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# Design of Front and Rear Spars for The

TEAM

## Team Members : CAE

Akshay A.
Pavan Kumar N. R.
Raghunandan M.
Lakshmana H. B.
Chetan A. V.

## Guide : Mr. H. N. Athavale

Co-ordinator : Mr. Umanath Nayak

OBJECTIVE

 To generate the CAD model of wing using the available data and
prepare the assembly of all components
CAE
 Determine the Spar locations with respect to chord length.
 Determine the dimensions for flange and web of the spars.
 Estimate the number of ribs and their positioning

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
CAE

## Estimation of spar position.

Dimension calculations of front and rear spars.
Calculations for number of ribs and their positions.

## Creation of the wing geometry

Use available data to develop CAD models for each individual component

INPUT

## Root chord : 2400 mm

Tip chord : 700 mm
Semi Span length : 5500 mm
Exposed Span : 4750 mm
Airfoil (root) : NACA 64A1215
(tip) : NACA 64A1210
Aircraft weight : 14000 N
Design Factor : 1.5
Given Spar Position(in % of chord length)
Front Spar : 18-25
Rear Spar : 62-70

DERIVED INPUT

Limit load : 14000 * 6= 84000 N

Design Load : 84000 * 1.5= 126000 N

Load on semi-span : 126000 / 2= 63000 N

Exposed wing area : 7.3625 E6 mm2

Pressure load on wing : 63000 / 7.3625 E6 = 8556.87 E-6 N/mm2

WING GEOMETRY

ROOT CHORD

TIP CHORD
SWEEP AT ¼ CHORD

700
2400

4750
TRAILING EDGE

## Top View [RH]

ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN mm

AIRFOIL

## Generate the aerofoil section using the Coordinates of

NACA 64A1215 and NACA 64A1210.
[source : http://www.pdas.com/sections6a.htm]
Generate the CAD model of the wing using CATIA- V5.

## Aerofoil at Tip NACA 64A1210 Aerofoil at Root NACA 64A1215

DESIGN PROCEDURE

Calculation of the Shear force, Bending moment & Torsion for the
Calculation of load distribution between the front and rear spar.
Estimation of spar positions.
Generation of CAD Model and Drafting.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

## Divide the wing area into number of divisions.

Calculate the chord length at each section.
Determine the C.G of each area.
Calculate the shear force, bending moment and Torque at the respective
sections.
Shear force =pressure*area.
Bending moment=shear force*CG distance.
Torque = Shear force*Distance b/w CG and CP.

METHODS AND METHODOLOGY
L9
L2 L1

700

2400 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1

475

ALL DIMENSIONS IN mm

DESIGN PROCEDURE

## Chord Length, L1= Lroot -((Lroot -Ltip ) / S) * x L1

At section 2, L1 = 2400-((2400-700)/4750)*4275
Lroot x Ltip
L1 = 870 mm A1

h
Area of Trapezium, A1 = 0.5*(L1+Ltip )*h
A1 = 0.5*(870+700)*475 S
A1 = 373 E3 mm2

## CG of Trapezoid Section = h/3*((Ltip +2L1)/(Ltip +L1))

CG=475/3*((700+2*870)/(700+870))
CG = 246 mm from Ltip

DESIGN PROCEDURE

## Limit load = 84000 N

Design load on wing, = 84000*1.5
= 1,26,000 N
Design load on semi-span wing, = 63000 N
pressure load on wing [P] = 8556.87 E-6 N/mm2
Load At Section 2, = P2+P1 = P*A2+P1
= 8557 E-6 * 453625 + 3190.65
= 3881.6 + 3190.65 = 7072.25 N
Bending Moment At Section 2, M2 = P2 * CG2 + P1 * (CG1 + L2)
M2 = 3881.6 * 230 + 3190.65 * (229 + 475)
M2 = 3248260 N-mm

SHEAR FORCE

70000.00
63000.00
60000.00
53590.65

## Shear force [N]

50000.00 44872.25

40000.00 36844.85
29508.40
30000.00
22862.90
20000.00 16908.39
11644.85
10000.00 7072.25
3190.65
3190.65
0.00
Root 475 950 1425 1900 2375 2850 3325 3800 4275 TIP
0 4750
Wing span [Root to tip] [mm]

