, shafi na 447 95 Duba Silsilah as-Saheehah #207-216 don qarin bayani 96 Bukhaari da Muslim
93

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danganta shi ga sunan da bai inganta a haqqinSa ba. Karhancin sanya irin waxannan sunaye na da daraja dabam-daban. Sunayen dake qarqashin lamba ta xaya da ta biyu sun fi tsanani da rashin dacewa. Sunayen dake qarqashin lamba ta huxu, da lamba ta bakwai, sun fi damadama, musamman da yake wasu daga cikin magabata sun yi amfani da irinsu ga kawunansu ko `ya`yansu. Amma dai, rashin amfani da su gaba xaya, shi ne ya fi. Ya kamata a canza duk wani suna da Shari’a ta karhanta, zuwa ga sunan da ya dace. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya kasance yana son kyawawan sunaye, kuma yana qin munana da waxanda ba su da wata ma’ana ta kirki, sa’an nan yana canza su zuwa ga sunayen da suka dace. Misali, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya canza sunan ‘Aasiyah (mai aikata savo) zuwa ga Jameelah (kyakkyawa), kamar yadda Imam Muslim ya ruwaito. Haka nan, ya canza Hazn zuwa Sahl97, Barrah zuwa Zaynab98, Surm zuwa Sa`eed99, Asram zuwa Zur`ah100, Jatthaamah zuwa Husaanah101, Shihaab zuwa Hishaam102, da dai sauransu.103
Bukhaari da Abu Daawud Muslim 99 Haakim: Saheeh 100 Abu Daawud: Saheeh 101 Haakim: Saheeh 102 Bukhaari a cikin al-Adabul Mufrad: Hasan
97 98

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Ba a buqatar yin wani abu na musamman, don za a canza suna. Ba sai an sake yanka rago ko an raba goro ko an tara jama’a ba. Sunayen da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya canza, sun fara aiki ne nan take, ba tare da an yanka rago ko an tara jama’a, ko an ba wani mutum kuxi ba. NASEEKAH (RAGON SUNA) Naseekah ko Dhabeehah ko Aqeeqah104 ita ce dabbar da ake yankawa a rana ta bakwai, ko goma sha huxu, ko ashirin da xaya, bayan
Jamaal as-Sayyid Rufaa’i as-Shaayib ya rubuta littafi a kan sahabban da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya canza wa suna ko alkunya ko laqabi. Ya kawo sunayen sahabbai guda xari da talatin da xaya (131). Sunan littafin Tazkiratu Ulil Albaab fi ma Ghayyarahun Nabiyy minal Asmaa wal Kunaa wal Alqaab (Maktabah as-Sunnah, Egypt, 2004). Kafin wannan littafin, Shaykh Bakr Abdullah Abu Zaid ya kawo sunayen sahabbai fiye da guda xari (100), a cikin littafinsa Mu’ujaam al-Manaahi al-Lafziyyah, waxanda Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya canza wa suna ko laqabi ko alkunya. 104 Malamai sun yi savani dangane da sunan da ya kamata a kira dabbar da ake yankawa a rana ta bakwai bayan haihuwa. Mafi yawan malamai na ganin halascin kiranta da suna Dhabeehah ko Naseekah ko Aqeeqah, ba tare da wani karhanci ba. Waxansu kuwa na ganin karhancin amfani da sunan Aqeeqah, kasancewar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya nuna rashin son wannan suna, kamar yadda ya zo a cikin Hadisi sahihi. Wannan ya sa Ibn Hajar, a cikin Fath al-Baari, 9/588, ya ce: “Abin da ya fi shi ne a kira ta da suna Dhabeehah ko Naseekah, maimakon Aqeeqah .”
103

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haihuwa.105 Yanka dabba (rago ko tunkiya ko bunsuru ko akuya) ga wanda aka haifa na daga ladubban Shari’a, da ake son iyaye su aikata, saboda murna da godiya ga Allah bisa ni’imarSa da baiwar da ya yi masu ta samun qaruwa. Malamai sun yi savani game da hukuncin dabbar da za a yanka wa wanda aka haifa. Waxansu na ganin cewa wajibi ne a kan wanda duk yake da iko.106 Sun kafa hujja da maganar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi): “Tare da yaro akwai aqiqa (da za a yanka masa), don haka, ku zubar da jini (ku yanka dabba) a madadinsa…”107, da Hadisin: “Kowane yaro jingina ne ga aqiqarsa: za a yanka masa a rana ta bakwai, kuma a sanya masa suna, a yi masa aski a wannan rana.”108 Suka ce: a cikin Hadisi na farko, akwai umurni da Manzon Allah Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi game da yanka dabba ga wanda aka haifa. Sananniyar qa’ida ce cewa umurni na nuna wajibci, matuqar ba a samu wani dalili dake nuna savanin haka ba. Hadisi na biyu ya
A cikin wannan littafi na yi amfani da sunan Aqeeqah ne saboda a yi saurin fahimta, kasancewar an fi amfani da kalmar a wannan qasa. Amma tare da haka, na fi ganin dacewar a kira ta da suna Dhabeehah ko Naseekah. 106 Malaman su haxa da al-Hasan al-Basari, al-Laith da Ibn Hazm. Haka nan, an ruwaito irin wannan magana daga ImamAhmad ibn Hanbal 107 Abu Daawud da Tirmidhi: Saheeh 108 Ahmad, Abu Daawud, Tirmidhi, Nasaa’i da Ibn Maajah: Saheeh
105

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nuna qarara cewa kowane yaro na matsayin jingina ce har sai an yanka masa dabba kafin a fanshe shi.109 Wannan ra’ayi ya fi qarfi, in sha Allah. Saboda haka, yanka dabba ga wanda aka haifa, wajibi ne a kan uba, matuqar yana da iko.110 Ibn Hazm na daga cikin malaman da ke ganin wajibci, kuma ya kawo dalilai masu yawan gaske don qarfafa wannan fahimta.111 Haka nan, Ibn al-Mundhir ya ruwaito daga Yahya al-Ansaari cewa salaf (sahabbai da taba’ai) ba su gushe ba, suna ganin wajibcin yanka dabba ga wanda aka haifa. Waxansu malamai na ganin cewa Sunnah ce wajiba.112 Sun dogara da Hadisin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) dake cewa: “Wanda duk aka yi wa haihuwa kuma yake son ya yanka dabba, to ya yanka raguna biyu ga xa namiji, ko rago xaya ga `ya mace.”113 Suka ce: “wannan Hadisi ya fawwala al’amarin yanka dabbar a hannun uba. Idan ya
Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 53 Abdul-Azheem Badawee, al-Wajeez fi fiqh as-Sunnah wal Kitaab al-Azeez, (Daar Ibn Rajab, Egypt, 2000), shafi na 408; da Sameer Abdul-Azeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, shafi na 78 111 Aliyyu ibn Ahmad ibn Sa’eed ibn Hazm, al-Muhalla, (Daar al-Fikr, Beirut), 7/526 112 A cikin Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 53, Ibn al-Qayyim ya ce: “Imam Maalik ya kasance yana cewa: ‘Sunna ce wajiba; ya zama dole a yi aiki da ita’. Kuma wannan ita ce maganar Imam as-Shaafi’ee, da Ahmad ibn Hanbal, da Ishaaq, da Abu Thaur, da ax-Xabaree.” 113 Abu Daawud da Nasaa’i: Hasan [Duba Silsilah asSaheehah #1655, da Irwa’ul Ghaleel #1166]
109 110

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so, ya yanka, ko kuma ya bari.114 Hakan na nuna cewa mustahabbi ne ko Sunna, ba wai farilla ba.115 Malamai sun yi ittifaqi a kan ba a yanka dabba ga wanda ba a haifa da rai ba. Idan an haife shi da rai, amma ya mutu kafin rana ta bakwai, shin za a yanka masa dabba ko ba za a yanka ba? Waxansu malamai na ganin ba za a yanka ba, kasancewar mutuwar tasa za ta haifar musu da baqin ciki ko damuwa, maimakon farin ciki. Amma wasu malaman na ganin wajibcin yankawa. Sun kafa hujja da cewa: “Hadisan dake magana a kan yanka dabba ga jarirai sun ta’allaqa aikin ne da haihuwa ba rayuwa zuwa kwana bakwai ba’. Wannan ra’ayi na biyu ya fi qarfi.116

Daga cikin raddin da aka yi wa malaman dake da wannan ra’ayi, akwai maganar cewa ayoyin Alqur’ani sun zo da irin wannan siga mai nuna kamar an ba da zavi ne, alhali kuwa wajibci suke nunawa. Misali, 2:158 da 81:28 sun zo da irin wannan yanayi. 115 Imam Abu Haneefah na ganin cewa aqiqa ba Sunna ba ce. A ganinsa, yanka dabba a wannan lokaci halas ne kawai, ko ma abin da Shari’a ba ta tabbatar da shi ba. Ibn al-Qayyim ya ce: “Mazhabar Abu Haneefah sun ce aqiqa ba Sunna ba ce, kuma suka sava wa ingantattun Hadisan Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), da bayanan da aka ruwaito daga sahabbai da tabi’ai.” [Duba Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 34; da Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 54] 116 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 54, 62
114

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Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ta tabbatar cewa ana yanka wa xa namiji dabbobi guda biyu, madaidaitan shekaru, `ya mace kuma a yanka mata guda xaya. Wannan ya dace da fatawar Ibn Abbaas (Allah Ya yarda da shi), da mafi yawancin malamai, kamar Imam as-Shaafi’ee da Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Hujjojinsu na qunshe cikin Hadisan da Aa’ishah117 da Umm Kurz118 da Amr ibn Shu’aib119 (Allah Ya yarda da su) suka ruwaito. Ibn Umar (Allah Ya yarda da shi) da Imam Maalik na ganin cewa dabba xaya ce za a yanka wa xa namiji ko `ya mace. Sun kafa hujja da Hadisin dake cewa: “Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yanka wa al-Hasan da alHusain rago xai-xai.”120 Sauran malamai sun ba da amsa cewa: “Wannan Hadisi ya zo da lafuzza dabam-daban. Waxansu ruwayoyi sun zo da lafazin rago xai-xai, a yayin da wasu suka zo da lafazin (kowanensu guda) biyu. A qa’idar ilmin Hadisi, wajibi ne a yi aiki da duk wani qari da aka samu a cikin wani Hadisi, musamman idan qarin ya zo ne ta wasu hanyoyi dabam, kuma ba su kore juna ba. Bayan wannan, ruwayar da ta zo da lafazin biyu ta dace da sauran Hadisan dake magana a kan yanka dabbobi biyu ga xa namiji, guda xaya ga `ya mace.”121 Ke nan, Sunnar yanka dabba na
Ahmad da Tirmidhi: Saheeh Abu Daawud, Tirmidhi da Ibn Maajah: Saheeh 119 Abu Daawud: Hasan 120 Abu Daawud: Saheeh 121 Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee, Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, (Al-Maktab al-Islaamee, Beirut, 1985), 4/384; da Ibn Hajar, Fathul Baari, 9/592
117 118

