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Analysis of First- and Second-Order

Transient Circuits
< Chapter-7 >
Jongsik Kim

High-Speed Integrated Circuits and Systems Lab.


Department of Wireless Communications Engineering
Kwangwoon University

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Outline
• First- and Second-Order Circuits
• Charge and Discharge Time
• General Form of the Response Equations
• Examples

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1st- and 2nd- Order Circuits

• First-order circuit : single storage element


 First-order differential equation
• Circuit’s time constant – Transient analysis
 How fast the circuit will respond to changes

• Second-order circuit : an inductor and a capacitor are present


simultaneously

• Laplace transform
• PSPICE

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Charge and Discharge Time

ex : flash circuit in a camera

free-body diagram
KCL
dC (t ) C (t )
C
dt

R
0 C (t )  V0et RC
dC (t ) 1 Decaying exponentially
 C (t )  0
dt RC with function of RC

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General Form of the Response Equations (1/4)
• Solution of the first-order circuits
First-order differential equation
dx(t )
 ax(t )  f (t )
dt
If x(t)=xp(t) and x(t)=xc(t)
dx(t ) xp(t) : particular integral solution
 ax(t )  0, x(t )  x p (t )  xc (t ) xc(t) : complementary solution, natural response
dt
f(t)=A, constant
dx p (t ) dxc (t )
 ax p (t )  A,  axc (t )  0
dt dt
Since A is constant, xp(t) must also be a constant
A
x p (t )  K1 , K1 
a
dxc (t ) dt d
  a, ln xc (t )  a
xc (t ) dt
ln xc (t )  at  c
xc (t )  K 2e  at
Hence,
x(t )  x p (t )  xc (t )
A
  K 2e at
a
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General Form of the Response Equations (2/4)
• General form of the solution of first-order transient circuits
x(t )  K1  K2et 
K1 : steady-state solution for t  infinite
 : time constant

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General Form of the Response Equations (3/4)

d (t )  (t )  VS L
di (t )
 Ri (t )  VS For time t>0
C  0 dt
dt R
R
d (t )  (t ) VS VS  t
  For time t>0 i (t )   K 2e  L  Using same manner
dt RC RC R

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General Form of the Response Equations (4/4)

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Example 7.1 (1/2)
• Calculate i(t) for t>0

At t = 0-

*Capacitor is open for DC

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Example 7.1 (2/2)

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Example 7.2 (1/2)
• Find the output voltage v0(t) for t>0 *Circuit modification to Thevenin equvalent

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Example 7.2 (2/2)

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