BENDING MOMENT

## Bending moment diagram for the wing span

140000000
Bending moment [N-mm] 123020000
120000000
95259000
100000000
80000000 71809000

60000000 52341000
36527000
40000000
24039000
20000000 14548000
7727860
3248260
781700 0
0
ROO 475 950 1425 1900 2375 2850 3325 3800 4275 TIP
T 0 4750

## Centre of Pressure, CP = 45% of Chord Length (C) from LE [870mm] [1]

Front Spar Position = 25% of C from LE [217.5mm]
Rear Spar Position = 62% of C from LE [539.4mm]

45% of C
Chord
RA CP RB

FS RS
25% of C a b
a=174mm
c b=148mm

62% of C
c=322mm
C=870mm

## Chord Length 'C'

Shear Force Distribution:
Shear Force on Front Spar, = Load * b/c
At Section 1, SFFS = 3190.65 * (148/322)
SFFS = 1465.974 N

## Shear Force on Rear Spar SFRS = 3190.65 - 1465.974

SFRS = 1724.676 N

## SF on Front Spar = 45.9% of total load

SF on Rear Spar = 54.1% of total load

Bending Moment Distribution:
Moment is distributed in same ratio as that of the Shear force.

## Bending Moment on Front Spar,

MFS = 0.459 * 781700
MFS = 359159 N-mm

## Bending Moment on Rear Spar,

MRS = 781700 - 359159
MRS = 422541N-mm

SHEAR FORCE & BENDING MOMENT

Front Spar

Rear Spar

MATERIAL

Material : AA 2024-T6
Ultimate tensile strength, σ : 427 MPa
Shear strength : 283MPa
Density : 2.79 E-6 kg/mm3
Young's Modulus, E : 72400 Mpa
Poisson's Ratio : 0.33
[Aluminum Association, Inc]. [7]

Moment of Inertia:

## I = M*y/σ Where, I = Moment of Inertia, in mm4

M = Bending Moment, in N-mm
y = distance b/w neutral axis to top surface, in mm
σ = Tensile strength, in MPa

IFS = 44412 mm4

## Moment of Inertia on Rear Spar, IRS = 422541 * 43.44 / 427

IRS = 42987 mm4

MOMENT OF INERTIA

Front Spar

Rear Spar

TORSION

## Area of Torque Box, A1 = 30980.3 mm2

CG of Torque Box = 165 mm From Rear spar
Distance Between CG & CP = 18.268 mm
Torque, T = Load*d = 3190.65 * 18.268
T = 58286 N-mm
Shear flow, q1 = T/(2*A1) [2]
q1 = 58286 / (2 * 30980.3)
q1 = 0.941 N/mm
CG OF TORQUE BOX

Torque

Shear Flow

TORQUE DIAGRAM

## Torque diagram for the wing span

11857039.54
12000000

10000000
8689789.08
Torque [N-mm]

8000000
6187429.48
6000000
4252608.34
4000000 2795550.39
1734041.9
2000000 992888.78
506210.31
212789.99
58285.91 0
0
ROOT 475 950 1425 1900 2375 2850 3325 3800 4275 TIP
0 4750
Wing span [root to tip] [mm]

SHEAR FORCE DUE TO TORSION

## Shear force (SF) on Front Spar

SFFS = q * hFS
SFFS = 0.941*105.6 = 99.34 N
Total SF on FS = 1465.974+99.34
= 1565.313 N

On Rear Spar
SFRS = q*hRS
SFRS = 0.941*86.88
SFRS = 81.729 N
Total SF on RS = 1724.676+81.729
= 1806.405 N

SHEAR FORCE DUE TO TORSION

Front Spar

Rear Spar

TOTAL SHEAR FORCE

Front Spar

Rear Spar

WEB THICKNESS
Thickness of the Web can be calculated from the following formula,

## ‫ح‬shearstrength = SFFS / A web

Where,
‫ح‬shearstrength = Shear strength of the material AA 2024-T6 in MPa

## 283 = 1565.313 / (105.602 * t web )

t web = 0.052 mm
Area of the web = height * thickness
= 105.602 * 0.052
A web = 5.531 mm2
Moment of Inertia of Web:
Moment of Inertia of a rectangular section web is given by,
I web = t web * (hFS )3 / 12
I web = 0.052 * (105.602)3 / 12
I web = 5140.175 mm4
WEB

Front Spar

Rear Spar

FLANGE

## I flange = IFS - Iweb

= 44411 - 5140.175
I flange = 39270.825 mm4
Also Moment of Inertia of the flange is given by,
I flange = Aflange * (yFS )2