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samuwa ne kawai idan an kiyaye wannan qa’idar. Imaam as-Shaukaanee ya ce: “Aqeeqah Sunnah ce daga cikin Sunnonin Musulunci; ba ta tabbata har sai an yanka dabbobi biyu ga xa namiji, mace kuma a yanka mata dabba xaya.”122 Idan ma tagwaye aka haifa, maza biyu, ko mata biyu, ko mace da namiji, ko fiye da haka, za a kiyaye tsarin da ya gabata ne. Wato, namiji guda biyu, mace kuma guda xaya.123 Haka nan, Sunna ta tabbatar da cewa ana iya yanka rago ko tunkiya ko bunsuru ko akuya (qadduwa). Duk dabbar da aka yanka daga cikin waxannan, ta wadatar. Dalili a kan haka na cikin lafazin ‫ شاة‬da waxansu Hadisai suka zo da shi. Wannan kalma na xaukar ma’anar maza da mata a cikin awaki da tumaki. Bayan wannan, akwai qari da aka samu a cikin wata ruwaya cewa: “Kuma ka da ku damu da cewa (dabbobin) maza ne ko mata.”124 Sai dai kuma amfani da raguna ga namiji ko mace a wajen aqiqa, shi ne ya fi, kasancewar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi amfani da su ga al-Hasan da al-Husain.125

Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 56 123 Ibn Hajar, Fathul Baari, 9/592 124 Ahmad, Abu Daawud da Tirmidhi, kuma Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee ya inganta wannan qari a cikin Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, 4/391 125 Nasaa’i: Saheeh al-Isnaad [Duba Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, 4/380]
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Ba a yin amfani da sauran nau’o’in dabbobi, kamar raquma da shanu, wajen aqiqa. Hadisan da suka gabata duk sun taqaitu ne a kan rago, tunkiya, bunsuru da akuya. Hadisin da aka ruwaito cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya nuna halascin yanka raquma da shanu da awaki, bai tabbata ba. Hasali ma, Hadisi ne na qarya, kamar yadda malamai suka ce.126 Amma ya tabbata cewa Anas ibn Maalik (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya yanka wa `ya`yansa raquma.127 Amma dai, Sunnar ita ce taqaituwa ga abin da Hadisan Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) suka tabbatar, ba amfani da raquma ko shanu ba. Domin kuwa an ce wa Aa’ishah (Allah Ya yarda da ita), lokacin da aka haifa wa AbdurRahmaan ibn Abi Bakr xa namiji, “ki yi aqiqa da raqumi ma na”, sai ta ce: “Allah Ya tsare ni! Abin da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce, shi ne: ‘awaki biyu masu shekaru kusan iri xaya’.”128 Ibn Hazm129 da Ibn Hajar130 na ganin rashin ingancin amfani da sauran nau’o’in dabbobi, kamar raquma da shanu, a wajen aqiqa.

Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee, Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, #1168 127 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 58; da al-Albaanee, Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, 4/394 128 Xahhaawee da Baihaqee: Hasan [Al-Albaanee, Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, 4/390, 394] 129 al-Muhalla, 7/523 130 Fath al-Baari, 9/740
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An so dabbar da za a yanka wa jariri ta zamanto babba, kuma mai cikakken lafiya da qoshi. Amma ba sharaxi ne a samu hakan ba. Malaman dake cewa dole ne dabbar ta cika sharuxxan da ake buqatar dabbar layya ta cika, ba su da hujja a cikin Hadisi ingantacce ko mai rauni, kamar yadda Ibn Hazm, Ibn al-Arabee da as-Shaukaanee suka tabbatar.131 Ana yanka dabbar aqiqa ce a rana ta bakwai. Kuma ko da an sanya wa jariri ko jaririya suna kafin ranar bakwai, za a jinkirta yanka har zuwa wannan rana.132 Hadisan da suka yi magana a kan aqiqa duk sun bayyana cewa za a yanka ta ne a rana ta bakwai. Sai dai kuma an yi savani game da qirgan ranakun. Magana mafi qarfi ita ce za a fara qirgawa ne daga ranar da aka yi haihuwa.133 Imaam an-Nawawee ya ce: “Yanka aqiqa a rana ta bakwai bayan haihuwa shi ne Sunna. Shin za a fara qirgan kwanakin daga ranar haihuwa ce (ko kuwa daga kashegari)? Akwai fuskoki guda biyu (a mazhabar shafi’iyya): amma a qirga daga ranar da aka yi haihuwar shi ne ya fi inganci. Ke nan, sai a yanka aqiqa bayan kwana shida (yini na bakwai) da haihuwa.”134 Wannan shi ne ra’ayin mafi yawancin malamai.135 Haka nan, Ibn Rushd da `Abdul-Azeez ibn Abi Salamah da Ibn alYoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 60-61 132 Ibn Hazam, al-Muhalla, 7/523 133 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 62 134 Yahaya ibn Sharaf an-Nawawee, al-Majmoo’ sharh alMuhaddhab, 8/431
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Maajishoon na mazhabar malikiyya, duk sun karkata ga wannan ra’ayi, kamar yadda yake cikin littafin Muqiddimaat da Bidaayatul Mujtahid. Misali, idan aka yi haihuwa ranar juma’a, kamata ya yi a yanka dabbar a ranar alhamis ta gaba, maimakon juma’a. Alhamis ne yini/rana na/ta bakwai da haihuwa (wato kwana shida kenan a wajen bahaushe). Idan aka jinkirta zuwa ranar juma’a, ya zama rana ta takwas kenan, maimakon rana ta bakwai da kalmar ‫ يوم سابعه‬ke nufi a cikin larabci.136 Uba (mahaifi) ne ke da alhakin yanka aqiqa ga yaron da aka haifa masa, kamar yadda mafi yawancin Hadisai suka nuna. Babu laifi wani daga cikin `yan’uwa ko dangi da sauran abokan arziqi ya taimaka ma shi da dabbar ko kuxin saye. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ne ya ba da dabbobin da aka yanka wa jikokinsa Al-Hasan da Al-Husain, tare da cewa mahaifinsu Aliyyu ibn Abi Xaalib na nan. Idan mutum bai samu damar yanka aqiqa a rana ta bakwai ba, saboda wata larura, babu laifi ya yanka a rana ta goma sha huxu ko rana ta ashirin da xaya. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Ana yanka aqiqa ce a rana ta bakwai ko ta goma sha huxu

Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Rushd, Bidaayatul Mujtahid wa Nihaayatul Muqtasid, (Daar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1990), 2/374 136 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 62
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ko ta ashirin da xaya.”137 Ibn Qudaamah ya ce: “Sunna (game da yanka aqiqa) ita ce: a yanka a rana ta bakwai. Idan (wannan rana) ta kuvuce (ba a samu damar yankawa ba), sai a yanka a rana ta goma sha huxu. Idan ta kuvuce, sai a yanka a rana ta ashirin da xaya.”138 Idan bai samu dabbar da zai yanka wa jariri/jaririya ba a cikin waxannan kwanakin guda uku, wato ranar bakwai ko sha huxu ko ashirin da xaya, shin zai yanka daga baya ko kuwa a’a? Waxansu malamai, da suka haxa da Imaam Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ishaaq, da alBaghwee, na ganin halascin yankawa bayan waxannan kwanaki, matuqar an samu iko, ba tare da iyakance rana ko lokaci ba. Sun dogara da Hadisin: “Kowane yaro jingina ce ga aqiqarsa...” Suka ce: ‘Lalle ne a yanka wa duk wanda aka haifa aqiqa, da zarar an samu hali,
Xabaraanee; da ad-Dayaa: Saheeh [Duba littafan AlAlbaanee, Saheeh al-Jaami’ #4132 da ar-Raud anNadeer #166]. Shaykh Al-Albaanee ya yi ishara da raunin wannan Hadisi a cikin Irwaa’ul Ghaleel #1170. Amma kasancewar ya rubuta Irwaa kafin Saheeh alJaami` da ar-Raud, ana xaukar cewa inganta Hadisin, da ya yi a cikin Saheeh al-Jaami’ da ar-Raud ne hukunci na qarshe da ya bayyana a gare shi. Shaykh Abu Ishaaq al-Huwaynee ya tabbatar wa Hadisin da matsayin Hasan a cikin littafinsa Al-Inshirah fi Aadaabin Nikah. Amma, Saalim ibn Ali ibn Raashid asShabalee da Muhammad ibn Khaleefah ibn Muhammad ar-Rabah sun nuna rashin sahihancin Hadisin, a cikin littafinsu Ahkaam al-Maulood fi as-Sunnah alMuxaharrah, shafi na 60 – 63 138 al-Mughnee, 11/121
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don a fanshe shi daga wannan jingina’.139 Ibn alQayyim ya ce: “Iyakance ranakun yanka aqiqa da aka yi, matsayinsa mustahabbi ne. Da za a yanka a rana ta huxu, ko ta takwas, ko goma, ko bayan haka, duk ya yi; da ranar yanka ake la’akari, ba wai ranar da za a dafa nama don a ci ba.”140 Shi kuwa Ibn Hazm, yana ganin idan aka yanka aqiqa kafin rana ta bakwai, aqiqar ba ta yi ba; amma idan ba a samu ikon yankawa a rana ta bakwai ba, za a iya yankawa duk lokacin da aka samu hali.141 Idan mutum ya samu labari, bayan ya girma, cewa ba a yanka masa aqiqa ba, a lokacin da yake jariri, wajibi ne ya yanka wa kansa. Malamai sun kafa hujja da Hadisan dake nuna wajibcin aqiqa, da waxanda ke nuna cewa yaron da aka haifa na jingine da aqiqarsa, har sai an yanka masa. Suka ce: wajibi ne ya yanka, matuqar yana da hali, don ya fanshi kansa daga wannan jingina, musamman da yake an ce za a iya yankawa bayan kwanakin da Hadisai suka ambata. Kuma wannan maganar na da qarfi, in sha Allah.142 Anas ibn Maalik (Allah Ya yarda da
Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 63 140 Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 46 141 Saalim ibn Ali ibn Raashid as-Shabalee da Muhammad ibn Khaleefah ibn Muhammad ar-Rabah, hkaam alMaulood fi as-Sunnah al-Muxaharrah, shafi na 60 142 Waxansu malamai na ganin cewa wajibcin yanka aqiqar na nan a kan uban. Suka ce, tun da shi ne aka xora wa wannan aiki, wajibi ne ya sauke nauyin ko da bayan yaron ya girma. Duba: Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah alMaudood, shafi na 65
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shi) ya ruwaito cewa Annabi (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yanka wa kansa aqiqa bayan ya zamanto Manzo.143 Idan an jinkirta sanya suna zuwa rana ta bakwai, an so a yanka dabbar bayan an sanya suna. Haka nan, an so wanda zai yanka ya yi addu’a, tare da ambaton sunan yaron/yarinyar, bayan ya yi Bismillah. Wato, ya ce: ...‫بسم الله، اللهم لك وإليك، هذه عقيقة‬ [Bismillah, Allahumma laka wa ilaika, Haadhihi aqeeqah… - Da sunan Allah, Ya Allah taka ce (wannan dabba/ibada) kuma gare Ka, wannan ce aqiqar wane/wance]144. Imam al-Mundhir ya ce: “Faxin wannan addu’ar abu ne mai kyau. Kuma da mutum zai yi niyyar aqiqa (a cikin zuciyarsa) kawai (bayan ya yi Bismillah), ba tare da ya qara da wani abu ba, yankan ya yi, in sha Allah.”145 Idan ya manta da faxin Bismillah gaba xaya, a wajen yanka, za a ci, kamar yadda Ibn Abbaas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ba da fatawa.146

Xahhaawi: Hasan al-Baihaqee ya ruwaito daga Aa’ishah (Allah Ya yarda da ita) daga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). Imaam an-Nawawi da al-Iraaqee sun ce Hadisi ne Hasan 145 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 69 146 Maalik: Saheeh. Duba littafin Ahkaam al-Maulood fi asSunnah al-Muxaharrah na Saalim ibn Ali ibn Raashid asShabalee da Muhammad ibn Khaleefah ibn Muhammad ar-Rabah, shafi na 69
143 144

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Za a yi amfani da naman dabbar da aka yanka duk yadda aka so. Amma dai, an fi son a ci wani abu daga ciki, kuma a kyautar da wani vangare ga `yan’uwa da abokan arziki, sa’an nan a yi sadaka da wani abu daga ciki, ga mabuqata, ba tare da iyakance adadi ba. An ruwaito cewa Aliyyu ibn Abi Xaalib (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya kyautar da xaya daga cikin qafafuwan aqiqar da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yanka wa al-Hasan da al-Husain ga unguwar zoma.147 Haka nan, an tambayi Imam Ahmad game da yadda za a rarraba naman aqiqa, sai ya ce: “Duk yadda ka so”, sai aka ce masa: “waxanda suka yanka za su iya ci?” Ya ce: “Eh, amma bai kamata su cinye su kaxai ba. Kamata ya yi su ci, kuma su kyautar da wani vangare daga ciki.”148 Babu laifi a soya ko a dafa ko a gasa naman aqiqa. Haka nan, za a iya kyautar da wani vangare da ake so, tun kafin a sarrafa. Waxansu malamai sun ce: yanayi da kuma halin jama’a ya kamata a lura: idan rarrabawa xanye zai fi fa’ida, sai a yi hakan; idan kuwa zai fi kyau da amfani idan aka ba da shi bayan an sarrafa, to kamata ya yi a sarrafa xin.149 Ibn alQayyim ya ce: “Idan aka dafa/soya, an hutar da
al-Baihaqee ne ya ruwaito Hadisin, kuma al-Arnaa’oot ya ce Hadisi ne Hasan. Amma ruwayar al-Haakim dake nuna cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ne ya umarci Faaximah (Allah Ya yarda da ita) da yin haka, ba ta inganta ba, kamar yadda Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee ya tabbatar a cikin Da’eef alJaami`#3175 148 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 63
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mabuqata da maqwabta wahalar aiki. Yin haka kuwa, kyautatawa ce gare su, da qarin godiya ga Allah bisa wannan ni’ima ta haihuwa. Duk lokacin da aka ba mutane soyayyen/dafaffen nama ta yadda za su iya cinsa kai tsaye, farin cikinsu da jin daxinsu zai qaru. Wannan ya sa Imam Ahmad (da aka ce masa akwai xawainiya cikin dafa/soya naman kafin a rarraba) ya ce: ‘Jure wa wahalar sarrafawar (kafin a rarraba) shi ne ya fi’. Kuma dama sauran nau’o’in abinci da ake yi a lokacin farin ciki (kamar aure da abincin liyafa ga baqi) sarrafa su ake yi kafin a rarraba. Wannan ma haka ya kamata a yi.”150 Malamai sun yi savani game da gayyatar mutane cin abincin da aka shirya saboda haihuwa (walimar suna). Ibn Abdul-Bar ya ce: “Maganar Imam Maalik ita ce: za a ci, kuma a kyautar/sadaukar da wani abu daga ciki, amma ba za a gayyaci mutane, kamar yadda ake yi a walima (ta aure) ba.”151 Mazhabar shafi’iyya na ganin cewa rarraba abincin/naman bayan an sarrafa, ba tare da an gayyaci jama’a ba, shi ne ya fi, amma babu laifi a yi gayyatar.152 Sauran malamai kuwa, na ganin halascin gayyatar mutane zuwa wajen walimar haihuwa, kai tsaye.153
Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 68 150 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 58 151 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 64 152 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 68 153 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 64
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Babu wani Hadisi da ya zo daga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) dangane da walimar haihuwa. Amma ya zo a cikin littafin al-Adabul Mufrad na Imam Bukhaari cewa Mu’awiyyah ibn Qurrah ya gayyaci waxansu daga cikin sahabban Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ciyar da su, a lokacin da aka haifa masa Iyaad.154 Haka nan, Abu Qursaafah (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ajiye azumin da yake yi (na taxawwu’i), a lokacin da aka gayyace shi zuwa wajen walimar haihuwa, kamar yadda Imam Bukhaari ya ruwaito a cikin al-Adabul Mufrad.155 Bisa waxannan dalilai156, da kuma bayanan da Ibn Taimiyyah ya kawo a cikin Majmu alFataawaa [32/206-207] da Ibnul Qayyim a Tuhfah [64], za a iya yin walimar haihuwa matuqar:
1. Za a taqaitu ne a kan cin abinci kawai, kuma

da zarar an kammala, kowa gabansa, ba tare da an yi biki ba

ya

kama

Shaykh Muhammad Naasiruddeen Al-Albaanee ya inganta isnadinsa a cikin Saheeh Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 155 Saalim ibn Ali ibn Raashid as-Shabalee da Muhammad ibn Khaleefah ibn Muhammad ar-Rabah, hkaam alMaulood fi as-Sunnah al-Muxaharrah, shafi na 71 - 71 156 Akwai xaliban ilmi da ke ganin babu hujja a cikin wannan aiki na sahabbai (Allah Ya yarda da su), tun da ba a zamanin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ba ne abin ya auku. Sai dai, wannan fahimtar ta sava wa abin da manyan malaman Sunnah suka tabbatar.
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2. An kuvuta daga kowace irin bidi’a (kamar

kiran mutane don a raxa wa jariri/jaririya suna ko gayyatar makaxa)

3. Ba a kallafawa kai abin da ba za a iya ba 4. Ba a taqaita walimar zuwa ga wata rana ta

musamman ba (kamar a ce dole sai a rana ta bakwai)157

Taron da mata ke yi, a rana ta bakwai (ranar suna), don taya mai jego murna, ba shi da wani asali a cikin Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi). Barin xakunansu na aure da suke yi, don zuwa gidan da aka yi haihuwa, in da za su haxu da sauran mata, a ci abinci, a yini ana hira, wani lokaci ma a haxa da kixe-kixe, ba shi da goyon bayan Shari’a. Abin da Shari’a ta tabbatar shi ne walima. Walima kuwa, ba ta buqatar mutane su yini cur a gidan da aka yi haihuwa, ko kuma a lazimci ranar bakwai, ko a kallafa wa mutane abin da ya fi qarfinsu.

Waxansu daga cikin `yan’uwa, xaliban ilmi, na ganin bai kamata a buxe wa mutane wannan qofar ba, kasancewar mutane na son irin wannan damar ce, don su samu hujjar ci gaba da waxansu bidi’o’in. Amma ni ina fahimtar cewa wannan tsoro bai kamata ya hana xaliban ilmi karantar da abin da ya tabbata ba. Ilmi amana ne, kuma wajibi ne a karantar da shi yadda ya kamata. Abin da mutane ke buqata a wannan lokaci, shi ne tarbiyya, ta yadda za su tsaya a wurin da Shari’ar Musulunci ta tsayar da su.
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A taqaice, taron maza don yin addu’ar suna, a qofar gida, ko a cikin masallaci, da taron yinin suna da mata ke yi, duk matsayinsu xaya. Abubuwa ne sababbi a cikin addini. Don haka, nisantarsu shi ya fi alheri. ASKI Aske kan jariri/jaririya na daga cikin abubuwan da ake son a yi a rana ta bakwai da haihuwa. Da zaran an yanka aqiqa, sai a gabatar da aski. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Kowane yaro na jingine da aqiqarsa; za a yanka masa a rana ta bakwai, kuma a sanya masa suna a wannan rana, a yi masa aski.”158 Haka nan, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce wa Faaximah (Allah Ya yarda da ita), a lokacin da ta haifi al-Hasan: “Ki yi masa aski, kuma ki ba miskinai azurfa kwatankwacin nauyin gashinsa, a matsayin sadaka.”159 Malamai sun yi savani game da `ya mace: shin za a yi mata aski kamar namiji? Magana mafi qarfi ita ce: hukuncin wannan aski ya shafi namiji da mace, kasancewar babu wani dalili mabayyani da ya kevance xaya, ya bar xayan. Hadisan da suka zo da lafazin ‘yaro’ (‫ ,)غلم‬na xaukar ma’ana ta namiji da mace, kamar yadda kalmar ‘wanda aka haifa’ (‫ ,)مول نود‬ke xauka. ‫ن‬ Wannan shi ne abin da Imam as-San’aanee ya
Ahmad da Abu Daawud: Saheeh Ahmad da al-Baihaqee: Hasan [Duba littafin Irwaa’ul Ghaleel #1175]
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tabbatar a cikin Subool as-Salaam. Saboda haka, aski a rana ta bakwai Sunna ce a haqqin namiji da mace.160 Ladubban da ake son a kiyaye dangane da wannan aski, sun haxa da:
1. Farawa

da vangaren dama kafin hagu. Wannan ladabi bai tsaya a kan askin da za a yi wa jariri/jaririya ba. Duk lokacin da za a yi aski ko yankan farce (qumba) ko gyaran gashi, da sauransu, an so a fara da dama kafin hagu. Hadisi ya tabbata cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), a lokacin da za a yi masa aski a Minaa, ya umurci wanzaminsa da farawa da vangaren dama. Bayan ya gama, sai ya umurce shi da aske gefen hagu.161 a yi aski ne kawai idan an haifi yaro/yarinya da gashi a kai. Idan babu gashi kwata-kwata, ko kuma ya zamanto xan kaxan, ta yadda babu abin da za a iya askewa, shi ke nan. Goga reza ko aska a kan jaririn da ba a haife shi da gashi ba, ba shi da wani dalili. bar wani vangare ba tare da aski ba. Ko dai a aske gaba xaya, ko kuma a bar shi gaba xaya. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su

2. Za

3. Haramun ne a aske wani vangare, kuma a

Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 78 161 Muslim
160

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tabbata a gare shi) ya hana yin al-qaz’u (wato a aske wani vangare na gashin kai, a bar wani vangare ba a aske ba).162
4. Idan an kammala aski, sai a auna nauyin

gashin a sikeli. Abin da ya kama, sai a ba da sadakar azurfa na qimar wannan nauyi.163 An so a yi sadakar a wannan rana, saboda waxansu Hadisai da aka ruwaito, waxanda ke qarfafar juna.164 gashin, sai a zuba gashin a cikin rami, a rufe,165 ko kuma a ajiye a duk in da ake so. Babu wani nassi sahihi da ya kevance wurin da za a ajiye gashi, ko wuraren da aka hana ajiyewa.