## Hence, Aflange = Iflange / (yFS )2

= 39270.825 / (52.801)2
Aflange = 14.086 mm2

FLANGE

Front Spar

Rear Spar

MASS CALCULATIONS
AFS = Aflange + Aweb

## Mass = Density * Total Volume

= 2.78 E-6 * 4218551.12
Mass = 11.73 kg

MASS CALCULATIONS
14.00

13.67

13.49 13.50
13.50
13.32 13.33 13.34

## Front spar position

13.17 13.17 13.18 13.18
18
13.02 13.02 13.02 13.02 13.02 19
Mass [kg]

## 13.00 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.88 12.87 12.87 20

12.75 12.74 12.74 12.74 12.77 21
12.73 12.72
12.68
12.62 12.62 12.61 12.61 12.60 12.59 12.59 22
12.50 12.50 12.49 12.49 12.48 12.51 23
12.46
12.5012.39 12.38 12.37 12.36
12.45
24
12.34 12.33 12.34
12.27 12.26 12.25 12.23 12.21 12.19 25
12.16 12.15 12.13 12.11 12.08
12.05 12.03 12.01 11.98
12.0011.95 11.92 11.89
11.84 11.81
11.73

11.50
62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
Rear spar position in %

Hence, from the Calculations it is found that (25% - 62%) combination of Spar
Position was found suitable. The Mass of this combination is 11.73 Kg which is least
than any other combinations
BUCKLING
To Check whether the web fails under shear buckling.
Condition: Shear stressinduced < Buckling stress (safe design)
The thickness calculation is based on iterations,

Finduced = q / tweb

## where, q = shear flow, in N/mm

E = Young's Modulus, in MPa
b = height of spar, in mm
tweb = web thickness, in mm
[4]
k = shear buckling coefficient from graph
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS
ITERATION 1. RIB SPACING FOR EQUAL DISTANCE OF 475mm

## Web thickness's of front spar at section 1 is as follows,

Finduced = q1 / t web ------------ (1)
= 0.941 / 0.052
Finduced = 18.09 N/mm2
Fallowable = K * E * (t web / b)2-----------(2)
18.09 = 5 * 72400 * (t web / 105.602)2

The value calculated for tweb is re substituted in Eqn.(1) and this loop will
continue till we get equal consecutive thickness.

Hence, the thickness of the web is 0.30 mm at section 1. Same calculations were
repeated for all sections of front spar to optimize the web thickness

Front Spar

Rear Spar

MASS CALCULATION

Web design is safe under buckling.

From buckling calculation the total mass of the spars is 16.14 kg.

By this, mass of the spars got increased by 4.41 kg.

To decrease the mass, one more iteration has been carried out.

ITERATION-2

For optimum Rib spacing, (a/b) ratio >= 1

Rib no. Rib dist. From root Spar heights (a/b) ratio Web thickness Web volume
FS RS FS RS K from graph FS RS FS RS
[mm] [mm] [mm] FS RS [mm] [mm] 3
[mm ]
3
[mm ]
0 TIP4750 64.49 54.05 0 0.00 - - - -
1 4440 81.97 68.4 3.78 4.53 5.10 5.00 0.22 0.2 5590.56 4240.8
2 4110 100.58 83.67 3.28 3.94 5.17 5.08 0.34 0.3 11285.3 8283.53
3 3780 119.19 98.94 2.77 3.34 5.30 5.15 0.44 0.39 17306.53 12734.09
4 3450 137.8 114.22 2.39 2.89 5.50 5.20 0.53 0.48 24101.05 18091.81
5 3120 156.41 129.49 2.11 2.55 5.75 5.40 0.64 0.57 33033.37 24356.69
6 2790 175.02 144.76 1.89 2.28 6.00 5.60 0.74 0.67 42739.15 32006.44
7 2470 193.06 159.57 1.66 2.01 6.30 5.80 0.84 0.76 51894.8 38807.18
8 2150 211.11 174.38 1.52 1.84 6.55 6.20 0.94 0.84 63500.68 46872.81
9 1830 229.15 189.19 1.40 1.69 6.90 6.25 1.03 0.94 75528.17 56907.75
10 1520 246.63 203.53 1.26 1.52 7.25 6.55 1.12 1.02 85630.63 64357.45
11 1210 264.11 217.88 1.17 1.42 7.60 6.80 1.2 1.1 98250.04 74297.42
12 900 281.59 232.23 1.10 1.33 7.80 7.00 1.31 1.19 114355.32 85668.54
13 600 298.51 246.11 1.00 1.22 8.20 7.35 1.39 1.26 124479.09 93029.96
14 300 315.43 259.99 1.05 1.15 8.00 7.60 1.51 1.35 142888.88 105297.57
15 Root 0 332.35 273.88 1.11 1.10 7.80 7.80 1.63 1.43 162519.15 117494.52
Total volume 1053102.72 782446.56
Web volume 1835549.28