5. Idan an kammala aski, kuma aka auna

6. An so a shafa turare a kan jariri/jaririya

bayan an yi aski. Buraidah (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ce: “Mun kasance, a zamanin jahiliya, idan an yi wa xayanmu haihuwa, sai ya yanka akuya, ya shasshafe kan yaron da jininta. Da Musulunci ya zo, sai muka riqa

Bukhaari Kasancewar ba a amfani da azurfa a matsayin kuxi a wannan lokaci, da yawa daga malamai na ganin dacewar ba da kuxi mai xan kauri, gwargwadon iko 164 Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee, Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, 4/405 165 An ruwaito cewa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya bizne gashin xansa Ibraaheem, bayan an yi masa aski. Haka nan, an ruwaito irin waxannan maganganu daga Mujaahid da Ibn seereen. [Duba: Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal Al-Maulood fil Islaam, shafi na 77]
162 163

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yanka akuya, muna aske kan jariri/jaririya, kuma muna shasshafe kan da za’afaran (wani nau’i na turare).166 FAXAKARWA
1. Cire belu ko hakin wuya da ake yi bayan an

kammala aski ko kafin rana ta bakwai da haihuwa, al’ada ce da ta kevanci Hausawa da maqwabtansu kawai. Masana sun bayyana cewa cire belu ga jariri/jaririya ba shi da wani amfani, bisa sakamakon bincike mai zurfi da aka gudanar. Hasali ma, rashin cire shi ya fi amfani ga yara, kasancewar yana taimaka masu wajen fitar da waxansu haruffa, musamman na larabci.167 Maganar da ta shahara cewa rashin cire belu zai sa ya girma sosai, ya kumbura, sa’an nan daga qarshe, ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutum idan ya fashe, ba ta da goyon bayan Shari’ah ko bincike na kimiyya. Abin da aka tabbatar shi ne, akwai waxansu abubuwa guda biyu a cikin bakin mutum dake kumbura, wani lokaci su kai ga yin masa ciwo (ko da kuwa an tava cire masa belu). Idan irin wannan ya faru, sai a sha maganin da zai tsotse shi, irin

Abu Daawud da al-Baihaqee: Saheeh [Duba Irwaa’ul Ghaleel, 4/388, da Hadisi mai lamba ta 1172] 167 An sha haxuwa da haxurra a sanadiyar yanke belu ko hakin wuya ga jarirai. Idan aka samu kuskure a wajen yankewar, shi ke nan, matsala ta auku. Da yawa, an samu labarin yaran da suka mutu ko suka samu naqasar dindindin a baki saboda zaftare masu wani vangare na baki da aka yi a wurin cire belu: ko dai a tava hanxa ko gefen maqogwaro.
166

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su Ampiclox, don ya wargaje. Shi ke nan sai ya warke bayan ya save.
2. Wankan da mai jego take yi da tafasasshen

ruwa, ta hanyar amfani da ganye, ko tawul, har na tsawon kwana arba’in ko sittin, musamman a haihuwar farko, ba shi da wani amfani. Al’ada ce kawai ta bahaushe, da waxanda suke koyi da shi. Shari’ar Musulunci ba ta tabbatar da wannan wanka ba, haka nan ma, kimiyya ko ilmin sanin yanayin xan Adam, bai tabbatar da shi ba. Hasali ma, bincike na ilmi, ya tabbatar da cewa, wankan jego yana da illoli da yawan gaske, musamman idan an haxa shi da shan kunun kanwa, ko amfani da wutar jin ximi, a xaki. Yana haifar da hawan jini, da ciwon jiri! Mace ba ta buqatar yin wankan jego, saboda ta haihu. Abubuwa uku take buqata: (i) yin wanka da ruwan ximi, safe da yamma; (ii) shiga cikin ruwan zafi, wanda aka zuba maganin kashe qwayoyin cuta, kamar dettol, saboda rauni (jin ciwo) da ta yi, a ciki, da gefen al’aurarta, a dalilin fitar jariri/jaririya; (iii) abinci mai kyau, kuma mai gina jiki. Haka nan, ba a buqatar shan kunun kanwa, wai don ruwan nono ya zo, ballantana a jiqa qaiqayi ko wani magani mai xaci, don a sha! Wannan, ya sava wa ilmi da bincike. Abin da mace take buqata, a wannan lokaci, shi ne, ta samu kayan shayi, ta riqa sha da kauri. Duk mai jegon da ta samu abinci lafiyayye, da shayi mai kauri, za a ga walwala tare da
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ita, kuma ruwan nono, sai an tatse, an zubar, saboda ciccikowar da zai yi, fiye da buqatar jariri/jaririya. Bayan wannan, matar da ba za ta yi wankan jego ba, ba ta buqatar shan tsimi ko jiqo, ko ta sha maganin da ake dafawa da nama, a madadin wankan! Shi ma wannan, al’ada ce kawai; babu wani bincike na ilmi da ya goyi bayan haka.
3. Kuskure ne barin gashi a wajen maxigar

jariri/jaririya, ba tare da askewa ba, a lokacin da za a yi aski. Yin haka, nau’i ne na qaz’u, wanda bayani ya gabata a kansa. KACIYA Kaciya na xaya daga cikin abubuwan da ake buqatar a yi wa jariri/jaririya a rana ta bakwai da haihuwa. Kaciyar maza (khitaan) ta qunshi yanke fatar (lovva) dake kewaye da kan azzakari. Kaciyar mata kuwa (khafd), ta qunshi rage fata ko xan tozo (clitoris) dake kan farji (wanda ya yi kama da tukkun zakara). Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya sanya kaciya a matsayin xaya daga cikin ayyukan fixrah (xabi’u na addinin Musulunci da Allah Ya halicci mutane a kansu) da ake buqatar kowane Musulmi ya kula da su. Abu Hurairah (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya ce: Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Abubuwa guda biyar na daga xabi’u na
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addinin Musulunci (da Allah Ya halicci mutane a kansu): kaciya, aske gashin al’aura (zakari/farji da dubura), saisaye gashin baki, yanke qumba, da tsige gashin hammata.”168 Malamai sun yi savani game da hukuncin kaciya. Magana mafi qarfi ita ce, kaciya wajibi ne a haqqin xa namiji, kuma Sunna a haqqin `ya mace. Imam Maalik, as-Shaafi’ee169 da Ahmad ibn Hanbal sun ba da fatawa da wannan.170 Dalilai a kan wajibcin kaciya a haqqin xa namiji sun haxa da:
1. Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Sa’an

nan kuma Muka yi wahayi zuwa gare ka (cewa), ‘Ka bi addinin (aqidar) Ibraaheem, mai karkata zuwa ga gaskiya…”171 Malamai suka ce: Kaciya na daga addinin (aqidar) Annabi Ibraaheem, kamar yadda Hadisin Abu Hurairah (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ya nuna:
Bukhaari da Muslim Imaam an-Nawawi, a cikin al-Majmoo` da Sharh Saheeh Muslim, ya bayyana cewa Imaam as-Shaafi’ee na ganin wajibcin kaciya a haqqin mata. Ya kafa hujja da Hadisin: “Idan wuraren kaciya biyu (zakari da farji) suka haxu, to wanka ya wajaba.” 170 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 116; Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee, Tamaam alMinnah fit-ta’aleeq alaa Fiqh as-Sunnah, (Daar arRaayah, Riyadh, 1417AH), shafi na 79; Abdullah ibn Abdur-Rahmaan al-Bassaam, Tayseer al-`Allaam sharh Umdatul Ahkaam, (Daar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1987), 1/70; Sameer Abdul-Azeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, shafi na 83; da Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal Al-Maulood fil Islaam, shafi na 86 171 Surah an-Nahl 16:123
168 169

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“(Annabi) Ibraaheem ya yi wa kansa kaciya yana da shekara tamanin.”172 Tun da Allah Ya umurci Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) da bin hanyar Annabi Ibraaheem, kamar yadda Ya umurci wannan al’umma da koyi da ManzonSa (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), kaciya wajibi ne a haqqin kowane Musulmi.
2. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a

gare shi) ya umurci wani mutum da ya musulunta cewa ya yi kaciya. Ya ce masa: “Ka cire wa kanka gashin kafirci, sa’an nan ka yi kaciya.”173 Malamai suka ce: wannan umurni da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi, na nuna wajibci, kamar yadda qa’idar Usool al-Fiqh ta tanada.
3. Kaciya na xaya daga cikin manya-manyan

abubuwan girmamawa na addini, kuma alama ce da Musulmi ke amfani da ita wajen rarrabe kansu daga waxanda ba Musulmi ba. Wannan ya sa a lokacin yaqi, ba a xaukar mara kaciya a matsayin Musulmi, idan aka kasa bambancewa tsakanin gawarwakin Musulmi da waxanda ba musulmi ba. AlKhaxxaabee ya ce: “Idan aka samu mai kaciya a cikin gawarwakin waxanda ba su da kaciya, a wurin yaqi, za a yi masa sallar

Bukhaari da Muslim Ahmad da Abu Daawud: Hasan [Duba Saheeh alJaami` #1251, Saheeh Abee Daawud #382, da Irwaa’ul Ghaleel #79 na Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee]
172 173

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gawa, kuma Musulmi.”174

a

rufe

shi

a

maqabartar

4. Wanda ba shi da kaciya na fuskantar haxarin

rashin samun cikakken tsarki, a duk lokacin da ya yi fitsari ko maziyyi ya fito masa. Domin kuwa, fatar da ta lulluve zakari (lovva) za ta voye wani vangare na fitsarin ko maziyyin a kan zakarin, ta yadda ba za a iya wanke shi gaba xaya ba. Wannan ya sa, Ibn Abbaas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) ke ganin rashin ingancin sallar wanda ba shi da kaciya.175 Dangane da kaciyar mata, malaman dake ganin cewa Sunna ce, sun dogara da waxannan dalilai:
1. Hadisin da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su

tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Idan wuraren kaciya biyu (zakari da farji) suka haxu, to wanka ya wajaba.”176 A wata ruwayar: “Idan wuraren kaciya biyu (zakari da farji) suka haxu, kuma kan zakari ya shige (cikin farji), to wanka ya wajaba; ya fitar da maniyyi ko

Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 116; da Al-Albaanee, Tamaam al-Minnah, shafi na 69. Haka nan, Ibn Hajar, ya danganta wannan magana ga AlKhaxxaabee, a cikin Fathul Baari 175 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 116; da Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 86 176 Ahmad: Saheeh [Duba Saheeh al-Jaami` #385, Silsilah as-Saheehah #1261, da Irwaa’ul Ghaleel #80]
174

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bai fitar ba.”177 Imam Ahmad ya ce: “Wannan Hadisi na nuna cewa ana yi wa mata kaciya.”178
2. Hadisin da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su

tabbata a gare shi) ya ce wa Umm ‘Axiyyah (Allah Ya yarda da ita): “Idan za ki yi (wa mata) kaciya, to ka da ki yanke (fatar) da yawan gaske. Domin hakan zai fi kyau a gare ta (wadda za a yi wa kaciyar), kuma zai fi daxi ga mijinta.”179

Daga dalilan da suka gabata, za a fahimci cewa Musulunci ya tabbatar da kaciyar maza da mata. Wannan shi ne abin da ya shahara tun daga zamanin sahabbai (Allah Ya yarda da su) har zuwa tabi’ai da tabi’ut-tabi’in (Allah Ya jiqansu), da waxanda suka biyo bayansu.180 Dangane da hukuncin kaciyar, wajibi ne a haqqin maza, Sunnah a haqqin mata. Mafi yawancin malamai na ganin cewa babu wani lokaci na musamman da aka iyakance don yin kaciya. Kowane lokaci aka ga dama, sai a yi.
Xabaraanee: Hasan [Duba Saheeh al-Jaami` #386, Silsilah as-Saheehah #1261, da Saheeh Abee Daawud #209] 178 Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 132 179 Aboo Daawud, al-Haakim da at-Tabaraanee: Saheeh [Duba Saheeh al-Jaami` #236, Silsilah as-Saheehah #722, da Tamaam al-Minnah, shafi na 67] 180 Sameer Abdul-Azeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, shafi na 86-89; Ibn al-Qayyim, Tuhfah alMaudood, shafi na 132; da Al-Albaanee, Tamaam alMinnah, shafi na 67
177

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Amma waxansu malamai sun ce mustahabbi ne a yi wa jariri/jaririya kaciya a rana ta bakwai. Sun dogara da Hadisin Jabir (Allah Ya yarda da shi) da ke cewa: ‘Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yanka wa al-Hasan da al-Husain aqiqa a rana ta bakwai, kuma ya yi masu kaciya’; da Hadisin Ibn Abbaas (Allah Ya yarda da shi): ‘Abubuwa guda bakwai Sunna ne a haqqin yaro, a rana ta bakwai (da haihuwarsa): za a sanya ma shi suna, kuma a yi ma shi kaciya, …’181 Bayan wannan, bincike na likitanci ya tabbatar da cewa, kaciya ta fi saurin warkewa idan aka yi ta a rana ta bakwai, kasancewar jiki na samun kariya ta musamman a wannan tsakani. Haka nan, waxansu muhimman sanadaran jiki, kamar white blood cells da anti-bodies na yin aiki cikin sauri da sauqi, a wannan tsakani, don kare jiki daga kamuwa da cututtuka, a sanadiyar yanka ko rauni. Bayan wannan, blood coagulation da zuciya (liver) na yin aiki sosai, kuma vitamin K na samuwa a makon farko na haihuwa.182 Ke nan, yin kaciya a rana ta bakwai ya fi fa’ida, matuqar babu wata larura da za ta hana a gudanar da ita a wannan rana.

ax-Xabaraanee ya ruwaito su: Hasanun li ghairih. Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee ya tabbatar da cewa Hadisan sun qarfafi juna, kasancewar suna da hanyoyi mabambanta. [Duba littafin Tamaam al-Minnah, shafi na 68] 182 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 92
181

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Maganar da ta shahara a bakin mutane cewa mustahabbi ne a jinkirta kaciya har sai yaro ya kai shekara bakwai, magana ce dake buqatar qarin bayani. Abin da malamai suka ce shi ne mustahabbi ne a yi wa yaro kaciya da zarar ya kai shekara bakwai saboda a wannan lokaci ne Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce a umurce shi da yin salla. Tun da tsarki na daga sharuxxan salla, kuma rashin kaciya na kawo rashin samun cikakken tsarki, bai kamata yaro ya riqa yin salla ba tare da kaciya ba, duk da cewa sallar ba ta wajaba a kan shi ba, a wannan lokaci. Ke nan, malamai na nufin ka da a bari yaro ya wuce shekara bakwai ba tare da an yi masa kaciya ba, ba wai ana son a jinkirta yin kaciyar har sai ya kai shekara bakwai ba. Bayani ya gabata cewa Hadisan Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) guda biyu, waxanda ke qarfafar juna, sun yi ishara da mustahabbancin yin kaciya a rana ta bakwai. To ina maganar mustahabbancin jinkirta yin kaciya zuwa shekara bakwai? Da wani nassi aka dogara? Kawai dai an so a gaggauta yin kaciyar da zarar yaro ya kai shekara bakwai, kasancewar ya kai matsayin da za a umurce shi da yin salla. Idan da jinkirtawar zuwa shekara bakwai ne aka fi so, me yasa ake yi wa mace kaciya (khafd) kafin wannan lokaci? Me zai hana a bari ta kai shekara bakwai, sa’an nan a yi?

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Babu laifi a yi kaciya kafin rana ta bakwai ko kuma bayanta, har zuwa kusan lokacin balaga.183 Da zarar yaro ya kusa balaga, wajibi ne a yi masa kaciya. Ibn al-Qayyim ya ce: “Wajibi ne a yi wa yaro kaciya kafin ya balaga, ta yadda balagar za ta zo masa, alhali an yi masa kaciya. Domin, kaciya na daga cikin abubuwan da ibada ba ta inganta sai da su.”184 Ba a yin kaciya ga wanda aka haife shi ba tare da fata a kewaye da kan azzakarin shi ba. Idan wani vangare na azzakarin na fili, sauran kuma na cikin fatar, wajibi ne a yanke fatar, domin kan azzakarin ya fito fili gaba xaya. Haka nan, macen da aka haifa tare da qanqanuwar fata (tulluwa) a kan farjinta, ta yadda ba a buqatar qara yanke ta, ba za a yi mata kaciya ba.185 Ba a yin gayyata zuwa wajen cin abinci saboda kaciya. Hadisi ya tabbata cewa al-Hasan ya gayyaci Uthmaan ibn al-`Aas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) wajen walimar kaciya, amma ya qi zuwa. Da aka tambaye shi (dalili), sai ya ce: “A zamanin Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ba mu halartar walimar
Bukhaari, Ahmad da Xabarani sun ruwaito daga Ibn Abbaas (Allah Ya yarda da shi) cewa sahabbai (Allah Ya yarda da su) sun kasance suna yi wa `ya`yansu kaciya ne idan sun kusa balaga. Wannan ke nuna cewa babu laifi a jinkirta kaciya har zuwa wannan lokaci, ko da yake a yi da wuri, shi ne ya fi 184 Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 125 185 Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee, Aadaab Istiqbaal AlMaulood fil Islaam, shafi na 91-92
183

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kaciya, kuma ba a gayyatarmu.”186 Imaam asShaukaanee ya ce: “An kafa hujja da wannan Hadisi game da rashin halascin amsa gayyata zuwa walimar kaciya.” Ibn al-Haaj kuwa, yana ganin halascin walimar kaciyar namiji, ban da mace. Sai dai babu wata qwaqqwarar hujja a kan haka. Daga cikin hikimomi da fa’idodin kaciya, akwai:
1. Kaciya ce shugaban ayyukan fixrah (xabi’un

tsafta na Musulunci da Allah Ya halicci mutane a kansu) da musulmi ke bambance kansu daga sauran waxanda ba musulmi ba. Ke nan, kaciya wata babbar alama ce ta Musulunci.

2. Hanya ce ta tabbatar da bauta ga Allah. Kuma biyayya ce da qanqan da kai ga dokokinSa da hukuncinSa da ikonSa.
3. Fatar (lovva) dake kewaye da kan azzakari

mavoya ce ga najasa da nau’o’in qazanta. Sanannen abu ne cewa shaixan na son wuraren najasa. Yanke fatar, ta hanyar kaciya, na tabbatar da samun cikakken tsarki da kuvuta daga qazanta. Wannan zai sa shaixan ya rasa mazauni a wannan wuri.
4. Kaciya na taimakawa wajen rage haxarin

kamuwa da qwayoyin cuta (microbes) dake cikin fitsarin dake maqalewa a qarqashin

186

Ahmad

79

lovva saboda rashin qanqantar mafitsara.

kaciya

ko

saboda

5. Kaciya na rage tsananin sha’awa. 6. Kaciya

rage haxarin gaggawar fitar maniyyi kafin lokacinsa (premature ejaculation), a wurin saduwa da mace. yawancin cututtukan dake da alaqa da azzakari, kamar inflammation/cancer na azzakari, da yoyon fitsari. Haka nan, bincike ya nuna cewa waxanda ba su da kaciya sun fi faxawa cikin haxarin masturbation, wato, fitar da maniyyi ta hanyar goga azzakari a cikin tafin hannu (istimnaa). Bayan wannan, matan dake auren mazajen da aka yi wa kaciya sun fi sauqin samun haxarin kamuwa da cutar sankara dake da alaqa da mahaifa (cancer of the womb).

na

7. Kaciya na kare mutum daga kamuwa da mafi

Kaciyar mata ta qunshi wani vangare na hikimomin da aka bayyana a sama. Sa’an nan, ta kevanta da waxannan hikimomi:
1. Kaciya na daidaita yanayin tulluwa (clitoris)

dake kan farjin mace, ta yadda tulluwar ba za ta yi girma sosai ba. Girman tulluwar na iya haifar da matsanancin sha’awa ga mace, ko kuma ya kai ga toshe mata qofar farji, kamar yadda yake faruwa ga waxansu daga cikin matan dake rayuwa a cikin qasashe masu tsananin zafi.
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2. Kaciya na taimakawa wajen rage wa mace

haxarin da qwayoyin cuta (microbes) dake maqalewa a kan tulluwar farji, ke haifarwa.

A taqaice, kaciyar maza da mata na da amfani ta fuskar Shari’a da kiwon lafiya. Wannan ya sa, Imam Ibn al-Qayyim ya ce: “Kaciya ta qunshi tsafta, tsarki, ado, kula da lafiya, daidaita sha’awa, da kyautata yanayin halitta.”187 FAXAKARWA
1. Waxansu likitoci da malamai masu qarancin

bincike a wannan zamani, na ganin cewa kaciyar mata ba ta da wani amfani. A tunaninsu, an gina ta ne a kan al’ada, ba wai Shari’a ba. Malaman na ganin cewa Hadisan dake magana a kan shar’ancin kaciyar mata, ba su inganta ba. Su kuma likitocin sun ce, bincike na kimiyya ya tabbatar da cewa haxarin kaciyar ga mata, ya fi amfaninta, musamman da yake an gano waxansu irin cututtuka da kaciyar ke haifar wa mata. Don haka, suka ce, lalle ne a yi watsi da kaciyar mata, kasancewar al’ada ce, wadda ba ta da goyon bayan dalilai na Shari’a, da kuma bincike na kimiyya. Jawabi a kan haka, shi ne: dalilai na Shari’a sun tabbatar da kaciyar mata. Bayani ya gabata cewa Hadisan dake magana game da kaciyar mata ingantattu ne. Hadisan na nuna cewa Sunna ce yin kaciya a haqqin mata.

187

Tuhfah al-Maudood, shafi na 129

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Don haka, maganar da waxannan malamai suka yi, ba ta da wani matsayi na Shari’a, musamman da yake, mafi yawancin malamai (jumhoor) na ganin shar’ancin kaciyar mata. Dangane da shubuhar likitocin kuwa, malamai sun ce, sanannen abu ne cewa ba a tava samun wani Hadisi sahihi da ya sava wa wani bayani ko bincike na likitanci ba, face daga baya, an gano cewa, sakamakon binciken kimiyyar ko likitancin ne ke da matsala, ba wai Hadisin ba. Irin wannan ya faru ga Hadisin dake cewa quda na xauke da cuta a qafar/fiffiken hagu, kuma maganin cutar na qafar/fiffiken dama188; da Hadisin wanke mazubi (qwarya/kwano/kofi) sau bakwai idan kare ya yi lallaga a ciki189; da Hadisin yanayin halittar xan Adam a mahaifa190; da Hadisin sihiri191; da sauransu. Da farko, likitoci sun yi da’awar cewa waxannan hadisai sun sava wa ilmin kimiyya na zamani. Amma daga baya, duk an gano cewa akwai kuskure a cikin sakamakon farko na binciken kimiyya da aka yi. Ke nan, kuskure ne a ce za a yi watsi da wani Hadisi sahihi da ya tabbatar da shar’ancin wani abu, ba tare da nuna wata illa ba, wai saboda binciken kimiyya ya sava masa. Sanannen abu ne cewa su kansu likitoci sun yi savani game da kaciyar mata. A yayin da
188 189 190 191