WEIGHT CALCULATION

Finally mass of the spars reduced by 0.89 kg when compared to 1st iteration.

These dimensions are taken for modelling

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

## WEB THICKNESS FOR FRONT SPAR

2.00
THICKNESS OF WEB[mm]

1.63
1.60 1.51
1.39
1.31
1.20
1.20 1.12
1.03
0.94
0.84 ACTUAL
0.80 0.74 FROM BUCKLING
0.64
0.53
0.44
0.39 0.36 0.34 0.34
0.40 0.32 0.29
0.27 0.25
0.22 0.20 0.22
0.17 0.15
0.12 0.10
0.07 0.04
0.00

-0.40
Root 0 300 600 900 1210 1520 1830 2150 2470 2790 3120 3450 3780 4110 4440 4750
FROM ROOT TO TIP [mm]

WEB THICKNESS FOR REAR SPAR
2.00
THICKNESS OF WEB[mm]

1.60
1.43
1.35
1.26
1.19
1.20 1.10
1.02
0.94
0.84 ACTUAL
0.80 0.76 FROM BUCKLING
0.67
0.57
0.52 0.49 0.48
0.46 0.43
0.39 0.36 0.39
0.40 0.33 0.30
0.26 0.23 0.30
0.20 0.16 0.20
0.13 0.10
0.06
0.00

-0.40
Root 0 300 600 900 1210 1520 1830 2150 2470 2790 3120 3450 3780 4110 4440 4750
FROM ROOT TO TIP

CONCLUSION

Front Spar positioning is estimated to 25% and Rear Spar to 62% of the
Chord Length.

Flange and web dimensions are calculated and suitable changes in
dimensions are incorporated from manufacturing point of view.

Number of Ribs and their positioning for the prevention of bending and
buckling of Spars is calculated.

Mass of the spars calculated from iterations is 15.25 kg.

The Detail drawings for the front and rear spars are provided using CATIA V5.

SCOPE FOR FURTHER WORK

Spar position can be optimized based on buckling calculations.

Further optimization of Rib is possible.
--Varying number of Ribs and spacing of Ribs.

Use of other materials for the design of spars can be thought of.

Detail stress analysis of individual components and its validation with
calculations can be carried out.

CAD MODELING OF THE WING SPAR

## At Root: Profile: NACA 64A1215.

Slope of mean line at leading edge = 0.0842.

## At Tip: Profile: NACA 64A1210.

Slope of mean line at leading edge = 0.0842.

1. Generation of the profiles at the root and tip using the NACA profiles.

SPECIFIED IN THE PROFILE STANDARD.
1.Giving the slope in the 2.Creating the arc of the
sketcher mode required
dimension coming
out of sketcher.

and the aerofoil profile.

Create the surface using multi section
surface option.

INTERSECTION OF THE PROFILES

Creating the planes at the four sections at ½, ¼, ¾ of the span of the wing.

Intersecting the lofted surface on the planes creating unique sketches on them.

ANGLE OF ATTACK

Create a point at the quarter chord and draw a line for reference.

Rotate the intersected profiles as 0.60 at the quarter, 1.10 at mid span, 1.60 at three
fourths and 20 at the tip.

CREATE THE SURFACE USING MULTI SECTION
SURFACE OPTION
By considering the profiles generated with angle of attack at different sections,
the wing surface is created using multi-section surface option.

Thus the surface is created as per the requirements incorporating all the necessary data.

CREATION OF REFERENCE AEROFOIL SECTIONS

15 planes are created at rib positions along the wing span.

The intersections created are used as the reference for the creation of the spar.

DURING THE DESIGN OF SPAR
ELEMENTS

The maintenance of the nose box is made easy.

The front spar is I – section.