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waxansu daga cikinsu, musamman waxanda ke dogaro da bayanan da ake samu daga qasashen da babu ruwansu da addini, ko kuma suke fifita samakon bincikensu na kimiyya a kan dokokin addini, ke kore fa’ida da dacewar kaciyar mata, da yawa daga likitoci musulmi, musamman waxanda ke da ilmin addini, na tabbatar da amfanin kaciyar mata.192 Shin, zai yiwu a ce Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya shar’anta wani abu da zai haifar da illa ga jama’a, tare da cewa ba ya furuci da san ransa? Ashe bai kasance shugaban likitoci da masana kimiyya na duniya ba, bisa shaidar manyan-manyan masana na zamani? Da wannan za mu gane cewa babu wata illa ko matsala dake tattare da kaciyar mata. Matsaloli da illolin da likitoci ke vavatu a kai, na faruwa ne saboda abubuwa guda biyu: Na farko: Yanke fatar ko tulluwar sosai, ko yanke ta gaba xaya, da waxansu mutane ke yi, saboda rashin qwarewa, ko kuma saboda bin al’adu na gargajiya. Hakan na haifar da matsala ga wadda aka yi wa irin wannan kaciya. Ban da haxari na kiwon lafiya, irin wannan wuce qa’idar na haifar da matsalar rashin sha’awa kwata-kwata ga mace. Idan
Yoosuf ibn Abdullah al-`Areefee ya yi naqali daga littafai da mujallu a kan wannan mas’ala. Daga ciki akwai: ax-Xibbun-Nabawee wal ilmul-Hadeeth na Dr. Mahmood an-Naseemee; da Circumcision and modern illness na mujallar al-Mujtami’; da al-Islaam wax-Xifl na Wajeeh Zainul Aabideen.
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kuwa mace ta rasa sha’awa gaba xaya, tana iya kasa yin aure, ko kuma ta kasa zaman lafiya da mijinta. Wannan ya sa, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce wa Umm ‘Axiyyah (Allah Ya yarda da ita): “Idan za ki yi (wa mata) kaciya, to ka da ki yanki (fatar) da yawan gaske. Domin hakan zai fi kyau a gare ta (wadda za a yi wa kaciyar), kuma zai fi daxi ga mijinta.”193 Ke nan, saisa-saisa, da daidaitawa, tare da yin kaciyar tsaka-tsaki, na da amfani ga matar da mijin. Ta vangaren matar, hakan zai kare ta daga mummunar sha’awa da faxawa cikin fitinar dake iya kai ta ga yin zinace-zinace.194
Aboo Daawud, al-Haakim da at-Tabaraanee: Saheeh [Duba Saheeh al-Jaami` #236, Silsilah as-Saheehah #722, da Tamaam al-Minnah, shafi na 67] 194 Wannan shi ne abin da ke faruwa a waxansu qasashen turai. Abin mamaki, qasashen turai ne suka fi faxa da wannan karantarwa ta Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), da sunan wai sun ci gaba! Sun daxe suna shirya finafinai na qarya dake nuna irin dabbancin da ake yi a wajen gudanar da kaciya a waxansu qasashe dake bin munanan al’adu, kamar Sudan da Turkey da Lebanon. Su na amfani da waxannan abubuwa wajen sukar kaciyar mata da nuna firgici da rashin tausayi dake cikinta, da kuma aqibar yin irin wannan kaciya ga mata. Sai dai kuma saboda zalunci, ba su bambance tsakanin irin wannan kaciya ta dabbanci da kuma wadda Sunnah ta karantar. Manufar dai ita ce: a kauda hankalin mutane daga kyawun Shari’ar Musulunci, tare da sanya masu qyama game da al’amarin kaciya. Ban da wannan ma, suna shirya irin waxannan finafinan banza ne don su shagaltar da Musulmi daga kisan gillar da suke yi wa bayin Allah a qasashe kamar Palestine, Iraq, Indonesia, Afghanistan, Algeria, da sauransu. Duba: Sameer AbdulAzeez, Manhaj al-Islaam fi Tarbiyyatil Awlaad, shafi na
193

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A vangaren miji kuwa, daidaita kaciyar mace za ta taimaka wajen rashin samun matsalar dake da alaqa da saduwa. Domin idan fatar/tulluwar ta yi girma sosai saboda rashin yanke ta, tana iya rufe qofar farji, kuma ta hana saduwa. Idan kuma aka yanke ta gaba xaya, ko aka yanke ta fiye da qima, mace na iya rasa sha’awa da buqatar xa namiji, kwata-kwata. Na biyu: Likitoci na qorafi game da kaciyar mata saboda varnar dake aukuwa a wajen gudanar da ita. Irin wannan varna na aukuwa saboda rashin iyawa ko rashin qwarewa. Bayan wannan, akwai tsoro da ake yi na haxarin kamuwa da qwayoyin cuta saboda rashin tsaftace aska, ko kuma abin da ake yin kaciyar da shi. Waxannan matsaloli sun shafi aiwatar da kaciyar ce, ba wai hukuncinta ba. Kuma matsalolin ba su tsaya a kan kaciyar mata ba. Idan aka wuce gona da iri a wajen kaciyar maza, ko kuma aka yi amfani da kayayyakin da ba a tsaftace ba, ana iya faxawa cikin waxannan haxurra gaba xaya. Don haka, yin kaciya ga maza da mata bisa tsari da siffar da Sunnar Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ta karantar, abu ne shar’antacce, da ya kuvuta daga dukan haxari. Za a samu matsala ce kawai idan aka kauce wa tanade-tanaden Musulunci wajen gudanar da ita.
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2. Mutumin da aka haife shi ba tare da fata

(lovva) a kewaye da azzakarin shi ba, ba za a yi masa kaciya ba. Haihuwar mutum ba tare da lovva ba, ba ta nuna wata karama ko wani matsayi na musamman, kamar yadda waxansu mutane ke zato. Babu wani dalili na Shari’a dake nuna fifikon wanda aka haife shi da irin wannan yanayi a kan sauran mutane. Haka nan ma, idan aka haifi mace ba tare da tulluwa ba, ko kuma ya zamanto tulluwar qarama ce matuqa, ba a buqatar yanke ta kwata-kwata, ko a yanke wani vangare daga tulluwar, musamman a qasashen dake da sanyi. Bincike ya tabbatar da cewa, matan dake zaune a qasashe masu zafi sun fi samun tulluwa mai girma fiye da waxanda ke zaune a qasashen dake da sanyi.
3. Tabbatar

da hukuncin kaciyar mata a Musulunci ba ya nuna cewa dole ne iyaye su yi wa `yayansu mata. Qorafin da waxansu qungiyoyi masu zaman kansu (NGOs) ke yi cewa malamai na qoqarin kare matsayin kaciyar mata, amma ba su bari a yi wa `ya`yansu, qorafi ne mara dalili. Akwai bambanci a tsakanin wanda ya yarda da shar’ancin abu, amma bai aikata ba, da kuma wanda yake kore tabbatar abin gaba xaya.

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KASHI NA UKU: HAQQOQIN `YA`YA
Musulunci ya tanadar wa `ya`ya haqqoqi a kan iyayensu, kamar yadda iyaye ke da haqqoqi a kan `ya`yansu. Daga cikin haqqoqin `ya`ya a kan iyaye, akwai:
1. Haqqin zaven uwa/uba ta/na qwarai, a bisa

asasi na addini da kyawawan xabi’u, kasancewar hakan na taimakawa wurin samar da tarbiya ga `ya`yan da za a haifa, idan Allah Ya kawo. Uwa ta qwarai, mai riqo da addini, na da tasiri a wurin tarbiyar `ya`yanta. Haka nan, uba na qwarai, mai addini da kyawawan xabi’u, na xaukan dukan matakan da suka dace, don ganin `ya`yansa sun samu tarbiyya, da ilmin addini da sana’a.
2. Haqqin xabbaqa ladubban da Shari’a ta

tanada game da `ya`ya, da zaran an haife su. Waxannan haqqoqi, sun haxa da: (i) tahneek da yin addu’a, (ii) sanya masu suna mai kyau, (iii) yanka aqiqah (dabbar da ake yanka wa jariri/jaririya a rana ta bakwai), (iv) yin aski, da (v) yin kaciya (khitaan) ga maza, ko rage tulluwa (khafd) ga mata. Kashi na biyu na wannan littafi, ya qunshi bayanai a kan ladubban waxannan haqqoqi guda biyar. Mai buqata, sai ya koma zuwa gare su.

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3. Haqqin nasaba, ta yadda za a danganta

`ya`ya zuwa ga iyayensu. Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Ku kira su ga ubanninsu, shi ne adalci a wurin Allah.”195 Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Xa, ana danganta shi ga shimfixa (miji) …”196 Haka nan, an hana musulmi ya danganta kan shi zuwa ga waxanda ba iyayen shi ba. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Wanda ya yi da’awar (dangantuwa) ga wanin mahaifinsa, alhali ya san ba shi ne babansa ba, aljanna ta haramta a gare shi.”197 za su taso cikin qoshin lafiya, da kumari, da karsashi. Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Kuma iyaye mata suna shayar da `ya`yansu shekara biyu cikakku ga wanda ya yi nufin ya cika shayarwa…”198 da kyakkyawar tarbiyya ce ake samar da matasa na gari, waxanda za su zama tubalai na ginin qaqqarfar al’umma, mai kishi da tsoron Allah, wadda za ta yi alfahari da

4. Haqqin shayarwa da reno, ta yadda `ya`ya

5. Haqqin kyakkyawar tarbiyya,199 kasancewa,

Ahzaab, 33:5 Bukhari da Muslim 197 Muslim 198 Baqarah, 2:233 199 Saboda muhimmancin wannan haqqi, da kuma kasancewarsa jigon sauran haqqoqin `ya`ya, na rubuta littafi a kan tarbiyya. Sunan littafin Tarbiyyar `Ya`ya a Musulunci. Ina roqon Allah Ya ba ni ikon fitar da shi ga jama’a, ba da daxewa ba.
195 196

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kanta, kuma ta tabbatar da dokokin Allah a kan qasa. Tarbiyyar `ya`ya, a vangaren imani da ibada, xabi’u da mu’amala, kula da lafiyar jiki, hankali da tunani, da tsarin zamantakewa, wajibi ne da Allah Ya xora a kan iyaye, da malamai, da shugabanni, da sauran jama’a. Iyaye su ne kan gaba wajen wannan al’amari muhimmi, kasancewar su ne suka haife su, kuma suka fi zama tare da su. Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ba iyaye amanar `ya`ya, don su kula da su, su tsare su daga faxawa cikin haxari, kuma su yi masu tarbiyya kyakkyawa. Allah (Mai girma da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Ya ku waxanda suka yi imani! Ku kare wa kanku da iyalinku wata wuta (da) makamashinta mutane da duwatsu ne…”200 Haka nan, Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Dukanku masu kiwo ne, kuma za a tambayi kowa game da kiwonsa: shugaba mai kiwo ne a kan mutanensa, kuma za a tambaye shi game da kiwonsa. Mutum (magidanci) mai kiwo ne ga iyalinsa (matansa, da `ya`yansa, da sauran waxanda ke qarqashinsa), kuma za a tambaye shi game da kiwonsa. Mace (wadda ke da miji da `ya`ya) mai kiwo ce ga gidan mijinta da `ya`yansa, kuma za a tambaye ta game da su. Bawa makiyayi ne ga dukiyar mai gidansa, kuma za a tambaye shi game da kiwonsa. Kowanenku makiyayi
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at-Tahreem 66:6

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ne, kuma za a tambaye shi game da kiwonsa.”201 Da kyakkyawar tarbiya ce ake samar da xa na qwarai, wanda zai zamanto sanyin ido ( ‫ )قرة عين‬ga iyayensa, a nan duniya, kuma ya yi masu addu’a, idan suka riga shi mutuwa. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Idan xan Adam ya mutu, duk ayyukansa sun yanke, ban da abubuwa guda uku: sadaka mai gudana; da ilmin da ya bari ana amfani da shi; da xa na qwarai, da zai yi masa addu’a.”202 Kasancewar addinin Musulunci ya lulluve `ya`ya da goma ta arziqi, ya samar da tanadetanaden da za su kyautata al’amarinsu, kuma ya tabbatar masu da haqqoqi a kan iyayensu, maqiya Musulunci da sauran `yan barandarsu, sun kai gwauro da mari, don ganin sun vata tsarin zamantakewar iyali a Musulunci. Suna bin hanyoyi dabam-daban don ganin sun jefa shubuha a cikin zukatan Musulmi game da dacewar tsare-tsaren Musulunci, da sahihancin karantarwarsa, da kyawun tsari da tattalin da Musulunci ya yi wa yara. Daga cikin hanyoyin da suka xauka, akwai nuna kamar Musulunci bai kare wa yara haqqoqinsu ba, yadda ya kamata. Wannan yasa suka qirqiro dokar haqqoqin yara, suka yi qoqarin qaqaba wa qasashen musulmi.
201 202

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Dokar haqqoqin yara, Child’s Right Act, ta samo asali ne daga qudurori guda biyu:203
1. Qudurin Geniva game da haqqoqin yara,

wato The Declaration of Geneva on the Right of Children, wanda taron qasashen duniya ya karva a 1924, kuma a 1959, Majalisar Xinkin Duniya ta karva da sunan “Qudurin Majalisar Xinkin Duniya game da Haqqoqin Yara”. Qudurin ya zamanto qa’idodi, a shekara ta 1989. Daga 1990 zuwa 1995, qasashe 178 ne daga cikin 185 dake cikin Majalisar Xinkin Duniya suka yarda da qa’idodin. Qasar Nijeriya na daga cikin qasashen da suka yarda da waxannan qa’idodi.
2. Quduri game da Haqqoqi da jin daxin Yaran

Afrika, wato Declaration on the Right and Welfare of African Child, wanda taron Qungiyar Haxin kan Afrika ya yarda da shi a 1990.

A Nijeriya, shugaban qasa Obasanjo ya gabatar wa Majalisar Dokoki ta Tarayya, quduri game da dokar yara a cikin 2002. A cikin watan oktoba, 2002, Majalisar ta yi watsi da qudurin, saboda tanade-tanade da ya qunsa waxanda suka sava wa addini da al’adun mutanen qasar nan. Duk
Mafi yawancin bayanan da suka shafi wannan doka, na ciro su ne daga takardar da Majalisar Malamai ta Jihar Zamfara ta rubuta, mai taken Nazari a game da Dokar Haqqoqin Yara ta Shekarar 2003.
203

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da haka, daga baya, an zartar da wannan quduri a matsayin doka, ba tare da sanin shugaban majalisar ba, a 2003. A ranar 31 ga watan Yuli 2003, shugaban qasa Obasanjo ya rattaba wa dokar hannu. Wannan doka na cikin wani kundi dake da shafi 680; kuma dokar ta qunshi vangarori guda 24 da kashi-kashi 278. Dokar tana xauke da bayanai masu yawa dangane da yara, musamman mata. Nazarin da aka yi a cikin dokar, ya tabbatar da cewa da yawa daga vangarori da sasannin wannan doka sun yi karo da tsarin Musulunci, da tanade-tanaden Shari’arsa. Misali
(i)

Kashi na 146–164, ya tanadi cewa za a kafa ‘kotunan iyali’, waxanda za su kula da shari’o’in da suka shafi yara. Kashi na 162 (1) kuma, ya tanadi cewa irin waxannan kotuna, su ne ke da hurumin sauraron kowace qara da ta shafi yara. Wannan vangare na dokar yara, ya yi karo da tsare-tsaren Shari’ar Musulunci. A shar’ance, kotunan Musulunci dake hukunci da dokokin Shari’ah ne ke da hurumin sauraron duk wata qara da ta shafi Musulmi. Ko a nan qasar, Musulmi na zuwa kotunan dake aiki da Shari’ar Musulunci ne, don warware dukan matsalolin da suka shafi aure da saki,
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shayarwa da reno, wasiyya da rabon gado, da sauransu.
(ii)

Kashi na 10 (1) ya haramta nuna wa yaro kowane irin bambanci, saboda la’akari da wurin da ya fito, ko al’ummarsa, ko qabilarsa, ko asalinsa, ko jinsinsa. Wannan vangare ya yi karan-tsaye ga tsarin rabon gado a Musulunci. Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka) Ya ce: “Allah Yana yi muku wasiyya a cikin `ya`yanku; namiji yana da rabon mata biyu…”204. Haka nan, Ya ce: “… Kuma idan sun kasance, `yan’uwa, maza da mata, to, namiji yana da misalin rabon mata biyu…”205

(iii)

Kashi na 10 (2) ya haramta hana wa yaro samun wani abu, ko aikata wani abu saboda la’akari da yadda aka same shi. Kashi na 63 da kashi na 64 sun ba da damar tabbatar da nasaba ta hanyar bincike na kimiyya. Hadisi ya tabbata cewa: “Duk mutumin da ya yi zina da mace (`ya ko baiwa), xan (da aka haifa), xan zina ne… ”206. Xan da aka haifa ta hanyar zina, yana da halaye guda biyu: (i) idan uwarsa matar aure ce a lokacin da ta haife shi, kuma mijinta bai kore xan da ta haifa ba, ta hanyar li’ani,

204 205 206

Nisaa, 4:11 Nisaa, 4:176 Tirmidhi

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za a danganta xan zuwa ga mijin matar, ko da kuwa shi mazinacin ya yi da’awar cewa shi ne ya yi cikin, a bisa ijma’in malamai, kamar yadda Ibn Abdil Barr da Ibn Qudaamah, suka tabbatar; (ii) idan uwarsa ba matar aure ba ce, a lokacin da ta haife shi, kuma wanda ya yi zinan da ita, ya yi iqirarin cewa xansa ne, shin za a danganta xan zuwa gare shi, ko ba za a yi ba? Malamai sun yi savani. Maganar da ta fi qarfi ita ce wadda Urwah ibn az-Zubair, da Sulayman ibn Yasaar, da Alhasan AlBasari, da Ibn Seereen, da Ishaaq ibn Raahuwayh, da Ibn Taymiyyah, da Ibn Qayyim suka rinjiyar, cewa, za a danganta xan zuwa ga mazinacin. Ke nan, ta wannan hanyar ta biyu ce kawai za a iya tabbatar da nasaba a tsakanin xan zina da mazinacin da ya yi cikinsa. Amma ita wannan doka ta yara, ba ta rarrabe waxannan hukunce-hukunce guda biyu ba!
(iv)

A kashi na 13 (4), an wajabta wa iyayen kowane yaro, xan qasa da shekara biyu, cewa su tabbatar an yi masa allurar rigakafi. Idan ba haka ba, akwai tara ta kuxi da za a yi masu, wadda ba ta wuce N5000 ba, a karo na farko. A karo na biyu, za a iya yanke masu hukuncin xauri, da bai wuce wata xaya ba, sa’an nan, a tursasa su yin rigakafin.
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Wannan sashi na dokar yara, na qoqarin kore dukan xari-xari da musulmi ke yi game da allurar rigakafi da ake yi wa yara, musamman rigakafin cutar shan inna (polio). Binciken da aka gudanar a kan maganin rigakafin shan inna da ake xiga wa yara a wannan qasa, wato, Oral Polio Vaccination (OPV), ya nuna cewa, an gurvata maganin rigakafin da qwayoyin hana xaukar ciki, da waxanda ke kashe qwayayen halitta. Wannan ta’addanci na daga cikin shirin kisar qare dangi da qasashen yammacin turai suka daxe suna shiryawa a kan musulmin Nijeriya. Da yawa daga manyan likitoci, da qwararru a harkar harhaxa magunguna, da masana tattalin arziqi da gudanarwar mulki da siyasa, na qasashen duniya, sun tabbatar da irin wannan makirci, da qasashen yammacin duniya ke qullawa.207 Waxanda ba su fahimci siyasar dake cikin rigakafin polio ba, gani suke, neman tayar da zaune tsaye ake yi, duk lokacin da aka soki tsarin rigakafi. Haka nan, wasu daga cikin malamai, kan yi qoqarin danganta jahilci ga waxanda ke qorafi a kan maganin rigakafin polio. Amma duk wannan kuskure ne!

Dangane da rigakafin cutar polio, na yi amfani da takardar da Farfesa Haruna A. Kaita, na Jami’ar Ahmadu Bello, Zaria, ya rubuta, mai taken Why Polio Vaccinations should be Suspended.
207

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Sanannen abu ne cewa, babu wanda ke jayayya game da halascin yin rigakafi a Musulunci, ta hanyar karanta addu’o’i, ko yin azkar, ko cin dabino, ko kuma xaukar waxansu matakai, waxanda Shari’ah ta tabbatar. Kace-nace ya auku ne a dalilin matsaloli da illolin da aka gano game da maganin,wanda ya dace da makircin qasar Amerika da `yan kanzaginta, da mummunan kaidinsu ga Musulunci da musulmi. Tun da aka fara kace-nace dangane da rigakafin polio, akwai wanda ya tabbatar da rashin sahihancin sakamakon binciken da aka gudanar a wannan qasa, wanda ya tabbatar da cewa akwai illoli a cikin maganin? Ina sakamakon binciken da Farfesa Haruna Kaita ya gudanar? Ina sakamakon binciken da Jamaa’atu Nasril Islaam ta sa aka gudanar? Ina sakamakon binciken da ma’aikatar lafiya ta tarayya tare da haxin gwiwar hukumar NAFDAC ta gudanar? Sakamakon binciken da waxannan vangarori guda uku suka gudanar, ya tabbatar da cewa, an gurvata maganin rigakafin polio da ake xiga wa yara, da waxansu abubuwa masu haxarin gaske. Menene ya hana a bayyana sakamakon binciken ga `yan Nijeriya? Me yasa ake ci gaba da amfani da shi, duk da cewa an hana xiga wa `ya`yan Amerikawa, a jihar Lagos?
96

Me yasa qasar Amerika ta yi barazanar qaqaba takunkumi a kan Nijeriya, idan ba a yi rigakafi a jihohin Zamfara da Kano ba, alhali Cibiyar hana Yaxuwar Cututtuka ta Amerika (Centre for Disease Control), ta ba da shawarar dakatar da xiga maganin (Oral Polio Vaccination), ga `ya`yan Amerikawa, a ranar 1 ga Janairu, 2000, saboda an gano cewa maganin na haddasa cutar shan inna? Menene dalilin tursasa qasar Saudi Arabia ta yi barazanar hana musulmin Nijeriya zuwa aikin Hajji, idan ba a yi polio ba, tare da cewa, cutar, ba ta kama manya, sai dai qananan yara? Ina hikima cikin kururuta al’amarin rigakafin polio, da Qungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya (World Health Organisation) take yi, duk da cewa, a jerin gwanon cututtuka masu kisa, polio ba shi daga cikin cututtuka guda goma, mafi haxari; amma a xaya vangaren, qungiyar, ba ta kuzuzuta cutar qyanda (measles), da zazzavin cizon sauro (malaria) ko typhoid (dake aukuwa saboda rashin tsaftataccen ruwan sha), da suka addabi `yan Nijeriya, kuma suke sanadiyar mutuwar dubban mutane, a kowace shekara? Wani hovvasa Qungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya take yi, wurin kawar da waxannan cututtuka, dake sahun farko a jerin cututtuka masu kisa? Ashe ba a wannan qasar ba ce, jaridar Daily Trust, ta ranar 7 ga Oktoba, 2003, ta bayyana cewa, kusan kashi arba’in bisa
97

xari (40%) na xaruruwan miliyoyin `yan Afrika dake fama da matsalar zazzavin cizon sauro, `yan Nijeriya ne? Menene hukumomin qasashen qetare, da qungiyoyin ba da agaji suka yi, a kan wannan? A yayin da ake xiga maganin rigakafin cutar polio kyauta, da qyar `yan Nijeriya ke iya sayen maganin zazzavin cizon sauro, da na qyanda! Bayan wannan, ashe, ba Qungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya ba ce, tare da taimakon gwabnatin Amerika, ta sa aka qago qwayoyin cutar sida (HIV/AIDS), aka zuba qwayoyin a cikin maganin allurar rigakafin ciwon agana, aka kai wa mutanen qasar Zaire, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Rwanda, Brundi, Brazil, da Haiti ba, kamar yadda jaridar The London Times, ta qasar Ingila, ta bayyana, a ranar Litinin, 11 ga Mayu, 1987, kuma Dr. William Doglas, wani qwararren likita, a Amerika, ya tabbatar da hakan, a cikin mujallar Amerika, mai suna Health Consciousness, ta watan Disamba, 1987?
(v)