The rear spar is C – section.

Minimum distance required for a single row riveting is kept as 15 mm.

DESIGNING OF SPAR ON
MANUFACTURING BASIS

The front spar is placed at 25% of chord length from leading edge.

The rear spar is placed at 62% of chord length from leading edge.

Thicknesses of the flanges and webs are different.

The flanges are made of T-sections and L- sections.

The webs are made with sheet metal.

The thicknesses are optimized based on the availability of the standard gages of sheet metal.

The final assembly of elements can be fastened with rivets.

CROSS SECTION SPAR

## Skin area, As = (b +2*20*ts) mm2

Effective flange area = (Af- As)/2 where , b= flange width in mm
ts =skin thickness in mm
Af =designed flange area in mm2
Web thickness is altered as per the availability of sheet metal gages.
FRONT SPAR DIMENSIONS

Rib no. Dist. From root Flange W idth Skin Area Available area Flange Thickness Effective Flange areaW eb thickness
From root (mm) (mm) (mm2) (mm2) (mm) (mm2) (mm)
1 Root 0 70 220 266.94 3.81 266.94 1.63
2 300 70 220 215 3.07 215 1.63
3 600 70 220 175 2.5 175 1.63
4 900 65 210 150 2.31 150 1.29
5 1210 65 155.2 144.9 2.23 144.9 1.29
6 1520 60 147.2 116.4 2 120 1.29
7 1830 60 147.2 86.4 2 120 1.29
8 2150 55 139.2 60.4 2 110 0.91
9 2470 50 88.8 55.6 2 100 0.91
10 2790 45 82.8 36.1 2 90 0.91
11 3120 40 76.8 16.6 2 80 0.64
12 3450 35 70.8 -0.4 2 70 0.64
13 3780 30 64.8 -12.4 2 60 0.64
14 4110 30 64.8 -19.9 2 60 0.64
15 4440 30 64.8 -24.9 2 60 0.64
16 NO RIB 4750

REAR SPAR DIMENSIONS

## Rib no. Dis t. F rom root

F lange W idthS k in A rea A vailable areaF lange Thic k nesEsffec tive F lange area
W eb thic k nes s
F rom root (m m ) (m m ) (m m2) (m m2) (m m ) (m m2) (m m )
1 R oot 0 90 260 415.01 4.61 415.01 1.45
2 300 90 260 340 3.78 340 1.45
3 600 80 240 295 3.69 295 1.45
4 900 75 230 257.5 3.43 257.5 1.15
5 1210 70 204 223 3.19 223 1.15
6 1520 65 194 180.5 2.78 180.5 1.15
7 1830 60 184 138 2.3 138 1.15
8 2150 55 174 100.5 2 110 0.91
9 2470 50 148 73.5 2 100 0.91
10 2790 45 138 48.5 2 90 0.91
11 3120 40 128 21 2 80 0.64
12 3450 35 118 4 2 70 0.64
13 3780 30 108 -19 2 60 0.64
14 4110 30 108 -36.5 2 60 0.64
15 4440 30 108 -43 2 60 0.64
16 N O R IB 4750

CREATION OF THE SPAR SECTIONS
1. Two T sections for the flange, and web section for the front spar.
2. Two L sections for the flange, and web section for the rear spar.

## FRONT SPAR REAR SPAR FULL PROFILE

GENERATING SPAR USING
DIFFERENT SECTIONS

CRIMP HOLES OR LIGHTENING HOLES

The lightening holes are made in the element in order to reduce the weight of the
element. the crimp holes are made to the web element of the spar. These holes
provided in between the two successive rib locations.

SPAR WITH LIGHTENING HOLES

REPRESENTATION OF RIVET HOLES

FINAL SPAR ASSEMBLY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

## 1] Abbot & Albert,'Theory of wing sections',Dover publication,1949.

2] David J. Perry,'Aircraft structures',Mc-Graw Hill publication,1950.
3] E. F. Bruhn,'Analysis and design of flight vehicle structures',1973.
4] Michael C. Y. Niu, 'Airframe Stress Analysis and Sizing', 2001.
5] Michael C. Y. Niu, 'Airframe structural design', Conmilit press Ltd., 1989.
6] Kuethe and Schetzer, 'Foundations of Aerodynamics', 2nd Edition, John Wiley
and Sons, New York, 1959.
7] ASM Material Data Sheet
8] MIL Handbook.

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