Kashi na 17 (2) ya tabbatar da gado, a tsakanin wanda aka haifa ta hanyar zina da wanda ya yi cikin. Abin da ya tabbata a qa’idar Shari’a, shi ne, idan dai babu aure a tsakanin uwar da wanda ya yi mata ciki, to babu gado a tsakanin xan da ta haifa, da wanda ya yi
98

cikin. Amma akwai gado a tsakanin uwar da xanta. Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya ce: “Duk mutumin da ya yi zina da `ya ko baiwa, xan (da aka haifa), xan zina ne, babu gado a tsakaninsu.”208
(vi)

Kashi na 21, da na 22, da na 23, sun haramta aurar da yarinyar da ba ta kai shekara 18 da haihuwa ba, ko a neme ta da aure, ko a yi mata baiko da sa rana; ko a yi wa yaron da bai kai shekara 18 ba aure, ko da kuwa sun balaga. Idan aka yi, auren vatacce ne, tun da ya sava wa wannan doka. Yin hakan, ko taimakawa wurin yin haka, laifi ne, dake da hukuncin xaurin shekara 5, ko biyan tarar kuxi N500,000, ko a haxa guda biyun. Haka nan, kashi na 31, ya haramta yin jima’i (saduwa) da yaro ko yarinyar da ba su kai shekara 18 ba, ko da kuwa matar yaron ne ko mijin yarinyar ce (wato, ko da a tsakanin ma’aura, miji da mata ne). Qaramin kashi na wannan sashi, ya nuna cewa yin hakan laifi ne na fyaxe, dake jawo hukuncin xaurin rai-da- rai, ko da kuwa wanda ya yi jima’in, bai san cewa yarinyar ko yaron ba su kai shekara 18 ba. Waxannan vangarori na dokar yara, sun sava wa karantarwar Musulunci ta hanyoyi masu yawa. A Musulunci, balaga na da

208

Saheeh at-Tirmidhi, 2/216

99

alamomi guda biyar (5): (i) mafarki; (ii) tsirowar gashi (a mara ko hammata ko hava); (iii) cikar shekara goma sha biyar (15)209; (iv) jinin al’ada; da (v) xaukar ciki. Mace da namiji sun yi tarayya a cikin alamomi guda uku na farko, sa’an nan, mace ta kevanta da alamomi biyu na qarshe. Duk yarinyar da ta fara jinin al’ada, za ta iya xaukar ciki. Haka nan, duk yaron da ya kai shekara goma sha biyar, zai iya yi wa mace ciki. Duk masana na duniya sun tabbatar da haka. Ina aka samu qa’idar shekara goma sha takwas (18)? A Musulunci, babu wani dalili da ya haramta a xaura aure, ko a yi baiko da sa rana ga yarinyar da ba ta fara jinin al’ada ba. Amma ba za a yi jima’i da ita ba, sai ta yi qwarin da za ta iya xaukar namiji. Musulunci kuwa, bai iyakance adadin shekarun da mace za ta yi, kafin ta iya xaukar namiji ba. To, menene dalilin wannan doka? Nuna cewa laifi ne a aurar da yarinya ko a aure ta, kafin ta kai shekara 18, aibanta Shari’ar Musulunci ne, a fakaice, kuma,
Waxansu daga cikin malaman malikiyya na ganin cewa namiji na balaga ne daga shekara goma sha bakwai zuwa sha takwas, mace kuma, daga shekara goma sha uku zuwa sha huxu. Amma babu wani dalili mai qarfi a kan haka.
209

100

cin mutunci ne ga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) da sahabbansa (Allah Ya yarda da su) da sauran magabata na qwarai (Allah Ya jiqansu). Domin kuwa, me za a ce game da A’isha (Allah Ya yarda da ita) da aka aurar da ita ga Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), tana da shekara shida (6) ko bakwai (7), kuma aka kai ta xakinta a shekara ta tara (9)? Haka nan, me za a ce game da Faxima (Allah Ya yarda da ita)? Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya aurar da ita ga Aliyyu ibn Abi Xaalib (Allah Ya yarda da shi) tana da shekara goma sha biyar (15). Menene hukuncin Aliyyu ibn Abi Xaalib (Allah Ya yarda da shi) da ya aurar da Ummu Kulthum (Allah Ya yarda da ita) ga Umar ibn Khaxxaab (Allah Ya yarda da shi), tana qasa da shekara goma sha biyar? Tambayar ita ce, idan da Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi), da Abubakar da Umar da Aliyyu (Allah Ya yarda da su) na da rai, wani hukunci suka cancanta, bisa tanadetanaden dokar yara!? Abin mamaki, a yayin da Majalisar Xinkin Duniya (United Nations) da `yan kanzaginta, dake sauran qasashe, ke cecekuce game da auren wuri, ba su yin magana game da zinar wuri. Ma’ana, qasashen turai, da waxanda ke mara masu baya, na qoqarin hana auren wuri
101

ne, amma ba su ce kome game da zinar wuri ba. Maimakon haka, goyon bayan tambaxewar `yan mata, da lalacewar samari, suke yi, ta hanyoyi dabam-daban, da suka haxa da yaxa kwaroron roba (condom). Daga cikin mummunan sakamako da irin waxannan qasashe suka samu, akwai matsalar lalacewar yara da yawan karuwanci da suka addabe su. Misali:210
(a) A qasar Romania, yara 100,000 ne ake

tsinta a kan titi, a kowace shekara

(b)A Brazil, yara kusan 32,000,000 ne ke yawo a kan tituna, ko dai saboda `ya`yan zina ne, ko kuma saboda babu ruwan iyayensu da su
(c) A shekarar 1994, alqaluman qididdigar

`ya`yan da aka haifa, a wasu qasashen turai, sun nuna adadin `ya`yan zina kamar haka: Sweden (57%), Denmark (47%), Norway (45.9%), France (34.9%), U.S.A. (32%), Finland (31.3%), Holland (31.1%), Scotland (25%), Australia (19%), Canada (19%), Ireland (19.7%), Portugal (17%), Germany

Muhammad ibn Abdillah al-Habdaan, Al-Usrah baynal Islaam wal Garb, (Daar Ibn Khuzaimah, Riyadh, 2001), shafi na 29 – 30; da Riyadh ibn Muhammad alMusaymeeree, `Amalul Mar’ah baynal Mashru’ wal Mamnuu’
210

102

(15.4%), Belgium (8%).
(vii)

(12.6%), da Italy

A kashi na 141, dokar ta halasta yin tabanni (child adoption), wato, mutum ya riqi xan da ba na shi ba, a matsayin xa, ta yadda dukan haqqoqin da `ya`yansa ke da shi, kamar gado, da haramcin aure a tsakaninsu, shi ma wannan xa da aka yi wa tabanni, yana da su. Al’adar tabanni ta shahara a cikin Larabawa, tun kafin Musulunci. Wannan ya sa Manzon Allah (tsira da aminci su tabbata a gare shi) ya yi wa Zaid xan Haritha tabanni, har ma ana kiransa Zaid xan Muhammad. Daga baya, Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka) Ya rusa wannan al’ada, Ya hana a danganta wani ga wanda ba uba ba, Ya hana da’awar cewa tabanni yana hana aure a tsakanin mutane, ko ya zamanto dalili na yin gado, a tsakanin waxanda suka yi tabanni. Ke nan, tanadin dokar yara, kashi na 141, ya sava wa umurnin Allah.211

(viii)

Kashi na 8, da na 9, ya ba kotun iyali ikon yanke hukunci game da wanda yake da haqqin yin reno ga yaron da iyayensa suka rabu. Ke nan, kotun iyali na da damar ta ba uba haqqin reno, maimakon uwa.

211

Ahzaab, 33:4-5

103

A Musulunci kuwa, idan rabuwa ta auku a tsakanin miji da mata, haqqin renon `ya`ya na hannun uwa ce, matuqar babu wani dalili qwaqqwara da zai hana a ba ta renon. Waxannan kaxan ne daga tanade-tanaden dokar yara, wadda waxansu jihohin arewacin qasar nan suke ta qoqarin zartarwa. To, ina mafita ga musulmi? Akwai buqatar musulmi su fahimci qa’idodin Shari’ar Musulunci game da wannan mas’ala. Qa’idodin su ne
1. I’itiqadin cewa, wahayin Allah, dake qunshe

a cikin Alqur’ani da sahihiyar Sunnah, shi ne masdarin gaskiya, wanda musulmi za su xabbaqa, domin su kai ga samun nasara, a nan duniya, da tsira, a can lahira. Duk abin da ya sava wa wannan wahayi, aikin banza ne, ko daga ina ya fito.
2. Yaqinin cewa, Shari’ar Musulunci ta dace da

ci gaban xan Adam, a kowane lokaci, kuma a kowane wuri. Wajibi ne musulmi ya yarda cewa tsarin Allah, shi ne tsari na gaskiya, wanda ke cike da adalci da hikima da jin qai. 3. Fahimtar gazawar dokokin da xan Adam ke tsarawa, da yawan warwara da tufka da ake samu a cikinsu.
4. Imanin cewa, addinin Musulunci, addini ne na

adalci; ya qunshi duk wani alheri na duniya
104

da lahira, kuma karantarwarsa rayuwa gaba xayanta. musulmi addinin, cikinsa, kishiyoyi

ta

shafi

5. Fahimtar cewa, abokan gabar Musulunci da

ba za su gushe ba, suna yaqar suna qoqarin jefa shubuhohi a kuma suna qoqarin samar da a gare shi.

A bisa waxannan bayanai, ya kamata musulmin Nijeriya da sauran qasashen da ake neman a qaqaba masu wannan doka, su xauki waxannan matakai:
1. Su bayyanar da rashin buqatar su ga wannan

doka, wadda take karan tsaye ga dokokin Musulunci. valo, a jikin kundin, cewa, dokar ba ta shafi musulmi ba, tun da suna da tsarinsu, da dokokinsu, a cikin Alqur’ani da Sunnah.

2. Idan ya zama dole, su nemi a rubuta, valo-

3. Su ci gaba da ilmantar da sauran musulmi game da haxarin dake cikin wannan doka ta yara, musamman ma, malaman da ba su samu damar yin cikakken nazari a kanta ba, da `yan majalisar jihohi da tarayya.
4. Kasancewar qirqiro wannan dokar, na da

`yar alaqa da sakacin da wasu daga cikin musulmi ke yi game da haqqoqin `ya`yansu, musamman mata, wajibi ne kowane musulmi ya ji tsoron Allah, ya kiyaye haqqoqin
105

`ya`yansa a kan shi, kamar yadda Shari’ar Musulunci ta tanada.
5. Mayar da al’amura ga Allah, da ci gaba da

addu’ar Allah Ya ba mafita daga wannan bala’i. KAMMALAWA Wannan shi ne abin da Allah (Mai tsarki da xaukaka) Ya bani ikon rubutawa game da ni’imar haihuwa da haqqoqin `ya`ya a Musulunci. Ina roqon Allah Ya karvi wannan xan aiki nawa, kamar yadda ni ke roqonSa falalarSa, da karamcinSa, da rangwamenSa, da gafararSa. Tsira da amincin Allah su tabbata ga shugabanmu Muhammad, da mutanen gidansa da Sahabbansa da waxanda suka bi hanyarsa har zuwa ranar Qiyama. Alhamdu lillah

106

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